Aerial low-frequency hearing in captive and free-ranging harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) measured using auditory brainstem responses
Lucke, K. ; Hastie, Gordon D. ; Ternes, Kerstin ; McConnell, Bernie ; Moss, Simon ; Russell, Deborah J.F. ; Weber, Heike ; Janik, Vincent M. - \ 2016
Journal of Comparative Physiology A-Sensory Neural and Behavioral Physiology 202 (2016)12. - ISSN 0340-7594 - p. 859 - 868.
ABR - Harbour seal - Hearing - Low frequency - Phoca vitulina
The hearing sensitivity of 18 free-ranging and 10 captive harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) to aerial sounds was measured in the presence of typical environmental noise through auditory brainstem response measurements. A focus was put on the comparative hearing sensitivity at low frequencies. Low- and mid-frequency thresholds appeared to be elevated in both captive and free-ranging seals, but this is likely due to masking effects and limitations of the methodology used. The data also showed individual variability in hearing sensitivity with probable age-related hearing loss found in two old harbour seals. These results suggest that the acoustic sensitivity of free-ranging animals was not negatively affected by the soundscape they experienced in the wild.
Harbour porpoise movement strategy affects cumulative number of animals acoustically exposed to underwater explosions
Aarts, Geert ; Benda-Beckmann, Alexander M. Von; Lucke, K. ; Özkan Sertlek, H. ; Bemmelen, Rob Van; Geelhoed, Steve C.V. ; Brasseur, Sophie ; Scheidat, Meike ; Lam, Frans Peter A. ; Slabbekoorn, Hans ; Kirkwood, Roger - \ 2016
Marine Ecology Progress Series 557 (2016). - ISSN 0171-8630 - p. 261 - 275.
Acoustics - Anthropogenic sound - Cumulative effects - Impact assessment - Individual-based model - Marine mammals - Population consequences of disturbance - Species distribution
Anthropogenic sound in the marine environment can have negative consequences for marine fauna. Since most sound sources are intermittent or continuous, estimating how many individuals are exposed over time remains challenging, as this depends on the animals' mobility. Here we explored how animal movement influences how many, and how often, animals are impacted by sound. In a dedicated study, we estimated how different movement strategies affect the number of individual harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena receiving temporary or permanent hearing loss due to underwater detonations of recovered explosives (mostly WWII aerial bombs). Geo-statistical distribution models were fitted to data from 4 marine mammal aerial surveys and used to simulate the distribution and movement of porpoises. Based on derived dose-response thresholds for temporary (TTS) or permanent threshold shifts (PTS), we estimated the number of animals affected in a single year. When individuals were free-roaming, an estimated 1200 and 24 000 unique individuals would suffer PTS and TTS, respectively. This equates to respectively 0.50 and 10% of the estimated North Sea population. In contrast, when porpoises remained in a local area, fewer animals would receive PTS and TTS (1100 [0.47%] and 15 000 [6.5%], respectively), but more individuals would be subjected to repeated exposures. Because most anthropogenic sound-producing activities operate continuously or intermittently, snapshot distribution estimates alone tend to underestimate the number of individuals exposed, particularly for mobile species. Hence, an understanding of animal movement is needed to estimate the impact of underwater sound or other human disturbance.
Variability in click-evoked potentials in killer whales (Orcinus orca) and determination of a hearing impairment in a rehabilitated killer whale
Lucke, K. ; Finneran, J.J. ; Almunia, Javier ; Houser, D.S. - \ 2016
Aquatic Mammals 42 (2016)2. - ISSN 0167-5427 - p. 184 - 192.
killer whales - Orcinus orca - marine mammal - audiometry - auditory evoked potentials - hearing deficit
An immature female killer whale (Orcinus orca) stranded in the Wadden Sea in 2010 and was later transferred to Loro Parque, Tenerife, Spain, for rehabilitation. The killer whale, named “Morgan,” was suspected to have a hearing impairment. To test whether Morgan has a hearing deficit, auditory brainstem responses to short-duration, broadband click stimuli were recorded. The same procedure was conducted with five other killer whales at Loro Parque for comparative purposes. Stereotypical click-evoked responses were recorded in all of the killer whales except Morgan, even at the highest click level that could be projected. Reductions in the amplitude of the click-evoked response paralleled reductions in the stimulus amplitude of the clicks presented to all of the other whales. The lack of a click-evoked response in Morgan indicates that she suffers from a hearing deficit. The magnitude and frequency range over which the hearing deficit occurs cannot be specified with the techniques used here. Nevertheless, it can be concluded that Morgan’s hearing sensitivity to broadband signals is at least 20 to 30 dB worse than the hearing sensitivity of the other killer whales tested. Morgan potentially suffers from a profound hearing deficit or even a complete loss of hearing, but this cannot be determined through the electrophysiological tests used in this experiment.
Impacts of underwater noise on marine vertebrates : Project introduction and first results
Liebschner, Alexander ; Seibel, Henrike ; Teilmann, Jonas ; Wittekind, Dietrich ; Parmentier, Eric ; Dähne, Michael ; Dietz, Rune ; Driver, Jörg ; Elk, Cornelis van; Everaarts, Eligius ; Findeisen, Henning ; Kristensen, Jacob ; Lehnert, Kristina ; Lucke, Klaus ; Merck, Thomas ; Müller, Sabine ; Pawliczka, Iwona ; Ronnenberg, Katrin ; Rosenberger, Tanja ; Ruser, Andreas ; Tougaard, Jakob ; Schuster, Max ; Sundermeyer, Janne ; Sveegaard, Signe ; Siebert, Ursula - \ 2016
In: The Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life II Springer New York LLC (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology ) - ISBN 9781493929801 - p. 631 - 636.
Auditory evoked potential - Noise logger - Stress - Tagging - Temporary threshold
The project conducts application-oriented research on impacts of underwater noise on marine vertebrates in the North and Baltic Seas. In distinct subprojects, the hearing sensitivity of harbor porpoises and gray seals as well as the acoustic tolerance limit of harbor porpoises to impulsive noise from pile driving and stress reactions caused by anthropogenic noise is investigated. Animals are equipped with DTAGs capable of recording the actual surrounding noise field of free-swimming harbor porpoises and seals. Acoustic noise mapping including porpoise detectors in the Natura 2000 sites of the North and Baltic Seas will help to fully understand current noise impacts.
Development of a model to assess masking potential for marine mammals by the use of air guns in Antarctic waters
Wittekind, Dietrich ; Tougaard, Jakob ; Stilz, Peter ; Dähne, Michael ; Clark, Christopher W. ; Lucke, K. ; Benda-Beckmann, Sander von; Ainslie, Michael A. ; Siebert, Ursula - \ 2016
In: The Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life II Springer New York LLC (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology ) - ISBN 9781493929801 - p. 1243 - 1249.
Mysticetes - Pinnipeds - Propagation modeling - Seismic
We estimated the long-range effects of air gun array noise on marine mammal communication ranges in the Southern Ocean. Air gun impulses are subject to significant distortion during propagation, potentially resulting in a quasi- continuous sound. Propagation modeling to estimate the received waveform was conducted. A leaky integrator was used as a hearing model to assess communication masking in three species due to intermittent/continuous air gun sounds. Air gun noise is most probably changing from impulse to continuous noise between 1,000 and 2,000 km from the source, leading to a reduced communication range for, e.g., blue and fin whales up to 2,000 km from the source.
|Assessment of impact of underwater clearance of historical explosives by the Royal Netherlands Navy on harbour porpoises in the North Sea
Benda-Beckmann, A.M. von; Aarts, G.M. ; Lucke, K. ; Verboom, W.C. ; Kastelein, R.A. ; Bemmelen, R.S.A. van; Geelhoed, S.C.V. ; Kirkwood, R.J. - \ 2015
Den Haag : TNO (Report / TNO 2014 R10916) - 139 p.
Marine mammals and windfarms: Effects of alpha ventus on harbour porpoises
Dähne, Michael ; Peschko, Verena ; Gilles, Anita ; Lucke, Klaus ; Adler, Sven ; Ronnenberg, Katrin ; Siebert, Ursula - \ 2014
In: Ecological Research at the Offshore Windfarm alpha ventus Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden - ISBN 9783658024611 - p. 133 - 149.
Offshore windfarms have the potential to affect marine mammal populations. For harbour porpoises, the threat considered most important is the influence of noise during the construction phase. Effects of the operational period that need to be considered can be either noise effects or effects due to alteration to the habitat where foundations were erected. Visual surveys and stationary acoustic monitoring showed a strong avoidance reaction during pile-driving while during the operational period results were inconclusive. In future, these impacts must be seen in a larger framework to predict the biological significance of cumulative effects
User guide: Handheld hydrophone for recording cetaceans at sea (version 1.0)
Verdaat, J.P. ; Lucke, K. - \ 2014
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES ) - 18
handleidingen - geluidsopnames - cetacea - marien milieu - opnameapparatuur - guide books - recordings - cetacea - marine environment - recording instruments
Marine mammals spend most of their time underwater which sometimes makes it difficult to detect them from the surface. At the same time, most cetaceans (toothed and baleen whales) produce a variety of sounds underwater and since sound travels easily in water, these sounds can normally be picked up even at distances beyond those of visual detection. Several studies have shown that the analysis of underwater sound recordings can complement the existing research efforts to assess the presence and distribution of cetacean species in the Caribbean waters and elsewhere. We hope the system will be easy to use even by untrained personnel and robust enough to withstand the strain of being used in the marine environment. This user’s guide is intended to serve as a practical illustrated step by step users guide useful information in addition to the manual provided with every recording system.
Noise logger overview
Lucke, K. - \ 2014
IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / IMARES ) - 44
marien milieu - caribische zee - geluidsopnames - opnameapparatuur - zeezoogdieren - cetacea - marine environment - caribbean sea - recordings - recording instruments - marine mammals - cetacea
In our attempt to monitor the presence of marine mammals, especially cetaceans, their acoustic activity opens the opportunity for us to eavesdrop and to study their behaviour passively through listening and detecting their sounds and vocalisations. This overview of underwater sound recording systems which can be used to study the life of the mainly cryptic marine mammal species is intended to facilitate researchers, potential funding bodies and finally regulators with information on the potential of this technique, its limitations and most importantly with technical details and a market overview.
Seasonal migrations of North Atlantic minke whales: novel insights from large-scale passive acoustic monitoring netsworks
Risch, D. ; Castellote, M. ; Clark, C.W. ; Lucke, K. ; Verdaat, J.P. - \ 2014
Movement Ecology 2 (2014). - ISSN 2051-3933 - 17 p.
Background - Little is known about migration patterns and seasonal distribution away from coastal summer feeding habitats of many pelagic baleen whales. Recently, large-scale passive acoustic monitoring networks have become available to explore migration patterns and identify critical habitats of these species. North Atlantic minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) perform seasonal migrations between high latitude summer feeding and low latitude winter breeding grounds. While the distribution and abundance of the species has been studied across their summer range, data on migration and winter habitat are virtually missing. Acoustic recordings, from 16 different sites from across the North Atlantic, were analyzed to examine the seasonal and geographic variation in minke whale pulse train occurrence, infer information about migration routes and timing, and to identify possible winter habitats. Results - Acoustic detections show that minke whales leave their winter grounds south of 30° N from March through early April. On their southward migration in autumn, minke whales leave waters north of 40° N from mid-October through early November. In the western North Atlantic spring migrants appear to track the warmer waters of the Gulf Stream along the continental shelf, while whales travel farther offshore in autumn. Abundant detections were found off the southeastern US and the Caribbean during winter. Minke whale pulse trains showed evidence of geographic variation, with longer pulse trains recorded south of 40° N. Very few pulse trains were recorded during summer in any of the datasets. Conclusion - This study highlights the feasibility of using acoustic monitoring networks to explore migration patterns of pelagic marine mammals. Results confirm the presence of minke whales off the southeastern US and the Caribbean during winter months. The absence of pulse train detections during summer suggests either that minke whales switch their vocal behaviour at this time of year, are absent from available recording sites or that variation in signal structure influenced automated detection. Alternatively, if pulse trains are produced in a reproductive context by males, these data may indicate their absence from the selected recording sites. Evidence of geographic variation in pulse train duration suggests different behavioural functions or use of these calls at different latitudes.
In-Air Evoked Potential Audiometry of Grey Seals (Halichoerus grypus) from the North and Baltic Seas
Ruser, A. ; Daehne, M. ; Sundermeyer, J. ; Lucke, K. ; Houser, D.S. ; Finneran, J.J. ; Driver, J. ; Pawliczka, I. ; Rosenberger, T. ; Siebert, U. - \ 2014
PLoS ONE 9 (2014)3. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 8 p.
lion zalophus-californianus - temporary threshold shift - hearing sensitivity - phoca-vitulina - mirounga-angustirostris - tursiops-truncatus - amphibious hearing - harbor seals - underwater - pinnipeds
In-air anthropogenic sound has the potential to affect grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) behaviour and interfere with acoustic communication. In this study, a new method was used to deliver acoustic signals to grey seals as part of an in-air hearing assessment. Using in-ear headphones with adapted ear inserts allowed for the measurement of auditory brainstem responses (ABR) on sedated grey seals exposed to 5-cycle (2-1-2) tone pips. Thresholds were measured at 10 frequencies between 1–20 kHz. Measurements were made using subcutaneous electrodes on wild seals from the Baltic and North Seas. Thresholds were determined by both visual and statistical approaches (single point F-test) and good agreement was obtained between the results using both methods. The mean auditory thresholds were =40 dB re 20 µPa peak equivalent sound pressure level (peSPL) between 4–20 kHz and showed similar patterns to in-air behavioural hearing tests of other phocid seals between 3 and 20 kHz. Below 3 kHz, a steep reduction in hearing sensitivity was observed, which differed from the rate of decline in sensitivity obtained in behavioural studies on other phocids. Differences in the rate of decline may reflect influence of the ear inserts on the ability to reliably transmit lower frequencies or interference from the structure of the distal end of the ear canal.
Marine mammals in the Wider Caribbean - Current research and priorities for future studies
Lucke, K. ; Scheidat, M. ; Geelhoed, S.C.V. ; Debrot, A.O. - \ 2014
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C007/14) - 38
zeezoogdieren - distributie - populatiedynamica - beschermingsgebieden - kennisoverdracht - caribische zee - marine mammals - distribution - population dynamics - conservation areas - knowledge transfer - caribbean sea
Information on the distribution, abundance and ecology of marine mammal in the Wider Caribbean Region is scarce. This report aims at collating the on-going research in the Wider Caribbean Region, at identifying the most critical knowledge gaps that need to be addressed to inform and facilitate conservation actions and assess the most suitable research techniques to fill these knowledge gaps.
Assessment of basic audiometric functions in killer whales (Orcinus orca) at Loro Parque, Tenerife, Spain
Lucke, K. ; Finneran, J.J. ; Houser, D.S. - \ 2013
Den Helder : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C045/13) - 15
whales - hearing impairment - electrophysiology - hearing - walvissen - gehoorvermindering - elektrofysiologie - gehoor
International regulations on the impact of pile driving noise on marine mammals - A literature review
Lucke, K. ; Siemensma, M. - \ 2013
Den Helder : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C044/13) - 57
zeezoogdieren - geluid - marine mammals - noise
Telemetry studies in harbour porpoises - An overview of the technical and practical state of the art
Lucke, K. - \ 2013
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C043/13) - 21
phocoenidae - diergedrag - telemetrie - satellietkarteringen - dierecologie - phocoenidae - animal behaviour - telemetry - satellite surveys - animal ecology
Information on the life functions and ecology of harbour porpoises is still scarce. Only a limited number of animals are available for research in controlled situations. Satellite tracking allows to gather information on individual movements of harbour porpoises, hence providing direct insight into the individual lifestyle of a free-ranging animal. Moreover, satellite telemetry is a powerful method for directly identifying the cause-effect relationship between anthropogenic activities and the animal’s behaviour. Harbour porpoises have been tagged with satellite transmitters already for almost two decades. This document is intends to provide a comprehensive overview of the relevant aspects of telemetry studies in harbour porpoises in Dutch waters and also give an overview of the latest technical developments in this field. Based on this information the strategy for further development and use of telemetry in harbour porpoises can be shaped.
Effects of pile-driving on harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) at the first offshore wind farm in Germany
Daehne, M. ; Gilles, A. ; Lucke, K. ; Peschko, V. ; Adler, S. ; Kruegel, K. ; Sundermeyer, J. ; Siebert, U. - \ 2013
Environmental Research Letters 8 (2013)2. - ISSN 1748-9326
air bubble curtain - north-sea - underwater noise - aerial surveys - baltic sea - detection thresholds - marine mammals - t-pods - waters - abundance
The first offshore wind farm 'alpha ventus' in the German North Sea was constructed north east of Borkum Reef Ground approximately 45 km north off the German coast in 2008 and 2009 using percussive piling for the foundations of 12 wind turbines. Visual monitoring of harbour porpoises was conducted prior to as well as during construction and operation by means of 15 aerial line transect distance sampling surveys, from 2008 to 2010. Static acoustic monitoring (SAM) with echolocation click loggers at 12 positions was performed additionally from 2008 to 2011. SAM devices were deployed between 1 and 50 km from the centre of the wind farm. During aerial surveys, 18¿600 km of transect lines were covered in two survey areas (10¿934 and 11¿824 km2) and 1392 harbour porpoise sightings were recorded. Lowest densities were documented during the construction period in 2009. The spatial distribution pattern recorded on two aerial surveys three weeks before and exactly during pile-driving points towards a strong avoidance response within 20 km distance of the noise source. Generalized additive modelling of SAM data showed a negative impact of pile-driving on relative porpoise detection rates at eight positions at distances less than 10.8 km. Increased detection rates were found at two positions at 25 and 50 km distance suggesting that porpoises were displaced towards these positions. A pile-driving related behavioural reaction could thus be detected using SAM at a much larger distance than a pure avoidance radius would suggest. The first waiting time (interval between porpoise detections of at least 10 min), after piling started, increased with longer piling durations. A gradient in avoidance, a gradual fading of the avoidance reaction with increasing distance from the piling site, is hence most probably a product of an incomplete displacement during shorter piling events.
Haalbaarheidsstudie wind op zee: vijf potentiele zoekgebeiden binnen de 12-mijlszone vergeleken in relatie tot beschermde natuurwaarden
Leopold, M.F. ; Scholl, M.M. ; Bemmelen, R.S.A. van; Brasseur, S.M.J.M. ; Cremer, J.S.M. ; Geelhoed, S.C.V. ; Lucke, K. ; Lagerveld, S. ; Winter, H.V. - \ 2013
Den Burg : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C132/13) - 71
windmolens - regionale planning - haalbaarheidsstudies - natuurwaarde - vissen - vogels - chiroptera - fauna - noordzee - voordelta - nederlandse waddeneilanden - windmills - regional planning - feasibility studies - natural value - fishes - birds - chiroptera - fauna - north sea - voordelta - dutch wadden islands
De Nederlandse overheid, in het bijzonder de Ministers van Economische Zaken (EZ) en van Infrastructuur en Milieu (I&M) onderzoeken de mogelijkheden voor windenergie binnen de 12-mijlszone voor de Nederlandse kust en eventuele problemen die zich hierbij zouden kunnen voordoen, met de functie ‘natuur’. Na een eerste ‘quick scan’ gericht op de hele 12-mijlszone (Leopold et al. 2013a; Ministerie van I&M 2013) zijn een vijftal potentiële zoekgebieden voor windenergie aangewezen: in de Voordelta vóór Schouwen, vóór de Maasvlakte, de Hollandse kust ten zuiden en ten noorden van het Noordzeekanaal en ten noorden van Ameland. Deze vijf gebieden hebben allemaal een aanzienlijke ecologische waarde en overlappen deels (Schouwen, Ameland, Holland-Noord) of zelfs geheel (Maasvlakte) met Natura 2000-gebieden.
Report of the Workshop on International Harmonisation of Approaches to Define Underwater Noise Exposure Criteria (Budapest, Hungary 17th August 2013)
Lucke, K. ; Winter, H.V. ; Lam, F.P. ; Scowcroft, G. ; Hawkins, A. ; Popper, A.N. - \ 2013
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C197/13) - 40
geluid - blootstelling - zeedieren - geluidshinder - onderwaterakoestiek - regelingen - normen - noise - exposure - marine animals - noise pollution - underwater acoustics - regulations - standards
The potential negative effects of high levels of underwater noise on marine life have been identified and acknowledged, and this issue has been incorporated into various international agreements over the past decade. Several countries have already issued regulations to limit the incidence and level of anthropogenic noise in the oceans. The development of regulations on noise exposure in marine environments has to date focused on two groups, marine mammals and, to a lesser extent, fishes. Nevertheless, our understanding of the complexity of acoustic and behavioural effects is improving, and it might be possible to develop existing noise-exposure criteria with scientific knowledge evolving. More importantly, new regulations, or at least the approaches taken toward regulations, could be internationally harmonised to provide better protection for marine fauna.
Zeezoogdieren in de Eems; studie naar de effecten van bouwactiviteiten van GSP, RWE en NUON in de Eemshaven in 2012
Lucke, K. ; Cremer, J.S.M. ; Lindeboom, H.J. ; Scholl, M.M. ; Teal, L.R. - \ 2013
Den Helder : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C079/13a) - 122
zeezoogdieren - zeehonden - nadelige gevolgen - eems-dollard - havens - energiecentrales - regionale planning - monitoring - groningen - marine mammals - seals - adverse effects - eems-dollard - harbours - power industry - regional planning - monitoring - groningen
In de Eemshaven is een aanzienlijk gebied bestemd voor de ontwikkeling van energie-gerelateerde bedrijvigheid: Energy Park Eemshaven. In verband daarmee vinden er op het land en in het water al enkele jaren diverse (bouw)activiteiten plaats. In opdracht van Groningen Seaports (GSP), RWE/Essent en NUON/Vattenfall (de initiatiefnemers) monitort IMARES sinds 2009 de effecten van deze activiteiten op zeezoogdieren, te weten de gewone zeehond (Phoca vitulina), grijze zeehond (Halichoerus grypus) en tot en met 2011 ook de bruinvis (Phocoena phocoena). Het gaat hierbij specifiek om de activiteiten die plaatsvinden in het kader van de verruiming van de haven (GSP) en de bouw van de energiecentrales van NUON en RWE. Voor 2012 zijn geen zeehonden meer gezenderd, maar alleen nog vliegtellingen en cameraonderzoek uitgevoerd.
Cetaceans of Saba, Sint Eustatius & Sint Maarten: current knowledge and future monitoring
Scheidat, M. ; Geelhoed, S.C.V. ; Debrot, A.O. ; Lucke, K. - \ 2013
IJmuiden : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C075/13) - 30
zeezoogdieren - monitoring - onderzoeksprojecten - caribische zee - marine mammals - monitoring - research projects - caribbean sea
In December 2012 IMARES conducted workshops on the identification of whales & dolphins in the Caribbean on the islands of Sint Maarten, Saba and Sint Eustatius. Apart from giving the workshops, on-going cetacean projects, future monitoring needs and possibilities for extending monitoring projects were discussed together with the staff of the marine parks, government representatives and other local stakeholders, as well as with international research groups active in the Caribbean.