Systematic review of the evidence for sustained efficacy of dietary interventions for reducing appetite or energy intake
Halford, J.C.G. ; Masic, U. ; Marsaux, C.F.M. ; Jones, A.J. ; Lluch, A. ; Marciani, L. ; Mars, M. ; Vinoy, S. ; Westerterp-Plantenga, M. ; Mela, D.J. - \ 2018
Obesity Reviews 19 (2018)10. - ISSN 1467-7881 - p. 1329 - 1339.
Appetite - energy intake - satiety - study duration
We assessed evidence for changes in efficacy of food-based interventions aimed at reducing appetite or energy intake (EI), and whether this could be used to provide guidance on trial design. A systematic search identified randomized controlled trials testing sustained efficacy of diets, foods, supplements or food ingredients on appetite and/or EI. Trials had to include sufficient exposure duration (≥3 days) with appetite and/or EI measured after both acute and repeated exposures. Twenty-six trials met the inclusion criteria and reported data allowing for assessment of the acute and chronic effects of interventions. Most (21/26) measured appetite outcomes and over half (14/26) had objective measures of EI. A significant acute effect of the intervention was retained in 10 of 12 trials for appetite outcomes, and six of nine studies for EI. Initial effects were most likely retained where these were more robust and studies adequately powered. Where the initial, acute effect was not statistically significant, a significant effect was later observed in only two of nine studies for appetite and none of five studies for EI. Maintenance of intervention effects on appetite or EI needs to be confirmed but seems likely where acute effects are robust and replicable in adequately powered studies.
Potential benefits of satiety to the consumer: scientific considerations
Hetherington, M.M. ; Cunningham, K. ; Dye, L. ; Gibson, E.L. ; Gregersen, N.T. ; Halford, J.C.G. ; Lawton, C.L. ; Lluch, A. ; Mela, D.J. ; Trijp, J.C.M. van - \ 2013
Nutrition Research Reviews 26 (2013). - ISSN 0954-4224 - p. 22 - 38.
low-calorie diet - high-protein-diet - body-weight loss - disentangling food reward - sensory-specific satiety - glucagon-like peptide-1 - cognitive performance - energy-intake - appetite sensations - eating behavior
Foods and dietary patterns that enhance satiety may provide benefit to consumers. The aim of the present review was to describe, consider and evaluate research on potential benefits of enhanced satiety. The proposal that enhanced satiety could only benefit consumers by a direct effect on food intake should be rejected. Instead, it is proposed that there is a variety of routes through which enhanced satiety could (indirectly) benefit dietary control or weight-management goals. The review highlights specific potential benefits of satiety, including: providing appetite control strategies for consumers generally and for those who are highly responsive to food cues; offering pleasure and satisfaction associated with low-energy/healthier versions of foods without feeling ‘deprived’; reducing dysphoric mood associated with hunger especially during energy restriction; and improved compliance with healthy eating or weight-management efforts. There is convincing evidence of short-term satiety benefits, but only probable evidence for longer-term benefits to hunger management, possible evidence of benefits to mood and cognition, inadequate evidence that satiety enhancement can promote weight loss, and no evidence on which consumers would benefit most from satiety enhancement. The appetite-reducing effects of specific foods or diets will be much more subtle than those of pharmaceutical compounds in managing hunger; nevertheless, the experience of pharmacology in producing weight loss via effects on appetite suggests that there is potential benefit of satiety enhancement from foods incorporated into the diet to the consumer.