Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    In memoriam: Peter A. Huxley (1926–2019)
    Lundgren, B. ; Nair, P.K. ; Noordwijk, M. van; Ong, C.K. ; Sinclair, F.L. ; Coe, R. ; Cooper, P. ; Giller, K.E. ; Muthuri, C. ; Jose, S. - \ 2020
    Agroforestry Systems 94 (2020). - ISSN 0167-4366 - p. 335 - 339.
    Agroforests, Swiddening and Livelihoods between Restored Peat Domes and River : Effects of the 2015 Fire Ban in Central Kalimantan (Indonesia)
    Silvianingsih, Y.A. ; Hairiah, K. ; Suprayogo, D. ; Noordwijk, M. Van - \ 2020
    International Forestry Review 22 (2020)3. - ISSN 1465-5489 - p. 382 - 396.
    agroforestry - ethnobotany - fire ban - local knowledge - peatlands - soil indicators - swidden

    If 150 years of continued use counts as a sustainability indicator, the river-bank agroforests in the peat landscapes of Central Kalimantan suggest solutions for current challenges. The 2015 fire season in Indonesian peatlands triggered a fire ban and peatland restoration response, prioritizing canal blocking and rewetting. However, sustainable livelihood options remain elusive. We report local ecological knowledge of soils and vegetation applied in land use choices in swiddens and agroforests in five Dayak Ngaju villages in Jabiren Raya and Kahayan Hilir subdistrict (Pulang Pisau, C. Kalimantan, Indonesia) on the banks of the Kahayan river and discuss impacts of fire-ban policies. Plots accessible from the river with no or shallow peat were traditionally preferred for swiddening, with various indicator plants and soil characteristics underpinning the choices. Without swiddening farmers depend on off-farm jobs and agroforests for income. More policy attention for non-peat riparian-zone agroforestry as part of peat landscape livelihood systems is warranted. HIGHLIGHTS Dayak Ngaju villagers have traditionally combined agroforest and swidden/fallow rotations on riverbanks and shallow peat. Rich ethnobotanical knowledge, local soil quality indicators and ceremonies reflect long-term presence in this landscape. The 2015 fire ban has effectively stopped local rice cultivation as technical alternatives are not attractive. The agroforests, with durian and rubber as marketed products, continue to support livelihoods, but are not sufficient. Temporary jobs on canal blocking for the peatland restoration agency have filled the gap, but are not expected to last. .

    Can cocoa agroforestry restore degraded soil structure following conversion from forest to agricultural use?
    Saputra, Danny Dwi ; Sari, Rika Ratna ; Hairiah, Kurniatun ; Roshetko, James M. ; Suprayogo, Didik ; Noordwijk, Meine van - \ 2020
    Agroforestry Systems 94 (2020). - ISSN 0167-4366 - p. 2261 - 2276.
    Aggregate stability - Infiltration - Macroporosity - Root density - Soil organic matter
    Alternating degradation and restoration phases of soil quality, as is common in crop-fallow systems, can be avoided if the restorative elements of trees and forests can be integrated into productive agroforestry systems. However, evidence for the hypothesis of ‘internal restoration’ in agroforestry is patchy and the effectiveness may depend on local context. We investigated to what extent cocoa (Theobroma cacao, L.) agroforestry can recover soil structure and infiltration in comparison to monoculture systems across the Konaweha Watershed, Southeast Sulawesi. We compared soil organic carbon, fine root length and weight, soil aggregate stability, macroporosity and infiltration from three soil layers at five land use systems: i.e. degraded forests, 9–14 years old of complex-cocoa agroforestry, simple-cocoa agroforestry, monoculture cocoa and 1–4 years old annual food crops, all with three replications. In general, roots were concentrated in the upper 40 cm of soil depth, contained of 70% and 86% of total fine root length and weight. Compared to simple agroforestry and cocoa monoculture, complex agroforestry had greater root length and weight in the topsoil, even though it attained only half the values found in degraded forests. Higher root density was positively correlated to soil organic carbon. In upper soil layers, complex agroforestry had slightly higher soil aggregate stability compared to other agricultural systems. However, no significant difference was found in deeper layers. Complex agroforestry had higher soil macroporosity than other agricultural systems, but not sufficient to mimic forests. Degraded forests had two times faster steady-state soil infiltration than agricultural systems tested (13.2 cm h−1 and 6 cm h−1, respectively), relevant during peak rainfall events. Compared to other agricultural systems, complex agroforestry improves soil structure of degraded soil resulting from forest conversion. However, a considerable gap remains with forest soil conditions.
    Soil organic matter, mitigation of and adaptation to climate change in cocoa-based agroforestry systems
    Gusli, Sikstus ; Sumeni, Sri ; Sabodin, Riyami ; Muqfi, Ikram Hadi ; Nur, Mustakim ; Hairiah, Kurniatun ; Useng, Daniel ; Noordwijk, Meine van - \ 2020
    Land 9 (2020)9. - ISSN 2073-445X
    Climate adaptation - Cocoa agroforestry - Inceptisols - Soil macro-porosity - Soil organic carbon - Soil restoration - Soil water availability

    Belowground roles of agroforestry in climate change mitigation (C storage) and adaptation (reduced vulnerability to drought) are less obvious than easy-to-measure aspects aboveground. Documentation on these roles is lacking. We quantified the organic C concentration (Corg) and soil physical properties in a mountainous landscape in Sulawesi (Indonesia) for five land cover types: secondary forest (SF), multistrata cocoa-based agroforestry (CAF) aged 4-5 years (CAF4), 10-12 years (CAF10), 17-34 years (CAF17), and multistrata (mixed fruit and timber) agroforest (MAF45) aged 45-68 years. With four replicate plots per cover type, we measured five pools of C-stock according to IPCC guidelines, soil bulk density (BD), macro porosity (MP), hydraulic conductivity (Ks), and available water capacity of the soil (AWC). The highest C-stock, in SF, was around 320 Mg ha-1, the lowest, 74 Mg ha-1, was in CAF4, with the older agroforestry systems being intermediate with 120 to 150 Mg ha-1. Soil compaction after forest conversion led to increased BD and reduced MP, Ks, and AWC. Older agroforestry partly recovered buffering: AWC per m of rooted soil profile increased by 5.7 mm per unit (g kg-1) increase of Corg. The restored AWC can support about a week's worth of evapotranspiration without rain, assisting in climate change adaptation.

    People-centric nature-based land restoration through agroforestry: A typology
    Noordwijk, Meine van; Gitz, Vincent ; Minang, Peter A. ; Dewi, Sonya ; Leimona, Beria ; Duguma, Lalisa ; Pingault, Nathanaël ; Meybeck, Alexandre - \ 2020
    Land 9 (2020)8. - ISSN 2073-445X
    Assisted natural regeneration (ANR) - Co-investment - Ecosystem services - Environmental stewardship - Equity - Forest and landscape restoration (FLR) - Landscape approach - Rights-based approach - Tree planting - Water

    Restoration depends on purpose and context. At the core it entails innovation to halt ongoing and reverse past degradation. It aims for increased functionality, not necessarily recovering past system states. Location-specific interventions in social-ecological systems reducingproximatepressures, needto synergize with transforming generic drivers of unsustainable land use. After reviewing pantropical international research on forests, trees, and agroforestry, we developed an options-by-context typology. Four intensities of land restoration interact: R.I. Ecological intensification within a land use system, R. II. Recovery/regeneration, within a local social-ecological system, R. III. Reparation/recuperation, requiring a national policy context, R. IV. Remediation, requiring international support and investment. Relevant interventions start from core values of human identity while addressing five potential bottlenecks: Rights, Know-how, Markets (inputs, outputs, credit), Local Ecosystem Services (including water, agrobiodiversity, micro/mesoclimate) and Teleconnections (global climate change, biodiversity). Six stages of forest transition (from closed old-growth forest to open-field agriculture and re-treed (peri)urban landscapes) can contextualize interventions, with six special places: water towers, riparian zone and wetlands, peat landscapes, small islands and mangroves, transport infrastructure, and mining scars. The typology can help to link knowledge with action in people-centric restoration in which external stakeholders coinvest, reflecting shared responsibility for historical degradation and benefits from environmental stewardship.

    Infiltration-friendly agroforestry land uses on volcanic slopes in the Rejoso Watershed, East Java, Indonesia
    Suprayogo, Didik ; Noordwijk, Meine van; Hairiah, Kurniatun ; Meilasari, Nabilla ; Rabbani, Abdul Lathif ; Ishaq, Rizki Maulana ; Widianto, Widianto - \ 2020
    Land 9 (2020)8. - ISSN 2073-445X
    Entrainment - Erosion - Forest conversion - Overland flow - Soil macroporosity - Throughfall - Water balance

    Forest conversion to agriculture can induce the loss of hydrologic functions linked to infiltration. Infiltration-friendly agroforestry land uses minimize this loss. Our assessment of forest-derived land uses in the Rejoso Watershed on the slopes of the Bromo volcano in East Java (Indonesia) focused on two zones, upstream (above 800 m a.s.l.; Andisols) and midstream (400-800 m a.s.l.; Inceptisols) of the Rejoso River, feeding aquifers that support lowland rice areas and drinking water supply to nearby cities. We quantified throughfall, infiltration, and erosion in three replications per land use category, with 6-13% of rainfall with intensities of 51-100 mm day-1. Throughfall varied from 65 to 100%, with a zone-dependent intercept but common 3% increase in canopy retention per 10% increase in canopy cover. In the upstream watershed, a tree canopy cover > 55% was associated with the infiltration rates needed, as soil erosion per unit overland flow was high. Midstream, only a tree canopy cover of > 80% qualified as "infiltration-friendly" land use, due to higher rainfall in this zone, but erosion rates were relatively low for a tree canopy cover in the range of 20-80%. The tree canopy characteristics required for infiltration-friendly land use clearly vary over short distances with soil type and rainfall intensity.

    Tree roots anchoring and binding soil: Reducing landslide risk in Indonesian agroforestry
    Hairiah, Kurniatun ; Widianto, Widianto ; Suprayogo, Didik ; Noordwijk, Meine Van - \ 2020
    Land 9 (2020)8. - ISSN 2073-445X
    Coffee - Fruit trees - Index of root anchoring - Root length density - Root tensile strength - Slope stability - Soil shear strength

    Tree root systems stabilize hillslopes and riverbanks, reducing landslide risk, but related data for the humid tropics are scarce. We tested fractal allometry hypotheses on differences in the vertical and horizontal distribution of roots of trees commonly found in agroforestry systems and on shear strength of soil in relation to root length density in the topsoil. Proximal roots of 685 trees (55 species; 4-20 cm stem diameter at breast height, dbh) were observed across six landscapes in Indonesia. The Index of Root Anchoring (IRA) and the Index of Root Binding (IRB) were calculated as ∑Dv 2/dbh2 and as ∑Dh 2/dbh2, respectively, where Dv and Dh are the diameters of vertical (angle > 45°) and horizontal (angle < 45°) proximal roots. High IRA values (>1.0) were observed in coffee and several common shade trees. Common fruit trees in coffee agroforestry had low medium values, indicating modest 'soil anchoring'. Where root length density (Lrv) in the topsoil is less than 10 km m-3 shear strength largely depends on texture; for Lrv > 10 shear strength was > 1.5 kg m-2 at the texture tested. In conclusion, a mix of tree species with deep roots and grasses with intense fine roots provides the highest hillslope and riverbank stability.

    Sustainable agroforestry landscape management: Changing the game
    Noordwijk, Meine van; Speelman, Erika ; Hofstede, Gert Jan ; Farida, Ai ; Abdurrahim, Ali Yansyah ; Miccolis, Andrew ; Hakim, Arief Lukman ; Wamucii, Charles Nduhiu ; Lagneaux, Elisabeth ; Andreotti, Federico ; Kimbowa, George ; Assogba, Gildas Geraud Comlan ; Best, Lisa ; Tanika, Lisa ; Githinji, Margaret ; Rosero, Paulina ; Sari, Rika Ratna ; Satnarain, Usha ; Adiwibowo, Soeryo ; Ligtenberg, Arend ; Muthuri, Catherine ; Peña-Claros, Marielos ; Purwanto, Edi ; Oel, Pieter van; Rozendaal, Danaë ; Suprayogo, Didik ; Teuling, Adriaan J. - \ 2020
    Land 9 (2020)8. - ISSN 2073-445X
    Boundary work - Ecohydrology - Forest-water-people nexus - Landscape approach - Participatory methods - Scenario evaluation - Social-ecological systems - Tropical forests

    Location-specific forms of agroforestry management can reduce problems in the forest-water-people nexus, by balancing upstream and downstream interests, but social and ecological finetuning is needed. New ways of achieving shared understanding of the underlying ecological and social-ecological relations is needed to adapt and contextualize generic solutions. Addressing these challenges between thirteen cases of tropical agroforestry scenario development across three continents requires exploration of generic aspects of issues, knowledge and participative approaches. Participative projects with local stakeholders increasingly use 'serious gaming'. Although helpful, serious games so far (1) appear to be ad hoc, case dependent, with poorly defined extrapolation domains, (2) require heavy research investment, (3) have untested cultural limitations and (4) lack clarity on where and how they can be used in policy making. We classify the main forest-water-people nexus issues and the types of land-use solutions that shape local discourses and that are to be brought to life in the games. Four 'prototype' games will be further used to test hypotheses about the four problems identified constraining game use. The resulting generic forest-water-people games will be the outcome of the project "Scenario evaluation for sustainable agroforestry management through forest-water-people games" (SESAM), for which this article provides a preview.

    Plural valuation of nature for equity and sustainability : Insights from the Global South
    Zafra-Calvo, Noelia ; Balvanera, Patricia ; Pascual, Unai ; Merçon, Juliana ; Martín-López, Berta ; Noordwijk, Meine van; Mwampamba, Tuyeni Heita ; Lele, Sharachchandra ; Ifejika Speranza, Chinwe ; Arias-Arévalo, Paola ; Cabrol, Diego ; Cáceres, Daniel M. ; O'Farrell, Patrick ; Subramanian, Suneetha Mazhenchery ; Devy, Soubadra ; Krishnan, Siddhartha ; Carmenta, Rachel ; Guibrunet, Louise ; Kraus-Elsin, Yoanna ; Moersberger, Hannah ; Cariño, Joji ; Díaz, Sandra - \ 2020
    Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 63 (2020). - ISSN 0959-3780
    Environmental valuation - Knowledge co-production - Power relations - Transdisciplinarity - Values

    Plural valuation is about eliciting the diverse values of nature articulated by different stakeholders in order to inform decision making and thus achieve more equitable and sustainable outcomes. We explore what approaches align with plural valuation on the ground, as well as how different social-ecological contexts play a role in translating plural valuation into decisions and outcomes. Based on a co-constructed analytical approach relying on empirical information from ten cases from the Global South, we find that plural valuation contributes to equitable and sustainable outcomes if the valuation process: 1) is based on participatory value elicitation approaches; 2) is framed with a clear action-oriented purpose; 3) provides space for marginalized stakeholders to articulate their values in ways that can be included in decisions; 4) is used as a tool to identify and help reconcile different cognitive models about human-nature relations; and 5) fosters open communication and collaboration among stakeholders. We also find that power asymmetries can hinder plural valuation. As interest and support for undertaking plural valuation grows, a deeper understanding is needed regarding how it can be adapted to different purposes, approaches, and social-ecological contexts in order to contribute to social equity and sustainability.

    Gendered species preferences link tree diversity and carbon stocks in Cacao agroforest in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia
    Sari, Rika Ratna ; Saputra, Danny Dwi ; Hairiah, Kurniatun ; Rozendaal, Danaë M.A. ; Roshetko, James M. ; Noordwijk, Meine Van - \ 2020
    Land 9 (2020)4. - ISSN 2073-445X
    Cacao agroforestry - Carbon storage - Farmer tree preference - Utility value

    The degree to which the maintenance of carbon (C) stocks and tree diversity can be jointly achieved in production landscapes is debated. C stocks in forests are decreased by logging before tree diversity is affected, while C stocks in monoculture tree plantations increase, but diversity does not. Agroforestry can break this hysteresis pattern, relevant for policies in search of synergy. We compared total C stocks and tree diversity among degraded forest, complex cacao/fruit tree agroforests, simple shade-tree cacao agroforestry, monoculture cacao, and annual crops in the Konawe District, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. We evaluated farmer tree preferences and the utility value of the system for 40 farmers (male and female). The highest tree diversity (Shannon-Wiener H index 2.36) and C stocks (282 Mg C ha-1) were found in degraded forest, followed by cacao-based agroforestry systems (H index ranged from 0.58-0.93 with C stocks of 75-89 Mg ha-1). Male farmers selected timber and fruit tree species with economic benefits as shade trees, while female farmers preferred production for household needs (fruit trees and vegetables). Carbon stocks and tree diversity were positively related (R2 = 0.72). Adding data from across Indonesia (n = 102), agroforestry systems had an intermediate position between forest decline and reforestation responses. Maintaining agroforestry in the landscape allows aboveground C stocks up to 50 Mg ha-1 and reduces biodiversity loss. Agroforestry facilitates climate change mitigation and biodiversity goals to be addressed simultaneously in sustainable production landscapes.

    Agroforestry as nexus of sustainable development goals
    Noordwijk, M. van - \ 2020
    In: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. - IOP Publishing (IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science )

    Agroforestry, as platform for harmonizing agriculture and forestry in their interactions with landscapes and rural and peri(urban) livelihoods, offers opportunities to benefit from synergies across sustainable development goals (SDGs), and deal with the unavoidable tradeoffs. Such synergy, however, may only emerge if site-specific analysis of the multiple functions of landscapes leads to a shared understanding among stakeholders, clear commitment to common goals, effective means of implementation and a system that remains open to innovation by monitoring functions rather than form, and regularly re-evaluates effectiveness of policy instruments.

    Soil carbon stocks in Indonesian (agro) forest transitions: Compaction conceals lower carbon concentrations in standard accounting
    Hairiah, Kurniatun ; Noordwijk, Meine van; Sari, Rika Ratna ; Saputra, Danny Dwi ; Widianto, ; Suprayogo, Didik ; Kurniawan, Syahrul ; Prayogo, Cahyo ; Gusli, Sikstus - \ 2020
    Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 294 (2020). - ISSN 0167-8809
    Agroforestry - Bulk density - Carbon accounting - Carbon concentration - Climate change mitigation - IPCC - Soil carbon

    Soil changes matter for the global carbon (C) balance although belowground response to land use change is slower and less obvious than that aboveground. Impacts of changes from natural forest to a range of intermediate tree-based land uses (‘agroforestry’) and non-tree agriculture remain contested. Standard C-stock accounting for a fixed sampling depth depends on changes in both Corg concentrations and bulk density, often with opposite effects. Confounding factors that, beyond current vegetation, influence Corg (soil texture, minerology, drainage, elevation and soil pH) may also influence bulk density. Because land use may not be random with respect to inherent soil properties, differences in soil C-stock between land uses can have multiple causes. We compiled and analysed data from six landscapes in Indonesia (volcanic and other mineral soils; Sumatra, Kalimantan; Java, Sulawesi) where chronosequences of forest, various agroforestry systems and open-field agriculture had been sampled. Our data analysis (617 samples within 0−30 cm depth; 8 land use types) showed that a pedotransfer function for effects on Corg of texture, elevation and soil pH reduced the relative standard error of means per land use type, reduced the range (Max–Min)/Avg and led to a more consistent pattern in apparent land use effects. Relative to natural forest reductions in Corg concentration in the 0−30 cm layer (corrected for confounding factors) averaged 8–20 % in degraded forest, complex agroforest, oil palm plantations and older forest plantation plots, and 25–30 % in simple agroforestry, monoculture tree crops and woodlots, or over 40 % in non-tree (mostly cropped) plots. However, calculated C-stock change was small due to an observed increase (up to 30 %) of bulk density relative to that of natural forest. This implies that up to 23 % additional Corg became included in the soil sampling, resulting in a non-negligible bias (underestimate) in estimated soil carbon loss based on internationally agreed C-stock accounting.

    Sustainable Palm Oil: Dissecting a Global Debate
    Noordwijk, M. van - \ 2020
    In: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Scienc. - IOP Publishing (IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science )

    Palm oil expansion in tropical forest margins captures headlines, primarily out of concern that encroachment to tropical forest causes environmental problem and ignites social issues [1]. Sustainability has to be understood in the wider context of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), rather than as primarily a plot-level ecological concern about persistence of production, to make sense of the debate that has become a very polarized and find ways forward. Cascading ecological and social issues have caused a loss of trust, (threats of) consumer boycotts and multiple standards and certification responses. Diverse sustainability issues have come up as part of a public issue-attention cycle with five recognisable stages [2]: A) Agenda setting, B) Better and widely shared understanding of what is at stake, C) Commitment to common principles, D) Details of devils derailing operations, devolved to (newly created or existing) formal institutions that handle implementation and associated budgets, and E) Efforts to monitor and evaluate effects. In Indonesia two phases of new establishment of palm oil coexist within a forest transition gradient: (i) (industry-led) expansion into new forest margins with many social and ecological consequences; and (ii) (often farmer-led) conversion of existing agroforestry and tree crop (often rubber-based) or pasture economies in mosaic landscapes. External consumer concerns refer to the expansion phase, rather than to production sustainability or issues of smallholder concern. However, certification standards are only partially adjusted to the latter. After a 'voluntary industry standards' phase of differentiation with and shifting blame to non-certified others [3], government involvement in Malaysia and Indonesia suggests that standards and certification can trickle down to enforceable good practice standards for all. This can learn from past ineffective policies that did not address the real issues in local context [4]. On the other hand, subnational jurisdictional entities are the scale at which oil palm production can be balanced with other goals, such as forest conservation and smallholder welfare. This needs a supportive and clear national policy support that combines clarity on forest protection (as in the now permanent moratorium), with support for risk-reducing diversified smallholder oil palm production systems [5,6] and international communication that acknowledges past problems but shows Indonesia is ready to move on, connecting all the dots of sustainable development goals.

    Oil Palm Agroforestry Can Achieve Economic and Environmental Gains as Indicated by Multifunctional Land Equivalent Ratios
    Khasanah, Nikmatul ; Noordwijk, Meine van; Slingerland, Maja ; Sofiyudin, Mohammad ; Stomph, Dienke ; Migeon, Adrien F. ; Hairiah, Kurniatun - \ 2020
    Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems 3 (2020). - ISSN 2571-581X
    carbon footprint - cocoa - ecosystem services - intercropping - land equivalent ratio (LER) - oil palm - pepper - WaNuLCAS model

    Driven by increased global demand for vegetable oil in the food and biofuel sectors, oil palm plantations based on monoculture technology have expanded into lowland tropical forests. Interest in diversified, mixed oil palm systems is increasing as these might increase efficiency of the use of land and other resources, reduce farmer risk, and decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit product. Land Equivalent Ratio for provisioning services (LERP) values above 1.0 show that at least some diversified systems use land more efficiently than monocultures and are thus “land sparing,” where monoculture LERP cannot exceed 1.0. Diversification also modifies climate and water regulating functions (“land sharing”) relative to a forest reference, as indicated in the LERR index. A “multifunctional” LERM indicator combines both; land sparing plus land sharing effects jointly determine expected regulating services. Empirical assessment of multiple ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes is assisted by models that synthesise process-based knowledge, especially for perennial systems where well-designed experiments require a full production cycle, and are costly and scarce. Agroforestry models explore spacing, intercropping and soil management options, predicting harvestable yields, impacts on water flows, nutrient leaching, and greenhouse gas emissions. We used the process-based Water, Nutrient and Light Capture in Agroforestry System (WaNuLCAS) model to explore mixed oil palm + cocoa and oil palm + pepper intercrop systems with modified (“double row”) planting patterns for Indonesian contexts and estimated consequences for the carbon footprint. The oil palm + cocoa intercrop provided a high LERP (1.4), while also replenishing more ground water and having a lower C footprint. This combination also has a return to labour equal to that in oil palm monocultures and a higher benefit cost ratio than the oil palm + pepper combination that maximizes Net Present Value. Oil palm + cocoa systems are also less sensitive to price uncertainty for oil palm, and buffer for oil palm and cocoa production risks, assumed to be independent of each other. Considerable economic and environmental system improvements appear to be feasible through mixed oil palm systems and diversification as a pathway to intensification deserves full attention of research and policy development.

    Managing Forests for Both Downstream and Downwind Water
    Creed, Irena F. ; Jones, Julia A. ; Archer, Emma ; Claassen, Marius ; Ellison, David ; Mcnulty, Steven G. ; Noordwijk, Meine Van; Vira, Bhaskar ; Wei, Xiaohua ; Bishop, Kevin ; Blanco, Juan A. ; Gush, Mark ; Gyawali, Dipak ; Jobbágy, Esteban ; Lara, Antonio ; Little, Christian ; Martin-ortega, Julia ; Mukherji, Aditi ; Murdiyarso, Daniel ; Pol, Paola Ovando ; Sullivan, Caroline A. ; Xu, Jianchu - \ 2019
    Frontiers in Forests and Global Change 2 (2019). - ISSN 2624-893X
    Forests and trees are key to solving water availability problems in the face of climate change and to achieving the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. A recent global assessment of forest and water science posed the question: How do forests matter for water? Here we synthesize science from that assessment, which shows that forests and water are an integrated system. We assert that forests, from the tops of their canopies to the base of the soils in which trees are rooted, must be considered a key component in the complex temporal and spatial dimensions of the hydrologic cycle. While it is clear that forests influence both downstream and downwind water availability, their actual impact depends on where they are located and their processes affected by natural and anthropogenic conditions. A holistic approach is needed to manage the connections between forests, water and people in the face of current governance systems that often ignore these connections. We need policy interventions that will lead to forestation strategies that decrease the dangerous rate of loss in forest cover and that—where appropriate—increase the gain in forest cover. We need collective interventions that will integrate transboundary forest and water management to ensure sustainability of water supplies at local, national and continental scales. The United Nations should continue to show leadership by providing forums in which interventions can be discussed, negotiated and monitored, and national governments must collaborate to sustainably manage forests to ensure secure water supplies and equitable and sustainable outcomes.
    Improving smallholder inclusivity through integrating oil palm with crops
    Slingerland, M.A. ; Khasanah, N. ; Noordwijk, Meine van; Susanti, Ari ; Meilantina, Mayang - \ 2019
    In: Exploring inclusive palm oil production / Jezeer, Rosalien, Pasiecznik, Nick, ETFRN and Tropenbos International, Wageningen (ETFRN News 59) - p. 147 - 154.
    Rainfall recycling needs to be considered in defining limits to the world’s green water resources
    Noordwijk, Meine Van; Ellison, David - \ 2019
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 116 (2019)17. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 8102 - 8103.
    Discourses mapped by Q-method show governance constraints motivate landscape approaches in Indonesia
    Langston, James Douglas ; McIntyre, Rowan ; Falconer, Keith ; Sunderland, Terry ; Noordwijk, Meine Van; Boedhihartono, Agni Klintuni - \ 2019
    PLoS ONE 14 (2019)1. - ISSN 1932-6203

    Interpreting discourses among implementers of what is termed a “landscape approach” enables us to learn from their experience to improve conservation and development outcomes. We use Q-methodology to explore the perspectives of a group of experts in the landscape approach, both from academic and implementation fields, on what hinderances are in place to the realisation of achieving sustainable landscape management in Indonesia. The results show that, at a generic level, “corruption” and “lack of transparency and accountability” rank as the greatest constraints on landscape functionality. Biophysical factors, such as topography and climate change, rank as the least constraining factors. When participants considered a landscape with which they were most familiar, the results changed: the rapid change of regulations, limited local human capacity and inaccessible data on economic risks increased, while the inadequacy of democratic institutions, “overlapping laws” and “corruption” decreased. The difference indicates some fine-tuning of generic perceptions to the local context and may also reflect different views on what is achievable for landscape approach practitioners. Overall, approximately 55% of variance is accounted for by five discourse factors for each trial. Four overlapped and two discourses were discrete enough to merit different discourse labels. We labelled the discourses (1) social exclusionists, (2) state view, (3) community view, (4) integrationists, (5) democrats, and (6) neoliberals. Each discourse contains elements actionable at the landscape scale, as well as exogenous issues that originate at national and global scales. Actionable elements that could contribute to improving governance included trust building, clarified resource rights and responsibilities, and inclusive representation in management. The landscape sustainability discourses studied here suggests that landscape approach “learners” must focus on ways to remedy poor governance if they are to achieve sustainability and multi-functionality.

    Assessment of browsed plants in a sub-tropical forest frontier by means of fuzzy inference
    Dechnik-Vázquez, Yanus A. ; García-Barrios, Luis ; Ramírez-Marcial, Neptalí ; Noordwijk, Meine van; Alayón-Gamboa, Armando - \ 2019
    Journal of Environmental Management 236 (2019). - ISSN 0301-4797 - p. 163 - 181.
    Agroforestry - Browsing - Cattle - Fuzzy inference - Silvopastoral systems

    Browsing of forest frontiers by cattle in sub-tropical landscapes is detrimental to ecosystem health, but essential to smallholder livelihoods. We described a silvopastoral landscape, searching for browsed plants to assess how much of the forest is actually used for this end, and also searching for potential new useful species for silvopastoral purposes. The first objective was accomplished through a floristic description, making observations of individuals with browsing marks. Information from interviews, bromatological analyses and vegetative propagation tests further complemented this information to achieve the second objective. We classified the results using Fuzzy Inference Systems (FISs). A great variety of nutritious browsed plants was found, distributed across various types of vegetation, growth habits and taxonomic groups: forest frontiers already are like silvopastoral systems. Various plants like Acalypha leptopoda, Montanoa tomentosa and Verbesina perymenioides are interesting prospects for further intensification of silvopastoral systems.

    Fertiliser application practices and nutrient deficiencies in smallholder oil palm plantations in Indonesia
    Woittiez, L.S. ; Turhina, Sri ; Deccy, D. ; Slingerland, Maja ; Noordwijk, Meine van; Giller, Ken E. - \ 2019
    Experimental Agriculture 55 (2019)4. - ISSN 0014-4797 - p. 543 - 559.
    Oil palm has become an important source of revenue for smallholders in Indonesia, but productivity of smallholder plantations is generally poor. Nutrient limitations have been suggested as an important agronomic constraint to yield. Our research aimed to quantify fertiliser use, soil and tissue nutrient status, and palm growth and yield in a sample of independent smallholder plantations. We selected 49 plantations in Indonesia in two provinces with contrasting soils. For all plantations, we obtained self-reported fertiliser use and yield data, collected soil and tissue samples, and analysed vegetative growth. More than 170 kg N ha−1 year−1 was applied in one site, and P was applied in excess of recommended quantities in both sites, but on average farmers applied less than 100 kg K ha−1 year−1. Soils in the palm circle were poor in N, P and K in 29, 40 and 82% of the plantations, and deficiencies were measured in 57, 61 and 80% of the leaflet samples, respectively. We found statistically significant correlations between tissue nutrient concentrations and vegetative growth, but a large part of the variation in the data remained unaccounted for. Single leaf area was reduced in >80% of the plantations. Average yields were estimated to be 50‒70% of the water-limited potential. Our results demonstrate that widespread nutrient imbalances and deficiencies, especially potassium and phosphorus, occur in smallholder oil palm plantations, due to inadequate and unbalanced fertiliser application practices. These deficiencies may be an important underlying cause of the overall poor productivity, which threatens the economic and environmental sustainability of the smallholder sector.
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