Are forest disturbances amplifying or canceling out climate change-induced productivity changes in European forests?
Reyer, Christopher Paul Oliver ; Bathgate, Stephan ; Blennow, K. ; Borges, J.G. ; Bugmann, Harald ; Delzon, Sylvain ; Faias, Sonia P. ; Garcia-Gonzalo, Jordi ; Gardiner, Barry ; Gonzalez-Olabarria, J.R. ; Gracia, Carlos ; Guerra Hernandez, Jordi ; Kellomaki, Seppo ; Kramer, K. ; Lexer, M.J. ; Lindner, Marcus ; Maaten, Ernest van der; Maroschek, M. ; Muys, Bart ; Nicoll, B. ; Palahi, M. ; Palma, J.H.N. ; Paulo, Joana A. ; Peltola, H. ; Pukkala, T. ; Rammer, W. ; Ray, D. ; Sabaté, S. ; Schelhaas, M. ; Seidl, R. ; Temperli, Christian ; Tomé, Margarida ; Yousefpour, R. ; Zimmerman, N.E. ; Hanewinkel, Marc - \ 2017
Environmental Research Letters 12 (2017)3. - ISSN 1748-9326
Recent studies projecting future climate change impacts on forests mainly consider either the effects of climate change on productivity or on disturbances. However, productivity and disturbances are intrinsically linked because 1) disturbances directly affect forest productivity (e.g. via a reduction in leaf area, growing stock or resource-use efficiency), and 2) disturbance susceptibility is often coupled to a certain development phase of the forest with productivity determining the time a forest is in this specific phase of susceptibility. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of forest productivity changes in different forest regions in Europe under climate change, and partition these changes into effects induced by climate change alone and by climate change and disturbances. We present projections of climate change impacts on forest productivity from state-of-the-art forest models that dynamically simulate forest productivity and the effects of the main European disturbance agents (fire, storm, insects), driven by the same climate scenario in seven forest case studies along a large climatic gradient throughout Europe. Our study shows that, in most cases, including disturbances in the simulations exaggerate ongoing productivity declines or cancel out productivity gains in response to climate change. In fewer cases, disturbances also increase productivity or buffer climate-change induced productivity losses, e.g. because low severity fires can alleviate resource competition and increase fertilization. Even though our results cannot simply be extrapolated to other types of forests and disturbances, we argue that it is necessary to interpret climate change-induced productivity and disturbance changes jointly to capture the full range of climate change impacts on forests and to plan adaptation measures.
Technologies for Smallholder Irrigation Appropriate for Whom: Promoters or Beneficiaries?
Malik, R.P.S. ; Fraiture, C.M.S. de; Ray, D. - \ 2014
In: Thechnologies for Sustainable: Development : a Way to Reduce Poverty? / Bolay, J.C., Hostettler, S., Hazboun, E., Lausanne : Springer - ISBN 9783319006383 - p. 73 - 84.
Fifteen years after the successful introduction of treadle pumps for small farm irrigation in the North Bengal region of India, the socio-economic and technological landscape has changed dramatically. However, donors have continued to support treadle pump programs. Revisiting the factors that contributed to its initial success, the authors in this paper examine whether the use of treadle pumps continues to be an appropriate technology for smallholder irrigation. The results suggest that treadle pumps, when introduced during the mid-1990s, were successful because of a near technological vacuum at that time. Over the years, with the advent of small affordable diesel engines, motorized pumps have become widely available and a large rental market for water and pumping equipment has emerged. The farmers started abandoning the treadle pumps. Growing labor scarcity, rising labor wages, and increasing concerns over drudgery also dissuaded farmers from using the labor-intensive treadle pumps. The study reaffirms that the adoption of a technology is a dynamic process and that a technology that was appropriate at one point in time will not necessarily remain so at other times. It underlines the need for regularly revisiting technology choices and independent monitoring to understand better the changing landscapes of smallholder irrigation. This will ensure that the technologies desired most by beneficiaries—not just by promoters—get the support and promotional backing of the donors and governments for effective poverty reduction.