Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Prediction of metabolic status of dairy cows in early lactation with on-farm cow data and machine learning algorithms
    Xu, Wei ; Knegsel, Ariette T.M. van; Vervoort, Jacques J.M. ; Bruckmaier, Rupert M. ; Hoeij, Renny J. van; Kemp, Bas ; Saccenti, Edoardo - \ 2019
    Journal of Dairy Science 102 (2019)11. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 10186 - 10201.
    cattle - cluster analysis - energy metabolism - Random Forest

    Metabolic status of dairy cows in early lactation can be evaluated using the concentrations of plasma β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), free fatty acids (FFA), glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). These plasma metabolites and metabolic hormones, however, are difficult to measure on farm. Instead, easily obtained on-farm cow data, such as milk production traits, have the potential to predict metabolic status. Here we aimed (1) to investigate whether metabolic status of individual cows in early lactation could be clustered based on their plasma values and (2) to evaluate machine learning algorithms to predict metabolic status using on-farm cow data. Through lactation wk 1 to 7, plasma metabolites and metabolic hormones of 334 cows were measured weekly and used to cluster each cow into 1 of 3 clusters per week. The cluster with the greatest plasma BHB and FFA and the lowest plasma glucose, insulin, and IGF-1 was defined as poor metabolic status; the cluster with the lowest plasma BHB and FFA and the greatest plasma glucose, insulin, and IGF-1 was defined as good metabolic status; and the intermediate cluster was defined as average metabolic status. Most dairy cows were classified as having average or good metabolic status, and a limited number of cows had poor metabolic status (10–50 cows per lactation week). On-farm cow data, including dry period length, parity, milk production traits, and body weight, were used to predict good or average metabolic status with 8 machine learning algorithms. Random Forest (error rate ranging from 12.4 to 22.6%) and Support Vector Machine (SVM; error rate ranging from 12.4 to 20.9%) were the top 2 best-performing algorithms to predict metabolic status using on-farm cow data. Random Forest had a higher sensitivity (range: 67.8–82.9% during wk 1 to 7) and negative predictive value (range: 89.5–93.8%) but lower specificity (range: 76.7–88.5%) and positive predictive value (range: 58.1–78.4%) than SVM. In Random Forest, milk yield, fat yield, protein percentage, and lactose yield had important roles in prediction, but their rank of importance differed across lactation weeks. In conclusion, dairy cows could be clustered for metabolic status based on plasma metabolites and metabolic hormones. Moreover, on-farm cow data can predict cows in good or average metabolic status, with Random Forest and SVM performing best of all algorithms.

    Evaluation of customized dry period management in dairy cows
    Kok, A. ; Hoeij, R.J. van; Kemp, B. ; Knegsel, A.T.M. van - \ 2019
    In: Book of Abstracts of the 70th Annual Meeting of the European Federation of Animal Science. - Wageningen Academic Publishers (EAAP books of abstracts ) - ISBN 9789086863396 - p. 536 - 536.
    Customising dry period management: consequences for milk yield, body condition and disease incidence
    Knegsel, A.T.M. van; Hoeij, R.J. van; Kemp, B. ; Kok, A. - \ 2019
    In: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Production Diseases in Farm Animals. - Bern, Switserland : University of Bern - ISBN 9783906813936 - p. 147 - 147.
    Advantages of shortening and omitting of the dry period are an improved energy balance and metabolic status in early lactation and potentially also an improved fertility (Van Knegsel et al., 2013). Disadvantages, however, are a reduction in milk yield in the subsequent lactation, loss of opportunity for selective dry cow therapy (DCT) and, in case of omitting of the dry period, reduction in concentration of antibodies in colostrum. Moreover, response of dairy cows to different dry period lengths was related to individual cow characteristics, like parity (Annen et al., 2004), milk yield level or SCC level (Van Hoeij et al., 2016). Therefore, it can be hypothesized that customising dry period management for individual cows could mitigate negative impacts of shortening and omitting the dry period on milk production and udder health, and at the same time retain benefits from both a dry period as well as benefits from a short or no dry period. In this study, we aimed to evaluate two decision trees to customize dry period length and selective DCT based on parity, milk production and SCC in late lactation.
    Relationship between resumption of ovarian activity, days open, energy balance and metabolic status in dairy cows with different dry period lengths in early lactation
    Ma, J. ; Hoeij, R.J. van; Lam, T.J.G.M. ; Kemp, B. ; Knegsel, A.T.M. van - \ 2019
    In: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Production Diseases in Farm Animals. - Bern, Switserland : University of Bern - ISBN 9783906813936 - p. 176 - 176.
    Negative energy balance (NEB) in dairy cows results from a fast increase in milk production post calving while feed intake is limited in this period. NEB is accompanied with an altered metabolic status, which triggers metabolic disorders. Metabolic status in early lactation is related with reproductive performance, e.g. reduced concentrations of insulin and IGF-I, which contributes to reduced follicular responsiveness to gonadotrophic stimulation, and thus prevents the dominant follicle to ovulate, resulting in a delay in the resumption of cyclicity. Omitting or shortening the dry period (DP), adjusting dietary energy level or feeding different dietary energy sources is of interest because that could minimize the risk of NEB, postpartum metabolic diseases and suboptimal fertility like delayed resumption of postpartum ovarian cyclicity. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of DP length, dietary energy level, dietary energy source and interactions among these factors on fertility (resumption of ovarian cyclicity and days open) of dairy cows postpartum. Additionally, the relation between energy balance and metabolic status of dairy cows during early lactation and resumption of ovarian cyclicity and days open will be evaluated.
    ‘Droogstand afwegen per individuele koe’: Korte droogstand kost melk, minder ziekten
    Hoeij, Renny van; Kok, Akke ; Knegsel, Ariette van - \ 2019

    Kan de droogstand korter dan de traditionele zes tot acht weken? Wageningen
    UR toont aan dat rigoureus kiezen voor korter of niet droogzetten te veel
    productie kost, maar wel positief uitpakt voor de gezondheid. De onderzoekers
    stellen dat de optimale droogstandsstrategie verschilt per individuele koe. Om
    dit te bepalen, ontwikkelden ze een beslismodel.

    Droogstand op maat kan antibioticagebruik en ziekte bij koeien reduceren
    Kok, Akke ; Hoeij, Renny van; Kemp, Bas ; Knegsel, Ariette van - \ 2019

    'Droogstand op Maat', een beslismodel op basis van individuele koekenmerken, kan de melkproductieverliezen na het verkorten of weglaten van de droogstand beperken en de gezondheid van koeien verbeteren. Dat blijkt uit een onderzoek uitgevoerd door Wageningen University & Research in samenwerking met de Universiteit Utrecht en de University of Bern in Zwitserland.

    Relationship between metabolic status and behavior in dairy cows in week 4 of lactation
    Hoeij, R.J. van; Kok, A. ; Bruckmaier, R.M. ; Haskell, M.J. ; Kemp, B. ; Knegsel, A.T.M. van - \ 2019
    Animal 13 (2019)3. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 640 - 648.
    continuous milking - dry period length - feeding behavior - lactogenic hormones - sensor technology

    Blood metabolite and hormone concentrations are indicative of metabolic status, but blood sampling and analysis is invasive and time-consuming. Monitoring behavior can be done automatically, and behaviors may also be used as indicators of metabolic status. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between metabolic status and feeding behavior, lying behavior, motion index and steps of dairy cows in week 4 postpartum. Behavioral data from 81 Holstein-Friesian cows were collected using computerized feeders and accelerometers, and blood samples were collected for analysis of free-fatty acid (FFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), glucose, insulin, IGF-1 and growth hormone (GH) concentrations. First, cluster analysis was performed to categorize cows as having poor, average, good or very good metabolic status based on their plasma FFA, BHB, glucose, insulin, IGF-1 and GH concentration. Subsequently, the performance and behavior of cows in clusters with poor, average and good metabolic status were compared using GLM. Cows with a poor or average metabolic status tended to have greater fat-and-protein-corrected milk yield than cows with good metabolic status. Furthermore, cows with a poor metabolic status had a lower energy balance and dry matter intake (DMI) than cows with an average or good metabolic status and had a lower number of meals than cows with good metabolic status. Daily number of visits to the feeder and lying time tended to be positively related with metabolic status. Feeding rate (kg/min), daily meal time (min/day), number of lying bouts per day, steps and motion index were not related with metabolic status. In conclusion, better metabolic status in dairy cows in early lactation was associated with a greater DMI, increased feeding activity and a tendency to more time spent lying, compared with poor metabolic status. These results suggest that compromised metabolic status is reflected in altered cow's behavior in week 4 of lactation.

    The effects of dry period length on udder health, metabolic status and lactation persistency
    Hoeij, Renny van - \ 2018

    The effects of dry period length on post-partum udder health are still ambiguous possibly partly because in many studies dry period (DP) length and the use of dry cow antibiotics were confounded. Recently, the preventive use of antimicrobials in the EU has been restricted. To our knowledge, no study had evaluated the effects of DP length without the use of dry cow antibiotics on udder health. Furthermore, we hypothesized that prepartum cow characteristics could determine postpartum udder health after different DP lengths.

    Verkorte droogstand
    Hoeij, Renny van - \ 2018
    Droogstand op Maat - fase 2 : Evaluatie beslismodellen voor droogstandsmanagement
    Kok, A. ; Hoeij, R.J. van; Kemp, B. ; Knegsel, A.T.M. van - \ 2018
    Wageningen : Wageningen University, leerstoelgroep Adaptatiefysiologie - 17
    Milk Metabolomics Data Reveal the Energy Balance of Individual Dairy Cows in Early Lactation
    Xu, Wei ; Vervoort, Jacques ; Saccenti, Edoardo ; Hoeij, Renny van; Kemp, Bas ; Knegsel, Ariette van - \ 2018
    Scientific Reports 8 (2018). - ISSN 2045-2322

    In early lactation, dairy cows typically have a negative energy balance which has been related to metabolic disorders, compromised health and fertility, and reduced productive lifespan. Assessment of the energy balance, however, is not easy on the farm. Our aims were to investigate the milk metabolic profiles of dairy cows in early lactation, and to obtain models to estimate energy balance from milk metabolomics data and milk production traits. Milk samples were collected in week 2 and 7 after calving from 31 dairy cows. For each cow, the energy balance was calculated from energy intake, milk production traits and body weight. A total of 52 milk metabolites were detected using LC-QQQ-MS. Data from different lactation weeks was analysed by partial least squares analysis, the top 15 most relevant variables from the metabolomics data related to energy balance were used to develop reduced linear models to estimate energy balance by forward selection regression. Milk fat yield, glycine, choline and carnitine were important variables to estimate energy balance (adjusted R2: 0.53 to 0.87, depending on the model). The relationship of these milk metabolites with energy balance is proposed to be related to their roles in cell renewal.

    Droogstand op maat : verkorten van de droogstand van melkvee: effecten op vervetting en persistentie, uiergezondheid, dierenwelzijn, melkproductie, economie en milieu
    Knegsel, A.T.M. van; Hoeij, R.J. van; Kok, A. - \ 2018
    Wageningen : Wageningen University, leerstoelgroep Adaptatiefysiologie - 98
    Udder health of dairy cows fed different dietary energy levels after a short or no dry period without use of dry cow antibiotics
    Hoeij, R.J. van; Lam, T.J.G.M. ; Bruckmaier, R.M. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Remmelink, G.J. ; Kemp, B. ; Knegsel, A.T.M. van - \ 2018
    Journal of Dairy Science 101 (2018)5. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 4570 - 4585.
    continuous milking - decision making - antibiotic use
    Reports on the effects of length of dry period (DP) on udder health of cows that were not treated with dry cow antibiotics are scarce. Additionally, the effects of a reduced dietary energy level for cows with a 0-d DP on udder health have not yet been studied. The aims of this study were (1) to compare effects of a 0-d or 30-d DP without use of dry cow antibiotics on udder health across the DP and subsequent lactation in dairy cows fed different dietary energy levels and (2) to evaluate associations between udder health and metabolic status of dairy cows. Five weeks before the expected calving date, Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n = 115) were blocked for parity, expected calving date, and milk yield and SCC at their 2 last test days and were randomly assigned to 2 DP lengths: 0-d DP (n = 77) or 30-d DP (n = 38). Quarter milk samples were taken in wk 5 prepartum and in wk 1 and 5 postpartum. Proportion of quarters with elevated somatic cell count (SCC; SCC ≥200,000 cells/mL) and proportion of udder pathogens in quarter milk samples did not differ between DP lengths among weeks. After calving, 102 of these cows were randomly assigned to 3 treatments: a 30-d DP with a standard energy level required for expected milk yield (30-d DP SEL; n = 36), a 0-d DP with the same energy level as cows with a 30-d DP (0-d DP SEL; n = 33), and a 0-d DP with a low energy level (0-d DP LEL, n = 33). From wk 8 of lactation onward, cows received either a glucogenic ration consisting of corn silage and grass silage or a lipogenic ration consisting of grass silage and sugar beet pulp at a standard or low energy level. During wk 1 to 7 postpartum, treatment did not affect SCC or SCC corrected for milk yield. During wk 8 to 44 of lactation, 0-d DP SEL cows had a greater SCC than 0-d DP LEL or 30-d DP SEL cows and had a greater SCC corrected for milk yield than 0-d DP LEL cows. During wk 1 to 44 of lactation, occurrence of at least 1 elevation of SCC (SCC ≥200,000 cells/mL after 2 wk of SCC <200,000 cells/mL) was not different among treatments. The 0-d DP SEL cows but not the 0-d DP LEL cows tended to have a 2.17 times greater hazard of having a case of clinical mastitis at any time in lactation than 30-d DP SEL cows. In wk 1 to 44 of lactation, lower fat- and protein- corrected milk yield and energy intake, greater energy balance, and greater plasma insulin concentration were associated with greater SCC. In conclusion, DP length did not affect udder health in the DP and in early lactation but seemed to decrease udder health for 0-d DP SEL cows in later lactation compared with 30-d DP SEL or 0-d DP LEL cows.
    Metabolic status, lactation persistency, and udder health of dairy cows after different dry period lengths
    Hoeij, Renny van - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): B. Kemp; T.J.G.M. Lam, co-promotor(en): A.T.M. Knegsel; J. Dijkstra. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463438070 - 285
    dairy cattle - animal health - animal behaviour - dry period - metabolism - energy balance - lactation - milk production - udders - cattle feeding - melkvee - diergezondheid - diergedrag - gustperiode - metabolisme - energiebalans - lactatie - melkproductie - uiers - rundveevoeding

    Cows traditionally have a 6 to 8 week non-lactating –‘dry period’- before calving and the start of the next lactation in order to maximize milk production in the subsequent lactation. An omitted, compared with a shortened, dry period reduces milk yield and improves energy availability in cows postpartum, but effects on udder health and persistency were unclear. Cows without a dry period fattened and spontaneously dried off due to the improved energy availability. Reducing the energy availability in the feed for cows without a dry period did not affect fattening or lactation persistency in late lactation. Cows with a short or without a dry period did not receive dry cow antibiotics in this study and this did not affect udder health across the dry period or in early lactation, but seemed to impair udder health in late lactation for cows without a dry period.

    Dairycampus test droogzet-app
    Hoeij, R.J. van; Knegsel, A.T.M. van - \ 2017
    Droogstand - Dairy Campus - droogzet-app

    Het project ‘Droogstand op maat’ startte recent met het testen van een droogzet-app. Met behulp van die app kan een melkveehouder in de toekomst bepalen welke droogstandslengte voor zijn individuele koeien het beste is (0, 30 of 60 dagen) en of hij wel of niet een droogzetter met antibiotica dient te gebruiken.

    ‘Effect van de droogstandslengte op uiergezondheid in de praktijk’
    Hoeij, Renny van - \ 2017
    Metabolic status, lactation persistency, and udder health of dairy cows after different dry period lengths?
    Hoeij, Renny van - \ 2017
    De Droogstand
    Knegsel, A.T.M. van; Hoeij, R.J. van; Lam, T.J.G.M. - \ 2017
    In: Handboek Uiergezondheid Rund / Lam, Theo, De Vliegher, Sarne, Nijmegen : Communication In Practice - ISBN 9789082232127 - p. 197 - 206.
    Effect of dry period length and dietary energy source on energy partitioning during a complete lactation
    Hoeij, R.J. van; Dijkstra, J. ; Bruckmaier, R.M. ; Gross, J.J. ; Lam, T.J.G.M. ; Kemp, B. ; Knegsel, A.T.M. van - \ 2017
    In: Abstracts of the 6th BASF Workshop. -
    Consequences of dietary energy source and energy level on energy balance, lactogenic hormones, and lactation curve characteristics of cows after a short or omitted dry period
    Hoeij, R.J. van; Dijkstra, J. ; Bruckmaier, R.M. ; Gross, J.J. ; Lam, Theo J.G.M. ; Remmelink, G.J. ; Kemp, B. ; Knegsel, A.T.M. van - \ 2017
    Journal of Dairy Science 100 (2017)10. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 8544 - 8564.
    continuous milking - persistency - body condition - metabolic status
    Omitting the dry period (DP) generally reduces milk production in the subsequent lactation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary energy source—glucogenic (G) or lipogenic (L)—and energy level—standard (std) or low—on milk production; energy balance (EB); lactogenic hormones insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and growth hormone (GH); and lactation curve characteristics between wk 1 and 44 postpartum in cows after a 0-d or 30-d DP. Cows (n = 110) were assigned randomly to 3 transition treatments: a 30-d DP with a standard energy level required for expected milk yield [30-d DP(std)], a 0-d DP with the same energy level as cows with a 30-d DP [0-d DP(std)], and a 0-d DP with a low energy level [0-d DP(low)]. In wk 1 to 7, cows were fed the same basal ration but the level of concentrate increased to 6.7 kg/d for cows fed the low energy level and to 8.5 kg/d for cows fed the standard energy level in wk 4. From wk 8 postpartum onward, cows received a G ration (mainly consisting of corn silage and grass silage) or an L ration (mainly consisting of grass silage and sugar beet pulp) with the same energy level contrast (low or std) as in early lactation. Cows fed the G ration had greater milk, lactose, and protein yields, lower milk fat percentage, greater dry matter and energy intakes, and greater plasma IGF-1 concentration compared with cows fed the L ration. Dietary energy source did not affect EB or lactation curve characteristics. In cows with a 0-d DP, the reduced energy level decreased energy intake, EB, and weekly body weight gain, but did not affect milk production or lactation curve characteristics. A 30-d DP resulted in a greater total predicted lactation yield, initial milk yield after calving, peak milk yield, energy intake, energy output in milk, days to conception [only when compared with 0-d DP(low)], plasma GH concentration [only when compared with 0-d DP(std)], and decreased weekly body weight gain compared with a 0-d DP. A 30-d DP decreased both the increasing and the declining slope parameters of the lactation curve and the relative rate of decline in milk yield (indicating greater lactation persistency) compared with a 0-d DP, and decreased plasma insulin and IGF-1 concentration, and EB. In conclusion, feeding a G ration after wk 7 in milk improved energy intake and milk production, but did not affect EB compared with an L ration. For cows without a DP, a reduced dietary energy level did not affect milk production and lactation curve characteristics, but did decrease EB and weekly body weight gain. A 30-d DP increased milk yield and lactation persistency, but decreased milk fat and protein content, EB, and plasma insulin and IGF-1, compared with a 0-d DP.
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