- J. Heijmans (1)
- A. Hoogenboom (1)
- M.M. Kater (1)
- C. Michel (3)
- J.B. Morel (1)
- P.P.J. Mulder (1)
- P.B.F. Ouwerkerk (1)
- B. Piqueras Fiszman (2)
- C. Spence (2)
- B. Wang (1)
- Y. Xiao (1)
- Z. Zhu (1)
Plating manifesto (II): the art and science of plating
Spence, C. ; Piqueras Fiszman, B. ; Michel, C. ; Deroy, O. - \ 2014
Flavour 3 (2014)1. - ISSN 2044-7248 - 12 p.
It is well known that people serve themselves more, not to mention eat more, when dining from larger bowls and plates than from smaller ones. But what about the other visual qualities of the plateware? Does the colour, shape and finish also influence a diner’s behaviour? How important are these extrinsic visual properties, or even the visual arrangement of the elements on the plate itself, in terms of modulating a diner’s eating behaviours and experiences? At a time when so much is known about the influence of the colour of individual food products on taste and flavour perception, and when so many modernist restaurants are using an increasingly eclectic range of visual designs for their dishes, there has been surprisingly little scientific research on how the more complex visual properties and arrangement of food presentations may affect the diner. Below, we argue that the exploration of these effects constitutes the next natural step in an increasingly fruitful interdisciplinary collaboration between chefs, psychologists, sensory scientists and designers. The most important research questions, then, are to identify the kinds of effects that the presentation style has on the multisensory consumption experiences and behaviours of diners, and to study the interactions between the different visual cues that are provided. Taken together, the evidence reviewed here helps to emphasize the fact that getting both the plateware and the plating right constitute surprisingly important components to sublimate the flavours of the food, in the delivery and experience of a great meal.
The plating manifesto (I): from decoration to creation
Deroy, O. ; Michel, C. ; Piqueras Fiszman, B. ; Spence, C. - \ 2014
Flavour 3 (2014). - ISSN 2044-7248 - 11 p.
At a time when a growing number of chefs and innovative food industries are starting to set up their own research kitchens and work with renowned scientists, it is surprising to see that issues related to the visual presentation of food on the plate are being left out of these successful exchanges. The variety of presentations created by chefs, and the number of varieties of tableware now available to achieve them, represent a formidable opportunity for cognitive scientists to study the more complex effects of vision on food experiences, which certainly should not be missed. Chefs can also benefit from the new insights that a scientific approach can bring to these areas, which previously have often been left to intuition. In this manifesto, we claim that this transfer of knowledge represents much more than merely another addition to the art and science of cuisine: it is its essential completion, as gastronomy moves more and more toward the ideal of a total multisensory art, as captivating for the eye as it is for the palate. Before turning to the scientific recommendations and review in the second part of our manifesto, we want to promote a different approach to plating, which breaks with the more functional and decorative purposes of plate ware, and puts experiments in visual presentation at the heart of modernist culinary expression.
OsJAR1 is required for JA-regulated floret opening and anther dehiscence in rice
Xiao, Y. ; Charnikhova, T. ; Mulder, P.P.J. ; Heijmans, J. ; Hoogenboom, A. ; Agalou, A. ; Michel, C. ; Morel, J.B. ; Dreni, L. ; Kater, M.M. ; Bouwmeester, H.J. ; Wang, B. ; Zhu, Z. ; Ouwerkerk, P.B.F. - \ 2014
Plant Molecular Biology 86 (2014)1-2. - ISSN 0167-4412 - p. 19 - 33.
jasmonic acid biosynthesis - male-sterile mutant - l-isoleucine - methyl jasmonate - gene encodes - arabidopsis - enzyme - proteins - tomato - (+)-7-iso-jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine
Jasmonates are important phytohormones regulating reproductive development. We used two recessive rice Tos17 alleles of OsJAR1, osjar1-2 and osjar1-3, to study the biological function of jasmonates in rice anthesis. The florets of both osjar1 alleles stayed open during anthesis because the lodicules, which control flower opening in rice, were not withering on time. Furthermore, dehiscence of the anthers filled with viable pollen, was impaired, resulting in lower fertility. In situ hybridization and promoter GUS transgenic analysis confirmed OsJAR1 expression in these floral tissues. Flower opening induced by exogenous applied methyl jasmonate was impaired in osjar1 plants and was restored in a complementation experiment with transgenics expressing a wild type copy of OsJAR1 controlled by a rice actin promoter. Biochemical analysis showed that OsJAR1 encoded an enzyme conjugating jasmonic acid (JA) to at least Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, Trp and Val and both osjar1 alleles had substantial reduction in content of JA-Ile, JA-Leu and JA-Val in florets. We conclude that OsJAR1 is a JA-amino acid synthetase that is required for optimal flower opening and closing and anther dehiscence in rice