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Exploring variability in detection thresholds of microparticles through participant characteristics
Santagiuliana, Marco ; Marigómez, Inés Sampedro ; Broers, Layla ; Hayes, John E. ; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina ; Scholten, Elke ; Stieger, Markus - \ 2019
Food & Function 10 (2019)9. - ISSN 2042-6496 - p. 5386 - 5397.
This study explored how product familiarity and physiological characteristics of participants affect detectability of microparticles in viscous and semi-solid foods. Cellulose particles differing in size (50-780 μm) were added (1.5% w/w) to two dairy products, quark (viscous curd cheese) and processed cheese. Discrimination thresholds for added microparticles were determined by 47 Dutch, Caucasian and 45 Chinese, Asian women using the Method of Constant Stimuli. Particle size detection thresholds did not significantly differ between the two groups, but differed significantly between the two products. Detection threshold estimates for particle size were lower in viscous, low-fat quark than in semi-solid, high-fat processed cheese (52 μm versus 86 μm). This suggests that particle detection depends on product properties such as product consistency and composition, but not on factors linked to ethnicity and/or nationality of participants. We found no evidence to support a relationship between product familiarity and particle size detection thresholds in either product. A positive but weak correlation was found between stimulated saliva flow and particle size detection threshold in processed cheese (r = 0.21, p = 0.041), suggesting active salivation might enhance sensitivity for microparticle detection in semi-solid foods. PROP status and fungiform papillae density did not correlate with particle size detection threshold for either food. We conclude that matrix properties were the main contributors to particle size detection thresholds in young, healthy participants who differed in nationality and ethnicity. These data suggest that product characteristics are the central factor that should be considered for modifications when dealing with foods in which particles lead to negative sensations such as grittiness.
The effect of ingredient item depiction on the packaging frontal view on pre- And post-consumption product evaluations
Timmerman, Nicole ; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina - \ 2019
Foods — Open Access Food Science Journal 8 (2019)8. - ISSN 2304-8158
Expected/perceived flavor intensity - Experiential cognitive style - Mismatch perception - Packaging cues - Perceived deception - Rational cognitive style
The current research focused on the (in)congruity between pictorial (ingredient item depiction) and textual (ingredient list) information on food packaging, namely, an apple–mango juice. Specifically, the influence of these information sources on expected and perceived flavor intensities, mismatched perceptions, perceived deception, and intention to purchase was studied by taking into account the possible moderating role of consumers’ thinking style. Three studies were performed, the first and third at a Dutch University by means of surveys and sensory tests, and the second via an online survey. The results showed that, overall, most consumers did not perceive the incongruity between pictorial and textual information as mismatching. However, a perceived mismatch from packaging, whether originated by the design manipulations or not, did increase perceived deception and lowered willingness to purchase. This effect was robust for both mismatches, among packaging elements (pre-consumption) and from expected and perceived flavor ratios (post-consumption), but was more substantial for the post-consumption mismatch. Although the moderating effect of cognitive processing style regarding expected and perceived flavor ratios from pictorial and textual (ingredient list) information was not confirmed, the results indicated that the effect of salient textual information is substantial, independent of a particular processing style or label usage.
|Don't judge new foods by their appearance! How visual and oral sensory cues affect sensory perception and liking of novel, heterogeneous foods
Santagiuliana, M. ; Scholten, E. ; Fiszman, Piqueras ; Stieger, M.A. - \ 2019
The acceptance of novel foods is determined by factors pertaining to both products and consumers. From a product perspective, parameters as visual appearance, texture, and flavour are of primary importance to establish the consumer sensory perception and hedonic response. Such response is, however, mediated by other consumer physiological and psychological factors as well as socially and culturally learned expectations. To design successful novel food products, the dynamic interrelationship between these complementary aspects of food consumption should be taken into consideration.The introduction of particles into a product is a common strategy used to create new food products. The perception of a novel composite food with dispersed particles involves both cues that are stimulated prior (exteroceptive; e.g. product visual appearance) and during consumption (interoceptive; e.g. somatosensory and gustatory perception). It is not known how heterogeneity by addition of particles influences expectation, sensory perception and liking. In this study, we focussed on processed cheese, which is known for itshomogeneous texture.
Evoked Consumption Context Matters in Food-Related Consumer Affective Research
Piqueras Fiszman, Betina ; Jaeger, S.R. - \ 2019
In: Context / Meiselman, H., Woodhead Publishing - ISBN 9780128144954 - p. 545 - 563.
In this chapter we provide a brief overview of the research using scenarios to evoke context in affective (specifically emotion) research within the field of Sensory and Consumer Science. We then present two case studies that extend previously used scenarios and their application to other affective variables, such as consumption enjoyment. We demonstrate that consumers are capable of using scenarios to evoke complex situations, which involve not only environmental or temporal factors but also behaviors. The potential that these strategies have are then discussed and their advantages and limitations to other approaches such as virtual reality compared. We conclude that the underlying success factor of means of context evocation lies in the familiarity and appropriateness of the imagined situation, which becomes most relevant when collecting affective data in laboratory settings.
Don't judge new foods by their appearance! How visual and oral sensory cues affect sensory perception and liking of novel, heterogeneous foods
Santagiuliana, Marco ; Bhaskaran, Vani ; Scholten, Elke ; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina ; Stieger, Markus - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 77 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 64 - 77.
Composite foods - Mechanical contrast - Particles - Texture perception
This study investigated how exteroceptive and interoceptive cues influence sensory perception and liking of novel, heterogeneous foods. Twelve heterogeneous cheeses were prepared by adding bell pepper pieces to homogeneous processed cheese matrices. Bell pepper pieces differed in size, hardness, and concentration. Consumers (n = 73)evaluated cheeses in three conditions. In the first condition, subjects tasted cheeses and rated them on sensory properties and liking while being blindfolded (interoceptive condition). In the second condition, participants evaluated expected sensory properties and liking of cheeses presented as pictures together with product descriptions (exteroceptive condition). In the third condition, consumers tasted and evaluated cheeses while visual cues and product descriptions were provided (combined condition). The hardness and concentration of bell pepper pieces predominantly determined variations in sensory perception in the interoceptive and combined conditions, whereas bell pepper size or concentration influenced expected sensory properties in the exteroceptive condition the most. Consumers expected to like the cheeses with small-medium sized bell pepper pieces the most. However, from the other conditions, we observed that piece size does not play a role in determining liking, and that cheeses with soft pieces were actually preferred most. From the comparison of the three conditions, we conclude that both visual and oral sensory cues influence texture and flavour perception of heterogeneous cheeses. Consumers’ liking was not influenced by the cheese's exteroceptive cues during the combined condition. In contrast, interoceptive cues as hardness played a large role in determining variations in consumer's hedonic responses. We conclude that for novel, heterogeneous foods liking after consumption is determined by textural product properties and depends to a large extent on the confirmation of consumers’ sensory expectations.
Consumer Psychology and eating behaviour
Piqueras Fiszman, B. - \ 2019
In: Interdisciplinary approaches to food digestion / Gouseti, O., Bornhorst, G., Bakalis, S., Mackie, A., - p. 185 - 198.
In recent years there has been an emerging body of research looking into the psychological mechanisms underlying food consumption and eventually modulating energy intake. This chapter reviews the empirical evidence demonstrating how everything from the label of a food and the properties of the container, through to the variety of the components of the food affect our perception of food, the portion estimation and its consumption. I also discuss the concepts and theories that explain these mechanisms, as well as the existing measurement methods.
As good as expected? How consumer expectations and addition of vegetable pieces to soups influence sensory perception and liking
Santagiuliana, M. ; Hoek, Irene van den; Stieger, M.A. ; Scholten, E. ; Piqueras Fiszman, Phd, Betina - \ 2019
Food & Function 10 (2019)2. - ISSN 2042-6496 - p. 665 - 680.
This study investigated the effect of mechanical contrast and particle flavour concentration of carrot particles added to soups on expected and perceived sensations and liking. The properties of a chicken soup were varied by addition of real carrots, model carrots and model chicken particles differing in size, fracture stress, and/or carrot flavour concentration. The four aims of the study were: (1) To study the effect of mechanical contrast on expected and perceived sensations; (2) To investigate the role of particle carrot flavour concentration on perceived sensations and liking; (3) To study the effect of dis/confirmation of expected by perceived sensations on liking; (4) To investigate the consumer's preferences and ideal profile of soups. Expected sensory properties were affected by particle size: the larger the particles, the higher the expected intensities for hardness, chewiness, and crunchiness of soups. Perceived sensory properties were significantly influenced by size and fracture stress of carrot particles. Increasing flavour concentration in model carrot particles added to soups marginally influenced liking suggesting that flavour concentration in particles added to soups has a limited effect on liking. When model carrot particles were added to soups, expected sensory properties were confirmed by perceived sensory properties, and consequently liking did not change considerably. The congruency and familiar appearance of the model carrot pieces probably contributed to the confirmation of expectations. When model chicken pieces were added to soups, expected sensory properties were disconfirmed by perceived sensory properties leading to a significant decrease in liking. Soups containing medium-sized, soft carrot particles were the closest to the consumer's ideal product profile. To summarize, consumer expectations and physicochemical properties of chicken and carrot particles added to chicken soup contributed to perception and liking of soups. We conclude that the sensory product profile of common products such as soups can be optimised by addition of congruent and familiar particles that match consumer’ expectations.
Age, gender, ethnicity and eating capability influence oral processing behaviour of liquid, semi-solid and solid foods differently
Ketel, Eva C. ; Aguayo-Mendoza, Monica G. ; Wijk, René A. de; Graaf, Cees de; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina ; Stieger, Markus - \ 2019
Food Research International 119 (2019). - ISSN 0963-9969 - p. 143 - 151.
Age - Eating capability - Ethnicity - Gender - Inter-individual variation - Oral processing
Food oral processing depends on food properties and consumer characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of age, gender, ethnicity and eating capability on oral processing behaviour of liquid, semi-solid and solid foods. Oral processing behaviour of 18 commercially available foods, ranging from liquids, semi-solids to solids, was compared between Dutch, Caucasian adults (18-30 yrs), Chinese, Asian adults (18-30 yrs), Dutch, Caucasian elderly (60-80 yrs), and consumers with mild swallowing problems and/or low mastication efficiency (18-80 yrs). Participants were video recorded during food consumption and six oral processing parameters extracted. Elderly consumed all foods with lower eating rates (g/s) than young adults by increasing consumption time (s). Females consumed solid foods with lower eating rates (g/s) than males by reducing bite size (g). Chinese, Asian consumers consumed liquid and solid foods with lower eating rates (g/s) than Dutch, Caucasian consumers by reducing bites size (g). Chinese, Asian consumers consumed semi-solid foods with lower eating rates (g/s) than Dutch, Caucasian consumers by reducing bite size (g) and increasing consumption time (s). Consumers with decreased mastication efficiency or mild swallowing problems showed similar oral processing behaviour than healthy consumers, probably because reduction in eating capability was limited in the group. This demonstrates that different consumer groups adapt eating rate (g/s) in different ways by modifying bite size (g), consumption time (s) or both. To conclude, age, gender and ethnicity influence oral processing behaviour of liquid, semi-solid and solid foods differently. Understanding differences in oral processing behaviour of specific consumer groups can assist in steering sensory perception, food choice and energy intake of specific consumer groups such as the elderly.
Introduction to special issue on Global Perspectives on Sensory and Consumer Sciences : A cross-cultural approach
Rodrigues, Heber ; Otterbring, Tobias ; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina ; Gómez-Corona, Carlos - \ 2019
Food Research International 116 (2019). - ISSN 0963-9969 - p. 135 - 136.
The impact of instructed mental simulation on wanting and choice between vice and virtue food products
Muñoz-Vilches, Naomí C. ; Trijp, Hans C.M. van; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 73 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 182 - 191.
Choice - Health - Hedonic - Mental simulation - Utilitarian - Wanting
Deciding what to eat often implies a conflict between immediate goals (I need to eat, ideally something enjoyable) and long-term goals (I need to be healthy), particularly when choosing between foods superior on a hedonic dimension (referred to as vices) and foods superior on an utilitarian dimension (referred to as virtues). One sort of intervention that could potentially shift balance between short-term and long-term consequences is instructed mental simulation. Mental simulations could be characterised as images or can be embodied, as a complete experience, including body sensations, feelings and images. We examine systematic differences in two types of instructed mental simulation: imagining the moment of consumption (process) and post-consumption (outcome), and emphasise the importance of product type (vice, virtue) on its effect on wanting and choice. In a within-subject experiment, 76 participants were allocated to the two mental simulation conditions (happening in different sessions) and imagined consuming or having consumed a vice and a virtue product. After imagining each product, the participants rated their level of wanting and indicated the product they preferred: the vice or the virtue one. The results showed that imagining the consumption of the vice product or the post-consumption of the virtue product increased the rate of wanting for the correspondent product, the same pattern was found for preferences. Furthermore, results showed that health orientation moderated the effect of mental simulation on wanting and choice. Further knowledge in different simulation types may have important implications for understanding how we represent food in our mind and help with the development of effective communicational interventions that nudge people towards healthier food choices.
What do you mean by hot? Assessing the associations raised by the visual depiction of an image of fire on food packaging
Gil-Pérez, Ignacio ; Rebollar, Rubén ; Lidón, Iván ; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina ; Trijp, Hans C.M. van - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 71 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 384 - 394.
Categorisation - Congruency - Expectations - Metaphors - Semiotics
The images shown on food packaging play an important role in the processes of identification, categorisation and the generation of expectations, since the consumer uses the images to infer information about the product. However, a given image may convey different meanings (e.g. in a food package, “fire” may mean barbecued or spicy), so it is very important for producers and designers to understand the factors responsible for consumers inferring a specific meaning. This paper addresses this problem and shows experimentally that the consumer tends to infer the meaning from the image which is most congruent with the product it is displayed with. 65 participants carried out two speeded classification tasks which results show an interaction between the product (congruent vs. incongruent) and the image (with fire vs. without fire): products congruent with a meaning of fire were categorised more quickly when shown with fire than without it, while products incongruent with a meaning of fire were categorised more slowly when shown with fire than without it. In addition, the results show that stimuli were categorised more quickly when the interpretation of fire was literal (e.g. barbecue) than in those that were metaphorical (e.g. spiciness), indicating that the rhetorical style of the image (literal or metaphorical) influences the cognitive effort required to process it. These contributions improve our understanding of the effect of the images shown on packaging in the communication between packaging and consumers.
Heart rate, skin conductance, and explicit responses to juice samples with varying levels of expectation (dis)confirmation
Verastegui-Tena, Luz ; Trijp, Hans van; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 71 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 320 - 331.
Autonomic nervous system - Expectations - Heart rate - Skin conductance - Taste disconfirmation
Disconfirmations between consumers’ expectations and a product's actual properties can lead to different responses in consumers. Most researchers study these responses focusing on the final judgement of the product. However, looking at consumers’ physiological responses like those of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) could help complement what is known about consumer reactions and final response to disconfirmed expectations. This study evaluated how ANS responses change when tasting juice samples that were as expected, that differed slightly, or that differed greatly from manipulated expectations and whether these responses vary from those obtained when there is no manipulation of expectations. Eighty-six participants tasted fruit and vegetable juices in two separate sessions. They were divided in two conditions. In Condition A, expectations were manipulated by showing participants the image of an ingredient and then providing them with a juice whose flavour was as expected, differed slightly, or differed greatly from that of the image. In Condition B, each juice was first tasted without explicit information shown beforehand and the image of the ingredient was shown afterwards. The images were the same as in Condition A. Heart rate and skin conductance were measured. To confirm that participants perceived confirmations and large and small disconfirmations when tasting the juices, they rated the samples in different sensory properties before and after tasting them. Results from most of the sensory ratings, except sourness and taste intensity, showed that participants perceived the designed confirmation and disconfirmation of expectations accordingly. Regarding ANS responses, heart rate had a larger increase during the second session than during the first. Skin conductance responses increased in Condition A but decreased in Condition B. In conclusion, our design managed to create confirmations and varying levels of disconfirmations. ANS responses did not capture them but seemed to capture factors like attention and the orientation response.
Hot or not? Conveying sensory information on food packaging through the spiciness-shape correspondence
Gil-Pérez, Ignacio ; Rebollar, Rubén ; Lidón, Iván ; Martín, Javier ; Trijp, Hans C.M. van; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 71 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 197 - 208.
Categorisation - Expectations - Implicit measures - Packaging design - Semiotics
The packaging of a product is a key element in the communication between producers and consumers, so getting the consumer to interpret the packaging visual signs in the desired way is crucial to be successful in the marketplace. However, this is not easy as images can be ambiguous and may be interpreted in different ways. For example, depicting an icon of fire on the front of a bag of nuts may lead the consumer to interpret either that the nuts are spicy or that the nuts have been roasted. This paper addresses this problem and, using this case as an example, assesses if the interpretation of a fire icon (spicy vs roasted) can be modulated by manipulating its shape (angular vs rounded). 66 participants carried out an experiment which results show that there is a crossmodal correspondence between spiciness and pointy shapes and that this association can be used to modulate sensory expectations: in a speeded classification task, the bags of nuts depicting pointy fire icons were categorised more quickly as being spicy than as being roasted, while the opposite was true for the bags of nuts displaying rounded fire icons. In addition, the results of a mediation analysis suggest that this effect occurs indirectly through affective appraisal: the pointy fire icons were judged as being more aggressive than the rounded fire icons, which in turn raised spiciness expectations. These findings contribute to the research on crossmodal correspondences and semiotics by showing that the association between spiciness and abstract shapes can be used to modulate how people interpret an ambiguous image.
Oral processing behavior of drinkable, spoonable and chewable foods is primarily determined by rheological and mechanical food properties
Aguayo-Mendoza, Monica G. ; Ketel, Eva C. ; Linden, Erik van der; Forde, Ciarán G. ; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina ; Stieger, Markus - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 71 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 87 - 95.
Bite size - Consumption time - Eating rate - Food consistency - Food oral processing - Liking
Food oral processing plays a key role in sensory perception, consumer acceptance and food intake. However, little is known about the influence of physical food properties on oral processing of different type of food products. The primary objective of this study was to determine the influence of rheological and mechanical properties of foods on oral processing behavior of liquid (drinkable), semi-solid (spoonable) and solid foods (chewable). The secondary objective was to quantify the influence of product liking, frequency of consumption and familiarity on oral processing behavior. Rheological and mechanical properties of 18 commercially available foods were quantified. Parameters describing oral processing behavior such as sip and bite size, consumption time, eating rate, number of swallows, number of chews, cycle duration, and chewing rate were extracted from video recordings of 61 consumers. Subjects evaluated products’ liking, familiarity, and frequency of consumption using questionnaires. Consumers strongly adapted oral processing behavior with respect to bite size, consumption time, and eating rate to the rheological and mechanical properties of liquid, semi-solid and solid foods. This adaptation was observed within each food category. Chewing rate and chewing cycle duration of solid foods were not influenced by mechanical properties and remained relatively constant. Liking, familiarity, and consumption frequency showed to impact oral processing behavior, although to a lower degree than the rheological and mechanical properties of food. We conclude that the oral processing behaviors of liquid, semi-solid and solid foods are mainly determined by their rheological and mechanical properties.
Measuring implicit associations in food-related consumer research
Kraus, Alexandra A. ; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina - \ 2018
In: Methods in Consumer Research, Volume 2 / Ares, G., Varela, P., Elsevier - ISBN 9780081017449 - p. 203 - 230.
Cognitive psychology - Consumers - Evaluations - Implicit associations - Indirect methods - Motivations
This chapter provides an overview of the theories explaining the mechanisms behind automatic behavior, focusing in particular on implicit associations with food items. We explain the implicit association test (IAT), which is the most widely used procedure to capture "internal" associations. We describe its advantages and limitations in consumer research as well as the developments made throughout past years. We then describe the most recent applications of IATs in the food domain and end with a case study, conclusions, and recommendations for future research.
Effect of mechanical contrast on sensory perception of heterogeneous liquid and semi-solid foods
Santagiuliana, Marco ; Christaki, Marianna ; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina ; Scholten, Elke ; Stieger, Markus - \ 2018
Food Hydrocolloids 83 (2018). - ISSN 0268-005X - p. 202 - 212.
Composite foods - Food texture perception - Mechanical properties - Particles
This study investigated the influence of size and fracture stress (σF) of dispersed particles embedded in liquid and semi-solid model food matrices on sensory perception and hedonic response. К-carrageenan particles varying in size (0.8, 2.4, 4.2 mm) and fracture stress (σF: 25, 100, 250 kPa) were added (15% w/w) to liquid starch-based model soups and semi-solid protein-based model gels. Sensory profiles were quantified by untrained panellists (n = 54) using the Rate-All-That-Apply (RATA) method. Particle size mainly affected the type of sensory descriptors selected by the subjects, whereas fracture stress of particles determined mainly the perceived intensity of selected descriptors. Soups and gels with small particles (0.8 mm) were mainly perceived as gritty, whereas soups and gels with medium-sized particles (2.4 mm) were mainly perceived as beady. Increasing particle size to 4.2 mm caused lumpy and heterogeneous sensations in soups and gels. With variations of particle fracture stress, the perceived intensity of the selected attributes increased or decreased significantly for all particle sizes. Mouthfeel heterogeneity and chewiness increased significantly when increasing the fracture stress from 20 to 100 or 250 kPa. Mechanical contrast did not enhance liking of model soups and gels probably because к-carrageenan particles were perceived as artificial and provided texture contrast without flavour contrast. We conclude that size and fracture stress of dispersed particles embedded in liquid and semi-solid model food matrices affect differently sensory perception with particle size determining type of sensory descriptors selected and particle fracture stress determining intensity of selected sensory attributes.
Mechanical properties affect detectability of perceived texture contrast in heterogeneous food gels
Santagiuliana, Marco ; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina ; Linden, Erik van der; Stieger, Markus ; Scholten, Elke - \ 2018
Food Hydrocolloids 80 (2018). - ISSN 0268-005X - p. 254 - 263.
Agar - Carrageenan - Gelatine - Gels - Texture perception
This study investigated the influence of mechanical and physicochemical properties of semi-solid model foods on the detection and temporal perception of texture contrast. Gel-based model foods consisting of two layers were used to systematically vary mechanical contrast and physicochemical properties within bi-layer gels. Fracture stress (σF) and strain (εF) were modified by changing the concentration of various gelling agents (agar, к-carrageenan, and gelatine). The physicochemical properties of gels varied with respect to syneresis and melting behaviour depending on the type of gelling agent. The detection limit of perceived texture contrast of bi-layer gels was determined using ranking tests. Subjects ranked gels in order of increasing perceived heterogeneity as a measure of texture contrast. The detection limit of texture contrast varied between brittle and elastic gels and between soft (low σF) and hard (high σF) gels. In soft and brittle agar gels, heterogeneity was perceived already when the difference in fracture stress between layers was small (ΔσF ≥5 kPa). In soft and elastic gels (к-carrageenan, gelatine) and hard gels, heterogeneity was perceived only when the difference in fracture stress between the layers was large (ΔσF ≥12 kPa). The perceived heterogeneity intensity over time was investigated by time-intensity profiling. During mastication, gelatine gels were perceived for a longer period of time with a higher heterogeneity intensity than agar and к-carrageenan gels. We conclude that mainly mechanical properties of gels impact detectability of mechanical contrast as perceived texture contrast (heterogeneity), whereas a combination of mechanical and physicochemical properties influence the dynamic perception of heterogeneity over time.
Heart rate and skin conductance responses to taste, taste novelty, and the (dis)confirmation of expectations
Verastegui-Tena, Luz ; Trijp, Hans van; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina - \ 2018
Food Quality and Preference 65 (2018). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 1 - 9.
Autonomic nervous system - Expectations - Heart rate - Novelty - Skin conductance - Taste
It is unclear whether the responses of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) can measure how people respond to food. Results focused on emotional responses are contradictory; therefore, the focus has shifted to other components of emotion, such as appraisals. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the differences in ANS responses related to appraisals; particularly taste novelty, valence, and the disconfirmation of expectations.A hundred and fifty-five participants joined this study. They tasted samples of different valence (sweet and bitter) twice: the first time without knowing the taste and the second while being informed of the taste. After this first block, participants tasted two additional samples: one that confirmed expectations and one that disconfirmed them. Heart rate and skin conductance were measured. Results show that the second experience with a taste led to cardiac deceleration. Heart rate changes were only related to valence when participants' expectations were (dis)confirmed. Heart rate decreased for those tastes that disconfirmed expectations and increased for those that confirmed them and the sweet sample had larger increases in heart rate than the bitter. Skin conductance changed in regards to novelty and valence but not to the disconfirmation of expectations. It increased for the bitter sample, decreased for the sweet, and was always higher during the first experience than during the second. In conclusion, the results suggest that cardiac responses are more sensitive to novelty and the disconfirmation of expectations while skin conductance responses capture novelty and valence.
Effect of food texture contrast on sensory perception of dispersed systems: a mechanistic approach
Santagiuliana, M. ; Piqueras Fiszman, Phd, Betina ; Linden, E. van der; Scholten, E. ; Stieger, M.A. - \ 2017
texture contrast - dispersed systems
Beyond expectations : The responses of the autonomic nervous system to visual food cues
Verastegui-Tena, Luz ; Schulte-Holierhoek, Aurelia ; Trijp, Hans van; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina - \ 2017
Physiology and Behavior 179 (2017). - ISSN 0031-9384 - p. 478 - 486.
ANS - Expectations - Heart rate - Image perception - Skin conductance - Tasting
Self-report measures rely on cognitive and rational processes and may not, therefore, be the most suitable tools to investigate implicit or unconscious factors within a sensory experience. The responses from the autonomic nervous system (ANS), which are not susceptible to bias due to their involuntary nature, may provide a better insight. Expectations are important for the consumer-product interaction and should be considered. However, research using ANS responses has not focused thoroughly on expectations. Our aim was to investigate the mechanisms underlying ANS responses by evaluating the reactions to different images when expectations about a product are created (before tasting the product) and when they are confirmed and disconfirmed (after tasting the product). In a first study, seventy-five participants tasted four drinks (three identical soy-based drinks and one rice-based drink) and were told that they would be shown their main ingredient either before or after tasting. For the three identical drinks, the images shown were: worms, chocolate, and soy. Heart rate and skin conductance were measured during the procedure. The results showed that ANS responses followed similar patterns when images were presented before or after tasting. Heart rate decreased for all images, with the largest decrease found for chocolate and worms. Skin conductance increased, with the largest increase found for worms. To test whether the effects were solely caused by image perception, a second study was done in which forty participants only saw the images. The responses obtained were smaller and did not completely match those of the first study. In conclusion, it could be said that the ANS responses of the first study were a result of the sensory processing and defense mechanisms happening during the creation and (dis)confirmation of expectations. The second study confirmed that visual perception alone could not account for these effects and that it led to smaller changes. Hence, it seems that the context of use influences the patterns and magnitude of ANS responses to food cues.