Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Assessing cofactor usage in Pseudoclostridium thermosuccinogenes via heterologous expression of central metabolic enzymes
Koendjbiharie, Jeroen Girwar ; Wevers, Kimberly ; Kranenburg, Richard van - \ 2019
Frontiers in Microbiology 10 (2019)May. - ISSN 1664-302X
6-phosphofructokinase - Cofactor specificity - Energy charge - Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase - GTP - Pseudoclostridium thermosuccinogenes - Pyrophosphate

Pseudoclostridium thermosuccinogenes and Hungateiclostridium thermocellum are being studied for their potential to contribute to a more sustainable bio-based economy. Both species were shown previously to rely on GTP or pyrophosphate instead of ATP as cofactors in specific reactions of central energy metabolism for reasons that are not well understood yet. Since it is often impossible to predict cofactor specificity from the primary protein structure, thirteen enzymes from P. thermosuccinogenes were cloned and heterologous expressed in Escherichia coli to assess the cofactor usage in vitro and paint a more complete picture of the cofactor usage in the central metabolism of P. thermosuccinogenes. The assays were conducted with heat-treated E. coli cell-free extract devoid of background activity to allow the quick assessment of a relatively large number of (thermophilic) enzymes. Selected enzymes were also purified to allow the determination of the enzyme kinetics for competing cofactors. Following the results of the glucokinase (GK), galactokinase, xylulokinase (XK), and ribokinase assays, it seems that phosphorylation of monosaccharides by and large is mainly GTP-dependent. Some possible implications of this relating to the adenylate/guanylate energy charge are discussed here. Besides the highly expressed pyrophosphate-dependent 6-phosphofructokinase, another 6-phosphofructokinase was found to be equally dependent on ATP and GTP, while no 6-phosphofructokinase activity could be demonstrated for a third. Both type I glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenases were found to be NAD+-dependent, and further, acetate kinase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and three enzymes predicted to be responsible for the interconversion of phosphoenolpyruvate and pyruvate (i.e., pyruvate kinase; pyruvate, phosphate dikinase; phosphoenolpyruvate synthase), were also assessed.

Investigating the central metabolism of Clostridium thermosuccinogenes
Koendjbiharie, Jeroen Girwar ; Wiersma, Kilian ; Kranenburg, Richard van - \ 2018
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 84 (2018)13. - ISSN 0099-2240
Clostridium thermosuccinogenes - Malate dehydrogenase - Succinate - Xylulokinase

Clostridium thermosuccinogenes is a thermophilic anaerobic bacterium able to convert various carbohydrates to succinate and acetate as main fermentation products. Genomes of the four publicly available strains have been sequenced, and the genome of the type strain has been closed. The annotated genomes were used to reconstruct the central metabolism, and enzyme assays were used to validate annotations and to determine cofactor specificity. The genes were identified for the pathways to all fermentation products, as well as for the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway and the pentose phosphate pathway. Notably, a candidate transaldolase was lacking, and transcriptomics during growth on glucose versus that on xylose did not provide any leads to potential transaldolase genes or alternative pathways connecting the C5 with the C3/C6 metabolism. Enzyme assays showed xylulokinase to prefer GTP over ATP, which could be of importance for engineering xylose utilization in related thermophilic species of industrial relevance. Furthermore, the gene responsible for malate dehydrogenase was identified via heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and subsequent assays with the cell extract, which has proven to be a simple and powerful method for the basal characterization of thermophilic enzymes.

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