Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Strategies to compensate for undesired gritty sensations in foods
Santagiuliana, Marco ; Broers, Layla ; Marigómez, Inés Sampedro ; Stieger, Markus ; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina ; Scholten, Elke - \ 2020
Food Quality and Preference 81 (2020). - ISSN 0950-3293
Composite foods - Grittiness - Microparticles - Multiparticulate - TDS - Texture perception

This study investigated whether the addition of macroparticles or fat can be used to compensate for negative texture sensations in quark. Cellulose beads were added as model microparticles (1.5% w/w; average size: 263 µm) to quark (0% fat) to induce unpleasant gritty sensations. The addition of microparticles to quark significantly increased grittiness and dryness, while creaminess and liking decreased. Three strategies were explored to reduce the impact of unpleasant gritty sensations on consumer perception: two strategies involved the addition of macroparticles (granola or peach gel pieces); the third one consisted of increasing the fat content of the quark (4.4 and 8.8% w/w). For all three strategies, grittiness caused by microparticles did not significantly decrease when macroparticles or fat were present. Addition of peach gel pieces to quark with microparticles did not increase liking. When granola pieces were added to quark containing microparticles, liking increased significantly despite that grittiness was still perceived. Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) revealed that addition of granola pieces caused prolonged dominance of positive, crunchy sensations and minimized dominance of negative, gritty sensations. The addition of fat did not lead to a significant increase in liking of quark, although when a medium amount of fat was added (4.4%), it also did not decrease liking significantly. This was probably due to an effective hedonic compensation triggered by more positive sensations (i.e. sweetness). We conclude that addition of crunchy granola pieces or fat can be used as strategies to shift and increase dominance of positive and liked attributes, leading to an increase of overall liking, although negative sensations (grittiness) caused by microparticles are still perceived. This approach could be used to compensate for undesired texture sensations in different types of foods, such as high protein foods.

Exquisitely heterogeneous : Combining different food textures to boost palatability
Santagiuliana, Marco - \ 2019
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): E. van der Linden; M.A. Stieger, co-promotor(en): E. Scholten; B. Piqueras-Fiszman. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463950749 - 296
Exploring variability in detection thresholds of microparticles through participant characteristics
Santagiuliana, Marco ; Marigómez, Inés Sampedro ; Broers, Layla ; Hayes, John E. ; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina ; Scholten, Elke ; Stieger, Markus - \ 2019
Food & Function 10 (2019)9. - ISSN 2042-6496 - p. 5386 - 5397.

This study explored how product familiarity and physiological characteristics of participants affect detectability of microparticles in viscous and semi-solid foods. Cellulose particles differing in size (50-780 μm) were added (1.5% w/w) to two dairy products, quark (viscous curd cheese) and processed cheese. Discrimination thresholds for added microparticles were determined by 47 Dutch, Caucasian and 45 Chinese, Asian women using the Method of Constant Stimuli. Particle size detection thresholds did not significantly differ between the two groups, but differed significantly between the two products. Detection threshold estimates for particle size were lower in viscous, low-fat quark than in semi-solid, high-fat processed cheese (52 μm versus 86 μm). This suggests that particle detection depends on product properties such as product consistency and composition, but not on factors linked to ethnicity and/or nationality of participants. We found no evidence to support a relationship between product familiarity and particle size detection thresholds in either product. A positive but weak correlation was found between stimulated saliva flow and particle size detection threshold in processed cheese (r = 0.21, p = 0.041), suggesting active salivation might enhance sensitivity for microparticle detection in semi-solid foods. PROP status and fungiform papillae density did not correlate with particle size detection threshold for either food. We conclude that matrix properties were the main contributors to particle size detection thresholds in young, healthy participants who differed in nationality and ethnicity. These data suggest that product characteristics are the central factor that should be considered for modifications when dealing with foods in which particles lead to negative sensations such as grittiness.

Directing attention: strategies to mask undesired perception of grittiness in foods
Santagiuliana, M. - \ 2019
A gritty story: Explaining variability in detection thresholds of microscopic particles by food properties and comsumet characteristics
Santagiuliana, Marco - \ 2019
A gritty story: explaining variability in detection thresholds of microscopic particles by food properties and consumer characteristics
Santagiuliana, Marco - \ 2019
Grittiness - Consumer familiarity - PROP status - Saliva - Texture sensitivity - Fungiform papillae density
Don't judge new foods by their appearance! How visual and oral sensory cues affect sensory perception and liking of novel, heterogeneous foods
Santagiuliana, M. ; Scholten, E. ; Fiszman, Piqueras ; Stieger, M.A. - \ 2019
The acceptance of novel foods is determined by factors pertaining to both products and consumers. From a product perspective, parameters as visual appearance, texture, and flavour are of primary importance to establish the consumer sensory perception and hedonic response. Such response is, however, mediated by other consumer physiological and psychological factors as well as socially and culturally learned expectations. To design successful novel food products, the dynamic interrelationship between these complementary aspects of food consumption should be taken into consideration.The introduction of particles into a product is a common strategy used to create new food products. The perception of a novel composite food with dispersed particles involves both cues that are stimulated prior (exteroceptive; e.g. product visual appearance) and during consumption (interoceptive; e.g. somatosensory and gustatory perception). It is not known how heterogeneity by addition of particles influences expectation, sensory perception and liking. In this study, we focussed on processed cheese, which is known for itshomogeneous texture.
Don't judge new foods by their appearance! How visual and oral sensory cues affect sensory perception and liking of novel, heterogeneous foods
Santagiuliana, Marco ; Bhaskaran, Vani ; Scholten, Elke ; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina ; Stieger, Markus - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 77 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 64 - 77.
Composite foods - Mechanical contrast - Particles - Texture perception

This study investigated how exteroceptive and interoceptive cues influence sensory perception and liking of novel, heterogeneous foods. Twelve heterogeneous cheeses were prepared by adding bell pepper pieces to homogeneous processed cheese matrices. Bell pepper pieces differed in size, hardness, and concentration. Consumers (n = 73)evaluated cheeses in three conditions. In the first condition, subjects tasted cheeses and rated them on sensory properties and liking while being blindfolded (interoceptive condition). In the second condition, participants evaluated expected sensory properties and liking of cheeses presented as pictures together with product descriptions (exteroceptive condition). In the third condition, consumers tasted and evaluated cheeses while visual cues and product descriptions were provided (combined condition). The hardness and concentration of bell pepper pieces predominantly determined variations in sensory perception in the interoceptive and combined conditions, whereas bell pepper size or concentration influenced expected sensory properties in the exteroceptive condition the most. Consumers expected to like the cheeses with small-medium sized bell pepper pieces the most. However, from the other conditions, we observed that piece size does not play a role in determining liking, and that cheeses with soft pieces were actually preferred most. From the comparison of the three conditions, we conclude that both visual and oral sensory cues influence texture and flavour perception of heterogeneous cheeses. Consumers’ liking was not influenced by the cheese's exteroceptive cues during the combined condition. In contrast, interoceptive cues as hardness played a large role in determining variations in consumer's hedonic responses. We conclude that for novel, heterogeneous foods liking after consumption is determined by textural product properties and depends to a large extent on the confirmation of consumers’ sensory expectations.

As good as expected? How consumer expectations and addition of vegetable pieces to soups influence sensory perception and liking
Santagiuliana, M. ; Hoek, Irene van den; Stieger, M.A. ; Scholten, E. ; Piqueras Fiszman, Phd, Betina - \ 2019
Food & Function 10 (2019)2. - ISSN 2042-6496 - p. 665 - 680.
This study investigated the effect of mechanical contrast and particle flavour concentration of carrot particles added to soups on expected and perceived sensations and liking. The properties of a chicken soup were varied by addition of real carrots, model carrots and model chicken particles differing in size, fracture stress, and/or carrot flavour concentration. The four aims of the study were: (1) To study the effect of mechanical contrast on expected and perceived sensations; (2) To investigate the role of particle carrot flavour concentration on perceived sensations and liking; (3) To study the effect of dis/confirmation of expected by perceived sensations on liking; (4) To investigate the consumer's preferences and ideal profile of soups. Expected sensory properties were affected by particle size: the larger the particles, the higher the expected intensities for hardness, chewiness, and crunchiness of soups. Perceived sensory properties were significantly influenced by size and fracture stress of carrot particles. Increasing flavour concentration in model carrot particles added to soups marginally influenced liking suggesting that flavour concentration in particles added to soups has a limited effect on liking. When model carrot particles were added to soups, expected sensory properties were confirmed by perceived sensory properties, and consequently liking did not change considerably. The congruency and familiar appearance of the model carrot pieces probably contributed to the confirmation of expectations. When model chicken pieces were added to soups, expected sensory properties were disconfirmed by perceived sensory properties leading to a significant decrease in liking. Soups containing medium-sized, soft carrot particles were the closest to the consumer's ideal product profile. To summarize, consumer expectations and physicochemical properties of chicken and carrot particles added to chicken soup contributed to perception and liking of soups. We conclude that the sensory product profile of common products such as soups can be optimised by addition of congruent and familiar particles that match consumer’ expectations.
Effect of mechanical contrast on sensory perception of heterogeneous liquid and semi-solid foods
Santagiuliana, Marco ; Christaki, Marianna ; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina ; Scholten, Elke ; Stieger, Markus - \ 2018
Food Hydrocolloids 83 (2018). - ISSN 0268-005X - p. 202 - 212.
Composite foods - Food texture perception - Mechanical properties - Particles

This study investigated the influence of size and fracture stress (σF) of dispersed particles embedded in liquid and semi-solid model food matrices on sensory perception and hedonic response. К-carrageenan particles varying in size (0.8, 2.4, 4.2 mm) and fracture stress (σF: 25, 100, 250 kPa) were added (15% w/w) to liquid starch-based model soups and semi-solid protein-based model gels. Sensory profiles were quantified by untrained panellists (n = 54) using the Rate-All-That-Apply (RATA) method. Particle size mainly affected the type of sensory descriptors selected by the subjects, whereas fracture stress of particles determined mainly the perceived intensity of selected descriptors. Soups and gels with small particles (0.8 mm) were mainly perceived as gritty, whereas soups and gels with medium-sized particles (2.4 mm) were mainly perceived as beady. Increasing particle size to 4.2 mm caused lumpy and heterogeneous sensations in soups and gels. With variations of particle fracture stress, the perceived intensity of the selected attributes increased or decreased significantly for all particle sizes. Mouthfeel heterogeneity and chewiness increased significantly when increasing the fracture stress from 20 to 100 or 250 kPa. Mechanical contrast did not enhance liking of model soups and gels probably because к-carrageenan particles were perceived as artificial and provided texture contrast without flavour contrast. We conclude that size and fracture stress of dispersed particles embedded in liquid and semi-solid model food matrices affect differently sensory perception with particle size determining type of sensory descriptors selected and particle fracture stress determining intensity of selected sensory attributes.

Mechanical properties affect detectability of perceived texture contrast in heterogeneous food gels
Santagiuliana, Marco ; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina ; Linden, Erik van der; Stieger, Markus ; Scholten, Elke - \ 2018
Food Hydrocolloids 80 (2018). - ISSN 0268-005X - p. 254 - 263.
Agar - Carrageenan - Gelatine - Gels - Texture perception
This study investigated the influence of mechanical and physicochemical properties of semi-solid model foods on the detection and temporal perception of texture contrast. Gel-based model foods consisting of two layers were used to systematically vary mechanical contrast and physicochemical properties within bi-layer gels. Fracture stress (σF) and strain (εF) were modified by changing the concentration of various gelling agents (agar, к-carrageenan, and gelatine). The physicochemical properties of gels varied with respect to syneresis and melting behaviour depending on the type of gelling agent. The detection limit of perceived texture contrast of bi-layer gels was determined using ranking tests. Subjects ranked gels in order of increasing perceived heterogeneity as a measure of texture contrast. The detection limit of texture contrast varied between brittle and elastic gels and between soft (low σF) and hard (high σF) gels. In soft and brittle agar gels, heterogeneity was perceived already when the difference in fracture stress between layers was small (ΔσF ≥5 kPa). In soft and elastic gels (к-carrageenan, gelatine) and hard gels, heterogeneity was perceived only when the difference in fracture stress between the layers was large (ΔσF ≥12 kPa). The perceived heterogeneity intensity over time was investigated by time-intensity profiling. During mastication, gelatine gels were perceived for a longer period of time with a higher heterogeneity intensity than agar and к-carrageenan gels. We conclude that mainly mechanical properties of gels impact detectability of mechanical contrast as perceived texture contrast (heterogeneity), whereas a combination of mechanical and physicochemical properties influence the dynamic perception of heterogeneity over time.
Effect of food texture contrast on sensory perception of dispersed systems: a mechanistic approach
Santagiuliana, M. ; Piqueras Fiszman, Phd, Betina ; Linden, E. van der; Scholten, E. ; Stieger, M.A. - \ 2017
texture contrast - dispersed systems
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