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- Soil Biology and Biological Soil Quality (2)
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- WUR Plant Breeding (1)
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Mass spectrometric characterisation of avenanthramides and enhancing their production by germination of oat (Avena sativa)
Bruijn, Wouter J.C. de; Dinteren, Sarah van; Gruppen, Harry ; Vincken, Jean Paul - \ 2019
Food Chemistry 277 (2019). - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 682 - 690.
Avena sativa - Avenanthramides - Cereal grain - Germination - LC-MS - Phytoalexin - Plant defence - Poaceae
Avenanthramides are amides, with a phenylalkenoic acid (PA) and an anthranilic acid (AA) subunit, which are secondary metabolites of oat. Oat seeds were germinated, extracted, and the avenanthramides analysed by a combination of UHPLC with ion trap and high resolution ESI-MS. Typical fragmentation pathways with corresponding diagnostic fragments belonging to the PA and AA subunits were identified and summarised in a decision guideline. Based on these findings 28 unique avenanthramides were annotated in the oat seed(ling) extracts, including the new avenanthramide 6f (with a 4/5-methoxy AA subunit). Avenanthramide content increased by 25 times from seed to seedling. Avenanthramides 2p, 2c, and 2f, which are commonly described as the major avenanthramides, represented less than 20% of the total content in the seedlings. Future quantitative analyses should, therefore, include a wider range of avenanthramides to avoid underestimation of the total avenanthramide content.
Data from: Winter cover crop legacy effects on litter decomposition act through litter quality and microbial community changes
Barel, J.M. ; Kuijper, T.W.M. ; Paul, Jos ; Boer, W. de; Cornelissen, Johannes H.C. ; Deyn, G.B. de - \ 2018
decomposition - microbial community composition - crop rotation - winter cover crop - legacy effects - standardised substrates - nitrogen cycling - carbon cycling - Avena sativa - Cichorium endivia - Lolium perenne - Trifolium repens - Raphanus sativus - Vicia sativa
1. In agriculture, winter cover crop (WCC) residues are incorporated into the soil to improve soil quality, as gradual litter decomposition can improve fertility. Decomposition rate is determined by litter quality, local soil abiotic and biotic properties. However, how these factors are interlinked and influenced by cropping history is unclear. 2. We grew WCC monocultures and mixtures in rotation with main crops Avena sativa and Cichorium endivia and tested how crop rotation influences WCC litter quality, abiotic and biotic soil conditions, and litter decomposition rates. To disentangle WCC litter quality effects from WCC soil legacy effects on decomposition, we tested how rotation history influences decomposition of standard substrates and explored the underlying mechanisms. 3. In a common environment (e.g. winter fallow plots), WCC decomposition rate constants (k) correlated negatively with litter C, lignin and, surprisingly, N content, due to strong positive correlations among these traits. Plots with a history of fast-decomposing WCCs exhibited faster decomposition of their own litters as well as of the standard substrates filter paper and rooibos tea, as compared to winter fallow plots. 4. WCC treatments differentially affected soil microbial biomass, as well as soil organic matter and mineral nitrogen content. WCC-induced soil changes affected decomposition rates. Depending on the main crop rotation treatment, legacy effects were attributed to biomass input of WCCs and their litter quality or changes in microbial biomass. 5. Synthesis and applications: These results demonstrate that decomposition in cropping systems is influenced directly through crop residues, as well as through crop-induced changes in soil biotic properties. Rotation history influences decomposition, wherein productive winter cover crops with low lignin content decompose fast and stimulate the turn-over of both own and newly added residues via their knock-on effect on the soil microbial community. Thus, winter cover crops have promise for sustainable carbon- and nutrient-cycling management through litter feedbacks.
Data from: Legacy effects of diversity in space and time driven by winter cover crop biomass and nitrogen concentration
Barel, J.M. ; Kuijper, T.W.M. ; Boer, W. de; Douma, J.C. ; Deyn, G.B. de - \ 2017
crop rotation - soil oranic matter - soil mineral nitrogen - plant-feeding nematodes - plant-soil feedback - plant productivity - agroecology - winter cover crops - agriculture - plant diversity - Avena sativa - Cichorium endivia - Lolium perenne - Trifolium repens - Raphanus sativus - Vicia sativa
Plant diversity can increase nitrogen cycling and decrease soil-borne pests, which are feedback mechanisms influencing subsequent plant growth. The relative strength of these mechanisms is unclear, as is the influence of preceding plant quantity and quality. Here, we studied how plant diversity in space and time influences subsequent crop growth. During 2 years, we rotated two main crops (Avena sativa, Cichorium endivia) with four winter cover crop (WCC) species in monocultures and mixtures. We hypothesized that, relative to monocultures, WCC mixtures promote WCC biomass (quantity) and nitrogen concentration (quality), soil mineral nitrogen, soil organic matter, and reduce plant-feeding nematode abundance. Additionally, we predicted that preceding crops modified WCC legacies. By structural equation modelling (SEM), we tested the relative importance of WCC shoot biomass and nitrogen concentration on succeeding crop productivity directly and indirectly via nitrogen cycling and root-feeding nematode abundance. WCC shoot biomass, soil properties and succeeding Avena productivity were affected by first-season cropping, whereas subsequent Cichorium only responded to the WCC treatments. WCC mixtures’ productivity and nitrogen concentration showed over- and under-yielding, depending on mixture composition. Soil nitrogen and nematode abundance did not display WCC mixture effects. Soil organic matter was lower than expected after Raphanus sativus + Vicia sativa mixture. Subsequent Avena productivity depended upon mixture composition, whereas final Cichorium productivity was unresponsive to WCC mixtures. SEM indicated that WCC legacy effects on subsequent Avena (R2 = 0.52) and Cichorium (R2 = 0.59) productivity were driven by WCC biomass and nitrogen concentration, although not by the quantified soil properties. Synthesis and applications. Through understanding plant–soil feedback, legacy effects of plant species and species mixtures can be employed for sustainable management of agro-ecosystems. Biomass and nitrogen concentration of plants returned to the soil stimulate subsequent plant productivity. Winter cover crop quantity and quality are both manipulable with mixtures. The specificity of spatial and temporal diversity effects warrants consideration of plant species choice in mixtures and rotations for optimal employment of beneficial legacy effects.
Genome-wide association analysis for lodging tolerance and plant height in a diverse European hexaploid oat collection
Tumino, Giorgio ; Voorrips, Roeland E. ; Morcia, Caterina ; Ghizzoni, Roberta ; Germeier, Christoph U. ; Caldas Paulo, Joao ; Terzi, Valeria ; Smulders, Marinus J.M. - \ 2017
Euphytica 213 (2017)8. - ISSN 0014-2336
Avena sativa - Genome-wide association study - Lodging - Plant height - SNP array intensity ratio
Sensitivity to lodging of oat varieties has been reduced in the last decades through the introduction of dwarfing genes. However, lodging may still cause significant yield loss, underscoring the need for new oat varieties with higher levels of lodging tolerance. In the present study, we analysed lodging and plant height in a collection of European oat accessions including landraces, old and modern varieties, in order to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for identifying markers associated to lodging tolerance. This collection has been recently genotyped by the Infinium 6K SNP array for oat and SNP data were analysed as continuous intensity ratios, rather than as discrete genotypes (Tumino et al. 2016, Theor Appl Genet 129, pp. 1711–1724). Phenotypes for lodging severity, plant height and growth habit were collected under natural conditions in eight European countries. Plant height correlated to lodging severity as previously observed in many studies, explaining about 30% of lodging variation. GWAS analyses detected six significant associations for lodging and two for plant height. These results indicate that GWAS can successfully be used for identifying markers associated to lodging in oat, even though lodging is a quantitative trait influenced by several plant characteristics.
Characterization of (Glucurono)arabinoxylans from Oats Using Enzymatic Fingerprinting
Tian, Lingmin ; Gruppen, Harry ; Schols, Henk A. - \ 2015
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 63 (2015)50. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 10822 - 10830.
arabinoxylan - Avena sativa - cell wall polysaccharides - distribution - enzymatic fingerprinting - oats
Cell wall material from whole oat grains was sequentially extracted to study the structural characteristics of individual arabinoxylan (AX) populations. Araf was singly substituted at both O-3 (mainly) and O-2 positions of Xylp, and no disubstitution of Xylp with Araf residues was found in oat AXs. Both highly substituted and sparsely substituted segments were found in AXs in Ba(OH)2 extracts, whereas AXs in 1 and 6 M NaOH extracts were rarely branched and easily aggregated. Both O-2-linked GlcA and 4-O-MeGlcA residues were present in oat AXs. A series of AX oligomers with galactose as a substituent was detected for the first time in oats. The present study suggested that the distribution of Araf was contiguous in oat AXs, different from the homogeneous distribution of Araf in wheat and barley AXs, which might result in different fermentation patterns in humans and animals.