Powering and puzzling: climate change adaptation policies in Bangladesh and India
Stock, Ryan ; Vij, Sumit ; Ishtiaque, Asif - \ 2020
Environment, Development and Sustainability (2020). - ISSN 1387-585X
Bangladesh - Climate change adaptation - India - Powering - Puzzling - South Asia
South Asia is a region uniquely vulnerable to climate-related impacts. Climate change adaptation in India and Bangladesh evolves using powering and puzzling approaches by policy actors. We seek to answer the question: how do powering and puzzling approaches influence the climate change adaptation policy design and implementation processes in Bangladesh and India? We adopted two strategies to collect and analyze data: semi-structured interviews and discourse analysis. We found that adaptation policymaking is largely top-down, amenable to techno-managerial solutions, and not inclusive of marginalized actors. In Bangladesh, power interplays among ministerial agencies impair the policy implementation process and undermine the success of puzzling. Local-scale agencies do not have enough authority or power to influence the overall implementation processes occurring at higher scales of governance. The powering of different actors in Bangladesh is visible through a duality of mandates and a lack of integration of climate adaptation strategies in different government ministries. The powering aspect of India’s various adaptation policies is the lack of collective puzzling around the question of differentiated vulnerability by axes of social difference. Paradoxically, India has a puzzling approach of hiding behind the poor in international negotiations. Moving forward, both countries should strive to have more inclusive and equitable adaptation policymaking processes that enable the participation of marginalized populations and represent their anxieties and aspirations. Identifying policy-relevant insights from South Asia using the powering and puzzling approaches can foster adaptation policy processes that facilitate empowerment, the missing piece of the adaptation policymaking puzzle.
Rethinking “development” : Land dispossession for the Rampal power plant in Bangladesh
Mahmud, Muhammad Shifuddin ; Roth, Dik ; Warner, Jeroen - \ 2020
Land Use Policy 94 (2020). - ISSN 0264-8377
Bangladesh - Development - Dispossession - Land control - Rampal power plant
In this article, we critically review the developmental claims made for the construction of the Rampal power plant in southwestern Bangladesh, in the light of evidence about transformations of land control related to this construction project. Land has become a heavily contested resource in the salinity-intruded southwestern coastal area of Bangladesh. Changes in land control for the construction of the Rampal power plant and similar projects have intensified decades of struggles over rights and access to land. The Rampal project is labelled as “development” and claims to contribute to the elimination of poverty. However, we find that, in reality, this project leads to a reorganization of land control, rights and access in ways that perpetuate and intensify waves of eviction and exclusion of small landholders and landless laborers, thus threatening agriculture-based rural livelihoods. We analyze how four actor groups involved in land control are differently affected by the project interventions, embedded in the context of historical land tenure developments. We find that the benefits of this “development”, primarily favoring rich and powerful social groups and investors, necessitates a critical rethinking of Bangladesh's development and its claims of poverty elimination in the light of related land control practices.
How does nature contribute to human mobility? A conceptual framework and qualitative analysis
Wiederkehr, Charlotte ; Schröter, Matthias ; Adams, Helen ; Seppelt, Ralf ; Hermans, Kathleen - \ 2019
Ecology and Society 24 (2019)4. - ISSN 1708-3087
Bangladesh - Ethiopia - Immobility - Mobility - Nature’s contributions to people - Place attachment
Different types of mobility are known as longstanding strategies used by humans to deal with environmental pressure. Immobility is relevant in this context as population groups may be at considerable risk but lacking the capacity or willingness to move. Despite significant advances in this research field, grasping especially the subjective dimension of people’s migration decision remains challenging. Moreover, the conceptualization of cultural factors in this context has received rather marginal attention thus far. In light of this, we propose a framework that integrates the novel concept of nature’s contributions to people (NCP) with migration theory, in particular the triad of migration need, ability, and aspiration. NCP goes beyond the popular notion of ecosystem services by conceiving nature-society relations in a more inclusive way with culture being a key element of these. Combined with migration need, ability, and aspiration, we argue that this approach offers a valuable nuanced perspective on nature-mobility interactions, including cultural aspects of natural resource use and varying degrees of agency related to mobility decision making. We apply the framework to two archetypal climate-related migration situations, southwestern coastal Bangladesh and the northern Ethiopian highlands, to delineate the diverse mechanisms through which environmental change shapes population movement in highly resource-dependent livelihoods. We show that based on the analyzed case studies most links can be drawn between material and regulating NCP and migration need, and that nonenvironmental factors play a crucial role in mediating nature’s contributions to human mobility. More knowledge is needed though in particular on the influence of nonmaterial NCP on mobility decision making and on migration aspirations in general to better account for important cultural factors. We formulate a number of hypotheses and questions relevant for guiding future research that can inform policy interventions.
Potential of Integrated Mangrove - Shrimp Farming in Bangladesh
Bosma, Roel - \ 2019
aquaculture - shrimp - Bangladesh - Mangrove
Invited key-note speaker for the Trade Delegation at the Bangladesh Embassy, The Hague
Unearthing the ripple effects of power and resilience in large river deltas
Karpouzoglou, Timos ; Dang Tri, Van Pham ; Ahmed, Farhana ; Warner, Jeroen ; Hoang, Long ; Nguyen, Thanh Binh ; Dewulf, Art - \ 2019
Environmental Science & Policy 98 (2019). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 1 - 10.
Bangladesh - Flood - Power - Resilience - River Deltas - Vietnam
Historically, flood resilience in large river deltas has been strongly tied to institutional and infrastructural interventions to manage flood risk (such as building of embankments and drainage structures). However, the introduction of infrastructural works has inevitably brought unforeseen, major consequences, such as biodiversity and accelerated land subsidence, endangering the fertile characteristics that made them interesting places to live in in the first place. These ripple effects have sparked, a reconsideration of what deltas are, questioning the very separation and control between nature and culture, and how deltas are to be dealt with. These effects have further sparked changing modalities of power that tend to be overlooked by delta and resilience scholars alike. As a result, there is a real risk that future interventions to increase resilience, will in fact amplify unequal power relations in deltas as opposed to alleviating them. If the system as a whole has achieved some level of flood resilience (partly due to the flood defence mechanisms in place), does infrastructure have a differential effect on people's mobility under flood conditions? Are some groups experiencing less rather than more security, as water accumulates in some places but not others? This paper presents theoretical insights on the relationship between power and resilience in delta regions supported by two case studies, the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta in Bangladesh and the Mekong delta in Vietnam.
Shifting planting date of Boro rice as a climate change adaptation strategy to reduce water use
Acharjee, Tapos Kumar ; Halsema, Gerardo van; Ludwig, Fulco ; Hellegers, Petra ; Supit, Iwan - \ 2019
Agricultural Systems 168 (2019). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 131 - 143.
Bangladesh - CropWat - Heat stress - Transplanting date - Water demand
Suitable adaptation strategies for dry season Boro rice cultivation under future climate change scenarios are important for future food security in Bangladesh. This study assessed the effect of shifting trans−/planting date of dry season Boro rice as an adaptation strategy, with focus on water requirements under future climate scenarios. Potential crop water requirement, effective rainfall and irrigation requirement to satisfy crop evapotranspiration of Boro rice were estimated using CropWat 8.0 for early, normal and late planting dates for 2050s and 2080s. Future climate scenarios were constructed using five global circulation model (GCM) outputs for RCP 4.5 and 8.5 by statistical downscaling and bias correction. Number of days exceeding the threshold temperatures (maximum of 35 °C and minimum of 25 °C) was counted for critical period of Boro rice to understand compatibility of the changed planting dates. Results indicate that late planting can substantially reduce irrigation demand by increasing rainfall availability during Boro growth duration, but the option is very limited due to both day- and night-time heat stress. An early planting, on the other hand, accounts for high water demand but ensures suitable temperature during the critical growth stages of the crop. The normal planting dates show the possibility of day-time heat stress. So, late planting of temperature-tolerant cultivars or early planting of high-yielding varieties would be recommended based on local water availability. However, adjustment of the planting date is currently limited because high temperature-tolerant cultivars are not available in the study region.
Climates of urbanization: local experiences of water security, conflict and cooperation in peri-urban South-Asia
Roth, Dik ; Khan, Muhammad Shah Alam ; Jahan, Israt ; Rahman, Rezaur ; Narain, Vishal ; Singh, Aditya Kumar ; Priya, Monica ; Sen, Sucharita ; Shrestha, Anushiya ; Yakami, Saroj - \ 2019
Climate Policy 19 (2019)sup 1. - ISSN 1469-3062 - p. S78 - S93.
(community) resilience - Bangladesh - climate change policies - India - Nepal - peri-urban water security
This article explores changing water (in)securities in a context of urbanization and climate change in the peri-urban spaces of four South-Asian cities: Khulna (Bangladesh), Gurugram and Hyderabad (India), and Kathmandu (Nepal). As awareness of water challenges like intensifying use, deteriorating quality and climate change is growing, water security gets more scientific and policy attention. However, in peri-urban areas, the dynamic zones between the urban and the rural, it remains under-researched, despite the specific characteristics of these spaces: intensifying flows of goods, resources, people, and technologies; diversifying uses of, and growing pressures on land and water; and complex and often contradictory governance and jurisdictional institutions. This article analyses local experiences of water (in-)security, conflict and cooperation in relation to existing policies. It uses insights from the analysis of the case studies as a point of departure for a critical reflection on whether a ‘community resilience’ discourse contributes to better understanding these cases of water insecurity and conflict, and to better policy solutions. The authors argue that a community resilience focus risks neglecting important insights about how peri-urban water insecurity problems are experienced by peri-urban populations and produced or reproduced in specific socio-economic, political and policy contexts. Unless supported by in-depth hydro-social research, such a focus may depoliticize basically political questions of water (re) allocation, prioritization, and access for marginalized groups. Therefore, the authors plead for more critical awareness among researchers and policy-makers of the consequences of using a ‘community resilience’ discourse for making sense of peri-urban water (in-)security. Key policy insights There is an urgent need for more (critical) policy and scientific attention to peri-urban water insecurity, conflict, and climate change. Although a changing climate will likely play a role, more attention is needed to how water insecurities and vulnerabilities in South Asia are socially produced. Researchers and policy-makers should avoid using depoliticized (community) resilience approaches for basically socio-political problems.
Cutting dikes, cutting ties? Reintroducing Flood Dynamics in Coastal Polders in Bangladesh and the Netherlands
Warner, J.F. ; Staveren, M.F. van; Tatenhove, J.P.M. van - \ 2018
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 32 (2018). - ISSN 2212-4209 - p. 106 - 112.
controlled flooding; - flood risk management - the Netherlands - Bangladesh - Tidal River Management
Renewed attention for ecosystem dynamics when considering flood related interventions has been instrumental in shaping initiatives to ‘de-polder' lands, i.e. returning previously reclaimed land to the waters. This is a substantial paradigm shift in land and water management, as poldering has been crucial to the development of both the Dutch and Bangladeshi deltas, where wetlands have been turned into productive agricultural areas by constructing peripheral embankments to separate water in rivers from water within polders. Although these interventions have contributed significantly to increased food production and safer livelihoods within the embankments in the short run, negative socio-environmental effects also surfaced. Constructing flood preventive embankments also means preventing the deposition of sedimentation. As a consequence, soil subsidence and the increase of economic value in the built-up area behind the embankments, turned a 'high-incidence, low-consequence' flood risk situation into a 'low incidence – high consequence' one. It also led to changes in social structures, decision-making power and trade-offs between when and how much water is taken in or drained out – (re-)distributing hydrological risks between stakeholders. It is against this background that polder embankments have come in for strong criticism and reconsideration. They were cut, reduced in height, moved or even completely removed, in the cases central in this paper. As a result of such ‘de-poldering’, flood dynamics (riverine/freshwater or tidal) have reappeared in formerly enclosed lands. Proponents of ecosystem-based approaches to water and flood management have been instrumental in encouraging this practice.
This contribution describes and analyses two cases from the Dutch and Bangladeshi deltas, where these kinds of interventions have taken shape over the last 10–20 years. The article highlights the complexity and interaction between environmental, technological and socio-political drivers for (and against) dyke removal and restoration of flood dynamics to reduce flood disaster risk. The Dutch case emphasizes how a de-poldering project had redistributive consequences, when farmers felt they had to pay the price for other people's safety from flooding. The Bangladesh case study shows how controlled tidal flooding addresses another water related risk: prolonged water logging within delta polders. Originating in a popular practice of the region, this DRR strategy met with varying degrees of success when implemented as a top-down intervention.
Experimenting with a novel technology for provision of safe drinking water in rural Bangladesh: The case of sub-surface arsenic removal (SAR)
Kundu, D.K. ; Gupta, A. ; Mol, A.P.J. ; Rahman, M.M. ; Halem, Doris van - \ 2018
Technology in Society 53 (2018). - ISSN 0160-791X - p. 161 - 172.
Arsenic contamination - Safe drinking water - Socio-technical experiment - Sub-surface arsenic removal - Bangladesh
Subsurface Arsenic Removal (SAR) is a technique used for in-situ removal of naturally occurring arsenic in groundwater. This new technology was deployed recently on an experimental basis in two sites in rural Bangladesh, to address the pressing problem of rural drinking water supplies contaminated by arsenic. This article assesses whether and to what extent these first field experiments with SAR can be conceptualized as “socio-technical experiments” designed to incubate and improve radical technological innovations by serving as ‘living lab”, “window” and/or “agent of change”. As per writings in transition theory, an experiment functions as a living lab if it permits testing, learning and improving upon a technological innovation. It functions as a window if it is able to facilitate communication and conversation by raising actors’ interest and enrolling new actors. It functions as an agent of change if it can successfully stimulate changes in potential users' practices and behaviours. Through studying two SAR experiments, this article finds that this novel technology served as a living lab and window, but not (yet) as agent of change, partly because integrating social considerations (such as community buy-in, appropriate site selection and post-installation support) into SAR prototype design during field experimentation proved very difficult. A key obstacle was that the technical efficacy of the technology remained a primary concern during experimentation, and it was unsafe to make water deriving from experimental SAR units available to users. The technology thus remained an abstract idea and provided unable to stimulate behavioural changes amongst users. We conclude that there is a need to identify conditions under which real world experiments can serve as agents of change to facilitate sustainable uptake of arsenic safe technologies in rural developing country contexts.
Effects of imidacloprid on the ecology of sub-tropical freshwater microcosms
Sumon, Kizar Ahmed ; Ritika, Afifat Khanam ; Peeters, Edwin T.H.M. ; Rashid, Harunur ; Bosma, Roel H. ; Rahman, Md Shahidur ; Fatema, Mst Kaniz ; Brink, Paul J. Van den - \ 2018
Environmental Pollution 236 (2018). - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 432 - 441.
Bangladesh - Freshwater ecosystem - Insecticide - Neonicotinoid
The neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid is used in Bangladesh for a variety of crop protection purposes. Imidacloprid may contaminate aquatic ecosystems via spray drift, surface runoff and ground water leaching. The present study aimed at assessing the fate and effects of imidacloprid on structural (phytoplankton, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates and periphyton) and functional (organic matter decomposition) endpoints of freshwater, sub-tropical ecosystems in Bangladesh. Imidacloprid was applied weekly to 16 freshwater microcosms (PVC tanks containing 400 L de-chlorinated tap water) at nominal concentrations of 0, 30, 300, 3000 ng/L over a period of 4 weeks. Results indicated that imidacloprid concentrations from the microcosm water column declined rapidly. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed significant effects of imidacloprid on the zooplankton and macroinvertebrate community, some individual phytoplankton taxa, and water quality variables (i.e. DO, alkalinity, ammonia and nitrate), with Cloeon sp., Diaptomus sp. and Keratella sp. being the most affected species, i.e. showing lower abundance values in all treatments compared to the control. The observed high sensitivity of Cloeon sp. and Diaptomus sp. was confirmed by the results of single species tests. No significant effects were observed on the species composition of the phytoplankton, periphyton biomass and organic matter decomposition for any of the sampling days. Our study indicates that (sub-)tropical aquatic ecosystems can be much more sensitive to imidacloprid compared to temperate ones.
Changing climate policy paradigms in Bangladesh and Nepal
Vij, Sumit ; Biesbroek, Robbert ; Groot, Annemarie ; Termeer, Katrien - \ 2018
Environmental Science & Policy 81 (2018). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 77 - 85.
Bangladesh - Changing policy paradigms - Climate change adaptation - Drivers of change - Modes of change - Nepal
The aim of this article is to explain and compare the changes in climate policy paradigms (CPPs) of Bangladesh and Nepal. Climate policies are shaped by the underlying CPPs that refer to a dominant set of prevailing and institutionalized ideas and strategies to reduce the impacts of climate change. We focus the analysis on the timeframe between 1997 and 2016, using policy documents (n = 46) and semi-structured interviews (n = 43) with key policy actors. We find that in both countries several CPPs have emerged: disaster risk reduction, climate change adaptation, mainstreaming, and localized action for adaptation. In Bangladesh, specific policy goals and instruments for each CPP have emerged, whereas in Nepal the government has been struggling to develop specific policy instruments to implement the paradigms. We conclude that competing CPPs currently exist which creates diversified policy responses to climate change impacts in both countries. This ‘layering’ of different CPPs can be attributed to drivers such as unstable political situation, lack of financial support, influence of national and international non-governmental organizations and global policy frameworks. The findings in our study are relevant to further discussions on how to design future climate policy responses to adapt to climate change.
Social learning for adaptive delta management : Tidal River Management in the Bangladesh Delta
Mutahara, Muhmuda ; Warner, Jeroen F. ; Wals, Arjen E.J. ; Shah Alam Khan, M. ; Wester, Flip - \ 2018
International Journal of Water Resources Development 34 (2018)6. - ISSN 0790-0627 - p. 923 - 943.
adaptive delta management - Bangladesh - participation - social learning - Tidal River Management
The article analyzes Tidal River Management in Bangladesh from a social learning perspective. Four cases were investigated using participatory assessment. Knowledge acquisition through transformations in the Tidal River Management process was explored as an intended learning outcome. The study finds that social learning occurred more prominently at the individual stakeholder level and less at the collective level. For Tidal River Management to be responsive and sustainable, especially in times of increased uncertainty and climate vulnerability, more attention needs to be paid to coordination and facilitation of multi-level learning that includes all stakeholders.
Local expert experiences and perceptions of environmentally induced migration from Bangladesh to India
Stojanov, Robert ; Boas, Ingrid ; Kelman, Ilan ; Duží, Barbora - \ 2017
Asia Pacific Viewpoint 58 (2017)3. - ISSN 1360-7456 - p. 347 - 361.
Bangladesh - Climate change - India - Migration - Perception
This study investigates local expert perceptions of the role of environmental factors, especially in terms of contemporary climate change, in population movements from Bangladesh to India. The aim is to delve into locally held understandings of the phenomenon and to gain a better understanding of these migration processes, which are actively intertwined with local experiences. Both Indian and Bangladeshi experts were interviewed using semi-structured, in-depth interviews in order to explore insights from locally held perceptions and understandings of contextual factors. In total, 10 Bangladeshi and 15 Indian experts were interviewed, covering different disciplines, sectors, regions and job types, together providing a more complete and grounded picture of views of environmentally induced migration in Bangladesh and India. The results show that climate change is perceived by local experts as one of the key factors influencing migration in Bangladesh, both internally and externally. The interviewees, however, placed environmentally induced migration in a broader context of labour and economic migration. In particular, migration for environmental reasons in Bangladesh was evident long before the emergence of climate change as an issue. According to the interviewed experts, this does not preclude increased environmentally induced migration within and from Bangladesh in the future, but its analyses ought to be placed in historical and economical contexts.
Impacts on river systems under 2 °C warming : Bangladesh Case Study
Zaman, A.M. ; Molla, M.K. ; Pervin, I.A. ; Mahbubur Rahman, S.M. ; Haider, A.S. ; Ludwig, F. ; Franssen, W. - \ 2017
Climate Services 7 (2017). - ISSN 2405-8807 - p. 96 - 114.
Bangladesh - Basin model - Climate change - Hydrodynamic model - Regional Climatic Model (RCM) - Salinity intrusion - Sea level rise
Bangladesh is particularly vulnerable due to the combined impacts of sea level rise, rainfall and runoff variability, and changes in cyclone patterns. This paper presents the application of an integrated modelling framework used to investigate climate change impacts when global averaged surface temperature increases by 2. C from pre-industrial level. The modelling framework consists of four model types: Regional climate model (RCM), Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) Basin model, Southwest Region Hydrodynamic and Salinity models. Bias corrected climate results (temperature, precipitation and evapotranspiration) from SMHI-RCA and CNRM-ARPEGE RCMs for (Representative Concentration Pathway) RCP 8.5 scenario were used. The uniqueness of this research study was that the same GCM (General Circulation Model)/RCM results were used across the whole modelling chain. In Bagerhat District, it was found that river salinity can increase by about 0.5 to 2 PPT (parts per thousand). Also, the duration of river salinity above 1 PPT can double in some locations. In Kushtia District, in the months of November and December river flows may increase but not sufficiently in other months due to lack of connectivity to the Ganges River. In the flood-prone Shariatpur District, average wet season water level increases up to 0.2 to 0.5. m. Also, duration of flood levels above the established danger level can double in some locations. Finally, this study found that dredging of the mouth of the Gorai River (in Kushtia District) is an effective adaptation measure. The dredging ensures connectivity to the Ganges River, which allows freshwater to enter the Southwest region of Bangladesh, which not only alleviates drought conditions in Kushtia Distract but also helps push back saline intrusion.
Bringing in the tides. From closing down to opening up delta polders via Tidal River Management in the southwest delta of Bangladesh
Staveren, M.F. van; Warner, J.F. ; Shah Alam Khan, M. - \ 2017
Water Policy 19 (2017)1. - ISSN 1366-7017 - p. 147 - 164.
Bangladesh - controlled flooding - delta management - hydraulic engineering - policy pendulum swing - Tidal River Management - water policy
The southwest coastal delta of Bangladesh is not only geographically home to a dynamic interplay between land and water, and between fresh surface water and saline tides, but also to contentious debates on flood management policy and hydraulic engineering works. It has been argued that dealing with delta floods in this region boils down to adopting either open or closed approaches. This paper longitudinally structures the open-or-closed debate based on a number of emblematic water management projects in the region. Departing from a typical open wetland history, river and polder embankments increasingly started to constrain flood dynamics. Upheaval among rural populations in response to the negative impacts of hydraulic engineering plans and works coalesced in efforts to restore open approaches, synthesized in the Tidal River Management concept. Its resemblance to historic overflow irrigation is often used politically as a yardstick to challenge the dominant hydraulic engineering paradigm. This paper argues that dealing with floods in Bangladesh requires plans, policies and projects formulated against the historic background of complex interactions among social processes, environmental dynamics and technological interventions: a lesson to be incorporated in on-going policy-making processes and long-term delta management plans.
Domestic Crop Booms, Livelihood Pathways and Nested Transitions: Charting the Implications of Bangladesh’s Pangasius Boom
Belton, B. ; Asseldonk, I.J.M. van; Bush, S.R. - \ 2017
Journal of Agrarian Change 17 (2017)4. - ISSN 1471-0358 - p. 694 - 714.
domestic crop booms - livelihood pathways - food system transformation - aquaculture - Bangladesh
Rapidly transforming Asian food systems are oriented largely towards domestic markets, yet literature on Asian crop booms deals almost exclusively with commodities produced for export. With reference to pangasius aquaculture in Bangladesh, we argue that ‘domestic crop booms’ - agricultural booms driven by domestic demand – are contributing to rapid social and ecological transformations in Asia and across the globe. We adopt a comparative multi-scalar approach, and develop the concept of ‘livelihood pathways’ as a means of understanding agrarian change associated with crop booms. The study reveals sharply divergent patterns of social change resulting from the pangasius boom, as experienced in two different village settings, despite underlying
similarities in the processes of commodification evident in both. In addition to drawing attention to domestic crop booms and the diversity of transitions in which they result, the paper demonstrates the value of comparative multi-scalar analytical approaches and the importance of livelihood pathways in processes of agrarian change.
Failing arsenic mitigation technology in rural Bangladesh: explaining stagnation in niche formation of the Sono filter
Kundu, D.K. ; Mol, A.P.J. ; Gupta, A. - \ 2016
Water Policy 18 (2016)6. - ISSN 1366-7017 - p. 1490 - 1507.
arsenic mitigation - Bangladesh - safe drinking water - Sono filter - strategic niche management - technological innovation
Arsenic contamination of shallow hand pump tube well drinking water in Bangladesh has created opportunities for radical innovations to emerge. One such innovation is the household Sono filter, designed to remove arsenic from water supplies. Applying a strategic niche management approach, and based on interviews, focus groups and a workshop, this article explains the Sono filter's failure to establish itself as a successful niche technology. Three explanatory factors are identified: lack of a strong social network (of technology producers, donors, users, and government actors) around it; diverging expectations regarding its potential to be a long-term solution; and lack of second-order learning amongst key actors. Beyond these three factors that help to explain the lack of successful niche formation, this paper clearly shows that the overwhelming dependency on fund-driven projects also deters successful niche formation in the context of the developing world.
First Record of Porpita porpita (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from the coral reef ecosystem, Bangladesh
Shah Nawaz Chowdhury, M. ; Sharifuzzaman, S.M. ; Chowdhury, Sayedur Rahman ; Rashed-Un-Nabi, Md ; Hossain, M.S. - \ 2016
Ocean Science Journal 51 (2016)2. - ISSN 1738-5261 - p. 293 - 297.
Bangladesh - Bay of Bengal - Hydrozoa - Porpita - Saint Martin’s Island
The occurrence of Porpita porpita is reported, for the first time, in the coral island of St. Martin’s located in the southeastern coastal region of Bangladesh. P. porpita was found to occur in the lower littoral zone and beach rock pools, together with molluscan species, and collected during the pre-monsoon season when both water temperature (> 30°C) and salinity (> 30‰) tend to reach a maximum. This study recounts some details on the discovery and description of the species, and thus extends the global distribution and range limits of the genus Porpita.
The consolidation of deep tube well technology in safe drinking water provision: the case of arsenic mitigation in rural Bangladesh
Kundu, D.K. ; Vliet, B.J.M. van; Gupta, A. - \ 2016
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation 24 (2016)2. - ISSN 1976-1597 - p. 254 - 273.
arsenic mitigation - Bangladesh - deep tube well technology - drinking water - Multi-level Perspective on transitions
This paper explains why and how deep tube well as a safe drinking water technology has become dominant in mitigating the arsenic crisis in rural Bangladesh. We do so by applying insights from the Multi-Level Perspective on transitions in explaining changes in the safe socio-technical drinking water regime in rural Bangladesh. Data about seven dimensions of regime change were gathered from key actors through in-depth interviews, focus groups sessions, a survey, and a workshop. The findings reveal that with the introduction of deep tube well as an arsenic mitigation technology, the observed changes in the seven dimensions help to transform the existing safe drinking water regime in order to re-stabilise it. Technological attributes, symbolic meaning, industry structures, and techno-scientific knowledge have supported an evolving dominance of the deep tube well. Besides, user practices as well as related infrastructures have adapted to the use of deep tube wells, and new policies stimulated its application. We argue that the dimensions of the technology change in the existing regime are consistent with the features of incremental innovation. By offering such insights, we show the relevance of the Multi-Level Perspective on transitions to analyse socio-technical innovation in a developing world context.
Effect of a school-based oral health education in preventing untreated dental caries and increasing knowledge, attitude, and practices among adolescents in Bangladesh
Haque, Syed Emdadul ; Rahman, Mosiur ; Itsuko, Kawashima ; Mutahara, Muhmuda ; Kayako, Sakisaka ; Tsutsumi, Atsuro ; Islam, Md Jahirul ; Mostofa, Md Golam - \ 2016
BMC Oral Health 16 (2016)1. - ISSN 1472-6831
Adolescents - Bangladesh - Dental caries - School-based health education
Background: There is a dearth of published literature that demonstrates the impact and effectiveness of school-based oral health education (OHE) program in Bangladesh and it is one of the most neglected activities in the field of public health. Keeping this in mind, the objectives of this study were to assess the effectiveness of OHE program in: 1) increasing oral health knowledge, attitude, and practices and 2) decreasing the prevalence of untreated dental caries among 6-8 grade school students in Bangladesh. Methods: This intervention study was conducted in Araihazar Thana, Narayanganj district, Bangladesh during April 2012 to March 2013. The total participants were 944 students from three local schools. At baseline, students were assessed for oral health knowledge, attitude and practices using a self-administered structured questionnaire and untreated dental caries was assessed using clinical examination. Follow up study was done after 6 months from baseline. McNemar's chi-square analysis was used to evaluate the impact of OHE program on four recurrent themes of oral health between the baseline and follow-up. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine the impact of the intervention group on our outcome variables. Results: Significant improvement was observed regarding school aged adolescents' self-reported higher knowledge, attitude and practices scores (p <0.001) at follow-up compared with baseline. The prevalence of untreated dental caries of the study population after the OHE program was significantly (p <0.01) reduced to 42.5 %. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the OHE intervention remained a significant predictor in reducing the risk of untreated dental caries (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.51; 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 0.37, 0.81). In the follow-up period participants were 2.21 times (95 % CI = 1.87, 3.45) more likely to have higher level of knowledge regarding oral health compared to baseline. Compared with baseline participants in the follow-up were 1.89 times (95 % CI = 1.44-2.87) more likely to have higher attitude towards oral health. In addition, OHE intervention was found to be significantly associated with higher level of practices toward oral health (AOR = 1.64; 95 % CI = 1.12, 3.38). Conclusions: This study indicated that OHE intervention was effective in increasing i) knowledge, ii) attitude, and iii) practices towards oral health; it also significantly reduced the prevalence of untreated dental caries among school aged adolescents from grade 6-8 in a deprived rural area of Bangladesh.