Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Exploring the usefulness of scenario archetypes in science-policy processes: Experience across IPBES assessments
Sitas, Nadia ; Harmáčková, Zuzana V. ; Anticamara, Jonathan A. ; Arneth, Almut ; Badola, Ruchi ; Biggs, Reinette ; Blanchard, Ryan ; Brotons, Lluis ; Cantele, Matthew ; Coetzer, Kaera ; Dasgupta, Rajarshi ; Belder, Eefje Den; Ghosh, Sonali ; Guisan, Antoine ; Gundimeda, Haripriya ; Hamann, Maike ; Harrison, Paula A. ; Hashimoto, Shizuka ; Hauck, Jennifer ; Klatt, Brian J. ; Kok, Kasper ; Krug, Rainer M. ; Niamir, Aidin ; O'farrell, Patrick J. ; Okayasu, Sana ; Palomo, Ignacio ; Pereira, Laura M. ; Riordan, Philip ; Santos-Martín, Fernando ; Selomane, Odirilwe ; Shin, Yunne Jai ; Valle, Mireia - \ 2019
Ecology and Society 24 (2019)3. - ISSN 1708-3087
Assessment - Biodiversity - Decision making - Ecosystem services - Futures - Nature - Regional - Scenarios

Scenario analyses have been used in multiple science-policy assessments to better understand complex plausible futures. Scenario archetype approaches are based on the fact that many future scenarios have similar underlying storylines, assumptions, and trends in drivers of change, which allows for grouping of scenarios into typologies, or archetypes, facilitating comparisons between a large range of studies. The use of scenario archetypes in environmental assessments foregrounds important policy questions and can be used to codesign interventions tackling future sustainability issues. Recently, scenario archetypes were used in four regional assessments and one ongoing global assessment within the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES). The aim of these assessments was to provide decision makers with policy-relevant knowledge about the state of biodiversity, ecosystems, and the contributions they provide to people. This paper reflects on the usefulness of the scenario archetype approach within science-policy processes, drawing on the experience from the IPBES assessments. Using a thematic analysis of (a) survey data collected from experts involved in the archetype analyses across IPBES assessments, (b) notes from IPBES workshops, and (c) regional assessment chapter texts, we synthesize the benefits, challenges, and frontiers of applying the scenario archetype approach in a science-policy process. Scenario archetypes were perceived to allow syntheses of large amounts of information for scientific, practice-, and policy-related purposes, streamline key messages from multiple scenario studies, and facilitate communication of them to end users. In terms of challenges, they were perceived as subjective in their interpretation, oversimplifying information, having a limited applicability across scales, and concealing contextual information and novel narratives. Finally, our results highlight what methodologies, applications, and frontiers in archetype-based research should be explored in the future. These advances can assist the design of future large-scale sustainability-related assessment processes, aiming to better support decisions and interventions for equitable and sustainable futures.

Prospects of bioenergy cropping systems for a more social‐ecologically sound bioeconomy
Cossel, Moritz Von ; Wagner, Moritz ; Lask, Jan ; Magenau, Elena ; Bauerle, Andrea ; Cossel, Viktoria Von ; Warrach‐Sagi, Kirsten ; Elbersen, Berien ; Staritsky, Igor ; Eupen, Michiel van; Iqbal, Yasir ; Jablonowski, Nicolai David ; Happe, Stefan ; Fernando, Ana Luisa ; Scordia, Danilo ; Cosentino, Salvatore Luciano ; Wulfmeyer, Volker ; Lewandowski, Iris ; Winkler, Bastian - \ 2019
Agronomy 9 (2019)10. - ISSN 2073-4395
Biodiversity - Bioeconomy - Bioenergy crop - Biomass - Carbon capture - Climate change adaptation - Cropping system - Industrial crop - Marginal land - Resilience

The growing bioeconomy will require a greater supply of biomass in the future for both bioenergy and bio‐based products. Today, many bioenergy cropping systems (BCS) are suboptimal due to either social‐ecological threats or technical limitations. In addition, the competition for land between bioenergy‐crop cultivation, food‐crop cultivation, and biodiversity conservation is expected to increase as a result of both continuous world population growth and expected severe climate change effects. This study investigates how BCS can become more social‐ecologically sustainable in future. It brings together expert opinions from the fields of agronomy, economics, meteorology, and geography. Potential solutions to the following five main requirements for a more holistically sustainable supply of biomass are summarized: (i) bioenergy‐crop cultivation should provide a beneficial social‐ecological contribution, such as an increase in both biodiversity and landscape aesthetics, (ii) bioenergy crops should be cultivated on marginal agricultural land so as not to compete with food‐crop production, (iii) BCS need to be resilient in the face of projected severe climate change effects, (iv) BCS should foster rural development and support the vast number of small‐scale family farmers, managing about 80% of agricultural land and natural resources globally, and (v) bioenergy‐crop cultivation must be planned and implemented systematically, using holistic approaches. Further research activities and policy incentives should not only consider the economic potential of bioenergy‐crop cultivation, but also aspects of biodiversity, soil fertility, and climate change adaptation specific to site conditions and the given social context. This will help to adapt existing agricultural systems in a changing world and foster the development of a more social‐ecologically sustainable bioeconomy.

Assessment of policy instruments for pesticide use reduction in Europe; Learning from a systematic literature review
Lee, Rhiannon ; Uyl, Roos den; Runhaar, Hens - \ 2019
Crop Protection 126 (2019). - ISSN 0261-2194
Agrochemicals - Biodiversity - Environmental Governance - IPM (Integrated Pest Management) - Sustainable Agriculture

Intensive and worldwide usage of conventional pesticides on arable land has led to varying problems for the environment and human health. Consequently, many governments and several private actors actively stimulate reduction of pesticide use. This paper focuses on the effectiveness of public and private policy instruments in terms of reducing pesticide use by farmers via a systematic literature review of 78 articles published between 1967 and 2017. The geographical focus area was Europe. The review determined that no specific instrument is guaranteed to reduce pesticide use. Instead, characteristics comprising an instrument were confirmed to be beneficial to reducing pesticide use. In particular, mixes of instruments, with varying degrees of authoritative force, applied at multiple scales with stakeholder collaboration were identified as beneficial to reducing farmer pesticide use. It is implied within the literature that instruments comprised of such characteristics aid reducing pesticide use due to facilitating consideration of heterogeneous farm and farmer characteristics.

Evaluating landscape capacity to provide spatially explicit valued ecosystem services for sustainable coastal resource management
Sannigrahi, Srikanta ; Joshi, Pawan Kumar ; Keesstra, Saskia ; Paul, Saikat Kumar ; Sen, Somnath ; Roy, P.S. ; Chakraborti, Suman ; Bhatt, Sandeep - \ 2019
Ocean & Coastal Management 182 (2019). - ISSN 0964-5691
Biodiversity - Climate regulation - Coastal management - Ecosystem services - Gas regulation - Landscape

Ecosystem Services (ESs) are the direct and indirect benefits and opportunities that human obtained from the ecosystem. This study evaluated landscape capacity of providing multiple key ESs in a tropical coastal ecosystem (Sundarbans Biodiversity Region (SBR)India). Multiple supervised machine learning algorithms were utilized to classify the regions into several landscape zones. The provisioning capacities of ESs for each landscape type were derived separately from an expert opinion survey and the remote sensing based methods, and the association of the outcomes between these two approaches was evaluated using the Pearson correlation coefficient test. A total of nine ESs were selected to quantify their economic values for several reference years. The benefit transfer and equivalent value coefficient approaches were used to aggregate the economic values for each ES. Research results indicated that the water bodies are the most important landscape units in the SBR region. This ecosystem has the highest relevant capacity to provide the necessary regulatory, supporting, provisioning, and cultural ESs. Water regulation (WR), waste treatment (WT), aesthetic, recreation, and cultural (ARC), and climate regulation (CR) are the main ESs of the SBR. These services are immensely important not only for upgrading the livelihood status of coastal communities but also for the climatic and environmental suitability of the Kolkata urban region. The correlation results between the remote sensing and expert-based capacity estimates have suggested that the proposed remote sensing approach could be an alternative to evaluate the landscape capacity of providing multiple ESs in any given ecosystem. Except for the mangrove region, a very high (>0.7) correlation was observed between the model and expert-derived capacity values. The outcome of this study could be an important reference to the land administrators, planners, decision makers for adopting suitable land resource management plans for sustainable uses of natural resources in coastal region.

Synthesizing plausible futures for biodiversity and ecosystem services in europe and central asia using scenario archetypes
Harrison, Paula A. ; Harmáčková, Zuzana V. ; Karabulut, Armağan Aloe ; Brotons, Lluis ; Cantele, Matthew ; Claudet, Joachim ; Dunford, Robert W. ; Guisan, Antoine ; Holman, Ian P. ; Jacobs, Sander ; Kok, Kasper ; Lobanova, Anastasia ; Morán-Ordóñez, Alejandra ; Pedde, Simona ; Rixen, Christian ; Santos-Martín, Fernando ; Schlaepfer, Martin A. ; Solidoro, Cosimo ; Sonrel, Anthony ; Hauck, Jennifer - \ 2019
Ecology and Society 24 (2019)2. - ISSN 1708-3087
Biodiversity - Drivers - Ecosystem services - Exploratory scenarios - Impacts - IPBES - Models - Nature - Nature’s contributions to people (NCP)

Scenarios are a useful tool to explore possible futures of social-ecological systems. The number of scenarios has increased dramatically over recent decades, with a large diversity in temporal and spatial scales, purposes, themes, development methods, and content. Scenario archetypes generically describe future developments and can be useful in meaningfully classifying scenarios, structuring and summarizing the overwhelming amount of information, and enabling scientific outputs to more effectively interface with decision-making frameworks. The Intergovernmental Platform for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) faced this challenge and used scenario archetypes in its assessment of future interactions between nature and society. We describe the use of scenario archetypes in the IPBES Regional Assessment of Europe and Central Asia. Six scenario archetypes for the region are described in terms of their driver assumptions and impacts on nature (including biodiversity) and its contributions to people (including ecosystem services): Business-as-usual, economic optimism, regional competition, regional sustainability, global sustainable development, and inequality. The analysis shows that trade-offs between nature’s contributions to people are projected under different scenario archetypes. However, the means of resolving these trade-offs depend on differing political and societal value judgements within each scenario archetype. Scenarios that include proactive decision making on environmental issues, environmental management approaches that support multifunctionality, and mainstreaming environmental issues across sectors, are generally more successful in mitigating tradeoffs than isolated environmental policies. Furthermore, those scenario archetypes that focus on achieving a balanced supply of nature’s contributions to people and that incorporate a diversity of values are estimated to achieve more policy goals and targets, such as the UN Sustainable Development Goals and the Convention on Biological Diversity Aichi targets. The scenario archetypes approach is shown to be helpful in supporting science-policy dialogue for proactive decision making that anticipates change, mitigates undesirable trade-offs, and fosters societal transformation in pursuit of sustainable development.

A framework to estimate biodiversity loss and associated costs due to nitrogen emissions from single power plants
Verburg, René W. ; Osseweijer, Floor - \ 2019
Journal of Cleaner Production 239 (2019). - ISSN 0959-6526
Biodiversity - Compensation costs - Energy production - Nitrogen emissions

Environmental reporting by companies is becoming increasingly important for measuring sustainability performance, but biodiversity impacts are still largely unaccounted for due to the complexity of assessing such impacts. Energy production by power plants causes nitrogen emissions that may affect nature areas. To assess the impact of power plants on the biodiversity of Natura 2000 areas and to estimate compensation costs, we developed an analytical framework and applied it to four single power plants in the Netherlands. These plants differed according to production capacity and fuel source (natural gas and biomass). The plants affected between 77 and 537 km2 of Natura 2000 nature areas. To estimate cost of biodiversity loss and compensation, three approaches were applied: costs of restoration, ‘insetting’ costs incurred by creating new nature areas within the current Natura 2000 network, and offsetting costs, including land purchase of former agricultural land. Depending on the nitrogen exceedance levels of vegetation, compensation areas ranged between 6.5 and 23.6 ha. The estimated total cost per power plant varied from € 38,430 to € 1,753,261 annually. Depending on the cost method applied, biodiversity cost of energy production by single power plants ranged from 0.06 €.MWh−1 to 1.65 €.MWh−1. This cost largely depends on the type and location of the vegetation affected, which indicates that a spatial analysis is needed to measure the biodiversity footprint of business operations in environmental reporting.

Effects of extreme rainfall events are independent of plant species richness in an experimental grassland community
Padilla, Francisco M. ; Mommer, Liesje ; Caluwe, Hannie de; Smit-Tiekstra, Annemiek E. ; Visser, Eric J.W. ; Kroon, Hans de - \ 2019
Oecologia 191 (2019)1. - ISSN 0029-8549 - p. 177 - 190.
Biodiversity - Climate change - Drought - Overyielding - Resistance - Roots - Stability

Global climate models predict more frequent periods of drought stress alternated by heavier, but fewer rainfall events in the future. Biodiversity studies have shown that such changed drought stress may be mitigated by plant species richness. Here, we investigate if grassland communities, differing in species richness, respond differently to climatic extremes within the growing season. In a 3-year outdoor mesocosm experiment, four grassland species in both monoculture and mixture were subjected to a rainfall distribution regime with two levels: periods of severe drought in the summer intermitted by extreme rainfall events versus regular rainfall over time. Both treatments received the same amount of water over the season. Extreme rainfall combined with drought periods resulted in a 15% decrease in aboveground biomass in the second and third year, compared to the regular rainfall regime. Root biomass was also reduced in the extreme rainfall treatment, particularly in the top soil layer (− 40%). All species developed higher water use efficiencies (less negative leaf δ13C) in extreme rainfall than in regular rainfall. These responses to the rainfall/drought treatment were independent of species richness, although the mixtures were on an average more productive in terms of biomass than the monocultures. Our experimental results suggest that mixtures are similarly able to buffer these within-season rainfall extremes than monocultures, which contrasts with findings in the studies on natural droughts. Our work demonstrates the importance of investigating the interactions between rainfall distribution and drought periods for understanding effects of climate change on plant community performance.

A methodological framework to embrace soil biodiversity
Geisen, Stefan ; Briones, Maria J.I. ; Gan, Huijie ; Behan-Pelletier, Valerie M. ; Friman, Ville Petri ; Groot, G.A. de; Hannula, S.E. ; Lindo, Zoë ; Philippot, Laurent ; Tiunov, Alexei V. ; Wall, Diana H. - \ 2019
Soil Biology and Biochemistry 136 (2019). - ISSN 0038-0717
Biodiversity - Fauna - Food-webs - Microorganisms - Molecular methods - Soil functions and health

Soils host the vast majority of life on Earth including microorganisms and animals, and supporting all terrestrial vegetation. While soil organisms are pivotal for ecosystem functioning, the assemblages of different biota from a taxonomic and functional perspective, as well as how these different organisms interact, remains poorly known. We provide a brief overview of the taxonomic and functional diversity of all major groups of soil biota across different scales and organism sizes, ranging from viruses to prokaryotes and eukaryotes. This reveals knowledge gaps in relation to all soil biodiversity groups, which are especially evident for viruses, protists, micro- and meso-fauna. We review currently-available methods to study the taxonomic and functional diversity of soil organisms by grouping all commonly-used methods into morphological, biochemical and molecular approaches. We list potentials and limitations of the methods to reveal that there is, as yet, no single method to fully characterize the biodiversity even of a single group of soil biota. Yet, we stress that we now have the methods available to enable scientists to disentangle the taxonomic and functional diversity of virtually all soil organisms. We provide a user-friendly guide to help researchers address a wider variety of soil biodiversity in their studies by discussing and critically analysing the various potentials and limitations of diverse methods to study distinct groups of soil life. We highlight that integrative methodological approaches, ideally in collaborative interactions, are key to advancing our understanding of soil biodiversity, such as the combination of morphological and molecular approaches to overcome method-specific limitations. Together, integrative efforts can provide information on the abundance, biomass, diversity and function of several groups of soil biota simultaneously. This newly-obtained integrative information on soil biodiversity will help to define the importance of soil biodiversity in ecosystem processes, functions, and services, and serve to refine food-web and earth system models.

Living in cold blood: Arcobacter, Campylobacter, and Helicobacter in reptiles
Gilbert, Maarten J. ; Duim, Birgitta ; Zomer, Aldert L. ; Wagenaar, Jaap A. - \ 2019
Frontiers in Microbiology 10 (2019)MAY. - ISSN 1664-302X
Arcobacter - Biodiversity - Campylobacter - Ecology - Epsilonproteobacteria - Evolution - Helicobacter - Reptile

Species of the Epsilonproteobacteria genera Arcobacter, Campylobacter, and Helicobacter are commonly associated with vertebrate hosts and some are considered significant pathogens. Vertebrate-associated Epsilonproteobacteria are often considered to be largely confined to endothermic mammals and birds. Recent studies have shown that ectothermic reptiles display a distinct and largely unique Epsilonproteobacteria community, including taxa which can cause disease in humans. Several Arcobacter taxa are widespread amongst reptiles and often show a broad host range. Reptiles carry a large diversity of unique and novel Helicobacter taxa, which apparently evolved in an ectothermic host. Some species, such as Campylobacter fetus, display a distinct intraspecies host dichotomy, with genetically divergent lineages occurring either in mammals or reptiles. These taxa can provide valuable insights in host adaptation and co-evolution between symbiont and host. Here, we present an overview of the biodiversity, ecology, epidemiology, and evolution of reptile-associated Epsilonproteobacteria from a broader vertebrate host perspective.

Combining tree species and decay stages to increase invertebrate diversity in dead wood
Andringa, Joke I. ; Zuo, Juan ; Berg, Matty P. ; Klein, Roy ; van't Veer, Jip ; Geus, Rick de; Beaumont, Marco de; Goudzwaard, Leo ; Hal, Jurgen van; Broekman, Rob ; Logtestijn, Richard S.P. van; Li, Yikang ; Fujii, Saori ; Lammers, Mark ; Hefting, Mariet M. ; Sass-Klaassen, Ute ; Cornelissen, Johannes H.C. - \ 2019
Forest Ecology and Management 441 (2019). - ISSN 0378-1127 - p. 80 - 88.
Biodiversity - Chilipoda - Coarse woody debris - Coleoptera - Diplopoda - Habitat heterogeneity - Invertebrates - Isopoda - Managed forest - Wood decomposition

Dead wood availability and the variability in dead wood quality, i.e. tree species and decay stages, are often low in managed forests, which negatively affects biodiversity of invertebrate species. Leaving more (coarse) dead wood can increase invertebrate richness, but it remains unclear how many and which combinations of tree taxa and decay stages are required to optimize niche heterogeneity in managed forests. We investigated the diversity of the main arthropod groups associated with dead wood, i.e. millipedes, centipedes, isopods and beetles, through the first four years of decomposition of logs of twenty common temperate tree species placed in the “common garden” experiment LOGLIFE. We hypothesized that (1) invertebrate richness for combinations of a given number of tree species would be promoted by mixing both tree species and decay period and that (2) invertebrate richness increases up to a saturation point with more tree species at different decay stages added. We also hypothesized that (3) an increase in phylogenetic distance among the tree species in combinations would promote their overall invertebrate diversity. We found that the better combinations, in terms of invertebrate richness, after one and two years of decay, but not after four years, consisted of a mix of gymnosperms and angiosperms, indicating that variation in tree species is especially important during the initial decomposition period. The best combinations in terms of invertebrate richness consisted of at least one tree species from each decay period, indicating that also variation in the decay stage of the tree is important to promote invertebrate diversity. We observed that at least four wood types were required to approach the 95% saturation point for species richness. The third hypothesis, that dissimilarity in phylogenetic position could be a predictive tool for increasing invertebrate richness in combinations of tree species, was not supported by our results. Thus, in order to maintain diversity of dead wood invertebrates in forests we recommend not only to provide richness in tree species, but also to plant particular combinations of trees (preferably angiosperm-gymnosperm combinations) that differ in the invertebrate communities they typically host and to temporally spread the logging of trees. This way the logging residues cover different resources and habitats at each moment in time, which is likely to result in a large diversity of dead wood invertebrates.

The Future of Complementarity : Disentangling Causes from Consequences
Barry, Kathryn E. ; Mommer, Liesje ; Ruijven, Jasper van; Wirth, Christian ; Wright, Alexandra J. ; Bai, Yongfei ; Connolly, John ; Deyn, Gerlinde B. De; Kroon, Hans de; Isbell, Forest ; Milcu, Alexandru ; Roscher, Christiane ; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael ; Schmid, Bernhard ; Weigelt, Alexandra - \ 2019
Trends in Ecology and Evolution 34 (2019)2. - ISSN 0169-5347 - p. 167 - 180.
Abiotic facilitation - Biodiversity - Biotic feedbacks - Complementarity - Complementarity effect - Ecosystem functioning - Plant-soil feedback - Resource partitioning - Resource tracers - Stress amelioration

Evidence suggests that biodiversity supports ecosystem functioning. Yet, the mechanisms driving this relationship remain unclear. Complementarity is one common explanation for these positive biodiversity–ecosystem functioning relationships. Yet, complementarity is often indirectly quantified as overperformance in mixture relative to monoculture (e.g., ‘complementarity effect’). This overperformance is then attributed to the intuitive idea of complementarity or, more specifically, to species resource partitioning. Locally, however, several unassociated causes may drive this overperformance. Here, we differentiate complementarity into three types of species differences that may cause enhanced ecosystem functioning in more diverse ecosystems: (i) resource partitioning, (ii) abiotic facilitation, and (iii) biotic feedbacks. We argue that disentangling these three causes is crucial for predicting the response of ecosystems to future biodiversity loss.

Risk to the supply of ecosystem services across aquatic ecosystems
Culhane, Fiona ; Teixeira, Heliana ; Nogueira, Antonio J.A. ; Borgwardt, Florian ; Trauner, Daniel ; Lillebø, Ana ; Piet, Gerjan ; Kuemmerlen, Mathias ; McDonald, Hugh ; O'Higgins, Tim ; Barbosa, Ana Luisa ; Wal, Jan Tjalling Van Der; Iglesias-Campos, Alejandro ; Arevalo-Torres, Juan ; Barbière, Julian ; Robinson, Leonie A. - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 660 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 611 - 621.
Sustainability - Biodiversity
The capacity of ecosystems to supply ecosystem services is decreasing. Sustaining this supply requires an under- standing of the links between the impacts of pressures introduced by human activities and how this can lead to
changes in the supply of services. Here, we apply a novel approach, assessing‘
risk to ecosystem service supply’ (RESS), across a range of aquatic ecosystems in seven case studies. We link aggregate impact risk from human activities on ecosystem components, with a relative score of their potential to supply services. The greatest RESS is found where an ecosystem component with a high potential to supply services is subject to high impact risk. In this context, we explore variability in RESS across 99 types of aquatic ecosystem component from 11 realms, ranging from oceanic to wetlands. We explore some causes of variability in the RESS observed, including assessment area, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and population density. We found that Lakes, Rivers, Inlets and
Coastal realms had some of the highest RESS, though this was highly dependent on location. We found a positive relationship between impact risk and service supply potential, indicating the ecosystem components we rely on mostfor services, are also those most at risk. However, variability in this relationship indicates that protecting the supply of ecosystem services alone will not protect all parts of the ecosystem at high risk. Broad socio-economic factors explained some of the variability found in RESS. For example, RESS was positively associated with GDP and artificial and agricultural land use in most realms, highlighting the need to achieve balance between increasing GDP and sustaining ecosystem health and human wellbeing more broadly. This approach can be used for sustainablemanagement of ecosystemservice use, to highlight the ecosystemcomponents mostcriticalto supplying services, and those most at risk

Linking ecology and plant pathology to unravel the importance of soil-borne fungal pathogens in species-rich grasslands
Ampt, Eline A. ; Ruijven, Jasper van; Raaijmakers, Jos M. ; Termorshuizen, Aad J. ; Mommer, Liesje - \ 2019
European Journal of Plant Pathology 154 (2019)1. - ISSN 0929-1873 - p. 141 - 156.
Belowground disease dynamics - Biodiversity - Grassland ecosystems - Neighbor identity - Plant-fungal interaction - Soil-borne fungal diseases

Soil-borne fungal diseases are a major problem in agriculture. A century ago, the Dutch plant pathologist Johanna Westerdijk recognized the importance of linking fungal biology with ecology to understand plant disease dynamics. To explore new ways to manage soil-borne fungal disease in agriculture by ‘learning from nature’, we follow in her footsteps: we link below ground plant-fungal pathogen interactions to ecological settings, i.e. natural grasslands. Ecological research hypothesised that the build-up of ‘enemies’ is reduced in species-rich vegetation compared to monocultures. To understand how plant diversity can suppress soil-borne fungal pathogens, we first need to identify fungal actors in species-rich grasslands. Next-generation sequencing revealed a first glimpse of the potential fungal actors, but their ecological functions often remain elusive. Databases are becoming available to predict the ecological fungal guild, but classic phytopathology studies that isolate and characterize – taxonomically and functionally -, remain essential. Secondly, we need to set-up experiments that reveal ecological mechanisms underlying the complex below ground interactions between plant diversity and fungal pathogens. Several studies suggested that disease incidence of (host-specific) pathogens is related to abundance of the host plant species. However, recent studies suggest that next to host species density, presence of heterospecific species additionally affects disease dynamics. We explore the direct and indirect ways of these neighboring plants diluting pathogen pressure. We argue that combining the expertise of plant pathologists and ecologists will improve our understanding of belowground plant-fungal pathogen interactions in natural grasslands and contribute to the design of sustainable and productive intercropping strategies in agriculture.

Exploring variability in environmental impact risk from human activities across aquatic ecosystems
Borgwardt, Florian ; Robinson, Leonie ; Trauner, Daniel ; Teixeira, Heliana ; Nogueira, Antonio J.A. ; Lillebø, Ana I. ; Piet, Gerjan ; Kuemmerlen, Mathias ; O'Higgins, Tim ; McDonald, Hugh ; Arevalo-Torres, Juan ; Barbosa, Ana Luisa ; Iglesias-Campos, Alejandro ; Hein, Thomas ; Culhane, Fiona - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 652 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 1396 - 1408.
Aquatic ecosystem - Freshwater - Marine - Coastal - Biodiversity - Drivers
Aquatic ecosystems are under severe pressure. Human activities introduce an array of pressures that impact ecosystems and their components. In this study we focus on the aquatic domains of fresh, coastal and marine waters, including rivers, lakes and riparian habitats to transitional, coastal as well as shelf and oceanic habitats. In an environmental risk assessment approach, we identified impact chains that link 45 human activities through 31 pressures to 82 ecosystem components. In this linkage framework >22,000 activity-pressure-ecosystem component interactions were found across seven European case studies. We identified the environmental impact risk posed by each impact chain by first categorically weighting the interactions according to five criteria: spatial extent, dispersal potential, frequency of interaction, persistence of pressure and severity of the interaction, where extent, dispersal, frequency and persistence account for the exposure to risk (spatial and temporal), and the severity accounts for the consequence of the risk. After assigning a numerical score to each risk criterion, we came up with an overall environmental impact risk score for each impact chain. This risk score was analysed in terms of (1) the activities and pressures that introduce the greatest risk to European aquatic domains, and (2) the aquatic ecosystem components and realms that are at greatest risk from human activities. Activities related to energy production were relevant across the aquatic domains. Fishing was highly relevant in marine and environmental engineering in fresh waters. Chemical and physical pressures introduced the greatest risk to the aquatic realms. Ecosystem components that can be seen as ecotones between different ecosystems had high impact risk. We show how this information can be used in informing management on trade-offs in freshwater, coastal and marine resource use and aid decision-making
Effects on participation and biodiversity of reforming the implementation of agri-environmental schemes in the Netherlands
Groeneveld, A.N. ; Peerlings, J.H.M. ; Bakker, M.M. ; Polman, N.B.P. ; Heijman, W.J.M. - \ 2019
Ecological Complexity 40 (2019)B. - ISSN 1476-945X - 17 p.
Agri-environmental schemes - Biodiversity - Contracts - Mathematical programming

To prevent further biodiversity loss as a result of intensive agricultural practices, Agri-Environmental Schemes (AES) have been implemented on European farmland. Unfortunately these AES have not always been effective in terms of biodiversity and farmer participation. In an effort to improve the AES programme the Dutch government switched from an individual application system to a collective application system for AES payments in 2016. The goal of this paper is to analyse how the resilience of the land use system in terms of farmer participation in the AES and biodiversity is affected by the value farmers attach to biodiversity, and whether the shift from an individual to collective AES will affect the resilience of the land use system. We constructed a multi-objective mathematical programming model in which farmers maximise utility. Farmers are linked through their common effect on biodiversity. In the collective application system payments are only available when the biodiversity in the region is above a certain threshold. Simulation results show no difference in farmer participation and biodiversity between the individual application system and the collective application system when biodiversity weights are high. The land use system loses its resilience in terms farmer participation in the AES and biodiversity if we lower the biodiversity weights, this effect is stronger in the collective AES programme.

Cyanobacteria dominance drives zooplankton functional dispersion
Josué, Iollanda I.P. ; Cardoso, Simone J. ; Miranda, Marcela ; Mucci, Maíra ; Ger, Kemal Ali ; Roland, Fabio ; Marinho, Marcelo Manzi - \ 2019
Hydrobiologia 831 (2019)1. - ISSN 0018-8158 - p. 149 - 161.
Biodiversity - Eutrophication - Freshwater - Microbial food quality - Plankton

Accelerated eutrophication reduces water quality and shifts plankton communities. However, its effects on the aquatic food web and ecosystem functions remain poorly understood. Within this context, functional ecology can provide valuable links relating community traits to ecosystem functioning. In this study, we assessed the effects of eutrophication and cyanobacteria blooms on zooplankton functional diversity in a tropical hypereutrophic lake. Phytoplankton and zooplankton communities and limnological characteristics of a tropical Brazilian Lake (Southeast, Brazil) were monitored monthly from April 2013 to October 2014. Lake eutrophication indicators were total phosphorus, total chlorophyll-a, and chlorophyll-a per group (blue, green, and brown). The variation of major phytoplankton taxonomic group biomass was calculated and used as a proxy for changes in phytoplankton composition. Zooplankton functional diversity was assessed through functional dispersion and the community-weighted mean trait value. Regressions were performed between the lake eutrophication indicators, the phytoplankton biomass variation, and zooplankton functional dispersion. Our results suggest that eutrophication and cyanobacterial dominance change the composition of zooplankton traits and reduce functional dispersion, leading to zooplankton niche overlap. These findings are important because they provide a meaningful view of phytoplankton-zooplankton trophic interactions and contribute to an improved understanding their functional effects on aquatic ecosystems.

Inventory and morphometrics of anuran species found in Mt. Kilala of the Mt. Hamiguitan range wildlife sanctuary, governor generoso, davao oriental, Philippines
Vidal, Kemberly C. ; Macusi, Edison D. ; Ponce, Amy G. - \ 2018
The Philippine Journal of Crop Science 147 (2018)4. - ISSN 0031-7683 - p. 629 - 638.
Anurans - Biodiversity - Davao Oriental - Governor Generoso - Morphometrics - Mt. Kilala

Mt. Kilala is part of Mt Hamiguitan Range Wildlife Sanctuary located in Governor Generoso, Davao Oriental, Philippines, which hosts diverse and endemic species of flora and fauna – including amphibians. This inventory of anuran species yielded eight species of anurans that belong to six families. The highest species richness recorded was D=1.010 and species diversity was H'=1.73, which was moderately high, with 48 individual captures recorded in Site 1 (198 masl). The other two sites only yielded two captures in total despite spending 54 person-hours in search of anurans. The most number of anuran species encountered preferred the aquatic microhabitat. Also, the body size of anurans was a better predictor than its weight for the type of habitat it will occupy. The study recorded one Southeast Asia endemic species, two Philippine endemic species, and four Mindanao island endemic species. Most of these species found were located in the aquatic microhabitat that favors reproduction and development. The differences in their relative abundance are a reflection of the species tolerance limits to their habitats. Included in the inventory of species are Megophrys stejnegeri (Taylor, 1920) and Limnonectes magnus (Stejneger, 1909), which were identified as Mindanao island endemic with vulnerable conservation status in the IUCN red list. The advertised calls of various anurans were from four different species, namely: Kalophrynus sinensis (Peters, 1867), Limnonectes leytensis (Boettger, 1893), Polypedates leucomystax (Gravenhorst, 1829), and Staurois natator (Günther, 1859). Specific call parameters make the vocalization of each species unique. This study, along with other literature, confirms that higher elevation sites harbor fewer anuran species. The occurrence of a high number of endemic and vulnerable anuran species in the area indicates the need for practical conservation and protection measures, which include zoning for access and no access parts in the buffer zone – especially those that harbor aquatic habitats.

Novel primers improve species delimitation in Cercospora
Bakhshi, Mounes ; Arzanlou, Mahdi ; Babai-ahari, Asadollah ; Groenewald, Johannes Z. ; Crous, Pedro W. - \ 2018
IMA fungus 9 (2018)2. - ISSN 2210-6340 - p. 399 - 332.
Bar codes - Biodiversity - Cercospora apii complex - Host specificity - Multi-gene phylogeny - New taxa

The genus Cercospora includes many important plant pathogens that are commonly associated with leaf spot diseases on a wide range of cultivated and wild plant species. Due to the lack of useful morphological features and high levels of intraspecific variation, host plant association has long been a decisive criterion for species delimitation in Cercospora. Because several taxa have broader host ranges, reliance on host data in Cercospora taxonomy has proven problematic. Recent studies have revealed multi-gene DNA sequence data to be highly informative for species identification in Cercospora, especially when used in a concatenated alignment. In spite of this approach, however, several species complexes remained unresolved as no single gene proved informative enough to act as DNA barcoding locus for the genus. Therefore, the aims of the present study were firstly to improve species delimitation in the genus Cercospora by testing additional genes and primers on a broad set of species, and secondly to find the best DNA barcoding gene(s) for species delimitation. Novel primers were developed for tub2 and rpb2 to supplement previously published primers for these loci. To this end, 145 Cercospora isolates from the Iranian mycobiota together with 25 additional reference isolates preserved in the Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute were subjected to an eight-gene (ITS, tef1, actA, cmdA, his3, tub2, rpb2 and gapdh) analysis. Results from this study provided new insights into DNA barcoding in Cercospora, and revealed gapdh to be a promising gene for species delimitation when supplemented with cmdA, tef1 and tub2. The robust eight-gene phylogeny revealed several novel clades within the existing Cercospora species complexes, such as C. apii, C. armoraciae, C. beticola, C. cf. flagellaris and Cercospora sp. G. The C. apii s. lat. isolates are distributed over three clades, namely C. apii s. str., C. plantaginis and C. uwebrauniana sp. nov. The C. armoraciae s. lat. isolates are distributed over two clades, C. armoraciae s. str. and C. bizzozeriana. The C. beticola s. lat. isolates are distributed over two clades, namely C. beticola s. str. and C. gamsiana, which is newly described.

Integrated Forest Governance in Europe : An introduction to the special issue on forest policy integration and integrated forest management
Sotirov, Metodi ; Arts, Bas - \ 2018
Land Use Policy 79 (2018). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 960 - 967.
Biodiversity - Europe - Forests - Governance - Integrated forest management - Policy change - Policy integration - Resilience - Sustainable forest management
In this introduction to the Special Issue, we set out the key definitions, theoretical concepts and analytical dimensions of integrated forest governance. By so doing, we identify and account for the interplay between forest policy integration and integrated forest management as two constituting elements of integrated forest governance. Second, we summarize the main findings reported in the regular papers, and link them to the outlined definitions, theoretical concepts and analytical dimensions. This introduction further takes stock and classifies the main paradoxes of, barriers to, and drivers of forest policy integration and integrated forest management. It then structures the main empirical findings and conclusions along the key analytical dimensions and links them to the state of the art knowledge. Finally, we draw policy relevant conclusions and outline suggestions for future research.
Simulating long-term effects of bioenergy extraction on dead wood availability at a landscape scale in Sweden
Hof, Anouschka R. ; Löfroth, Therese ; Rudolphi, Jörgen ; Work, Timothy ; Hjältén, Joakim - \ 2018
Forests 9 (2018)8. - ISSN 1999-4907
Biodiversity - Biofuel - Boreal forest - Modelling - Saproxylic species

Wood bioenergy may decrease the reliance on fossil carbon and mitigate anticipated increases in temperature. However, increased use of wood bioenergy may have large impacts on forest biodiversity primarily through the loss of dead wood habitats. We evaluated both the large-scale and long-term effects of different bioenergy extraction scenarios on the availability of dead wood and the suitability of the resulting habitat for saproxylic species, using a spatially explicit forest landscape simulation framework applied in the Swedish boreal forest. We demonstrate that bioenergy extraction scenarios, differing in the level of removal of biomass, can have significant effects on dead wood volumes. Although all of the scenarios led to decreasing levels of dead wood, the scenario aimed at species conservation led to highest volumes of dead wood (about 10 m3 ha-1) and highest connectivity of dead wood patches (mean proximity index of 78), whilst the scenario aimed at reaching zero fossil fuel targets led to the lowest levels (about 8 m3 ha-1) and least connectivity (mean proximity index of 7). Our simulations stress that further exploitation of dead wood from sites where volumes are already below suggested habitat thresholds for saproxylic species will very likely have further negative effects on dead wood dependent species.

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