Effects of feed composition on the fouling on cation-exchange membranes desalinating polymer-flooding produced water
Sosa-Fernandez, P.A. ; Miedema, S.J. ; Bruning, H. ; Leermakers, F.A.M. ; Post, J.W. ; Rijnaarts, H.H.M. - \ 2020
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science (2020). - ISSN 0021-9797
Cation-exchange membrane - Crude oil - Electrodialysis - Gel layer - Membrane fouling - Partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide - Polymer-flooding produced water
Hypothesis: Cation exchange membranes (CEMs) are subject to fouling when utilized to desalinate wastewater from the oil and gas industry, hampering their performance. The kind and extent of the fouling are most likely dependent on the composition of the stream, which in practical applications can vary significantly. Experiments: Fouling experiments were performed on commercial cation exchange membranes, which were used in electrodialysis runs to desalinate solutions of varying composition. The variations included ionic strength, type of ions, amount of viscosifying polyelectrolyte (partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide), presence of crude oil, and surfactants. Performance parameters, like electric potential and pH, were monitored during the runs, after which the membranes were recovered and analyzed. Findings: Fouling was detected on most CEMs and occurred mainly in the presence of the viscosifying polyelectrolyte. Under normal pH conditions (pH ~ 8), the polyelectrolyte fouled the concentrate side of the CEMs, as expected due to electrophoresis. However, by applying a current in the opposite direction, the polyelectrolyte layer could be removed. Precipitation occurred mostly on the opposite side of the membrane, with different morphology depending on the feed composition.
Improving the performance of polymer-flooding produced water electrodialysis through the application of pulsed electric field
Sosa-Fernandez, P.A. ; Post, J.W. ; Ramdlan, M.S. ; Leermakers, F.A.M. ; Bruning, H. ; Rijnaarts, H.H.M. - \ 2020
Desalination 484 (2020). - ISSN 0011-9164
Concentration polarization - Electrodialysis - Membrane fouling - Partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide - Polymer-flooding produced water - Pulsed electric field
Concentration polarization and fouling hamper the desalination of polymer-flooding produced water (PFPW) via electrodialysis (ED). This water is an abundant by-product from the oil and gas industry. A common technique to mitigate both problems is the application of pulsed electric field (PEF), which consists in supplying a constant current during a short time (pulse) followed by a time without current (pause). Accordingly, this work evaluated the application of PEF during the ED of PFPW to improve the process performance and to reduce fouling incidences. The experimental work consisted in performing ED batch runs in a laboratory-scale stack containing commercial ion exchange membranes. Synthetic PFPW was desalinated under different operating regimes until a fixed number of charges were passed. After each experiment, a membrane pair was recovered from the stack and analyzed through diverse techniques. The application of PEF improved the ED performance in terms of demineralization percentage and energy consumption, the latter having reductions of 36% compared to the continuous mode. In general, the shorter the pulses, the higher the demineralization rate and the lower the energy consumption. Regarding the application of different pause lengths, longer pauses yielded lower energy consumptions, but also lower demineralization. Amorphous precipitates composed of polymer and calcium fouled most on the anion and cation exchange membranes, independently of the applied current regime, but in a moderate amount. Finally, the present study relates the observed effects of PEF application to the electrophoresis and diffusion of HPAM, and shows that PEF is a sound option to enhance the desalination of PFPW.
Influence of solution composition on fouling of anion exchange membranes desalinating polymer-flooding produced water
Sosa-Fernandez, P.A. ; Miedema, S.J. ; Bruning, H. ; Leermakers, F.A.M. ; Rijnaarts, H.H.M. ; Post, J.W. - \ 2019
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 557 (2019). - ISSN 0021-9797 - p. 381 - 394.
Concentration polarization - Crude oil - Electrodialysis - Gel layer - Membrane fouling - Partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide - Polyelectrolyte - Polymer-flooding produced water
Hypothesis: Anion exchange membranes (AEMS) are particularly prone to fouling when employed to desalinate polymer flooding produced water (PFPW), an abundant sub-product from the oil and gas industry. The formation of fouling on an AEM will be affected by the composition of the solution, which includes various dissolved salts, partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM), crude oil, and surfactants. Experiments: Electrodialysis experiments were performed to desalinate feed solutions with different compositions, aiming to distinguish between their individual and combined effects. The solutions contained diverse mono- and divalent ions. The analysis included data collected during the desalination and characterization of the fouled AEMs by diverse analytical techniques. Findings: HPAM produced the most severe effects in terms of visible fouling and increase of resistance. This polyelectrolyte fouls the AEM by adsorbing on its surface and by forming a viscous gel layer that hampers the replenishment of ions from the bulk solution. Ca and Mg have a large influence on the formation of thick HPAM gel layers, while the oily compounds have only a minimal influence acting mainly as a destabilizing agent. The membranes also presented scaling consisting of calcium precipitates. The effects of the gel layer were minimized by applying current reversal and foulant-free solution.
Hybrid polyelectrolyte-anion exchange membrane and its interaction with phosphate
Paltrinieri, Laura ; Poltorak, Lukasz ; Chu, Liangyong ; Puts, Theo ; Baak, Willem van; Sudhölter, Ernst J.R. ; Smet, Louis C.P.M. de - \ 2018
Reactive and Functional Polymers 133 (2018). - ISSN 1381-5148 - p. 126 - 135.
Anion-exchange membrane - Electrodialysis - Interaction - Phosphate - Sulfate
We have investigated in detail properties of hybrid polyelectrolyte-anion exchange membranes (AEMs) having different amounts of a guanidinium-modified poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH-Gu) derivative (2, 5, and 8 wt%). The presence of guanidinium groups at the membrane surface was confirmed by XPS. For 2 and 5 wt% the blended membranes are homogeneous, while at 8 wt% segregation is observed by AFM. The membrane permselectivity and ionic electrical resistance for phosphate reduce upon incorporation of the PAH-Gu in the membrane, reflecting an increased co-ion (H+ and Na+) permeation. We conclude that PAH-Gu loaded in the AEM favors an interaction with phosphate. In electrodialysis, using sodium sulfate and sodium dihydrogen phosphate at equal concentrations in the source phase a slight preference for phosphate was observed. Our work shows that this facile membrane fabrication procedure shows great potential in terms of tuning the membrane properties. One way to boost selective ion transport could be by increasing the number of functional groups in the membrane.
Electrodialysis-based desalination and reuse of sea and brackish polymer-flooding produced water
Sosa-Fernandez, P.A. ; Post, J.W. ; Bruning, H. ; Leermakers, F.A.M. ; Rijnaarts, H.H.M. - \ 2018
Desalination 447 (2018). - ISSN 0011-9164 - p. 120 - 132.
Electrodialysis - Partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide - Polymer-flooding - Produced water reuse - Viscosity
The reuse of polymer flooding produced water (PFPW) generated in oil and gas industry is limited by its salt content, making desalination by electrodialysis a promising treatment option. Therefore, this study aimed to 1) assess the technical feasibility of employing electrodialysis to desalinate PFPW generated in assorted scenarios, and 2) evaluate the reuse of the electrodialysis-desalted water to confect polymer-flooding solution. The experimental work involved desalting two kinds of synthetic PFPW solutions, one with relatively low salinity (TDS = 5000 mg/L, brackish PFPW), and another with high salinity (TDS = 32,000 mg/L, sea PFPW), at two different temperatures, and later reusing the desalted solution to prepare viscous solutions. For the electrodialysis runs, the effects of feed composition and temperature on water transport, energy consumption and current efficiency were analyzed. It was found that the presence of polymer did not significantly influence the water transport rate or the specific energy consumption for the seawater cases, but had a measurable effect when desalting brackish water at 20 °C. It was also found that some polymer remained in the stack, the loss occurring faster for the brackish PFPW. Still, both kinds of reused PFPW probed adequate to be employed as a basis for preparing n polymer solution.
Tailoring ion exchange membranes to enable low osmotic water transport and energy efficient electrodialysis
Porada, S. ; Egmond, W.J. van; Post, J.W. ; Saakes, M. ; Hamelers, H.V.M. - \ 2018
Journal of Membrane Science 552 (2018). - ISSN 0376-7388 - p. 22 - 30.
Electrical resistance - Electrodialysis - Ion exchange membrane - Osmosis - Water desalination
Ion exchange membranes have been applied for water desalination since the 1950s in a process called electrodialysis, ED. Parallel to the transport of ions across ion exchange membranes, water molecules are transported from diluate to concentrate compartments reducing ED efficiency. In this study tailor made meshed membranes were prepared by embedding polymeric meshes with significantly reduced open area into an ion conductive polymer. These membranes were characterized to assess their transport properties. It is shown that by changing mesh open area, material and surface properties, it is possible to significantly reduce osmotic water transport. Polyamide mesh embedded in a cation exchange polymer showed an eightfold decrease of the water mass transport coefficient. Unexpectedly, osmotic water transport was not affected when the same mesh material was embedded in an anion exchange polymer. A decrease of the osmotic water transport for meshed anion exchange membranes was achieved by using a polyethylene terephthalate mesh. Despite the associated electrical resistance increase, application of meshed membranes increased diluate yield and allowed for more energy efficient operation in case ED is confined to a low current density regime.
In-situ carboxylate recovery and simultaneous pH control with tailor-configured bipolar membrane electrodialysis during continuous mixed culture fermentation
Arslan, D. ; Zhang, Y. ; Steinbusch, K.J.J. ; Diels, L. ; Hamelers, Hubertus V.M. ; Buisman, C.J.N. ; Wever, H. de - \ 2017
Separation and Purification Technology 175 (2017). - ISSN 1383-5866 - p. 27 - 35.
Bipolar membrane - Electrodialysis - Fermentation - ISPR - Short chain carboxylates
Anaerobic fermentation of organic waste streams by mixed culture generates a mixture of short chain carboxylic acids. To avoid inhibitory effects of the acids or their consumption in internal conversion reactions in the mixed culture environment, in-situ recovery of acids can be beneficial. In this study, electrodialysis with bipolar membranes (EDBM) was applied to a mixed culture fermentation on organic waste streams using a novel EDBM stack with “direct contact” operation mode. We could demonstrate simultaneous recovery of carboxylates from the fermenter by the EDBM stack while in-situ generation and transport of hydroxyl ions to the fermenter allowed direct pH control. Experiments showed productivity increase after EDBM coupling to the fermenter, and complete elimination of external base consumption. It was also observed that EDBM was able to drive the mixed culture fermentation towards acetate and propionate type of carboxylates.