Using implicit rather than explicit measures of emotions
Wijk, René A. de; Noldus, Lucas P.J.J. - \ 2020
Food Quality and Preference (2020). - ISSN 0950-3293
Emotions - Explicit measures - Food - Implicit measures - Laboratory studies - Real-life studies
Implicit and explicit measures are typically combined in laboratory food studies. Results of these laboratory studies often show little additional value of implicit compared to explicit measures. We argue that implicit measures of food experience should not be regarded as a more expensive and more complex equivalent of established explicit measures. Instead, each type of measure provides complementary information. Whereas explicit measures capture especially the sensory aspects of the food itself, implicit measures capture especially the total food experience from pre- to post- consumption, which not only relates to the food itself but also to factors such as the physical and social context in which foods are consumed in real life. This requires that implicit measures are applied outside the conventional laboratory habitat. Fortunately, this becomes increasingly possible with current technical developments.
Does the face show what the mind tells? A comparison between dynamic emotions obtained from facial expressions and Temporal Dominance of Emotions (TDE)
Bommel, Roelien van; Stieger, Markus ; Visalli, Michel ; Wijk, Rene de; Jager, Gerry - \ 2020
Food Quality and Preference 85 (2020). - ISSN 0950-3293
Explicit measures - FaceReader™ (FR) - Facial expressions - Implicit measures - Multiple bite assessment - Temporal Dominance of Emotions (TDE)
Measuring food-evoked emotions dynamically during consumption can be done using explicit self-report methods such as Temporal Dominance of Emotions (TDE), and implicit methods such as recording facial expressions. It is not known whether or how dynamic explicit and implicit emotion measures correspond. This study investigated how explicit self-reported food-evoked emotions evaluated with TDE are related to implicit food-evoked emotions determined from facial expressions. Fifty-six participants evaluated six yogurts with granola pieces varying in size, hardness and concentration, using multiple bite assessment employing TDE for the first, third and fifth bite of consumption. Consumers were video recorded during each bite of consumption and facial expressions were analysed using FaceReader™. Happy, interested, disgusted and bored were similar descriptors measured explicitly and implicitly. Little overlap was observed regarding the type of emotion characterization by FaceReader™ and TDE. Products were mainly discriminated along the valence dimension (positive – negative), and directly reflected product discrimination in terms of liking. FaceReader™ further differentiated the least liked products from each other on arousal and negative facial expressions. Our results indicated little dynamics in food-evoked emotions within and between bites. Facial expressions seemed more dynamic within bites, while explicit food-evoked emotion responses seemed more dynamic between bites. We conclude that FaceReader™ intensities of emotions and dominance durations observed in TDE are not directly comparable and show little overlap. Moreover, food-evoked emotion responses were fairly stable from first to last bite and only very limited changes were observed using implicit and explicit emotions measures.
Hot or not? Conveying sensory information on food packaging through the spiciness-shape correspondence
Gil-Pérez, Ignacio ; Rebollar, Rubén ; Lidón, Iván ; Martín, Javier ; Trijp, Hans C.M. van; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 71 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 197 - 208.
Categorisation - Expectations - Implicit measures - Packaging design - Semiotics
The packaging of a product is a key element in the communication between producers and consumers, so getting the consumer to interpret the packaging visual signs in the desired way is crucial to be successful in the marketplace. However, this is not easy as images can be ambiguous and may be interpreted in different ways. For example, depicting an icon of fire on the front of a bag of nuts may lead the consumer to interpret either that the nuts are spicy or that the nuts have been roasted. This paper addresses this problem and, using this case as an example, assesses if the interpretation of a fire icon (spicy vs roasted) can be modulated by manipulating its shape (angular vs rounded). 66 participants carried out an experiment which results show that there is a crossmodal correspondence between spiciness and pointy shapes and that this association can be used to modulate sensory expectations: in a speeded classification task, the bags of nuts depicting pointy fire icons were categorised more quickly as being spicy than as being roasted, while the opposite was true for the bags of nuts displaying rounded fire icons. In addition, the results of a mediation analysis suggest that this effect occurs indirectly through affective appraisal: the pointy fire icons were judged as being more aggressive than the rounded fire icons, which in turn raised spiciness expectations. These findings contribute to the research on crossmodal correspondences and semiotics by showing that the association between spiciness and abstract shapes can be used to modulate how people interpret an ambiguous image.
Sandwich or sweets? An assessment of two novel implicit association tasks to capture dynamic motivational tendencies and stable evaluations towards foods
Kraus, A.A. ; Piqueras-Fiszman, B. - \ 2016
Food Quality and Preference 49 (2016). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 11 - 19.
Food reward - Hunger - Implicit measures - Motivation - Recoding free Implicit Association Test (IAT-RF)
Desire, purchase, and consumption of fast-moving consumer goods often follow actual motivational states instead of habitual preferences. This has led to an increasing interest within health sciences to investigate the causes for irrational eating behaviours among consumers, particularly with the use of indirect measurements. However, literature results on the relationship between dynamic, motivational concepts (e.g., approach or avoidance tendencies) and evaluative concepts (e.g., positive or negative associations) remain inconclusive, possibly due to the use of different experimental manipulations and methodologies to operationalize these. Our aim with this study is to contribute to this line of research by developing a novel methodology that is based on structurally identical indirect measurement procedures. We measured explicit desire (motivation) and liking (evaluation) of two different foods (sandwich and sweets) on visual analogue scales, as well as implicit approach-avoidance tendencies and implicit positive-negative associations with two variants of the recoding-free Implicit Association Tests (IAT-RFs). At first, all participants (N=108) unwrapped, smelled, and explicitly judged the two foods, then all watched a video clip (during which half of the participants were allowed to eat the sandwich but not the sweets), and finally they all performed the two indirect measurements. Thus, desire for the foods was experimentally manipulated between participants. We hypothesized that a valid measure should show an interaction of food category (manipulated within participants) and desire fulfilment. Hence, explicit desire and implicit approach motivation should be higher for participants that were not allowed to consume the sandwich and fulfil their desire, compared to the group that was able to eat the sandwich during the experiment. Results confirm our hypothesis. The motivational IAT-RF correctly assessed approach tendencies towards the sandwich in the group that did not eat, and approach tendencies towards the sweets in the group that just ate a sandwich. In contrast, the evaluative IAT-RF measure did not reflect a clear "preference" towards any of the two popular products in both groups. This research provides a potentially relevant methodology for consumer studies' by offering a chance to differentiate between implicit motivational and evaluative concepts within consumer behaviour.