Comparative genomics of plant pathogenic Botrytis species with distinct host specificity
Valero-Jiménez, Claudio A. ; Veloso, Javier ; Staats, Martijn ; Kan, Jan A.L. van - \ 2019
BMC Genomics 20 (2019)1. - ISSN 1471-2164
Effector - Grey mould - Necrotroph - Secondary metabolite - Secretome
Background: Fungi of the genus Botrytis (presently containing ~ 35 species) are able to infect more than 1400 different plant species and cause losses in a wide range of crops of economic importance. The best studied species is B. cinerea, which has a broad host range and is one of the best studied necrotrophic plant pathogenic fungi. Most other Botrytis spp. have a narrow host range and have been studied in less detail. To characterize genomic variation among different representatives of Botrytis spp., we sequenced and annotated the draft genomes of nine Botrytis species: B. calthae, B. convoluta, B. elliptica, B. galanthina, B. hyacinthi, B. narcissicola, B. paeoniae, B. porri and B. tulipae. Results: Bioinformatics and comparative genomics tools were applied to determine a core of 7668 shared protein families in all Botrytis species, which grouped them in two distinct phylogenetic clades. The secretome of all nine Botrytis spp. was similar in number (ranging from 716 to 784 predicted proteins). A detailed analysis of the molecular functions of the secretome revealed that shared activities were highly similar. Orthologs to effectors functionally studied in B. cinerea were also present in the other Botrytis species. A complex pattern of presence/absence of secondary metabolite biosynthetic key enzymes was observed. Conclusions: Comparative genomics of Botrytis show that overall, species share the main signatures and protein families in the secreted proteins, and of known effectors. Our study provides leads to study host range determinants in the genus Botrytis and provides a stepping stone to elucidate the roles of effector candidates in the infection process of these species.
SnTox1, a Parastagonospora nodorum necrotrophic effector, is a dual-function protein that facilitates infection while protecting from wheat-produced chitinases
Liu, Zhaohui ; Gao, Yuanyuan ; Kim, Yong Min ; Faris, Justin D. ; Shelver, Weilin L. ; Wit, Pierre J.G.M. de; Xu, Steven S. ; Friesen, Timothy L. - \ 2016
New Phytologist 211 (2016)3. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 1052 - 1064.
Parastagonosopora nodorum - Chitin - Host-selective toxin - Necrotroph - Necrotrophic effector - Programmed cell death (PCD) - Wheat (Triticum aestivum) chitinases
SnTox1 induces programmed cell death and the up-regulation of pathogenesis-related genes including chitinases. Additionally, SnTox1 has structural homology to several plant chitin-binding proteins. Therefore, we evaluated SnTox1 for chitin binding and localization. We transformed an avirulent strain of Parastagonospora nodorum as well as three nonpathogens of wheat (Triticum aestivum), including a necrotrophic pathogen of barley, a hemibiotrophic pathogen of sugar beet and a saprotroph, to evaluate the role of SnTox1 in infection and in protection from wheat chitinases. SnTox1 bound chitin and an SnTox1-green fluorescent fusion protein localized to the mycelial cell wall. Purified SnTox1 induced necrosis in the absence of the pathogen when sprayed on the leaf surface and appeared to remain on the leaf surface while inducing both epidermal and mesophyll cell death. SnTox1 protected the different fungi from chitinase degradation. SnTox1 was sufficient to change the host range of a necrotrophic pathogen but not a hemibiotroph or saprotroph. Collectively, this work shows that SnTox1 probably interacts with a receptor on the outside of the cell to induce cell death to acquire nutrients, but SnTox1 accomplishes a second role in that it protects against one aspect of the defense response, namely the effects of wheat chitinases.