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Experimentally induced antipredator responses are mediated by social and environmental factors
Groenewoud, Frank ; Kingma, Sjouke A. ; Bebbington, Kat ; Richardson, David S. ; Komdeur, Jan - \ 2019
Behavioral Ecology 30 (2019)4. - ISSN 1045-2249 - p. 986 - 992.
Antipredator defense - Nest defense - Nest predation - Parental investment - Seychelles warbler - Trade-off
Nest predation is a common cause of reproductive failure for many bird species, and various antipredator defense behaviors have evolved to reduce the risk of nest predation. However, trade-offs between current reproductive duties and future reproduction often limit the parent’s ability to respond to nest predation risk. Individual responses to experimentally increased nest predation risk can give insights into these trade-offs. Here, we investigate whether social and ecological factors affect individual responses to predation risk by experimentally manipulating the risk of nest predation using taxidermic mounts in the cooperative breeding Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis). Our results show that dominant females, but not males, alarm called more often when they confront a nest predator model alone than when they do so with a partner, and that individuals that confront a predator together attacked more than those that did so alone. Dominant males increased their antipredator defense by spending more time nest guarding after a presentation with a nest predator, compared with a nonpredator control, but no such effect was found for females, who did not increase the time spent incubating. In contrast to incubation by females, nest guarding responses by dominant males depended on the presence of other group members and food availability. These results suggest that while female investment in incubation is always high and not dependent on social and ecological conditions, males have a lower initial investment, which allows them to respond to sudden changes in nest predation risk.
Synergy or trade-off? A framework and application to benchmark yield, quality and revenue of potato production
Wang, N. ; Reidsma, P. ; Wang, Z.Q. ; Ittersum, M.K. van - \ 2019
Field Crops Research 240 (2019). - ISSN 0378-4290 - p. 116 - 124.
Potato - Quality - Revenue - Trade-off - Yield - Yield gap analysis
The concept of yield gap is well-known to benchmark yields of crops. However, quality is another major aspect that influences farm revenues and drives management. Increasing yield may not be economically viable if this is at the expense of degrading quality such that revenue is negatively influenced. This study aimed to answer the question whether yield and quality could be maximized at the same time. A framework was developed to assess crop performance based on yield, quality, and revenue. The framework includes seven steps from identifying the important quality traits to quantifying quality gaps and yield gaps and their influence on revenue. The framework enriches the yield gap notion by adding quality aspects. The concept of optimum quality (Qp) was introduced as the quality value (range) of a particular quality trait that is most desired for a specific market. The framework was applied to a case study concerning potato production for a French Fries factory in China. Three quality traits of potato were assessed (i.e., dry matter percentage, tuber size classes, and number of tubers in 10 kg). No trade-off between yield and quality was found for the tested quality traits. The results indicated that there was large scope to improve quality for some of the quality traits. The relative revenue gap (Eg-f) was large (43%), and was attributed to both the relative yield gap (Yg-f, 26%), and quality aspects (i.e., low dry matter percentage and high small tuber weight percentage). Enhancing yield towards its current maximum level (55 ton fresh matter ha−1) was associated with improvement in quality and revenue.
Fair gain allocation in eco-efficient vendor-managed inventory cooperation
Stellingwerf, H.M. ; Kanellopoulos, A. ; Cruijssen, F.C.A.M. ; Bloemhof, J.M. - \ 2019
Journal of Cleaner Production 231 (2019). - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 746 - 755.
Cooperation - Cooperative game theory - Logistics - Routing - Trade-off
Transportation is not always organised efficiently, which causes unnecessary costs and CO2 emissions. Vendor-managed inventory (VMI) has been suggested as a form of cooperation that can reduce economic and environmental impacts of transportation and consequently improve eco-efficiency of the supply chain. Establishing viable forms of VMI cooperation requires a fair distribution of the cooperation's economic benefits. Cooperative game theory (CGT) research is used to fairly allocate both benefits and costs. However, the environmental contribution of partners has often been ignored in the benefit allocation. In this study, the Shapley value (a commonly used CGT method) is used to share the monetary gains in a way that reflects the partners' contributions to cost and emissions savings. The method is applied to evaluate the allocation of economic and environmental benefits of vendor-managed inventory between cooperating supermarket chains in the Netherlands. The findings show that there is a set of eco-efficient solutions resulting in lower costs and CO2 emissions compared to the current situation. For each of the eco-efficient solutions, the relative importance of saving costs and of saving emissions was quantified, and based on the importance weights, a cost allocation was found. For all partners that contribute to saving both cost and CO2 emissions, this approach results in cost savings, and therefore, the approach can be considered fair. Also, this approach helps to stimulate long-term eco-efficient forms of cooperation.
Economics of social trade-off : Balancing wastewater treatment cost and ecosystem damage
Jiang, Yu ; Dinar, Ariel ; Hellegers, Petra - \ 2018
Journal of Environmental Management 211 (2018). - ISSN 0301-4797 - p. 42 - 52.
Ecosystem response - Ecosystem valuation - Social optimization - Trade-off - Treatment cost
We have developed a social optimization model that integrates the financial and ecological costs associated with wastewater treatment and ecosystem damage. The social optimal abatement level of water pollution is determined by finding the trade-off between the cost of pollution control and its resulting ecosystem damage. The model is applied to data from the Lake Taihu region in China to demonstrate this trade-off. A wastewater treatment cost function is estimated with a sizable sample from China, and an ecological damage cost function is estimated following an ecosystem service valuation framework. Results show that the wastewater treatment cost function has economies of scale in facility capacity, and diseconomies in pollutant removal efficiency. Results also show that a low value of the ecosystem service will lead to serious ecological damage. One important policy implication is that the assimilative capacity of the lake should be enhanced by forbidding over extraction of water from the lake. It is also suggested that more work should be done to improve the accuracy of the economic valuation.
Tradeoff between stem hydraulic efficiency and mechanical strength affects leaf-stem allometry in 28 Ficus tree species
Fan, Ze Xin ; Sterck, Frank ; Zhang, Shi Bao ; Fu, Pei Li ; Hao, Guang You - \ 2017
Frontiers in Plant Science 8 (2017). - ISSN 1664-462X - 10 p.
Biomass allocation - Ficus - Leaf-stem relationship - Mechanical strength - Theoretical hydraulic conductivity - Trade-off - Wood density
Leaf-stem allometry is an important spectrum that linked to biomass allocation and life history strategy in plants, although the determinants and evolutionary significance of leaf-stem allometry remain poorly understood. Leaf and stem architectures - including stem area/mass, petiole area/mass, lamina area/mass, leaf number, specific leaf area (LA), and mass-based leafing intensity (LI) - were measured on the current-year branches for 28 Ficus species growing in a common garden in SW China. The leaf anatomical traits, stem wood density (WD), and stem anatomical and mechanical properties of these species were also measured. We analyzed leaf-stem allometric relationships and their associations with stem hydraulic ad mechanical properties using species-level data and phylogenetically independent contrasts. We found isometric relationship between leaf lamina area/mass and stem area/mass, suggesting that the biomass allocation to leaf was independent to stem size. However, allometric relationship between LA/mass and petiole mass was found, indicating large leaves invest a higher fractional of biomass in petiole than small ones. LI, i.e., leaf numbers per unit of stem mass, was negatively related with leaf and stem size. Species with larger terminal branches tend to have larger vessels and theoretical hydraulic conductivity, but lower WD and mechanical strength. The size of leaf lamina, petiole, and stem was correlated positively with stem theoretical hydraulic conductivity, but negatively with stem WD and mechanical strength. Our results suggest that leaf-stem allometry in Ficus species was shaped by the trade-off between stem hydraulic efficiency and mechanical stability, supporting a functional interpretation of the relationship between leaf and stem dimensions.
Growing more positive with age : The relationship between reproduction and survival in aging flies
Heuvel, Joost van den; Zandveld, Jelle ; Zwaan, Bas J. ; Kirkwood, Thomas B.L. ; Shanley, Daryl P. - \ 2017
Experimental Gerontology 90 (2017). - ISSN 0531-5565 - p. 34 - 42.
Disposable soma theory - Dynamic programming - Energy allocation Y-model - Lifespan - Reproduction - Trade-off
Populations of laboratory animals that are selected for increased lifespan often show negative correlated responses in early fecundity. However, late fecundity and/or total lifetime fecundity can be higher in the populations selected for increased lifespan. This has been interpreted by some as being at odds with the disposable soma theory, which predicts decreased lifespan to increase total reproductive output. Alternatively, the Y–model explores the effects of variation in resource allocation and acquisition on life histories. In this model, a negative relationship between lifespan and reproduction can be viewed as variation in allocation, whereas a positive relationship is the result of variation in acquisition. However, a frequently neglected complication of the Y-model is that older individuals often show a decline in resource acquisition. Therefore, differential allocation to maintenance and survival might affect this decline in late-life acquisition which will affect resource availability across the whole lifespan. In this paper we show that a model which incorporates the ideas of the Y-model, the disposable soma theory, and an age-related decrease in resource acquisition, i.e. feeding senescence, can explain how the relationship between fecundity and lifespan changes with age. Furthermore, by modeling environments with contrasting extrinsic mortality rates, we explored how the outcome of the model depended on the relative importance of early and late-life reproduction. In high mortality environments a relatively higher early fecundity, lower late fecundity, and lower lifespans were more optimal, whereas the opposite was true for low mortality environments. We applied predictions from the model to a cohort of individually-housed female Drosophila melanogaster flies for which we measured age specific fecundity and lifespan. Early fecundity was negatively associated with lifespan, while late fecundity related positively with lifespan in the same cohort. This verified that the mechanism of feeding senescence could explain patterns for age specific relationships between lifespan and fecundity.
The immunomodulatory role of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis : Proximate mechanism for reproduction-immune trade offs?
Segner, Helmut ; Kemenade, Lidy van; Chadzinska, Magdalena - \ 2017
Developmental and Comparative Immunology 66 (2017). - ISSN 0145-305X - p. 43 - 60.
Evolution - Hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis - Immunity - Life history - Neuroendocrine - Reproduction - Trade-off - Vertebrate
The present review discusses the communication between the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis and the immune system of vertebrates, attempting to situate the HPG-immune interaction into the context of life history trade-offs between reproductive and immune functions. More specifically, (i) we review molecular and cellular interactions between hormones of the HPG axis, and, as far as known, the involved mechanisms on immune functions, (ii) we evaluate whether the HPG-immune crosstalk serves as proximate mechanism mediating reproductive-immune trade-offs, and (iii) we ask whether the nature of the HPG-immune interaction is conserved throughout vertebrate evolution, despite the changes in immune functions, reproductive modes, and life histories. In all vertebrate classes studied so far, HPG hormones have immunomodulatory functions, and indications exist that they contribute to reproduction-immunity resource trade-offs, although the very limited information available for most non-mammalian vertebrates makes it difficult to judge how comparable or different the interactions are. There is good evidence that the HPG-immune crosstalk is part of the proximate mechanisms underlying the reproductive-immune trade-offs of vertebrates, but it is only one factor in a complex network of factors and processes. The fact that the HPG-immune interaction is flexible and can adapt to the functional and physiological requirements of specific life histories. Moreover, the assumption of a relatively fixed pattern of HPG influence on immune functions, with, for example, androgens always leading to immunosuppression and estrogens always being immunoprotective, is probably oversimplified, but the HPG-immune interaction can vary depending on the physiological and envoironmental context. Finally, the HPG-immune interaction is not only driven by resource trade-offs, but additional factors such as, for instance, the evolution of viviparity shape this neuroendocrine-immune relationship.
QUICKScan as a quick and participatory methodology for problem identification and scoping in policy processes
Verweij, Peter ; Janssen, Sander ; Braat, Leon ; Eupen, Michiel van; Pérez Soba, Marta ; Winograd, Manuel ; Winter, Wim de; Cormont, Anouk - \ 2016
Environmental Science & Policy 66 (2016). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 47 - 61.
Decision making - Environmental policy - Impact assessment - Participatory - Spatial planning - Trade-off
Policy making is required in cases in which a public good needs to be either maintained or created, and private or civil initiatives cannot deal alone with this. Policy making thus starts with a phase of problem identification and determining whether there is a problem that needs to be dealt with. Rapidly evolving contexts exert influence on policy makers who have to take decisions much faster and more accurately than in the past, also facing greater complexity. There is a need for a method that lowers the lead time of the exploratory phase of the policy cycle. At the same time the method should create a joint understanding of the most important interactions. This paper proposes QUICKScan, a method, process and spatially explicit tool, to jointly scope policy problems in a participatory setting, investigate the most important interactions and feedbacks and assesses the state of knowledge and data of relevance to the problem. QUICKScan uses strongly moderated participatory workshops bringing together a wide range of stakeholders relevant to the policy issue. These moderated workshops jointly build an expert system in a spatially explicit tool using functionality of bayesian belief networks, python programming, simple map algebra and knowledge matrices, with a strong focus on visualization of results. QUICKScan has been applied in 70 different applications in a range of different policy contexts, stakeholders and physical locations. Through these applications participants were able to internalize the knowledge that was usually handed to them in briefs and reports, to develop a joint understanding of the main interactions and their link to impacts and to develop a problem statement and solution space in a reduced lead time. Ultimately, QUICKScan demonstrates another role of science, not solely as a knowledge production, but also facilitating the knowledge consumption.
Benefits and costs of oil palm expansion in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, under different policy scenarios
Sumarga, Elham ; Hein, Lars - \ 2016
Regional Environmental Change (2016). - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 1011 - 1021.
Central Kalimantan - Ecosystem services - Logistic regression - Moratorium - Oil palm expansion - Trade-off
Deforestation and oil palm expansion in Central Kalimantan province are among the highest in Indonesia. This study examines the physical and monetary impacts of oil palm expansion in Central Kalimantan up to 2025 under three policy scenarios. Our modelling approach combines a spatial logistic regression model with a set of rules governing land use change as a function of the policy scenario. Our physical and monetary analyses include palm oil expansion and five other ecosystem services: timber, rattan, paddy rice, carbon sequestration, and orangutan habitat (the last service is analysed in physical units only). In monetary terms, our analysis comprises the contribution of land and ecosystems to economic production, as measured according to the valuation approach of the System of National Accounts. We focus our analysis on government-owned land which covers around 97 % of the province, where the main policy issues are. We show that, in the business-as-usual scenario, the societal costs of carbon emissions and the loss of other ecosystem services far exceed the benefits from increased oil palm production. This is, in particular, related to the conversion of peatlands. We also show that, for Central Kalimantan, the moratorium scenario, which is modelled based on the moratorium currently in place in Indonesia, generates important economic benefits compared to the business-as-usual scenario. In the moratorium scenario, however, there is still conversion of forest to plantation and associated loss of ecosystem services. We developed an alternative, sustainable production scenario based on an ecosystem services approach and show that this policy scenario leads to higher net social benefits including some more space for oil palm expansion.
Role of pleiotropy during adaptation of TEM-1 β-lactamase to two novel antibiotics
Schenk, M.F. ; Witte, Sariette ; Salverda, M.L.M. ; Koopmanschap, Bertha ; Krug, Joachim ; Visser, J.A.G.M. de - \ 2015
Evolutionary Applications 8 (2015)3. - ISSN 1752-4563 - p. 248 - 260.
Antibiotic resistance - Epistasis - Pleiotropy - Protein evolution - TEM-1 β-lactamase - Trade-off
Pleiotropy is a key feature of the genotype-phenotype map, and its form and extent have many evolutionary implications, including for the dynamics of adaptation and the evolution of specialization. Similarly, pleiotropic effects of antibiotic resistance mutations may affect the evolution of antibiotic resistance in the simultaneous or fluctuating presence of different antibiotics. Here, we study the role of pleiotropy during the in vitro adaptation of the enzyme TEM-1 β-lactamase to two novel antibiotics, cefotaxime (CTX) and ceftazidime (CAZ). We subject replicate lines for four rounds of evolution to selection with CTX and CAZ alone, and in their combined and fluctuating presence. Evolved alleles show positive correlated responses when selecting with single antibiotics. Nevertheless, pleiotropic constraints are apparent from the effects of single mutations and from selected alleles showing smaller correlated than direct responses and smaller responses after simultaneous and fluctuating selection with both than with single antibiotics. We speculate that these constraints result from structural changes in the oxyanion pocket surrounding the active site, where accommodation of CTX and the larger CAZ is balanced against their positioning with respect to the active site. Our findings suggest limited benefits from the combined or fluctuating application of these related cephalosporins for containing antibiotic resistance.
Plant resistance to mechanical stress : Evidence of an avoidance-tolerance trade-off
Puijalon, Sara ; Bouma, Tjeerd J. ; Douady, Christophe J. ; Groenendael, Jan van; Anten, Niels P.R. ; Martel, Evelyne ; Bornette, Gudrun - \ 2011
New Phytologist 191 (2011)4. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 1141 - 1149.
Biomechanics - Evolution - Hydrodynamics - Mechanical stress - Strategies - Submerged aquatic vegetation - Trade-off
External mechanical forces resulting from the pressure exerted by wind or water movement are a major stress factor for plants and may cause regular disturbances in many ecosystems. A plant's ability to resist these forces relies either on minimizing the forces encountered by the plant (avoidance strategy), or on maximizing its resistance to breakage (tolerance strategy). We investigated plant resistance strategies using aquatic vegetation as a model, and examined whether avoidance and tolerance are negatively correlated. We tested the avoidance-tolerance correlation across 28 species using a phylogenetically corrected analysis, after construction of a molecular phylogeny for the species considered. Different species demonstrated contrasting avoidance and tolerance and we demonstrated a significant negative relationship between the two strategies, which suggests an avoidance-tolerance trade-off. Negative relationships may result from costs that each strategy incurs or from constraints imposed by physical laws on plant tissues. The existence of such a trade-off has important ecological and evolutionary consequences. It would lead to constraints on the evolution and variation of both strategies, possibly limiting their evolution and may constrain many morphological, anatomical and architectural traits that underlie avoidance and tolerance.