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A Lowly Digestible-Starch Diet after Weaning Enhances Exogenous Glucose Oxidation Rate in Female, but Not in Male, Mice
Fernández-Calleja, José M.S. ; Bouwman, Lianne M.S. ; Swarts, Hans J.M. ; Billecke, Nils ; Oosting, Annemarie ; Keijer, Jaap ; Schothorst, Evert M. van - \ 2019
Nutrients 11 (2019)9. - ISSN 2072-6643
13C-starch - amylase - amylopectin - amylose - C57BL mice - glucose oxidation - glycaemic index - indirect calorimetry
Starches of low digestibility are associated with improved glucose metabolism. We hypothesise that a lowly digestible-starch diet (LDD) versus a highly digestible-starch diet (HDD) improves the capacity to oxidise starch, and that this is sex-dependent. Mice were fed a LDD or a HDD for 3 weeks directly after weaning. Body weight (BW), body composition (BC), and digestible energy intake (dEI) were determined weekly. At the end of the intervention period, whole-body energy expenditure (EE), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), hydrogen production, and the oxidation of an oral 13C-labelled starch bolus were measured by extended indirect calorimetry. Pancreatic amylase activity and total 13C hepatic enrichment were determined in females immediately before and 4 h after administration of the starch bolus. For both sexes, BW, BC, and basal EE and RER were not affected by the type of starch, but dEI and hydrogen production were increased by the LDD. Only in females, total carbohydrate oxidation and starch-derived glucose oxidation in response to the starch bolus were higher in LDD versus HDD mice; this was not accompanied by differences in amylase activity or hepatic partitioning of the 13C label. These results show that starch digestibility impacts glucose metabolism differently in females versus males.
Direct and Long-Term Metabolic Consequences of Lowly vs. Highly-Digestible Starch in the Early Post-Weaning Diet of Mice
Fernández-Calleja, José M.S. ; Bouwman, Lianne M.S. ; Swarts, Hans J.M. ; Oosting, Annemarie ; Keijer, Jaap ; Schothorst, Evert M. van - \ 2018
Nutrients 10 (2018)11. - ISSN 2072-6643
adipose tissue - amylopectin - amylose - C57BL mice - carbohydrates - glycemic index - indirect calorimetry - metabolic flexibility - nutrition - sexual dimorphism
Starches of low and high digestibility have different metabolic effects. Here, we examined whether this gives differential metabolic programming when fed in the immediate post-weaning period. Chow-fed mice were time-mated, and their nests were standardized and cross-fostered at postnatal days 1⁻2. After postnatal week (PW) 3, individually housed female and male offspring were switched to a lowly-digestible (LDD) or highly-digestible starch diet (HDD) for three weeks. All of the mice received the same high-fat diet (HFD) for nine weeks thereafter. Energy and substrate metabolism and carbohydrate fermentation were studied at the end of the HDD/LDD and HFD periods by extended indirect calorimetry. Glucose tolerance (PW 11) and metabolic flexibility (PW14) were analyzed. Directly in response to the LDD versus the HDD, females showed smaller adipocytes with less crown-like structures in gonadal white adipose tissue, while males had a lower fat mass and higher whole body fat oxidation levels. Both LDD-fed females and males showed an enlarged intestinal tract. Although most of the phenotypical differences disappeared in adulthood in both sexes, females exposed to LDD versus HDD in the early post-weaning period showed improved metabolic flexibility in adulthood. Cumulatively, these results suggest that the type of starch introduced after weaning could, at least in females, program later-life health.
Expression of an amylosucrase gene in potato results in larger starch granules with novel properties
Huang, X. ; Nazarian, F. ; Vincken, J.P. ; Ji, Q. ; Visser, R.G.F. ; Trindade, L.M. - \ 2014
Planta 240 (2014)2. - ISSN 0032-0935 - p. 409 - 421.
antisense inhibition - branching enzyme - tuber - synthase - glycogen - amylopectin - reduction - amylose - sucrose - size
Main conclusion - Expression of amylosucrase in potato resulted in larger starch granules with rough surfaces and novel physico-chemical properties, including improved freeze–thaw stability, higher end viscosity, and better enzymatic digestibility. Starch is a very important carbohydrate in many food and non-food applications. In planta modification of starch by genetic engineering has significant economic and environmental benefits as it makes the chemical or physical post-harvest modification obsolete. An amylosucrase from Neisseria polysaccharea fused to a starch-binding domain (SBD) was introduced in two potato genetic backgrounds to synthesize starch granules with altered composition, and thereby to broaden starch applications. Expression of SBD–amylosucrase fusion protein in the amylose-containing potato resulted in starch granules with a rough surface, a twofold increase in median granule size, and altered physico-chemical properties including improved freeze–thaw stability, higher end viscosity, and better enzymatic digestibility. These effects are possibly a result of the physical interaction between amylosucrase and starch granules. The modified larger starches not only have great benefit to the potato starch industry by reducing losses during starch isolation, but also have an advantage in many food applications such as frozen food due to its extremely high freeze–thaw stability.
Expression of an engineered granule-bound Escherichia coli glycogen branching enzyme in potato results in severe morphological changes in starch granules
Huang, X. ; Nazarian Firouzabadi, F. ; Vincken, J.P. ; Ji, Q. ; Suurs, L.C.J.M. ; Visser, R.G.F. ; Trindade, L.M. - \ 2013
Plant Biotechnology Journal 11 (2013)4. - ISSN 1467-7644 - p. 470 - 479.
binding domain - gene-expression - beta-amylase - freeze-thaw - amylose - biosynthesis - amylopectin - arabidopsis - synthase - protein
The Escherichia coli glycogen branching enzyme (GLGB) was fused to either the C- or N-terminus of a starch-binding domain (SBD) and expressed in two potato genetic backgrounds: the amylose-free mutant (amf) and an amylose-containing line (Kardal). Regardless of background or construct used, a large amount of GLGB/SBD fusion protein was accumulated inside the starch granules, however, without an increase in branching. The presence of GLGB/SBD fusion proteins resulted in altered morphology of the starch granules in both genetic backgrounds. In the amf genetic background, the starch granules showed both amalgamated granules and porous starch granules, whereas in Kardal background, the starch granules showed an irregular rough surface. The altered starch granules in both amf and Kardal backgrounds were visible from the initial stage of potato tuber development. High-throughput transcriptomic analysis showed that expression of GLGB/SBD fusion protein in potato tubers did not affect the expression level of most genes directly involved in the starch biosynthesis except for the up-regulation of a beta-amylase gene in Kardal background. The beta-amylase protein could be responsible for the degradation of the extra branches potentially introduced by GLGB.
Physicochemical properties of potato and cassava starches and their mutants in relation to their structural properties
Gomand, S.V. ; Lamberts, L. ; Visser, R.G.F. ; Delcour, J.A. - \ 2010
Food Hydrocolloids 24 (2010)4. - ISSN 0268-005X - p. 424 - 433.
rheological properties - cereal starches - rice starches - amylose-free - amylopectin - retrogradation - gelatinization - suspensions - granules - paste
Physicochemical properties [swelling power (SP), pasting behaviour and retrogradation] of five wild type (wt), five amylose free (amf), four high-amylose (ha) potato starches (ps) and one wt and amf cassava starch (cs) were investigated. While swelling of wtps occurred in two phases, amfps showed a very fast swelling and no gel of swollen granules was observed at higher temperatures (>90 °C). Haps underwent only restricted swelling. SP of cassava starches were lower than those of potato starches. Wtps leached mainly amylose (AM) during heating at low temperatures. Molecules of higher molecular weight (MW) leached out at higher temperatures. Longer amylopectin (AP) chains [degree of polymerisation (DP) > 18] inhibited swelling while short chains (DP <14) favoured swelling. Starch pasting behaviour of 5.0 and 8.0% starch suspensions was studied using Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA). For 5.0% suspensions, increased levels of high-MW AP and decreased levels of AM molecules led to higher peak viscosity. Longer AP chains (DP > 18) depressed peak viscosity, while short chains (DP <14) increased peak viscosity for both concentrations. At 8.0%, peak viscosity increased with starch granule size. After 1 day of storage of gelatinised starch suspensions, wtps and especially amfps showed only limited AP retrogradation. In contrast, the high enthalpies of retrograded AP (¿Hretro) and peak and conclusion temperatures of retrogradation (Tp,retro and Tc,retro) of haps suggested partial cocrystallisation between AM and AP. Chains with DP 18–25 seemed to be more liable to AP retrogradation. Wtcs and amfcs did not retrograde at room temperature.
A stochastic model for predicting dextrose equivalent and saccharide composition during hydrolysis of starch by alpha-amylase
Besselink, T. ; Baks, T. ; Janssen, A.E.M. ; Boom, R.M. - \ 2008
Biotechnology and Bioengineering 100 (2008)4. - ISSN 0006-3592 - p. 684 - 697.
monte-carlo-simulation - bacillus-licheniformis - enzymatic-hydrolysis - soluble starch - kinetic-model - potato starch - amylopectin - amylolysis - enzymes - thermostability
A stochastic model was developed that was used to describe the formation and breakdown of all saccharides involved during -amylolytic starch hydrolysis in time. This model is based on the subsite maps found in literature for Bacillus amyloliquefaciens -amylase (BAA) and Bacillus licheniformis -amylase (BLA). Carbohydrate substrates were modeled in a relatively simple two-dimensional matrix. The predicted weight fractions of carbohydrates ranging from glucose to heptasaccharides and the predicted dextrose equivalent showed the same trend and order of magnitude as the corresponding experimental values. However, the absolute values were not the same. In case a well-defined substrate such as maltohexaose was used, comparable differences between the experimental and simulated data were observed indicating that the substrate model for starch does not cause these deviations. After changing the subsite map of BLA and the ratio between the time required for a productive and a non-productive attack for BAA, a better agreement between the model data and the experimental data was observed. Although the model input should be improved for more accurate predictions, the model can already be used to gain knowledge about the concentrations of all carbohydrates during hydrolysis with an -amylase. In addition, this model also seems to be applicable to other depolymerase-based systems
Crystallinity changes in wheat starch during the bread-making process: starch crystallinity in the bread crust
Primo-Martin, C. ; Nieuwenhuijzen, N.H. van; Hamer, R.J. ; Vliet, T. van - \ 2007
Journal of Cereal Science 45 (2007)2. - ISSN 0733-5210 - p. 219 - 226.
heat-moisture treatment - mas nmr-spectroscopy - c-13 cp/mas nmr - phase-transitions - water-system - amylose - gelatinization - amylopectin - polymorphs - potato
The crystallinity of starch in crispy bread crust was quantified using several different techniques. Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) demonstrated the presence of granular starch in the crust and remnants of granules when moving towards the crumb. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed an endothermic transition at 70 degrees C associated with the melting of crystalline amylopectin. The relative starch crystallinity, as determined by X-ray and DSC, from different types of breads was found to lie between 36% and 41 % (X-ray) and between 32% and 43 % (DSC) for fresh bread crust. Storage of breads in a closed box (22 degrees C) for up to 20 days showed an increase in crust crystallinity due to amylopectin retrogradation both by X-ray and DSC. However, DSC thermograms of 1-day old bread crust showed no amylopectin retrogradation and after 2 days storage, antylopectin retrogradation in the crust was hardly detectable. C-13 CP MAS NMR was used to characterize the physical state of starch in flour and bread crumb and crust. The intensity of the peaks showed a dependence on the degree of starch gelatinization. Comparison of the results for two different types of bread showed that the baking process influenced the extent of starch crystallinity in the bread crust. Antylopectin retrogradation, which is the main process responsible for the staling of bread crumb, cannot be responsible for crispness deterioration of the crust as amylopectin retrogradation upon storage of breads could only be measured in the crust after 2 days storage. Under the same conditions loss of bread crust crispness proceeds over shorter times.
Accumulation of multiple-repeat starch-binding domains (SBD2-SBD5) does not reduce amylose content of potato starch granules
Nazarian, F. ; Vincken, J.P. ; Ji, Q. ; Suurs, L.C.J.M. ; Buléon, A. - \ 2007
Planta 225 (2007)4. - ISSN 0032-0935 - p. 919 - 933.
aspergillus-niger glucoamylase - physicochemical properties - antisense inhibition - synthase isoforms - tubers - amylopectin - expression - tissue - plants - size
This study investigates whether it is possible to produce an amylose-free potato starch by displacing the amylose enzyme, granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI), from the starch granule by engineered, high-affinity, multiple-repeat family 20 starch-binding domains (SBD2, SBD3, SBD4, and SBD5). The constructs were introduced in the amylose-containing potato cultivar (cv. Kardal), and the starches of the resulting transformants were compared with those of SBD2-expressing amylose-free (amf) potato clones. It is shown that a correctly sized protein accumulated in the starch granules of the various transformants. The amount of SBD accumulated in starch increased progressively from SBD to SBD3; however, it seemed as if less SBD4 and SBD5 was accumulated. A reduction in amylose content was not achieved in any of the transformants. However, it is shown that SBDn expression can affect physical processes underlying granule assembly, in both genetic potato backgrounds, without altering the primary structure of the constituent starch polymers and the granule melting temperature. Granule size distribution of the starches obtained from transgenic Kardal plants were similar to those from untransformed controls, irrespective of the amount of SBDn accumulated. In the amf background, granule size is severely affected. In both the Kardal and amf background, apparently normal oval-shaped starch granules were composed of multiple smaller ones, as evidenced from the many ¿Maltese crosses¿ within these granules. The results are discussed in terms of different binding modes of SBD.
Molecular breakdown of corn starch by thermal and mechanical effects
Einde, R.M. van den; Akkermans, C. ; Goot, A.J. van der; Boom, R.M. - \ 2004
Carbohydrate Polymers 56 (2004)4. - ISSN 0144-8617 - p. 415 - 422.
twin-screw extrusion - waxy maize starch - weight degradation - amylopectin - depolymerization - fractions - rheology
The molecular weight reduction of corn starch at 30-43% moisture during thermal treatment at temperatures 90-160degreesC and during well-defined thermomechanical treatment at temperatures 90-140degreesC was investigated. Thermal treatment resulted, during the first 5 min in a decrease in molecular weight as measured by intrinsic viscosity, after which longer heating had no significant effect. Higher moisture contents and temperatures generally resulted in more breakdown, although the effect diminished at higher temperatures. The decrease in intrinsic viscosity during thermomechanical treatment at relatively low temperatures and moisture contents was shown to be only dependent on the maximal shear stress. At higher temperatures, thermomechanical breakdown could be split into a mechanical part depending on maximal shear stress and a thermal breakdown part, which was again time-dependent on the shorter time-scales only. Higher moisture content during thermomechanical treatment resulted in more thermal breakdown and lowered the shear stresses required for mechanical breakdown. Consequences for process design are discussed briefly. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.