Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Drainable Surplus Assessment in Irrigated Agriculture: Field Application of the Groundwater Approach
    Boonstra, J. ; Bhutta, M.N. ; Rizvi, S.A. - \ 1997
    Irrigation and Drainage Systems 11 (1997)1. - ISSN 0168-6291 - p. 41 - 60.
    drainage door leidingen - buisdrainage - bodem - natrium - verbetering - verzilting - grondwateraanvulling - hydrologie - modellen - analogen - pipe drainage - tile drainage - soil - sodium - improvement - salinization - groundwater recharge - hydrology - models - analogues
    To assess the drainable surplus of an irrigated area, a methodology based on a groundwater-balance approach was developed and applied in Schedule I-B of the Fourth Drainage Project near Faisalabad in Pakistan. To determine the seasonal net recharge in this area, a numerical groundwater model was run in inverse mode. The data input for the model consisted of the geometry of the aquifer system, the aquifer parameters, and historical watertable elevations. The seasonal net recharge values, calculated from the individual recharge and discharge components, were "tuned" with the results of the inverse modelling. The advantage of such an integrated approach is that all these components are linked. The design net recharge was estimated from the historical net recharge of the wettest monsoon in the study period. Its rainfall recharge values were then substituted for those of a design monsoon. In this substitution procedure, the rainfall recharge methodology and parameters were adopted from the tuning procedure. From this design net recharge, estimates could be made of the required drainable surplus, with and without drainage simulation.
    Structuur, methodiek en datamodel van het Geïntegreerd Ruimtelijk Evaluatie-Instrumentarium voor Natuurontwikkelings-Scenario's (GREINS)
    Kemmers, R.H. ; Roos, J. ; Kros, J. ; Bolt, F.J.E. van der - \ 1997
    Wageningen : DLO-Staring Centrum - 39
    herstel - ecosystemen - hydrologie - modellen - analogen - plantengemeenschappen - vegetatie - onderzoek - geografische informatiesystemen - Nederland - natuur - natuurtechniek - drenthe - rehabilitation - ecosystems - hydrology - models - analogues - plant communities - vegetation - research - geographical information systems - Netherlands - nature - ecological engineering - drenthe
    Het Geontegreerd Ruimtelijk Evaluatie-instrumentarium voor Natuurontwikkelingsscenario's is gebaseerd op een samenhangende structuur van modellen die met elkaar communiceren via een database die is gekoppeld aan een geografisch informatiesysteem. De structuur, de methodiek en de werking van het datamodel worden beschreven. De modellen simuleren de regionale waterhuishouding, de zuur- en nutriëntenhuishouding en de vegetatieontwikkeling. Rekenresultaten worden weggeschreven naar het datamodel. Via hetdatamodel worden scenario's gegenereerd voor atmosferische depositie, regionale waterhuishouding en natuurontwikkeling. De scenario's worden geëvalueerd op kansrijkdom met een natuurtechnisch model dat natuurwaarden berekent.
    Ontwikkeling van het prototype instrumentarium PEGASUS; pesticide emmission to groundwater and surface waters
    Kruijne, R. ; Merkelbach, R.C.M. - \ 1997
    Wageningen : DLO-Staring Centrum (Reeks Milieuplanbureau 1) - 45
    gewasbescherming - pesticiden - pesticidenresiduen - persistentie - bodem - uitspoelen - rivieren - waterlopen - kanalen - water - oppervlaktewater - waterverontreiniging - waterkwaliteit - hydrologie - modellen - analogen - Nederland - plant protection - pesticides - pesticide residues - persistence - soil - leaching - rivers - streams - canals - water - surface water - water pollution - water quality - hydrology - models - analogues - Netherlands
    The identifiability of parameters in a water quality model of the Biebrza River, Poland
    Perk, M. van der; Bierkens, M.F.P. - \ 1997
    Journal of Hydrology 200 (1997)1-4. - ISSN 0022-1694 - p. 307 - 322.
    rivieren - waterlopen - kanalen - water - oppervlaktewater - waterverontreiniging - waterkwaliteit - hydrologie - modellen - analogen - Polen - rivers - streams - canals - water - surface water - water pollution - water quality - hydrology - models - analogues - Poland
    The identifiability of model parameters of a steady state water quality model of the Biebrza River and the resulting variation in model results was examined by applying the Monte Carlo method which combines calibration, identifiability analysis, uncertainty analysis, and sensitivity analysis. The water quality model simulates the steady state concentration profiles of chloride, phosphate, ammonium, and nitrate as a function of distance along a river. The water quality model with the best combination of parameter values simulates the observed concentrations very well. However, the range of possible modelled concentrations obtained for other more or less equally eligible combinations of parameter values is rather wide. This range in model outcomes reflects possible errors in the model parameters. Discrepancies between the range in model outcomes and the validation data set are only caused by errors in model structure, or (measurement) errors in boundary conditions or input variables. In this sense the validation procedure is a test of model capability, where the effects of calibration errors are filtered out. It is concluded that, despite some slight deviations between model outcome and observations, the model is successful in simulating the spatial pattern of nutrient concentrations in the Biebrza River.
    De verdamping van natuurterreinen
    Spieksma, J.F.M. ; Dolman, A.J. ; Schouwenaars, J.M. - \ 1997
    Stromingen : vakblad voor hydrologen 3 (1997)1. - ISSN 1382-6069 - p. 5 - 16.
    hydrologie - evapotranspiratie - natuurbescherming - beleid - bedrijfsvoering - bodemwaterbalans - modellen - analogen - Nederland - hydrology - evapotranspiration - nature conservation - policy - management - soil water balance - models - analogues - Netherlands
    In opdracht van het NOV (Nationaal Onderzoeksprogramma Verdroging) is door de vakgroep Fysische Geografie van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen en het DLO-Staring Centrum een onderzoek naar de verdamping van natuurterreinen uitgevoerd. In deze studie is de bestaande kennis ten aanzien van de verdamping van natuurterreinen verzameld en zijn de belangrijkste knelpunten gesignaleerd. Bij deze knelpunten moet in de eerste plaats worden gedacht aan de heterogene struktuur van natuurterreinen met een afwisseling van open terrein en struweel of bos. In zulke gebieden wordt de verdamping met name bepaald door de aërodynamische ruwheid (windwerking). Hierdoor is een aanpak met behulp van gewasfaktoren en een louter op stralinggebaseerde referentie-verdamping niet zonder meer mogelijk. Een hiermee samenhangend probleem is het feit dat bij referentie-verdamping geen interceptie onderscheiden wordt. Een tweede belangrijk aspekt van de verdamping van natuurterreinen is de accumulatie van organisch materiaal waardoor de verdamping gaat aflangen van het neerslagpatroon in de tijd. Door middel van een modelstudie met gegevens uit de Engbertsdijksvenen zijn beide effekten nader onderzocht
    GONAT; geographical orientated national simulations with ANIMO 3.5 of nutrients
    Boogaard, H.L. ; Kroes, J.G. - \ 1997
    Wageningen : SC-DLO (Technical document / DLO-Staring Centrum 41) - 113
    rivieren - waterlopen - kanalen - water - oppervlaktewater - waterverontreiniging - waterkwaliteit - nitraten - fosfaten - fosforpentoxide - derivaten - hydrologie - modellen - analogen - Nederland - rivers - streams - canals - water - surface water - water pollution - water quality - nitrates - phosphates - phosphorus pentoxide - derivatives - hydrology - models - analogues - Netherlands
    The use of hydrological models in the irrigated areas of Mendoza, Argentina
    Querner, E.P. ; Morábito, J.A. ; Manzanera, M. ; Pazos, J.A. ; Ciancaglini, N.C. ; Menenti, M. - \ 1997
    Agricultural Water Management 35 (1997)1/2. - ISSN 0378-3774 - p. 11 - 28.
    hydrologie - evapotranspiratie - irrigatie - bodemwaterbalans - modellen - analogen - Argentinië - hydrology - evapotranspiration - irrigation - soil water balance - models - analogues - Argentina
    A proper understanding of the interaction of irrigation and drainage canals with an aquifer system is necessary to improve the performance of irrigation. This mechanism must be studied with a detail sufficient to identify operational guidelines for specific portions of an irrigation and drainage system. Numerical simulation models provide a useful support since specific operational procedures of irrigation and drainage canals can be evaluated in this way. Regional hydrological models of surface water and groundwater have been applied to an irrigated area of 36,000 ha in the province of Mendoza, Argentina. The use of such models can support decision-making on water management aspects. The benefit of a physically-based model is its use in situations with changing conditions affecting the hydrological system. An important aspect is the need to simulate the hydrological processes as accurately as possible and to include operational irrigation practice. The drawback of a modelling approach is the great demand for reliable input data.
    Flow resistance and hydraulic capacity of water courses with aquatic weed growth; Part 2
    Querner, E.P. - \ 1997
    Irrigation and Drainage Systems 11 (1997)2. - ISSN 0168-6291 - p. 171 - 184.
    onkruidbestrijding - kanalen - kanalen, klein - waterwegen - schadelijke waterplanten - hydrodynamica - vloeistoffen (liquids) - vloeistoffen (fluids) - stroming - rivieren - waterlopen - water - afvoer - drainage - sloten - hydrologie - modellen - analogen - weed control - canals - channels - waterways - aquatic weeds - hydrodynamics - liquids - fluids - flow - rivers - streams - water - discharge - drainage - ditches - hydrology - models - analogues
    BEKWAAM, een simulatiemodel voor bekkenwaterkwaliteit
    Benoist, A.P. ; Brinkman, A.G. ; Diepenbeek, P.M.J.A. van; Waals, J.M.J. - \ 1997
    H2O : tijdschrift voor watervoorziening en afvalwaterbehandeling 30 (1997)9. - ISSN 0166-8439 - p. 290 - 293.
    rivieren - waterlopen - kanalen - water - oppervlaktewater - waterverontreiniging - waterkwaliteit - opslag - waterbescherming - tanks - watercontainers - hydrologie - modellen - analogen - onderzoek - reservoirs - rivers - streams - canals - water - surface water - water pollution - water quality - storage - water conservation - tanks - water containers - hydrology - models - analogues - research - reservoirs
    Impact of land-use, climate change and groundwater abstraction on streamflow droughts basin using physically-based models.
    Querner, E.P. ; Tallaksen, L.M. ; Kaspèrek, L. ; Lanen, H.A.J. van - \ 1997
    In: Friend '97 - Regional hydrology : concepts and models for sustainable water resource management : proceedings of the third international conference on FRIEND held at Postojna, Slovenia, from 30 September to 4 October 1997 / Gustard, A., Blazkova, S., Brilly, M., - p. 171 - 179.
    ruimtelijke ordening - landgebruik - zonering - klimaatverandering - paleoklimatologie - bodemwaterbalans - stroomgebieden - drainage - rivieren - hydrologie - modellen - analogen - Nederland - physical planning - land use - zoning - climatic change - palaeoclimatology - soil water balance - watersheds - rivers - hydrology - models - analogues - Netherlands
    Kwelmodellering op nationale schaal.
    Hoogeveen, J. ; Vermulst, J.A.P.H. - \ 1997
    Landschap : tijdschrift voor landschapsecologie en milieukunde 14 (1997)1. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 5 - 17.
    natuurbescherming - hydrologie - grondwaterstand - bodemwaterbalans - modellen - analogen - bufferzones - nature conservation - hydrology - groundwater level - soil water balance - models - analogues - buffer zones
    FRIEND'97 Regional Hydrology: Concepts and Models for Sustainable Water Resource Management.
    Gustard, A. ; Blazkova, S. ; Brilly, M. ; Demuth, S. ; Dixon, J. ; Lanen, H.A.J. van; Llasat, C. ; Mkhandi, S. ; Servat, E. - \ 1997
    Wallingford : IAHS (IAHS publication 246) - ISBN 9781901502350 - 363
    waterbeheer - watervoorraden - stroomgebieden - drainage - rivieren - hydrologie - modellen - analogen - water management - water resources - watersheds - drainage - rivers - hydrology - models - analogues
    Nutrientenbelasting van grond- en oppervlaktewater in de stroomgebieden van de Beerze, de Reusel en de Rosep
    Bolt, F.J.E. van der; Walsum, P.E.V. van; Groenendijk, P. ; Oosterom, H.P. - \ 1996
    Wageningen : DLO-Staring Centrum (Rapport / DLO-Staring Centrum 306)
    analogen - dierlijke meststoffen - kanalen - derivaten - grondwaterverontreiniging - hydrologie - uitspoelen - modellen - fosfaten - fosforpentoxide - verontreinigingsbeheersing - bescherming - onderzoek - rivieren - bodem - beregening met sproeiers - waterlopen - oppervlaktewater - dalen - water - waterbeheer - waterverontreiniging - waterkwaliteit - watervoorraden - Nederland - noord-brabant - analogues - animal manures - canals - derivatives - groundwater pollution - hydrology - leaching - models - phosphates - phosphorus pentoxide - pollution control - protection - research - rivers - soil - sprinkler irrigation - streams - surface water - valleys - water - water management - water pollution - water quality - water resources - Netherlands - noord-brabant
    Studie Fochteloerveen 1991 - 1995 : toekomstscenario's voor het hoogveenreservaat en zijn omgeving
    Walsum, P.E.V. van; Lammerts, E.J. - \ 1996
    Wageningen etc. : DLO-Staring Centrum [etc.] - ISBN 9789032702649 - 55
    natuurbescherming - beleid - bedrijfsvoering - hydrologie - watervoorziening - waterbeheer - bodemwater - hoogveengebieden - veengronden - plantengemeenschappen - landschapsbescherming - modellen - analogen - Nederland - groningen - drenthe - nature conservation - policy - management - hydrology - water supply - water management - soil water - moorlands - peat soils - plant communities - landscape conservation - models - analogues - Netherlands - groningen - drenthe
    Analysis of discharge series from the Rhine basin at different levels of aggregation
    Torfs, P.J.J.F. ; Middelkoop, H. - \ 1996
    Wageningen : Landbouwuniversiteit Wageningen (Rapport / Landbouwuniversiteit, Vakgroep Waterhuishouding 68) - 53
    analogen - kanalen - afvoer - drainage - hydrologie - landgebruik - modellen - ruimtelijke ordening - onderzoek - rivieren - waterlopen - water - stroomgebieden - zonering - rijn - analogues - canals - discharge - drainage - hydrology - land use - models - physical planning - research - rivers - streams - water - watersheds - zoning - river rhine
    Hoogwatervoorspellingen voor de Rijn bij Lobith met hybride methoden : de hydrologische Muskingum methode uitgebreid met lineaire en niet - lineaire updatingstechnieken
    Akker, M.F.A. ; Wiel, B.J.H. van de - \ 1996
    Wageningen : Landbouwuniversiteit Wageningen (Rapport / Landbouwuniversiteit, Vakgroep Waterhuishouding 66) - 162
    analogen - kanalen - voorspellen - hydrologie - modellen - rivieren - waterlopen - water - waterwegen - rijn - waterstand - analogues - canals - forecasting - hydrology - models - rivers - streams - water - waterways - river rhine - water level
    Groundwater Recharge in Irrigated Agriculture: The Theory and Practice of Inverse Modelling
    Boonstra, J. ; Bhutta, M.N. - \ 1996
    Journal of Hydrology 174 (1996)3/4. - ISSN 0022-1694 - p. 357 - 374.
    analogen - grondwateraanvulling - hydrologie - irrigatie - modellen - Pakistan - bodemwaterbalans - analogues - groundwater recharge - hydrology - irrigation - models - Pakistan - soil water balance
    Quantifying the rate of natural groundwater recharge is a prerequisite for drainage design in waterlogged areas. The present study was aimed at determining the seasonal net recharge in the Schedule I-B area of the Fourth Drainage Project, Faisalabad, Pakistan. A numerical groundwater model was developed for the said area and was run in inverse mode to determine the seasonal net recharge. Net recharge values were determined for the period June 1985–June 1990, resulting in five monsoon and five non-monsoon estimates. The data used by the model were the geometry of the aquifer system, the aquifer parameters, and historical water table elevations. The methodology is unique in that it gives information on temporal and areal recharge variations, and requires fewer data than the traditional water-balance method. The maximum average net recharge to the aquifer was calculated as 0.6 mm day−1 during monsoon 1986; the corresponding monsoon rainfall had a return period of some 2.8 years.
    Monitoring van nitraatconcentraties in het grondwater in grondwaterbeschermingsgebieden van de provincie Utrecht; meetresultaten van 1992 t/m 1995, een vergelijking met berekeningen van het model RENLEM en een literatuuroverzicht
    Groot, W.J.M. de - \ 1996
    Wageningen : SC-DLO - 61
    analogen - grondwaterverontreiniging - hydrologie - instrumenten (meters) - meting - modellen - monitoring - nitraten - verontreinigingsbeheersing - bescherming - waterkwaliteit - Nederland - netwerken - utrecht - analogues - groundwater pollution - hydrology - instruments - measurement - models - monitoring - nitrates - pollution control - protection - water quality - Netherlands - networks - utrecht
    In de grondwaterbeschermingsgebieden Groenekan, Beerschoten en Leersum is van 1992 t/m 1995 op zeventien locaties de nitraatconcentratie van bodemvocht en grondwater gemeten. Nitraatconcentraties op zandgronden met gras- en maosland waren meestal hoger dan 50 mg/l. Voor naaldbos op zandgrond gold dat vooral in de winterseizoenen 1993/'94 en 1994/'95. De gemeten nitraatconcentraties waren hoger dan de berekende, behalve in bossen. Uit literatuuronderzoek blijkt dat bij gras- en maosland op droge zandgronden de nitraatbelasting verminderd kan worden zonder grote opbrengstverliezen. De hoogte van de stikstofdepositie speelt een belangrijke rol bij verdere aanscherping van het milieubeleid in grondwaterbeschermingsgebieden.
    Bergings- en bemalingscapaciteit van polders
    Schuurmans, W. ; Hamaker, P. ; Kolff, J. van de; Bentschap Knook, L.A. - \ 1996
    Het Waterschap 81 (1996)5. - ISSN 1380-4251 - p. 164 - 167.
    analogen - drainage - drainage uitrusting - duur - hydrologie - modellen - polders - neerslag - pompen - noord-holland - analogues - drainage - drainage equipment - duration - hydrology - models - polders - precipitation - pumps - noord-holland
    De parametrisatie van de verdamping van natuurterreinen in hydrologische modellen
    Spieksma, J.F.M. ; Dolman, A.J. ; Schouwenaars, J.M. - \ 1996
    Groningen [etc.] : RU Groningen [etc.] - ISBN 9789036945585 - 101
    analogen - verdroging - drogen - evapotranspiratie - hydrologie - modellen - Nederland - onderzoek - analogues - desiccation - drying - evapotranspiration - hydrology - models - Netherlands - research
    Overzicht van bestaande kennis over de verdamping van de in Nederland voorkomende natuurterreinen. Op basis daarvan een voorbeeldstudie met het door SC-DLO ontwikkelde onverzadigde zone-verdampingsmodel SWAPS, waarin wordt aangegeven hoe adequaat de parameterisaties van de verdamping van natuurterreinen zijn. Verder is een advies opgesteld voor de parametrisatie van verdamping van natuurterreinen in hydrologische modellen
    Het model MWW: hydrologisch model voor vaststellen en evalueren van maaionderhoud
    Querner, E.P. - \ 1996
    Het Waterschap 81 (1996)18. - ISSN 1380-4251 - p. 609 - 611.
    analogen - sloten - hydrologie - onderhoud - modellen - Nederland - prestatieniveau - kwaliteit - analogues - ditches - hydrology - maintenance - models - Netherlands - performance - quality
    Het programma MWW (maaionderhoud waterlopen door waterschappen) is ontwikkeld om de tijdstippen voor maaionderhoud van een waterloop te berekenen met de kans op een zekere afvoer en een bepaalde vegetatieontwikkeling in de zomer. Met het model is het ook mogelijk voor gegeven tijdstippen van maaionderhoud de afvoercapaciteit te bepalen. Op die manier is te evalueren of het huidige maaionderhoud voldoende is. Met het model kan ook bekeken worden of het tijdstip van onderhoud verschoven kan worden om met andere belangen rekening te houden, zoals ecologie of onderhoudsmaterieel.
    De verdamping van bossen
    Moors, E.J. ; Dolman, A.J. ; Bouten, W. ; Veen, A.W.L. - \ 1996
    H2O : tijdschrift voor watervoorziening en afvalwaterbehandeling 29 (1996)16. - ISSN 0166-8439 - p. 462 - 466.
    analogen - evaporatie - evapotranspiratie - bosbouw - vochtigheid - hydrologie - modellen - onderzoek - temperatuur - transpiratie - analogues - evaporation - evapotranspiration - forestry - humidity - hydrology - models - research - temperature - transpiration
    Als de verdamping van bossen wordt geschat met de tabel van de Studiecommissie Water Natuur Bos Landschap, kan er een relatieve fout in het neerslagoverschot optreden van 100 ten opzichte van een goed gekalibreerd model. Ook als de verdamping wordt berekend met een voor de interceptie aangepaste formulering van de verdamping volgens Makkink, geeft dat een grote onnauwkeurigheid. Aanbevolen wordt om de verdamping van bossen te berekenen met modellen, zoals het weerstandsmodel van Penman-Monteith.
    Heat and water transfer in bare topsoil and the lower atmosphere
    Berge, H.F.M. ten - \ 1996
    Wageningen : Pudoc (Simulation monographs 33) - ISBN 9789022009611 - 207
    luchttemperatuur - analogen - atmosfeer - computersimulatie - energiebalans - milieu - evaporatie - fluctuaties - hydrologie - land - methodologie - modellen - onderzoek - simulatie - simulatiemodellen - bodem - bodemtemperatuur - thermische bodemeigenschappen - bodemwater - oppervlakten - thermische geleiding - grenslaag - aardoppervlak - air temperature - analogues - atmosphere - computer simulation - energy balance - environment - evaporation - fluctuations - hydrology - land - methodology - models - research - simulation - simulation models - soil - soil temperature - soil thermal properties - soil water - surfaces - thermal conductivity - boundary layer - land surface
    This book describes an analysis of processes and factors that affect the energy balance of bare soil, and the associated exchange of heat and moisture at the surface. After a brief treatment of basic transport theory, the processes of soil-atmosphere interaction are expressed in a simulation algorithm. This algorithm provides an instrument to study the 'conditioning' effect of soil on the lower atmosphere, and vice versa. Examples of sensitivity analysis are presented, with emphasis on the behaviour of surface temperature. In remote sensing practice, surface temperature is estimated from thermal imagery; simulation algorithms can assist in its interpretation. Field data of fluxes, state variables and soil properties are extensively discussed and are used to validate appropriate sections of the model
    Long-term assessment of a multi-unit reservoir system operation : the ShellDP programme package manual
    Bogardi, J.J.K.M. ; Brorens, B.A.H.V. ; Kularathna, M.D.U.P. - \ 1995
    Wageningen : Landbouwuniversiteit Wageningen (Rapport / Landbouwuniversiteit, Vakgroep Waterhuishouding 59) - 252
    analogen - toepassingen - computer software - dynamisch programmeren - hydrologie - meren - Markov-processen - modellen - reservoirs - wateropslag - analogues - applications - computer software - dynamic programming - hydrology - lakes - Markov processes - models - reservoirs - water storage
    Combined calibration and sensitivity analysis for a water quality model of the Biebrza River, Poland
    Perk, M. van der; Bierkens, M.F.P. - \ 1995
    In: Scenario studies for the rural environment : selected and edited proceedings of the symposium scenario studies for the rural environment, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 12 - 15 September 1994 / Schoute, J.T.H., Finke, P.A., Veeneklaas, F.R., - p. 299 - 304.
    analogen - kanalen - hydrologie - modellen - Polen - rivieren - waterlopen - oppervlaktewater - water - waterverontreiniging - waterkwaliteit - analogues - canals - hydrology - models - Poland - rivers - streams - surface water - water - water pollution - water quality
    A study was performed to quantify the error in results of a water quality model of the Biebrza River, Poland, due to uncertainties in calibrated model parameters. The procedure used in this study combines calibration and sensitivity analysis. Finally,the model was validated to test the model capability, where the effects of calibration errors was filtered out. The water quality model with the best combination of parameter values simulates the observed concentrations very well, although the range of modelled concentrations at each location is rather wide when other more or less equally eligible combinations of parameter values are taken into consideration.
    Kwantificering van variatie in resultaten van een waterkwaliteitsmodel als gevolg van onzekerheden bij calibratie van modelparameters; case study van de Biebrza, Polen
    Perk, M. van der; Bierkens, M.F.P. - \ 1995
    In: Waarheen met het landelijk gebied? : geselecteerde en geredigeerde bijdragen aan het symposium 'Waarheen met het landelijk gebied?', Wageningen, 15 september 1994 / Schoute, J.F.T., van den Berg, L.M., Farjon, H., - p. 197 - 203.
    analogen - kanalen - hydrologie - modellen - Polen - rivieren - waterlopen - oppervlaktewater - water - waterverontreiniging - waterkwaliteit - analogues - canals - hydrology - models - Poland - rivers - streams - surface water - water - water pollution - water quality
    De fout in resultaten van een waterkwaliteitsmodel van de Biebrza in Polen, die het gevolg is van onzekerheden bij kalibratie van modelparameters, is gekwantificeerd. De gebruikte methode combineert kalibratie en gevoeligheidsanalyse. Het model is gevalideerd om de bekwaamheid ervan te toetsen, waarbij het effect van kalibratiefouten is weggefilterd. Het model simuleert de gemeten concentraties zeer goed met de beste combinatie van parameterwaarden. Het bereik van berekende concentraties is echter breed als andere min of meer gelijk verkiesbare parametercombinaties in beschouwing worden genomen.
    Vaststellen maaionderhoud in waterlopen; hydrologische benadering
    Querner, E.P. - \ 1995
    Het Waterschap 80 (1995)4. - ISSN 1380-4251 - p. 170 - 175.
    analogen - schadelijke waterplanten - kanalen - kanalen, klein - afvoer - sloten - hydrologie - onderhoud - modellen - Nederland - rivieren - waterlopen - water - waterwegen - onkruidbestrijding - analogues - aquatic weeds - canals - channels - discharge - ditches - hydrology - maintenance - models - Netherlands - rivers - streams - water - waterways - weed control
    Maaionderhoud in waterlopen is nodig om de watertransportfunctie ervan te waarborgen. Het benodigde maaionderhoud in waterlopen is vanuit hydrologisch oogpunt berekend. De belangrijkste aspecten hierbij zijn: verwachte afvoer, dimensies van de waterloop, drooglegging, stromingsweerstand, en groei van water- en oevervegetatie. Voor het berekenen van tijdstip en frequentie van onderhoud zijn de verwachte afvoeren berekend met een eendimensionaal grondwatermodel. Als de verwachte afvoer groter is dan het toelaatbare debiet, is onderhoud nodig. Het onderhoud is berekend voor twee waterlopen in Twente. De methode biedt de waterschappen de mogelijkheid om het maaibeheer te verantwoorden of te verminderen.
    Hydrogeologie van het stroomgebied van de Noor en de effecten van grondwateronttrekkingen aan de westrand van het Plateau van Margraten.
    Lanen, H.A.J. van; Weerd, B. van de; Dijksma, R. ; Dam, H.J. ten; Bier, G. - \ 1995
    Wageningen : Landbouwuniversiteit Wageningen (Rapport / Landbouwuniversiteit, Vakgroep Waterhuishouding 57) - 206
    analogen - grondwaterwinning - grondwaterstroming - grondwaterstand - horizontale bronnen - hydrologie - modellen - bodemwaterbalans - Nederland - zuid-limburg - analogues - groundwater extraction - groundwater flow - groundwater level - horizontal wells - hydrology - models - soil water balance - Netherlands - zuid-limburg
    A new mathematical method to predict groundwater quality in pumping wells.
    Kooten, J.J.A. van; Grasman, J. ; Gee, M. de - \ 1995
    Acta Universitatis Carolinae, Geologica 39 (1995). - p. 243 - 254.
    analogen - watervoerende lagen - grondwaterwinning - grondwaterverontreiniging - horizontale bronnen - hydrologie - modellen - verontreinigingsbeheersing - bescherming - waterkwaliteit - analogues - aquifers - groundwater extraction - groundwater pollution - horizontal wells - hydrology - models - pollution control - protection - water quality
    Gebruik van SWATRE voor de berekening van afvoerkenmerken
    Walsum, P.E.V. van - \ 1994
    Wageningen : DLO-Staring Centrum (Rapport / DLO-Staring Centrum 366) - 48
    analogen - berekening - grondwaterstroming - hydrologie - modellen - bodemwaterbalans - water - analogues - calculation - groundwater flow - hydrology - models - soil water balance - water
    Rainfall-runoff model for design flood computation with variable parameters.
    Ignar, S. ; Bogardi, J.J. - \ 1993
    Wageningen : Landbouwuniversiteit Wageningen (Rapport / Landbouwuniversiteit, Vakgroep Waterhuishouding 32) - 20
    analogen - hydrologie - modellen - regen - relaties - analogues - hydrology - models - rain - relationships
    Aquatic weed control within an integrated water management framework
    Querner, E.P. - \ 1993
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): R.A. Feddes; J.J. Bogardi. - S.l. : [s.n.] - ISBN 9789054851226 - 204
    sloten - onderhoud - rivieren - waterlopen - kanalen - water - afvoer - hydrodynamica - vloeistoffen (liquids) - vloeistoffen (fluids) - stroming - kanalen, klein - onkruidbestrijding - waterwegen - schadelijke waterplanten - grondwater - oppervlaktewater - grondwaterspiegel - hydrologie - modellen - analogen - onderzoek - Nederland - watergebruik - ditches - maintenance - rivers - streams - canals - water - discharge - hydrodynamics - liquids - fluids - flow - channels - weed control - waterways - aquatic weeds - groundwater - surface water - water table - hydrology - models - analogues - research - Netherlands - water use

    Aquatic weed control, carried out by the water boards in the Netherlands, is required to maintain sufficient discharge capacity of the surface water system. Weed control affects the conditions of both surface water and groundwater. The physically based model MOGROW was developed to simulate the flow of water in the unsaturated zone, the saturated zone and the water courses in an integrated manner. The model was verified with field data on groundwater levels, discharges, moisture storage in the root zone and evapotranspiration in the Hupselse Beek catchment.

    The time and frequency of weed control during summer were determined using data on weed growth, flow resistance and discharges. This study was carried out in the Poelsbeek and Bolscherbeek catchments located in the east of the Netherlands. Weed obstruction was measured in nine water courses of these catchments. The boundary roughness coefficient κ M was calculated from field data and laboratory experiments. The κ M varied for the unobstructed part of the cross-section between 30-34 m 1/3.s -1. A numerical model was used to determine the velocity distribution in a cross-section of a water course. This calculated velocity distribution resulted also in κ M values of the same order. The minimally required weed control was estimated using the data on weed obstruction, flow resistance and estimates of expected discharges. These expected discharges for the summer period were calculated for three water table fluctuation classes, using a one-dimensional groundwater model. Comparing the expected discharges and the permissible flow rates for a water course, gives the required periods of weed control.

    Weed control strategies were evaluated for the Poelsbeek and Bolscherbeek area using the model MOGROW. Results of the modelling experiments are the occurrence of high surface water levels, high groundwater levels and high stream flow velocities. In a cost-benefit analysis the cost of weed control and the damage for pasture (in terms of financial losses) were considered. Seven simulation years with varying wet conditions in summer were selected. The financial loss resulting from one clearing at the end of summer, was too high for only one of these years. The multi-objective decision method ELECTRE II enabled the ecological impact to be incorporated in the evaluation. The method identified weed control strategies that are most favourable for agriculture or nature conservation.

    Water resource system training model "WATSYS" : user's manual
    Brorens, B.A.H.V. ; Bogardi, J.J. ; Nielsen, S.A. ; Shresta, B.P. - \ 1992
    Wageningen : Landbouwuniversiteit Wageningen (Rapport / Landbouwuniversiteit, Vakgroep Waterhuishouding 21) - 82
    analogen - hydrologie - modellen - onderzoek - voortgezet onderwijs - waterbeheer - watervoorraden - watervoorziening - middelbaar beroepsonderwijs - analogues - hydrology - models - research - secondary education - water management - water resources - water supply - intermediate vocational training
    Remote sensing and watershed modelling towards a hydrological interface model
    Anonymous, - \ 1991
    S.l : BCRS (BCRS report no. 90-42)
    analogen - toepassingen - descriptoren - drainage - hydrologie - identificatie - modellen - remote sensing - onderzoek - rivieren - bodemwater - bodemwaterbalans - stroomgebieden - analogues - applications - descriptors - drainage - hydrology - identification - models - remote sensing - research - rivers - soil water - soil water balance - watersheds
    Formulering en toepassing van een model voor de bepaling van de optimale toedeling van oppervlaktewater in het kader van het project "Waterbeheer midden en oostelijk Noord-Babant"
    Vreke, J. - \ 1991
    Wageningen : Staring Centrum (Rapport / Staring Centrum 119) - 66
    analogen - hydrologie - irrigatie - schadepreventie - wiskundige modellen - modellen - operationeel onderzoek - onderzoek - waterbeheer - watervoorraden - watervoorziening - watergebruik - Nederland - noord-brabant - analogues - hydrology - irrigation - loss prevention - mathematical models - models - operations research - research - water management - water resources - water supply - water use - Netherlands - noord-brabant
    Modelling water transport and phosphorus eutrophication in an interconnected lake system : a scenario study
    Huet, H. van - \ 1991
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): G. van Straten; J.E. Rijnsdorp. - S.l. : Van Huet - 129
    meren - reservoirs - plassen - water - waterverontreiniging - waterkwaliteit - eutrofiëring - wind - rivierafvoer - turbulentie - fosfor - modellen - onderzoek - fosfaten - fosforpentoxide - derivaten - hydrologie - analogen - Nederland - friesland - lakes - reservoirs - ponds - water - water pollution - water quality - eutrophication - wind - stream flow - turbulence - phosphorus - models - research - phosphates - phosphorus pentoxide - derivatives - hydrology - analogues - Netherlands - friesland

    The water in the south-western Frisian lake district is highly eutrophicated. Summer chlorophyll-a concentrations often exceed 150 μg.l -1, while total phosphorus (TP) concentrations are mostly above 0.2 mg.l -1. Therefore, a research project was started in 1984 to study the origin and dynamics of phosphorus (P) in the area. The nutrient P was chosen because reducing TP concentrations was believed to result in favourable conditions for restoration of the aquatic ecosystem. The objective of the study was to model the TP dynamics and to use the model for the simulation of management reduction scenarios. In order to achieve this objective, three problems had to be solved. Firstly, information about the water transport, especially in the boundary canals, was poor. This problem was solved by the application of a wind driven water transport model using water levels in the boundary canals. Secondly, the lack of large-scale information about the TP loads from the surrounding polders was solved by an intensive monitoring program. Thirdly, knowledge about the distribution of TP in sediments and about TP exchange processes between water and sediments had to be assessed. The simulations with the dynamic TP mass balance model resulted in TP balances during three periods, showing that there were two main sources in the area: from the surrounding polders and from Lake IJssel. Moreover, management simulation scenarios showed that 75% TP concentration reductions in the external loads would be necessary to achieve the 0. 15 mg.l -1TP concentration standard and incidentally the 0.07 mg.l -1. target concentration.

    Handleiding simulatiemodel voor waterbeheer door waterschappen, SWW
    Peerdeman, C.P. - \ 1990
    Wageningen : Staring Centrum - 81
    analogen - computersimulatie - handboeken - hydrologie - land - modellen - Nederland - simulatie - simulatiemodellen - oppervlaktewater - waterbeheer - watervoorraden - watervoorziening - oogsttoename - oogstverliezen - opbrengsten - raden - waterschappen - analogues - computer simulation - handbooks - hydrology - land - models - Netherlands - simulation - simulation models - surface water - water management - water resources - water supply - yield increases - yield losses - yields - boards - polder boards
    Screening of hydrological data : tests for stationarity and relative consistency
    Dahmen, E.R. ; Hall, M.J. - \ 1990
    Wageningen : ILRI (Publication / International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement 49) - ISBN 9789070754235 - 58
    analogen - toepassingen - computersimulatie - computer software - gegevens verzamelen - hydrologie - modellen - simulatie - simulatiemodellen - statistische analyse - tijdreeksen - analogues - applications - computer simulation - computer software - data collection - hydrology - models - simulation - simulation models - statistical analysis - time series
    De koppeling van het grondwatermodel Geldym-Must en het openwatermodel Lympha. Model Trigon.
    Promes, P.M. - \ 1990
    Wageningen : Landbouwuniversiteit Wageningen (Rapport / Landbouwuniversiteit, Vakgroep Hydrologie, Bodemnatuurkunde en Hydraulica 9) - 72
    analogen - kanalen - kanalen, klein - computersimulatie - sloten - drainage - stroming - vloeistoffen (fluids) - grondwaterstroming - grondwaterstand - hydrodynamica - hydrologie - vloeistoffen (liquids) - modellen - onderzoek - simulatie - simulatiemodellen - bodemwatergehalte - waterbeheer - watervoorraden - oppervlaktedrainage - analogues - canals - channels - computer simulation - ditches - drainage - flow - fluids - groundwater flow - groundwater level - hydrodynamics - hydrology - liquids - models - research - simulation - simulation models - soil water content - water management - water resources - surface drainage
    SATEM : Selected Aquifer Test Evaluation Methods : a microcomputer program
    Boonstra, J. - \ 1989
    Wageningen : ILRI (Publication / ILRI 48) - ISBN 9789070754198 - 80
    analogen - watervoerende lagen - hydrologie - modellen - permeabiliteit - gesteenten - pompproeven - analogues - aquifers - hydrology - models - permeability - rocks - pumping tests
    Rainfall-runoff event model using curve numbers (KINFIL)
    Kovar, P. - \ 1989
    Wageningen : LH (Research report / Wageningen Agricultural University, Department of Hydraulics and Catchment Hydrology 92) - 56
    analogen - hydrologie - modellen - regen - relaties - onderzoek - analogues - hydrology - models - rain - relationships - research
    Development and application of a model for regional water quality management.
    Vieira, J.M.P. ; Lijklema, L. - \ 1989
    Water Research 23 (1989). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 767 - 777.
    rivieren - waterlopen - kanalen - water - oppervlaktewater - waterverontreiniging - waterkwaliteit - hydrologie - modellen - analogen - rivers - streams - canals - water - surface water - water pollution - water quality - hydrology - models - analogues
    Hulpmiddelen bij inrichting en beheer van het Markermeer. De modellen stress-2d & clear.
    Duin, E.H.S. van; Lijklema, L. ; Berger, C. ; Schultz, E. - \ 1989
    H2O : tijdschrift voor watervoorziening en afvalwaterbehandeling 22 (1989). - ISSN 0166-8439 - p. 689 - 696.
    analogen - kanalen - geologische sedimentatie - hydrologie - meren - modellen - Nederland - rivieren - waterlopen - water - waterbeheer - waterkwaliteit - ijsselmeer - analogues - canals - geological sedimentation - hydrology - lakes - models - Netherlands - rivers - streams - water - water management - water quality - lake ijssel
    CLEAR staat voor Combined Light Energy Attenuation Routine en STRESS-2d voor Sediment Transport Resuspension and Sedimentation in Shallow lakes, een twee-dimensioneel model
    Mogelijkheid van reductie van de hydraulische capaciteit van regionale RWZI's.
    Witter, J.V. ; Dircke, P. ; Stricker, H. - \ 1989
    H2O : tijdschrift voor watervoorziening en afvalwaterbehandeling 22 (1989). - ISSN 0166-8439 - p. 714 - 720.
    analogen - hydrologie - modellen - regen - relaties - rioolafvalwaterverwijdering - afvalwaterbehandeling - waterzuivering - zuiveringsinstallaties - analogues - hydrology - models - rain - relationships - sewage effluent disposal - waste water treatment - water treatment - purification plants
    Overland flow under rainfall : some aspects related to modelling and conditioning factors
    Lima, J.L.M.P. de - \ 1989
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): W.H. van der Molen; R.W.R. Koopmans. - S.l. : De Lima - 160
    afvoer - hydrologie - neerslag - regen - relaties - oppervlakteafvoer - infiltratie - hydraulisch geleidingsvermogen - kwel - watererosie - theorie - modellen - windeffecten - analogen - hellingen - computersimulatie - simulatie - simulatiemodellen - discharge - hydrology - precipitation - rain - relationships - overland flow - infiltration - hydraulic conductivity - seepage - water erosion - theory - models - wind effects - analogues - slopes - computer simulation - simulation - simulation models

    This study concerns the theory and some practical aspects of overland flow under rainfall. Of the conditioning factors and processes which govern the generation of overland flow, the following were studied: depression storage, infiltration, morphology and wind. Special attention was paid to wind-driven rain and its effect on raindrops, raindrop splash and wind induced shear stress on the water-air boundary in relation to overland flow.

    The study was carried out by means of laboratory experiments and mathematical modelling, both numerical and analytical. The laboratory experiments included the use of two rainfall simulators and a wind tunnel. Impermeable surfaces (concrete, plastic, plywood and Perspex) and pervious surfaces (loess from Limburg, the Netherlands, and a clay loam from Alentejo, Portugal) were used. A photographic set-up was also used for the assessment of the factors affecting raindrop splash anisotropy.

    In the modelling of the overland flow process, the kinematic wave approach (along with linear and nonlinear assumptions) was used, both for the numerical and analytical solutions. Two numerical models were developed: model KININF for overland flow on an infiltrating surface, and model WROF for overland flow under wind-driven rain. An analytical solution was derived for the rising limb of overland flow over infiltrating surfaces of parabolic shape. The upper boundary conditions used on overland flow studies were also discussed, both with and without wind effects.

    Operational aspects of surface water management in relation to the hydrology of agricultural areas and nature reserves
    Bakel, P.J.T. van - \ 1988
    Agricultural Water Management 14 (1988)1/4. - ISSN 0378-3774 - p. 377 - 387.
    analogen - bouwland - ecologie - hydrologie - modellen - nationale parken - natuurreservaten - Nederland - regulatie - waterbeheer - watervoorraden - grondwaterspiegel - ecohydrologie - waterstand - analogues - arable land - ecology - hydrology - models - national parks - nature reserves - Netherlands - regulation - water management - water resources - water table - ecohydrology - water level
    Nitraatbelasting van het grondwater in het Zuidoosten van Noord-Brabant
    Drent, J. ; Kroes, J.G. ; Rijtema, P.E. - \ 1988
    Wageningen : I.C.W. (Rapporten / Instituut voor Cultuurtechniek en Waterhuishouding ) - 68
    analogen - stalmest - grondwaterverontreiniging - hydrologie - uitspoelen - wiskundige modellen - modellen - nitraten - verontreinigingsbeheersing - preventie - bescherming - verwijdering - onderzoek - bodem - waterkwaliteit - Nederland - noord-brabant - analogues - farmyard manure - groundwater pollution - hydrology - leaching - mathematical models - models - nitrates - pollution control - prevention - protection - removal - research - soil - water quality - Netherlands - noord-brabant
    A quantification of agriculture in water management decision problems
    Vreke, J. - \ 1988
    Wageningen : ICW (Report / Institute for Land and Water Management Research 21) - 17
    analogen - besluitvorming - grondwater - hydrologie - lineair programmeren - bedrijfsvoering - modellen - operationeel onderzoek - onderzoek - simulatie - oppervlaktewater - waterbeheer - watervoorraden - werkschema - oogsttoename - oogstverliezen - opbrengsten - watergebruik - analogues - decision making - groundwater - hydrology - linear programming - management - models - operations research - research - simulation - surface water - water management - water resources - work flow - yield increases - yield losses - yields - water use
    Data management program for groundwater and surface water models
    Querner, E.P. - \ 1988
    Wageningen : ICW (ICW nota 1903) - 60
    analogen - grondwaterstroming - hydrologie - modellen - analogues - groundwater flow - hydrology - models
    Ontwikkeling en toepassing van het simulatiemodel SWW als begeleidingssysteem voor het kwantitatieve oppervlaktewaterbeheer : Simulatiemodel Waterbeheer Waterschappen
    Beekman, W. ; Bakel, P.J.T. van; Nijhof, G. - \ 1988
    Wageningen : ICW (ICW nota 1912) - 107
    analogen - computersimulatie - handboeken - hydrologie - land - modellen - Nederland - simulatie - simulatiemodellen - oppervlaktewater - waterbeheer - watervoorraden - watervoorziening - oogsttoename - oogstverliezen - opbrengsten - raden - waterschappen - analogues - computer simulation - handbooks - hydrology - land - models - Netherlands - simulation - simulation models - surface water - water management - water resources - water supply - yield increases - yield losses - yields - boards - polder boards
    Fourth international conference on urban storm drainage.
    Nielen, A.J. ; Nelen, M. ; Aalderink, R.H. ; Luytelaar, H. van - \ 1988
    H2O : tijdschrift voor watervoorziening en afvalwaterbehandeling 21 (1988). - ISSN 0166-8439 - p. 90 - 93.
    analogues - chemical properties - composition - hydrology - models - municipal refuse disposal - physical properties - precipitation - refuse - sewage - sewerage - solid wastes - waste disposal - waste water - water management - water resources - analogen - chemische eigenschappen - samenstelling - hydrologie - modellen - huisvuilverwijdering - fysische eigenschappen - neerslag - vuilnis - rioolwater - riolering - vaste afvalstoffen - afvalverwijdering - afvalwater - waterbeheer - watervoorraden
    Eutrofiering in Nederland.
    Lijklema, L. ; Janse, J.H. ; Roijackers, R.M.M. ; Meyer, M.L. - \ 1988
    H2O : tijdschrift voor watervoorziening en afvalwaterbehandeling 21 (1988). - ISSN 0166-8439 - p. 462 - 467.
    analogen - kanalen - derivaten - eutrofiëring - hydrologie - meren - modellen - Nederland - fosfaten - fosforpentoxide - plassen - reservoirs - rivieren - statistiek - waterlopen - oppervlaktewater - water - waterverontreiniging - waterkwaliteit - analogues - canals - derivatives - eutrophication - hydrology - lakes - models - Netherlands - phosphates - phosphorus pentoxide - ponds - reservoirs - rivers - statistics - streams - surface water - water - water pollution - water quality
    Een derde onderzoek is uitgevoerd naar de eutrofieringstoestand in de (semi-) stagnante zoete oppervlaktewateren in ons land. Van 121 plassen en meren werden min of meer volledige gegevens ontvangen betreffende de fysische, chemische en biologische kenmerken
    An example of a rainfall-runoff model for design flood computation.
    Ignar, S. - \ 1986
    Wageningen : Landbouwuniversiteit Wageningen (Publication / Vakgroep Hydraulica en Afvoerhydrologie. Landbouwuniversiteit 74) - 26
    analogen - hydrologie - wiskundige modellen - modellen - operationeel onderzoek - regen - relaties - analogues - hydrology - mathematical models - models - operations research - rain - relationships
    Berekening van grondwaterstanden in bebouwde gebieden
    Wind, G.P. ; Buitendijk, J. - \ 1984
    Wageningen : I.C.W. (Nota / Instituut voor Cultuurtechniek en Waterhuishouding no. 1537) - 26
    analogen - grondwaterstand - hydrologie - modellen - stedelijke gebieden - grondwaterspiegel - gemeenten - analogues - groundwater level - hydrology - models - urban areas - water table - municipalities
    Model SWATRE : simulatie van de waterbalans van grasland in het Hupselse beekgebied over de periode 1976 t/m 1982
    Graaf, M. de; Feddes, R.A. - \ 1984
    Wageningen : I.C.W. (Nota / Instituut voor Cultuurtechniek en Waterhuishouding no 1563) - 34
    graslanden - waterbalans - methodologie - hydrologie - evapotranspiratie - modellen - analogen - Nederland - gelderland - achterhoek - grasslands - water balance - methodology - hydrology - evapotranspiration - models - analogues - Netherlands - gelderland - achterhoek
    Hydrological models for the Southern Peel area : collection of discussion papers concerning water quantity and water quality models, prepared between March and September 1983; Explanation to the map of the subregions in the Southern Peel area
    Smidt, E.H. ; Bakel, P.J.T. van; Kaden, S. - \ 1983
    Wageningen : I.C.W. (Nota / Instituut voor Cultuurtechniek en Waterhuishouding no. 1420) - 66
    chemische eigenschappen - water - rivieren - waterlopen - kanalen - oppervlaktewater - waterverontreiniging - waterkwaliteit - waterbeheer - watervoorraden - hydrologie - modellen - analogen - Nederland - de peel - chemical properties - water - rivers - streams - canals - surface water - water pollution - water quality - water management - water resources - hydrology - models - analogues - Netherlands - de peel
    Rainfall interstation correlation functions derived for a class of generalized storm models
    Stol, P.T. - \ 1983
    Wageningen : ICW (Report / Institute for Land and Water Management Research no. 7) - 47
    analogen - duur - hydrologie - modellen - neerslag - analogues - duration - hydrology - models - precipitation
    The complete derivation and solution of the rainfall interstation correlation function is described. The report emphasizes the mathematical treatment and the way in which the analytical solution can be obtained by calculus
    Numerical modelling of groundwater basins : a user-oriented manual
    Boonstra, J. ; Ridder, N.A. de - \ 1981
    Wageningen : I.L.R.I. (Publication International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement no. 29) - ISBN 9789070260699 - 226
    watervoerende lagen - waterkwaliteit - grondwater - waterbeheer - hydrologie - modellen - analogen - aquifers - water quality - groundwater - water management - hydrology - models - analogues
    Kwalitatieve en kwantitatieve aspecten van de afvoer van stedelijke gebieden, calibrtie STORM-model
    Leenen, J.D. ; Groot, S. - \ 1980
    Wageningen : LH (Nota / Laboratorium voor Hydraulica en Afvoerhydrologie 45) - 20
    analogen - afvoer - hydrologie - modellen - Nederland - rioolafvalwaterverwijdering - riolering - theorie - stedelijke gebieden - afvalwaterbehandeling - water - waterzuivering - zuiveringsinstallaties - twente - analogues - discharge - hydrology - models - Netherlands - sewage effluent disposal - sewerage - theory - urban areas - waste water treatment - water - water treatment - purification plants - twente
    Een van de simulatiemodellen voor een rioolwatersysteem, waarbij zowel de waterkwaliteit als kwantiteit van de afvoer ten gevolge van neerslag en afvalwaterproduktie wordt beschouwd, is het in de Verenigde Staten ontwikkelde model STORM (Storage, Treatment, Overflow, Runoff, Model). In dit rapport worden de resultaten van de toepassing van STORM op de stad Enschede beschreven, voorafgegaan door enige algemene beschouwingen omtrent het gehanteerde model, het beschouwde stroomgebied en de methode van calibreren
    Modelling urban run-off : a quasilinear approach
    Zondervan, J.G. - \ 1978
    Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): D.A. Kraijenhoff van de Leur. - Wageningen : Pudoc - ISBN 9789022006658 - 68
    afvoer - hydrologie - stroomgebieden - drainage - rivieren - stedelijke gebieden - water - modellen - analogen - geografie - nederzetting - onderzoek - nederland - veluwe - gelderland - discharge - hydrology - watersheds - drainage - rivers - urban areas - water - models - analogues - geography - settlement - research - netherlands - veluwe - gelderland

    The non-linear behaviour of catchments, as ascertained by various investigators, is discussed. Blackbox analysis with Laguerre functions shows non-linear behaviour for a small urban catchment area. Some approaches to non-linear systems for rainfall and run-off are considered. Two quasilinear methods are compared with a theoretical model for their application. Results from an application of the most promising method on an urban catchment area confirm the feasibility of this method. Six conceptual models are compared and an application of the quasilinear method is given with a conceptual model. A satisfactory treatment of losses forms a major problem in modelling urban rainfall and run-off. Hence a chapter is devoted to transformation of rainfall into sewer inflow and concurrent losses. The use of critical sequences of rainfall for modelling is discussed. Evidence suggesting the maximum time interval between samples is given.

    Optimum use of water resources
    Ridder, N.A. de; Erez, A. - \ 1977
    Wageningen : I.L.R.I. (Publication / International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement no. 21) - 250
    analogen - grondwater - hydrologie - Iran - irrigatie - modellen - oppervlaktewater - waterbeheer - waterkwaliteit - watergebruik - analogues - groundwater - hydrology - Iran - irrigation - models - surface water - water management - water quality - water use
    Transformation of storm models caused by stochastic components
    Stol, P.T. - \ 1977
    Wageningen : I.C.W. (Nota / Instituut voor Cultuurtechniek en Waterhuishouding no. 1028) - 34
    neerslag - hydrologie - duur - modellen - analogen - precipitation - hydrology - duration - models - analogues
    Stochastic modelling of daily rainfall sequences
    Buishand, T.A. - \ 1977
    Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): W.H. van der Molen, co-promotor(en): P. van der Laan. - Wageningen : Veenman - 212
    analogen - hydrologie - meteorologische waarnemingen - modellen - neerslag - statistische analyse - analogues - hydrology - meteorological observations - models - precipitation - statistical analysis - cum laude

    Rainfall series of different climatic regions were analysed with the aim of generating daily rainfall sequences. A survey of the data is given in I, 1. When analysing daily rainfall sequences one must be aware of the following points:
    a. Seasonality. Because of seasonal variation of features of the rainfall process the analysis is done for each month or season separately (see III, 2).
    b. Non-homogeneity. A rainfall series is called non-homogeneous when it is non-stationary even after elimination of seasonal variation.
    c. A large fraction of days with no rain.
    d. Dependence between rainfall amounts on successive days (serial correlation).
    It is the combination of the last two points which makes the generation of daily rainfall sequences difficult. When dealing with rainfall observations over periods longer than one day this difficulty is mostly obviated because one gets less zeroes and evidence for serial correlation usually disappears. For instance, there is no evidence for serial correlation in monthly data of Dutch stations (see II, 3.1). Besides, theoretical distributions can easily be fitted to the marginal distribution (e.g. the 'loi des fuites', see II, 3.2). The generation of these data is therefore not complicated. For annual totals the Gaussian distribution often fits reasonably well (see II, 2 for Dutch series, and V, 2.1 for foreign series). Departures from normality are found for rainfall stations with a few wet days in a year (New Delhi, Khartoum).

    Homogeneity of Dutch rainfall series is discussed in Chapter II. It is assumed that non-homogeneities are man-made, e.g. due to a change in rain gauge installation or a change of observer and therefore non-homogeneities usually consist of jumps.
    A problem when dealing with Dutch rainfall series is the lowering of the rain gauges (from 1.50 m to 0.40 m) during the period 1946-1954 (see II, 4). Due to a smaller wind effect it is expected that such a reduction in height results in larger rainfall measurements. To find a jump in the mean, annual totals of Dutch stations were compared with contemporary totals of foreign stations where no change of height took place. For such a comparison two points are important:
    a. The distance between the various rainfall stations. In order to obtain a powerful test for a jump, one should choose the stations close together.
    Therefore Dutch rainfall stations near the Belgian or German border were taken.
    b. There are other non-homogeneities, for instance, due to changes of site. The consequence of such non-homogeneities is that the estimates of a jump, caused by a reduction of height, may be biased. Moreover, these non- homogeneities give rise to a smaller correlation between the rainfall series and the tests for a jump become therefore less powerful. The influence of local changes can be reduced by taking averages of different stations in a certain area.
    With regression models and plots of partial sums, a jump in the mean of about 2 per cent is found for stations remote from the coast; for coastal stations the height of the jump can be much larger (even more than 10 per cent), but there is a large variation due to differences in the degree of protection against the wind. The results correspond quite well with those of earlier research by BRAAK (1945).
    By comparing monthly data of Dutch and German stations in the northern coastal area (see II, 4.2) it is found that the largest jumps occur in the winter season.

    Another point of investigation is the homogeneity of the Zwanenburg- Hoofddorp (1735-1972) series (see II, 5). Since here there is no nearby rainfall station, with no changes in the way of measuring during the period of observation, the analysis of homogeneity was merely based on the series under consideration. The tests which were considered are less powerful than the ones based on a comparison between changed and unchanged stations. Yet, there is obvious evidence for differences in the means of Zwanenburg (1735-1860) and Hoofddorp (1861-1972). There is no evidence for departures from homogeneity in the Hoofddorp series. Since there is also a poor correlation between the Zwanenburg data and other old rainfall series, these data can be considered useless for present-day hydrological research.

    Because of the large number of zeroes in daily rainfall sequences, it is suggested to generate first the occurrence of wet and dry days and subsequently the rainfall amounts on wet days. Since small rainfall amounts are often registered as zero it is advisable to call a day wet if its rainfall amount exceeds some specified value. For the Netherlands a threshold of 0.8 mm is advisable (see II, 6); for smaller thresholds there are only a few rainfall stations for which the series of wet and dry days (shortly denoted as wet-dry series) is homogeneous.

    In Chapter III a model is developed for Dutch rainfall series, using daily data from Winterswijk (1908-1973), Hoofddorp (1867-1971) and Hengelo (1908-1973). Theoretical considerations about the model are given in Chapter IV.
    With respect to the wet-dry sequences of these series it can be concluded:
    a. There is no evidence for correlation between the lengths of successive wet and dry spells (see III, 3.1).
    b. Modifications of the negative binomial distribution (the shifted negative binomial distribution, see III, (3.2) and the truncated negative binomial distribution, see 111, (3.3)) fit the lengths of weather spells well.
    Seasonal dependence of the parameters of the truncated negative binomial distribution was extensively studied. For a particular type of spell it was shown that it is reasonable to keep one of the parameters, r, constant throughout the year. Further, for dry spells the other parameter, p, can be smoothed according to a moving average scheme (see III, (3.17)); for wet spells seasonal variation of the parameter p can be described by a Fourier series with one harmonic component (see III, (3.12)).

    With respect to the behaviour of rainfall amounts on wet days the following remarks can be made.
    a. There is no evidence for correlation between the rainfall amount on the first day of a wet spell and the length of the preceding dry spell (see III, 4.1).
    b. The first and the last day of a wet spell have smaller means than the other wet days; the smallest mean is found for solitary wet days (see III, 4.2).
    c. There is some evidence for serial correlation of successive rainfall amounts within a wet spell (see III, 5.1). It is assumed that this serial correlation can be described by a first order moving average process (see III, 6.1).
    The last two points are most evident during the winter season.
    A shifted gamma distribution fits the marginal distribution of the rainfall amounts on wet days reasonably well (see III, 5.2). There is no evidence for seasonal variation of the shape parameter; the mean, however, shows an obvious seasonal variation.

    Though synthetic sequences resemble the historic series with respect to features contained in the model (such as the marginal distribution of daily rainfall amounts and the lengths of wet and dry spells), this is not necessarily true for other features. As examples the correlogram and features of k-day sums ( k = 2, 3, .. .) were considered. This was done for both the wet-dry process and the entire rainfall process.
    Some features of the rainfall model can be obtained by numerical methods. These features are:
    a. The cumulative distribution function (cdf) of the number of wet days in a k -day period. Under the assumption of iid rainfall amounts within a wet spell it is not difficult to derive an expression for the cdf of k -day rainfall totals (see IV, 3).
    b. The correlogram for both the wet-dry process and the entire rainfall process (see IV, 4).
    c. The variance-time curve of the wet-dry process and of the entire rainfall process (see IV, 5). For large values of k ( k >10) the variance of the number of wet days in a k -day period can be approximated well by an asymptotic formula (Equation IV, (5.36)) involving only the first three moments of the lengths of wet and dry spells. This approximation can also be done for the variance of k -day rainfall amounts when the rainfall totals within a wet spell are iid. For the derivation of the formulas, underlying these numerical calculations, the following assumptions are made.
    a. The process is stationary.
    b. The wet-dry process is an alternating renewal process. A definition of this process is given in IV, 2.2.
    These assumptions turn out to be reasonable when the rainfall process is examined for a particular month or season.

    For the correlogram. it can be concluded (see III, 6.1):
    a. There is a good correspondence between the estimated first serial correlation coefficient and the theoretical value for both the wet-dry process and the entire rainfall process. This quantity is usually underestimated when simplifying assumptions are made about the behaviour of rainfall amounts within a wet spell.
    b. For larger lags the model usually underestimates the serial correlation coefficients of the rainfall process, especially during the winter season. For the wet-dry process the model usually provides a better fit at the higher lags.
    Closely related to the last point is the fact that the model underestimates the variances of 30-day rainfall amounts (see III, 6.2). During winter and autumn sometimes long wet spells occur with very high intensity (see III, 4.2) which inflate the estimated variances of k -day totals for large values of k .

    The following remarks can be made on the cdf of k -day sums.
    a. For the number of wet days in a k-day period there is a good correspondence between theoretical and empirical cdfs (see III, 7.1).
    b. For the entire rainfall process theoretical cdfs fit well for small values of k ; poor fit may occur for larger values of k (e.g. k = 30). This poor fit usually consists of an underestimation of the probabilities of large values (see III, 7.2.2).
    Though the cdf was only investigated under the assumption of independent rainfall amounts within a wet spell, it may be expected that the shape of the cdf is hardly influenced when serial correlation between these rainfall amounts is assumed, since the increase in the variance of k-day totals is only very small for a model with serial correlation (see III, 6.2).
    For the rainfall process it was investigated how different features of the model affect the shape of the cdf of 30-day totals. The main results are:
    a. The shape of the cdf is hardly influenced by the distribution of the lengths of weather spells (see III, 7.1).
    b. The shape of the cdf is to some extent not sensitive to the marginal distribution of the rainfall amounts on wet days (see III, 7.2).
    c. The shape of the cdf is hardly altered when rainfall amounts within a wet spell are assumed to be iid.
    For Winterswijk (1908-1973) nearly the same results were obtained when the threshold defining a wet day is taken to be 0.3 mm instead of 0.8 mm.
    Though there are many corrections and supplements in the series of Hengelo (1908-1973) the results for this station correspond quite well to those of the adjacent station of Winterswijk

    In Chapter V daily rainfall sequences of stations with a more pronounced seasonal variation than Dutch stations are discussed.
    The problems encountered for Dutch stations usually arise here too:
    a. In order to get a homogenous wet-dry series one is often forced to call only those days wet for which the rainfall amount exceeds a rather large threshold (see V, 2. 1).
    b. Rainfall amounts within a wet spell are often non-identically distributed. Moreover, there usually exists a small serial correlation between rainfall amounts within a wet spell (see V, 2.3).
    c. The rainfall model underestimates the variances of k -day totals for large values of k (see V, 2.4).
    Besides, for the series analysed in Chapter V there are some problems associated with dry seasons with no or hardly any rainfall:
    a. It is often not possible to fit the shifted negative binomial distribution or the truncated negative binomial distribution to lengths of wet spells during the dry season. Since there are no long wet spells during this season, the likelihood equations of these distributions often do not have a solution within the parameter space. In such cases it is possible to fit a one-parameter distribution (geometric, logarithmic series) to the lengths of wet spells (see V, 2.2).
    b. Dry spells can be quite long. Modifications of the negative binomial distribution sometimes cannot fit the lengths of these spells (see V, 2.2 and V, 3). In such cases it might be advisable to use transition probabilities for the generation of the wet-dry series instead of generating lengths of wet and dry spells. For instance, it was shown, by simulation, that a first order Markov chain describes the right tail of the distribution of the lengths of dry spells well for the station of Alexandria (see V, 3).

    The generation of synthetic data for Pasar Minggu (Indonesia) was investigated in more detail (see V, 2.5). Special attention was paid to the beginning of both the wet and the dry monsoon. The model can describe the transitions between these seasons quite well.

    A special problem arises for the rainfall series of Khartoum (1902-1940). For this station there is some evidence for serial correlation in the annual totals and in the annual number of wet days (see V, 3). This serial correlation can be explained by persistence in the lengths of successive wet and dry seasons. It is proposed therefore to generate the beginning and the end of the wet season first. Within a wet season the rainfall process can be approximated by a Bernoulli process for the occurrence of wet and dry days and a shifted gamma distribution for the rainfall amounts on wet days. The probability of a day being wet and the mean of the rainfall amount on a wet day show seasonal variation.
    The main shortcoming of the daily rainfall model is that it underestimates the variance of k -day totals for large values of k which may result in it poorly fitting the distribution of these totals. It is, however, by no means certain whether this shortcoming is important in practical situations. When dealing with hydrological systems with a long memory one may expect serious problems but studies on such systems can often be based on a time-scale longer than one day. Therefore it is necessary to test the model on some real problems to obtain a better insight into its shortcomings.

    One may ask whether improvements of the model are possible. For Dutch series the description of the wet-dry process by a seasonal changing alternating renewal process seems reasonable, since the model fits well the probability distributions of the annual number of wet days (see III, 7.2.2) and of the number of wet days in a 30-day period (see III, 7.1). Therefore one must think of a better model for the behaviour of rainfall amounts on wet days. It is impractical to incorporate serial correlation of higher order between rainfall amounts within a wet spell as the effect on the variance-time curve of the process is negligible, because wet spells usually are of short duration. The model could be improved by:
    a. a random slowly changing mean of the rainfall amounts on wet days. This certainly will increase the variance of k -day totals for large values of k .
    The main problem of this method is the estimation of the parameters. Another problem can be the choice of the type of distribution for the rainfall amounts on wet days.
    b. generating a total rainfall amount for a particular period (e.g. a month) and splitting this rainfall amount into the rainfall amounts of the various wet days of that period. Because of the method of generation this model may give a reasonable fit to monthly and annual totals. A disadvantage of this method is that the model contains a large number of parameters.
    But before thinking of such improvements one must realize that there are large local differences for the variances of 30-day totals (see III, 6.2). It is therefore necessary to analyse a large number of daily rainfall sequences of the Netherlands and its neighbouring countries.
    For some foreign stations analysed in Chapter V one also has the trouble that for large values of k an alternating renewal process leads to a serious underestimation of the variance of the number of wet days in a k -day period. Research still has to be done to get a better model for such series.

    Grondwaterbeheermodel omgeving Glindhorst : toelichting op de verzameling en de bewerking van de bodemkundige gegevens
    Holst, A.F. ; Vrielink, J.G. - \ 1975
    Wageningen : STIBOKA (Rapport / Stichting voor Bodemkartering no. 1172) - 17
    analogen - grondwater - hydrologie - modellen - waterbeheer - waterkwaliteit - Nederland - kaarten - gelderland - utrecht - gelderse vallei - analogues - groundwater - hydrology - models - water management - water quality - Netherlands - maps - gelderland - utrecht - gelderse vallei
    Bodemkundig onderzoek grondwaterwinning Gelderse Vallei
    Waterbeheersing, watertoedeling en rekentechnieken als grondslag daartoe
    Visser, W.C. - \ 1971
    Wageningen : ICW (Nota / Instituut voor Cultuurtechniek en Waterhuishouding no. 599, 600, 601)
    waterbeheer - watervoorraden - hydrologie - theorie - modellen - analogen - testen - schatting - water management - water resources - hydrology - theory - models - analogues - testing - estimation
    Numerical simulation technique for vertical drainage from a soil column
    Kastanek, F. - \ 1971
    Wageningen : [s.n.] (Technical bulletin / Institute for land and water management research no. 77) - 20
    stroming - hydrologie - grondwaterstroming - drainage - modellen - analogen - hydrodynamica - vloeistoffen (liquids) - vloeistoffen (fluids) - flow - hydrology - groundwater flow - drainage - models - analogues - hydrodynamics - liquids - fluids
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