Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Bepaling samenstelling van vaste mest met NIRS
    Rietra, R.P.J.J. ; Oenema, O. - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2837) - 27
    dierlijke meststoffen - stikstof - fosfor - nabij infrarood spectroscopie - referentienormen - analyse - betrouwbaarheid - analytische methoden - animal manures - nitrogen - phosphorus - near infrared spectroscopy - reference standards - analysis - reliability - analytical methods
    Dynamic photosynthesis under a fluctuating environment: a modelling-based analysis
    Morales Sierra, Alejandro - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Paul Struik; Jaap Molenaar, co-promotor(en): Xinyou Yin; Jeremy Harbinson. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430456 - 282
    photosynthesis - modeling - analysis - environmental factors - light - canopy - leaves - crop physiology - metabolism - fotosynthese - modelleren - analyse - milieufactoren - licht - kroondak - bladeren - gewasfysiologie - metabolisme

    In their natural environment, leaves are exposed to rapid fluctuations of irradiance. Research on CO2 assimilation under fluctuating irradiance often relies on measurements of gas exchange during transients where irradiance is rapidly increased or decreased, after the leaf has adapted to a particular set of environmental conditions. In the field, such increases and decreases occur mostly because of sunflecks (rapid increases in irradiance on a low irradiance background) created by gaps in the canopy and plant movement by wind, and cloudflecks (rapid decreases in irradiance on a high irradiance background) generated by clouds that transiently block the sun.

    In this dissertation, the metabolic regulation of photosynthesis and how this may limit dynamic CO2 assimilation is studied in silico with the development and application of simulation models. In order to support the development of the models, a review of the literature was performed as well as an experiment designed to generate data on dynamic CO2 assimilation for different photosynthetic mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana. In addition to providing these models to the research community, this dissertation also identifies multiple targets that may be used for improving dynamic CO2 assimilation in plants. It further demonstrates that the dynamic responses of CO2 assimilation to changes in irradiance has a significant effect on canopy CO2 assimilation, even for dense canopies exposed to open skies, resembling the conditions of commercial crops.

    In Chapter 1, the context of this dissertation is presented. The societal relevance of this research is argued, making reference to the role that photosynthesis could play in addressing global problems such as food and energy security. The necessary background on the physiology of photosynthesis is provided, with special emphasis on the terminology and concepts required to understand the rest of the dissertation, with the aim of making the contents more accessible to a wider audience. Then, prior literature on the specific topics of this dissertation (i.e., photosynthesis in a dynamic environment and its mathematical modelling) is presented, with a chronological approach that analyses the evolution of ideas and methodologies up to the present.

    In Chapter 2, the current literature on dynamic CO2 assimilation is reviewed, with an emphasis on the effects of environmental conditions ([CO2], temperature, and air humidity) on the rates of photosynthetic induction and loss of induction. This review reveals major knowledge gaps, especially on the loss of induction. The little data available indicates that rates of photosynthetic induction increase with [CO2], which could be explained by a weak effect on Rubisco activation and a strong effect on stomatal opening. Increases in temperature also increase the rates of photosynthetic induction, up to an optimum, beyond which a strong negative effect can be observed, which could be attributed to deactivation of Rubisco activase.

    In Chapter 3, an experiment is presented that makes use of several photosynthetic mutants of A. thaliana. Downregulating non-photochemical quenching and sucrose synthesis did not have any significant effect on dynamic CO2 assimilation, whereas CO2 diffusion and Rubisco activation exerted stronger limitations. Further analysis reveals that whether stomatal opening limits CO2 assimilation after an increase in irradiance depends on the stomatal conductance prior to the change in irradiance. A threshold value of 0.12 mol m−2 s−1 (defined for fluxes of water vapour) could be defined, above which stomata did not affect the rates of photosynthetic induction. The comparison of measurements across irradiance levels also indicated that the apparent rate constant of Rubisco activation is irradiance-dependent, at least for irradiance levels below 150 μmol m−2 s−1.

    In Chapter 4, a phenomenological model of leaf-level CO2 assimilation is presented. The model is described in detail and all the parameters are first estimated with published data, and later refined by fitting the model to the data from Chapter 3. Additional data from the experiment in Chapter 3 is used to validate predictions of CO2 assimilation under lightflecks for the different photosynthetic mutants. The model predicts accurately dynamic CO2 assimilation for the different photosynthetic mutants by only modifying those parameters that are affected by the mutation. This demonstrates that the model has a high predictive power and that the equations, although phenomenological in nature, have a solid physiological basis.

    The model is further used to analyse, in silico, the limitations imposed by different photosynthetic processes on dynamic CO2 assimilation at the leaf and canopy level, allowing a more in depth analysis than in Chapter 3. The analysis demonstrates that results obtained at the leaf level should not be extrapolated directly to the canopy level, as the spatial and temporal distribution of irradiance within a canopy is more complex than what is achieved in experimental protocols. Both at the leaf and canopy level, CO2 diffusion is strongly limiting, followed by photoinhibition, chloroplast movements and Rubisco activation.

    In Chapter 5, a mechanistic model of the dynamic, metabolic regulation of the electron transport chain is presented. The model is described in detail and all the parameters are estimated from published literature, using measurements on A. thaliana when available. Predictions of the model are tested with steady-state and dynamic measurements of gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and absorbance spectroscopy on A. thaliana, with success.

    The analysis in silico indicates that a significant amount of alternative electron transport is required to couple ATP and NADPH production and demand, and most of it is associated with nitrogen assimilation and export of redox power through the malate shuttle. The analysis also reveals that the relationship between ATP synthesis and the proton motive force is highly regulated by the concentrations of substrates (ADP, ATP and inorganic phosphate), and this regulation facilitates an increase in non-photochemical quenching under conditions of low metabolic activity in the stroma.

    In Chapter 6, the findings of Chapters 2–5 are summarised and employed to answer in detail the four research questions formulated in Chapter 1. Of great interest is the identification of six potential targets that may be used to improve dynamic CO2 assimilation. These targets are: (i) regulation of Rubisco activity through changes in the amount or regulation of Rubisco activase, (ii) acceleration of stomatal opening and closure, (iii) a lower /ATP for ATP synthesis, (iv) faster relaxation of non-photochemical quenching, (v) reduced chloroplast movements, and (vi) reduced photoinhibition by increased rates of repair of Photosystem II.

    Ethiopian soil laboratory infrastructure : CASCAPE scoping mission
    Bakker, G. ; Okx, J.P. ; Assen, M. ; Solomon, T. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2722) - 35
    soil - laboratory methods - soil analysis - analysis - laboratory tests - ethiopia - bodem - laboratoriummethoden - grondanalyse - analyse - laboratoriumproeven - ethiopië
    Food security is one of the main issues in Ethiopia. Large amounts of money are spent on food security programs set up by federal- and regional governments and other organisations. Decisionmakers, as well as researchers, share a dependency upon reliable data on soils, water and crops. The authors of this report believe that the data from the Ethiopian soil laboratories are not reliable enough for decision-making purposes. Ethiopian laboratories need to improve their analytical services. The main problems concern the organisational set-up, and not merely a lack of budgets for facilities. Apart from organisational problems, managerial-, human resources-, technical-, instrumental- and supply issues were identified.
    Mogelijkheden voor de implementatie van het biomassawerf concept in de Greenport Gelderland : deel 3: Logistieke cases
    Annevelink, E. ; Oever, M.J.A. van den; Gogh, J.B. van; Dam, J.E.G. van - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1546) - 75
    biobased economy - biomassa - reststromen - beschikbaarheid - logistiek - biomassa productie - biomassaconversie - verzamelen - analyse - betuwe - biobased economy - biomass - residual streams - availability - logistics - biomass production - biomass conversion - collection - analysis - betuwe
    Het project ‘Biomassawerf – verwerken van reststromen’ (BO-21.03-001-002) vormt een onderdeel van het Biobased gedeelte van het BO-programma Keteninnovaties Plantaardig (KIP) van het Ministerie van Economische Zaken. Deze nota is het derde deel van de rapportage uit dit project, en is een vervolg op de nota’s: ‘Deel 1. Stakeholder analyse & biomassabeschikbaarheid’ (Annevelink et al., 2013) en ‘Deel 2. Het biomassawerf concept: voorbeelden, theorie & checklist’ (Annevelink et al., 2014a). Het specifieke doel van dit derde deelrapport is om de logistiek rond mogelijke biomassawerven in beeld te brengen d.m.v. specifieke cases. Dit rapport start in Hoofdstuk 2 met feedback vanuit de logistieke praktijk op het biomassawerf concept zoals dat is beschreven in Rapport Deel 2. Vervolgens wordt in Hoofdstuk 3 beschreven hoe de logistieke case studies zijn uitgevoerd. Daarna volgen de resultaten van drie verschillende case studies in de Greenport Gelderland, n.l. rond houtige reststromen in de fruitteelt (Hoofdstuk 4), houtige reststromen uit de laanbomenteelt (Hoofdstuk 5) en het afscheiden van fosfaat en andere componenten uit champost (Hoofdstuk 6). Tenslotte worden algemene conclusies en aanbevelingen uit de cases studies gegeven in Hoofdstuk 7.
    Ketenanalyse residu gewasbeschermingsmiddelen : Bloembollen, boomkwekerijproducten en vaste planten
    Werd, H.A.E. de; Dalfsen, P. van; Kuik, A.J. van - \ 2015
    Randwijk : Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving, Bloembollen, Boomkwekerij & Fruit - 87
    pesticiden - bloembollen - sierplanten - houtachtige planten - apidae - honingbijen - bijensterfte - bemonsteren - insecticidenresiduen - analyse - fungiciden - acariciden - pesticides - ornamental bulbs - ornamental plants - woody plants - apidae - honey bees - bee mortality - sampling - insecticide residues - analysis - fungicides - acaricides
    Greenpeace heeft in het voorjaar van 2014 bloembol- en knolproducten en tuinplanten in pot op residuen van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen en biociden laten onderzoeken. PPO Wageningen UR heeft op verzoek van KAVB, Anthos en de LTO Vakgroep Boomkwekerij en Vaste planten, de herkomst van de gevonden residuen geanalyseerd. Hierbij is voor 18 van de bemonsterde en 2 extra gewassen in beeld gebracht wat het toegelaten gebruik van fungiciden, insecticiden en acariciden in Nederland is. Vervolgens zijn voor dezelfde 18 gewassen de gevonden residuen vergeleken met de te verwachten residuen op basis van het toegelaten gebruik. Ook de herkomst van de residuen die niet te verklaren zijn op basis van het in Nederland toegelaten gebruik is geanalyseerd. Binnen deze studie zijn geen nieuwe proeven of metingen uitgevoerd, maar zijn schattingen van het verloop van de ordegrootte van residugehaltes gemaakt op basis van de eigenschappen van de betreffende stoffen.
    Analyse trend en hotspots Alsemambrosia
    Beringen, R. ; Odé, B. ; Vliet, A.J.H. van - \ 2014
    ambrosia - ambrosia artemisiifolia - invasieve exoten - verspreiding van planten - kenmerken - onkruiden - analyse - detectie - populaties - nederland - ambrosia - ambrosia artemisiifolia - invasive alien species - plant dispersal - traits - weeds - analysis - detection - populations - netherlands
    Alsemambrosia is de meest voorkomende Ambrosiasoort in Nederland. Na bundeling van de gegevens van de belangrijkste bronnen van waarnemingen door, De Natuurkalender Wageningen UR, NDFF en is een analyse gedaan naar verspreiding en trend van Alsemambrosia in de periode 1975 t/m 2013. Tevens is op basis van de beschikbare gegevens een analyse gedaan naar de omvang van populaties in de periode 2000-2013.
    Rapport : bemonsteren en analyseren van dierlijke mest op een vrachtauto
    Zedde, H.J. van de; Kekem, C. van; Boer, E.P.J. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1432) - ISBN 9789461737014 - 47
    dierlijke meststoffen - analyse - bemonsteren - nabij infrarood spectroscopie - analytische methoden - trucks - betrouwbaarheid - animal manures - analysis - sampling - near infrared spectroscopy - analytical methods - trucks - reliability
    Dierlijke mest is uitermate lastig materiaal om te analyseren met NabijInfraRood Spectroscopie (NIRS), want het is donker materiaal, hoofdzakelijk bestaand uit vocht en het is niet homogeen qua samenstelling. Toch wordt in literatuur beschreven, en ook in eerder onderzoek onder gecontroleerde omstandigheden aangetoond, dat stikstof- en fosfaatgehaltes in dierlijke mest kan worden gemeten met behulp van NIR spectroscopie met acceptabele niveaus qua betrouwbaarheid. De doelstellingen van het in dit rapport beschreven project waren: - Kan met Nabij Infrarood Spectroscopie bij belading en tijdens het lossen van mesttransport vrachtwagens een analyse van stikstof en fosfaat worden gerealiseerd die zich qua betrouwbaarheid ten minste kan meten met de huidige laboratorium-analyses? - Is de Nabij Infrarood Spectroscopie geschikt om toe te passen op voertuigniveau waarbij behoud van de betrouwbaarheid van analysen een voorwaarde is? - Is de Nabij Infrarood Spectroscopie een techniek die qua kosten en handhaving op grotere schaal in de praktijk toegepast kan worden?
    Analyse van residugegevens en spuitschema's in kleinfruit (rode bes)
    Wenneker, M. - \ 2013
    Randwijk : Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving, Bloembollen, Boomkwekerij & Fruit (PPO 2013-04) - 23
    fruitteelt - bessen - kleinfruit - pesticidenresiduen - residuen - kwaliteitscontroles - spuiten - analyse - landbouwkundig onderzoek - fruit growing - berries - small fruits - pesticide residues - residues - quality controls - spraying - analysis - agricultural research
    Residuen van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen op vruchten zijn in toenemende mate een probleem voor de afzet. Door retailers worden steeds hogere eisen gesteld aan het aantal verschillende residuen dat mag worden aangetroffen en aan het residuniveau dat geaccepteerd wordt (bovenwettelijke eisen). In kleinfruit (m.n. rode bessen) zijn hierdoor in de afgelopen jaren problemen ontstaan, omdat veel verschillende actieve stoffen in de residu-analyses worden teruggevonden, en de hoeveelheid residu soms de MRL-waarde nadert. Om aan de eisen van de retail te kunnen voldoen is het noodzakelijk dat het aantal stoffen dat bij residu-analyses wordt aangetoond vermindert én het residuniveau wordt verlaagd. Tevens werden bijbehorende spuitschema’s geanalyseerd.
    Differences in leaf litter, ascospore production and infection of pear scab (Venturia pirina) in Dutch organic orchards
    Timmermans, B.G.H. ; Jansonius, P.J. - \ 2012
    In: Eco-fruit : 15th international conference on cultivation technique and phytopathological problems in organic fruit-growing and viticulture, 20-22 February 2012, Hohenheim. - Weinsberg : Foerdergemeinschaft Oekologischer Obstbau e.V. - p. 253 - 259.
    venturia pyrina - peren - fruitteelt - epidemiologie - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - schimmelziekten - plantenziekten - biologische landbouw - analyse - ziektebestrijdende teeltmaatregelen - regen - ascosporen - venturia pyrina - pears - fruit growing - epidemiology - plant pathogenic fungi - fungal diseases - plant diseases - organic farming - analysis - cultural control - rain - ascospores
    In 2010 and 2011 the amounts of leaf litter and ascospore production per unit of leaf litter area in 7 organic pear orchards throughout the Netherlands were measured. In one of the orchards, adapted managements strategies were implemented, being grass/clover that is grown as ground cover on the tree-strip, and organic cattle-manure that replaces chicken manure pellets, in order to stimulate the earthworm population and change the palatability of the leaf litter. First results indicate large differences between orchards in percentage of ground covered by dead leaves at the time of major ascospore infections, but also in number of ascospores per cm2 leaf litter and in resulting potential ascospore dose. These data, together with weather data (temperature, rainfall), were used in a simple multivariate analysis to gain insight in the dynamics of the system. The first results show that, to a limited degree, leaf litter was indeed important for the scab epidemic in 2011, whereas in 2010 the high amount of rainfall in the second part of the growing season must have led to a high conidial infection pressure. Surprisingly, in both years ascospore number per unit leaf area was of more importance than leaf litter area or potential ascospore dose.
    Vegetable chains in Kenya: Production and consumption of vegetables in the Nairobi metropolis
    Lans, C.J.M. van der; Snoek, H.M. ; Boer, F.A. de; Elings, A. - \ 2012
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture (Rapporten WUR GTB 1130) - 86
    voedselconsumptie - consumptiepatronen - groenten - analyse - internationale samenwerking - stedelijke bevolking - afrika - kenya - food consumption - consumption patterns - vegetables - analysis - international cooperation - urban population - africa - kenya
    Vegetable consumption in African countries such as Kenya is low, which has a negative impact on the nutritional condition of the population, and on the production by smallholders. The goals of the project were to determine the potentials for consumption and cultivation in the Nairobi metropolitan region, to analyse the reasons for low consumption and to define strategies to stimulate consumption and production. Vegetable consumption can be increased, especially during the dry season when availability is low, and for low-income groups. Production can be increased through technical interventions and improvement of skills. Important is to improve the leverage of producers in the value chain and the efficiency of the value chain. Key elements are: stimulate urban farming; reduce the cost price throughout the value chain and make the value chain more transparent, accountable, shorter with less transaction costs; reduce post-harvest losses, develop a revenue system that better rewards farmers; improve cold storage and logistics, improve irrigation in the dry season; offer dry-season solutions through food processing; and pay attention to a number of life-style issues. The Netherlands can contribute in the fields of re-structuring the value chain, brokering between parties, food processing, consumer behaviour, production and product quality (irrigation, quality seeds, crop management), and R&D.
    Analyzing efficiency of vegetable production in Benin
    Singbo, A.G. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Alfons Oude Lansink, co-promotor(en): Grigorios Emvalomatis. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732774 - 128
    groenten - productie - landbouwproductie - boerenmarkten - efficiëntie - analyse - benin - afrika ten zuiden van de sahara - vegetables - production - agricultural production - farmers' markets - efficiency - analysis - benin - africa south of sahara
    The objective of this research is to investigate the production technology and efficiency of vegetable production and marketing at the farm level in Benin. Using recent advances in cross sectional efficiency analysis, we analyze two samples of vegetable producers following different perspectives. First, the empirical results show that farms’ inefficiency in lowland farming systems is the most diverse. Second, the results suggest that vegetable producers are more inefficient with respect to marketing than production and that marketing inefficiency is affected by the type of marketing arrangements. Third, the analysis shows that vegetable producers have an incentive for specialization and that the degree of specialization has a positive effect on technical efficiency. Finally, the results on pesticide use provide evidence that pesticides are overused while there is no evidence of technical interdependence between pesticides and productive inputs
    Grasraffinage in de veehouderij
    Pol, A. van den; Durksz, D.L. ; Klop, A. ; Gosselink, J.M.J. - \ 2012
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 556) - 11
    grasmaaisel - grassen - raffineren - haalbaarheidsstudies - toegevoegde waarde - melkveehouderij - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - analyse - biobased economy - grass clippings - grasses - refining - feasibility studies - value added - dairy farming - farm management - analysis - biobased economy
    This report presents a SWOT-analysis of grass refinery on livestock farms in the Netherlands. Grass refinery is still in its infancy, yet it has prospects.
    Systeembiologie leidt tot nieuwe inzichten in de plant : processen sturen op niveau van genen, celprocessen en plantorganen
    Heuvelink, E. ; Kierkels, T. ; Molenaar, J. - \ 2012
    Onder Glas 9 (2012)2. - p. 34 - 35.
    glastuinbouw - systeembiologie - plantenontwikkeling - analyse - groeistudies - landbouwkundig onderzoek - innovaties - kasgewassen - greenhouse horticulture - systems biology - plant development - analysis - growth studies - agricultural research - innovations - greenhouse crops
    Met klimaatregeling kun je de bloei van planten beïnvloeden. Eigenlijk ben je dan bezig om processen te sturen op het niveau van genen, celprocessen, plantorganen, hele plant en omgeving. Systeembiologie maakt het mogelijk het inzicht in de samenhang daartussen op een hoger plan te brengen. Daar heeft de veredelaar baat bij en de teler op termijn ook.
    Quality assurance for animal feed analysis laboratories
    Balthrop, J. ; Brand, B. ; Cowie, R.A. ; Danier, J. ; Boever, J.L. de; Jonge, L.H. de; Jackson, F. ; Makkar, H.P.S. ; Piotrowski, C. - \ 2011
    Rome : FAO (FAO animal production and health manual 14) - ISBN 9789251070505 - 193
    voer - diervoedering - analyse - kwaliteitszorg - kwaliteitsnormen - goede laboratoriumpraktijk - feeds - animal feeding - analysis - quality management - quality standards - good laboratory practices
    Every sector of the livestock industry, the associated services and the wellbeing of both animals and humans are influenced by animal feeding. The availability of accurate, reliable and reproducible analytical data is imperative for proper feed formulation. Only reliable analysis can lead to the generation of sound scientific data. This document gives a comprehensive account of good laboratory practices, quality assurance procedures and examples of standard operating procedures as used in individual specialist laboratories. The adoption of these practices and procedures will assist laboratories in acquiring the recognition of competence required for certification or accreditation and will also enhance the quality of the data reported by feed analysis laboratories. In addition, ensuring good laboratory practices presented in the document will enhance the safety of the laboratory workers. The document will be useful for laboratory analysts, laboratory managers, research students and teachers and it is hoped that it will enable workers in animal industry, including the aquaculture industry, to appreciate the importance of proven reliable data and the associated quality assurance approaches. An additional effect of implementing and adopting these approaches will be strengthening of the research and education capabilities of students graduating from R&D institutions and promotion of a better trading environment between developing and developed economies. This will have long-term benefits and will promote investment in both feed industries and R&D institutions.
    Analysing agriculture and rural areas in Europe; A synthesis of research programmes in 20 countries
    Brouwer, F.M. ; Sas-Paszt, L. - \ 2011
    The Hague : LEI, part of Wageningen UR (Report / LEI : Research area Natural resources ) - ISBN 9789086155323 - 83
    landbouw - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - analyse - landbouwkundig onderzoek - duurzame ontwikkeling - platteland - europa - agriculture - sustainability - analysis - agricultural research - sustainable development - rural areas - europe
    The existing research programmes in Europe dealing with the new relationships between rural areas, agriculture and sustainable development, cover a wide range of topics in the domains of ecology and economy.
    Quantification of net exudation for the plant-microbial fuel cell
    Kuijken, R.C.P. ; Snel, J.F.H. ; Bouwmeester, H.J. ; Marcelis, L.F.M. - \ 2011
    wortelexudaten - analyse - microbiële brandstofcellen - biobased economy - biochemie - root exudates - analysis - microbial fuel cells - biobased economy - biochemistry
    The objective of this project is to develop a simple procedure to estimate net root exudation to study genetic and environmental effects on exudation.
    Omgevingsanalyse, Thema: Teelt de grond uit BO-12.03-009-004
    Slobbe, R.B. - \ 2011
    cultuur zonder grond - tuinbouw - vollegrondsteelt - milieufactoren - plattelandsomgeving - analyse - teeltsystemen - soilless culture - horticulture - outdoor cropping - environmental factors - rural environment - analysis - cropping systems
    Informatieposter getiteld "Omgevingsanalyse" met thema "Teelt de grond uit". Het zoeken is naar gewassen uit de vollegrondstuinbouw die geen volle grond meer nodig hebben om te groeien. Voor een succesvolle ontwikkeling van deze teeltinnovatie is het belangrijk, om rekening te houden met omgevingsfactoren en de belangen van stakeholders. In dit project zijn omgevingsfactoren verkend die invloed hebben op het welslagen van de nieuwe teeltsystemen en die andersom ook beïnvloed worden door deze ontwikkeling
    Parapluplan Gerbera "Beheersing van botrytis door efficiënter energiegebruik": Bestrijding van Botrytis in gerbera tijdens de teelt en in de na-oogstfase: Deelproject 4 van Parapluplan Gerbera: kasklimaat, energie en botrytis bij gerbera; oorzaak, verband en maatregelen
    Os, E.A. van; Hofland-Zijlstra, J.D. ; Hamelink, R. ; Leeuwen, G.J.L. van - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapporten GTB-1057_JV) - 35
    gerbera - sierteelt - botrytis cinerea - plantenziektebestrijding - laboratoriumproeven - kwaliteit na de oogst - analyse - methodologie - bestrijdingsmethoden - gerbera - ornamental horticulture - botrytis cinerea - plant disease control - laboratory tests - postharvest quality - analysis - methodology - control methods
    Referaat Botrytis kan veel schade geven in de na-oogstfase van gerberabloemen. Het doel van dit onderzoek is het bepalen van de meest effectieve bestrijdingsmethode in de teelt of in de na-oogstfase. Hiervoor zijn eerst de huidige middelen en methodieken geïnventariseerd en vervolgens zijn de beste methoden geselecteerd en op labschaal uitgetest en daarna onder praktijkomstandigheden getoetst. Het blijkt dat een specifieke botrytis bestrijding het beste in de na-oogstfase kan worden uitgevoerd en niet in de teeltfase. UV belichting en Aquanox (verneveling van een zoutoplossing) bieden hiervoor de meeste perspectieven. Aquanox dient sterk bloemgericht te worden verneveld om >90% reductie in kleine lesies te krijgen. In een laboratoriumopstelling is een dosis effect relatie voor UV belichting vastgesteld. Om meer dan 90% reductie in lesies te krijgen is 200 - 350 mJ/cm2 UV-C licht nodig. Onder hoge intensiteiten bestaat er bij enkele cultivars kans op brandschade (>350 mJ/cm2). Testen zijn uitgevoerd met lage druk lampen. De vereiste intensiteit wordt bereikt door een juiste combinatie van afstand bloem/lamp, tijdsduur en lichtsterkte. Gebruik van UV lampen in een sorteermachine vereist een zeer hoge lichtsterkte omdat de belichtingstijd zeer kort is. Oriënterende proeven met UV middendruklampen geven wel mogelijkheden, maar de warmteontwikkeling is vooralsnog te hoog om direct ingezet te kunnen worden. Lage druk lampen hebben in de sorteemachine het nadeel dat zeer veel lampen achter elkaar nodig zijn, terwijl daar geen ruimte voor is. Voor de gerberatelers is een praktijkadvies opgesteld om UV belichting in de na-oogstfase toe te passen tegen botrytis voor inbouw in een sorteermachine en voor zelfstandige toepassing.
    Safety of herbal preparations on the Dutch market
    Martena, M.J. - \ 2010
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ivonne Rietjens, co-promotor(en): E.J.M. Konings. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085858225 - 224
    keukenkruiden - azië - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - toxiciteit - besmetters - analyse - natuurlijke toxinen - culinary herbs - asia - food legislation - toxicity - contaminants - analysis - natural toxins
    The use and availability of herbal preparations covered by food law is increasing in the Netherlands and in other European Member States. Correspondingly, safety concerns relating to herbal preparations are growing as well. The aim of the present PhD project was therefore to review the toxicity of selected herbal preparations, to investigate the presence and actual levels of selected naturally-occurring toxic substances and contaminants in herbal preparations on the Dutch market and to estimate the associated risks.
    First, an overview is provided of the Dutch and European legal provisions for food commodities with botanical ingredients, the nature and mechanism of action of various toxic botanical ingredients specifically covered by these provisions, and the health concerns defined by risk assessors related to several botanicals for which no specific legal provisions exist. Secondly, data are presented on the actual occurrence in traditional herbal preparations (THPs) of a group of phytotoxins, i.e. aristolochic acids, which were banned by the Dutch Commodities Act Decree ‘Herbal preparations’. Aristolochic acids and derivatives are nephrotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic and are present in several plants from the Aristolochiaceae family. Aristolochic acids were found in 25 of 190 THPs used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) sampled on the Dutch market. This shows that testing for aristolochic acids of Chinese THPs at risk of contamination is essential in the framework of food safety.
    Thirdly, the presence of selected toxic contaminants in herbal preparations on the Dutch market was investigated. Lead, mercury and arsenic levels were analyzed in THPs used in several Asian traditional medicine systems, such as Ayurveda, TCM, and Traditional Tibetan Medicine (TTM). These metals and metalloids were present in 186 (64%) of 292 THPs and use at recommended dose levels of 59 THPs (20%) would result in intakes of these contaminants significantly above established toxicological safety limits. It was concluded that the mercury, arsenic and lead contents of these Asian THPs are cause for concern. Because metals such as mercury can exist in various defined chemical species with different toxic properties, a study was performed using selective acid extraction procedures to determine the presence or absence of the relatively non-toxic elemental form of mercury in 19 Ayurvedic THPs, which were shown in the previous study to result in mercury intakes above the safety limit for inorganic mercury when used at the recommended daily dose level. It was concluded that in these THPs the main part of the mercury content is not present in the elemental form, that the mercury detected in Ayurvedic THPs is likely to be present in the inorganic form and that therefore the estimation of the related risks based on the safety limits for inorganic mercury is justified.
    In the last study of this PhD thesis, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were determined in more than 1500 food supplements sampled on the Dutch market, many of which contained herbal ingredients. Herbal preparations can become contaminated with PAH through various processes including direct atmospheric deposition on plant surfaces and drying practices during manufacturing. Several PAH, such as benzo[a]pyrene are genotoxic and carcinogenic. Supplements containing herbal ingredients such as St. John’s wort and Ginkgo biloba, the phytochemical resveratrol and the bee product propolis showed the highest mean PAH levels. It was shown that individual food supplements can contribute significantly to PAH exposure, whereas on average PAH intake resulting from food supplement use will be at the lower end of the range of contributions of main food groups to PAH exposure.
    From the work described in this thesis it can be concluded that for herbal preparations ‘natural’ does not equal ‘safe’. Given that uncertainty exists whether additional European legal measures will be taken in the near future to restrict or prohibit the use of specific toxic herbal substances in foods and the fact that several herbal preparations for which specific provisions are absent in Dutch food safety law raise toxicological concern, would suggest that it is prudent to keep the Dutch Decree ‘Herbal preparations’ and other national legislation up to date in order to protect consumers from serious risks resulting from use of botanicals in food products such as herbal preparations.
    Naar een kern voor leerlijnen natuur- en milieueducatie : analyse van bestaande leerlijnen en synthese van een kern-leerlijn NME
    Verheijen, S. ; Koppen, C.S.A. van; Wammes, D.F. - \ 2010
    Utrecht [etc.] : Universiteit Utrecht [etc.] - 102
    onderwijs - leerplan - onderwijsmaterialen - onderwijsmethoden - analyse - leerplanontwikkeling - natuur- en milieueducatie - education - curriculum - resource materials - teaching methods - analysis - curriculum development - nature and environmental education
    Op dit moment zijn er veel leerlijnen voor NME in omloop, en nog veel meer onderwijsmaterialen. Dit onderzoek wil bijdragen aan een betere opbouw en een grotere samenhang van leermethoden en -materialen op het gebied van NME. Dit wordt gedaan door kern-principes te formuleren voor de opbouw en structurering van NME-gerelateerde leeractiviteiten in het curriculum van de basisschool. Deze kern-principes zijn gebaseerd op de belangrijkste elementen en invalshoeken binnen de grote verscheidenheid van leerlijnen in het domein NME. In dit onderzoek is een schema met leesvragen ontwikkeld om bestaande leerlijnen met elkaar te kunnen vergelijken. Een selectie van leerlijnen NME en leerlijnen natuuronderwijs is hiermee geanalyseerd. Besloten is om deze analyse op te volgen met de synthese van een zogeheten kern-leerlijn. Vanuit de bevindingen van de analyse kwamen drie startpunten naar voren: verbreden van leerinhouden, verankeren van leerdoelen en verbinden van onderwerpen. Deze startpunten resulteerden in drie componenten voor de kern-leerlijn: een indeling in ontwikkelingsgebieden, een overzicht van leerdoelen en een beschrijving van conceptopbouw. De ontwikkelingsgebieden beschrijven vanuit het perspectief van NME naar welke brede ontwikkeling gestreefd wordt bij leerlingen, zoals 'zorg' of 'onderzoeksvaardigheid'. Bij de leerdoelen die in dit onderzoek worden gepresenteerd wordt aangegeven of ze bij (kunnen) dragen aan die ontwikkelingsgebieden en waar ze bij (kunnen) dragen aan het voldoen aan kerndoelen die voor basisscholen gelden. Tenslotte wordt beschreven dat het expliciteren van voorwaardelijkheid van leerdoelen en begrippen de opbouw voor zowel makers als gebruikers inzichtelijker kan maken.
    Comprehensive competence-based vocational education : the development and use of a curriculum analysis and improvement model
    Wesselink, R. - \ 2010
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Martin Mulder, co-promotor(en): Harm Biemans; Judith Gulikers. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085857846 - 136
    vaardigheidsonderwijs - beroepsopleiding - voortgezet onderwijs - beroepsopleiding (hoger) - agrarisch onderwijs - leerplan - analyse - leerplanontwikkeling - middelbaar beroepsonderwijs - competency based education - vocational training - secondary education - professional education - agricultural education - curriculum - analysis - curriculum development - intermediate vocational training
    Competentiegericht beroepsonderwijs is zowel nationaal als internationaal een populair concept. Een eenduidige definitie ontbrak echter, maar is wel noodzakelijk als uitspraken moeten worden gedaan over de effectiviteit er van. Door middel van het vaststellen van acht principes, die zijn uitgewerkt in vier fasen is een comprehensive (ofwel allesomvattend en samenhangend) model ontwikkeld dat beschrijft wat competentiegericht beroepsonderwijs inhoudt. Het model laat onder andere zien dat als competentieontwikkeling het doel van beroepsonderwijs is, de instructiemethoden daarop moeten worden aangepast. Met behulp van dit model is nader onderzoek gedaan hoe competentiegericht beroepsonderwijs zich manifesteert in de onderwijspraktijk. Op basis hiervan kan worden geconcludeerd dat competentiegericht beroepsonderwijs daadwerkelijk plaatsvindt in het agrarische MBO en HBO in Nederland; zowel studenten als docenten herkennen in zekere mate de principes van competentiegericht beroepsonderwijs in hun dagelijkse onderwijspraktijk. Dit vereist vervolgens andere rollen en taken van docenten. Naast expert, zijn de rollen ontwikkelaar, onderzoeker, coach en manager belangrijk volgens de docenten. Tot slot biedt het model handvatten om de verbinding tussen leren in de school en leren in de praktijk te verbeteren.
    Duurzaamheid organische stof : methoden om de kwaliteit van organische meststoffen te meten en beoordeling kwaliteit van organische stof van digestaat : tussenrapportage 2009
    Dekker, P.H.M. ; Geel, W.C.A. van; Berg, W. van den; Burgt, G.J.H.M. van der; Bokhorst, J.G. - \ 2010
    Lelystad : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, Business Unit Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroenten - 62
    bodemvruchtbaarheid - organische stof - dierlijke meststoffen - degradatie - digestaat - analyse - bemesting - soil fertility - organic matter - animal manures - degradation - digestate - analysis - fertilizer application
    Door de opgang van mestvergisting en mestbewerkings- en mestverwerkingsmethoden komen er nieuwe mestproducten in de handel. Dit roept vragen op over de waarde van deze nieuwe producten en hoe deze waarde vooraf vastgesteld kan worden. In dit onderzoek zijn digestaat en de dikke fractie van gescheiden digestaat vergeleken met enkele vanouds bekende mestsoorten (vaste mest, drijfmest, compost) die daarbij als referentie dienden. Aan de meststoffen zijn verschillende analyses uitgevoerd. Het resultaat van de respiratiemeting is op basis van de literatuurstudie als meest betrouwbare parameter beschouwd om de kwaliteit van een organische meststof te beoordelen. Hoewel er wel verschillen tussen de meststoffen en proefvelden zijn gevonden, kan men op basis van één jaar nog geen echte conclusies trekken. Wel is duidelijk dat elke analysemethode een ander aspect meet. Op basis van één analysemethode kan de waarde van de meststof dus onvoldoende gekarakteriseerd worden.
    Business Intelligence in de Sierteeltsector. Analyse, generieke aanpak en praktijk voorbeeld
    Beulens, A.J.M. ; Bloemhof, J.M. ; Snels, J.C.M.A. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Wageningen University, section LDI - ISBN 9789086154210
    bedrijfssystemen - marktinformatie - sierteelt - glastuinbouw - gewasanalyse - analyse - bedrijfsvoering - farming systems - market intelligence - ornamental horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - plant analysis - analysis - management
    In het project Business Intelligence (BI) in de Sierteelt, dat ingediend is bij Pieken in de Delta Zuidvleugel in 2006, staat de uitwisseling van operationele gegevens tussen partners in de keten (ketentransparantie) en het intelligente gebruik daarvan voor verbetering van de bedrijfsvoering op keten niveau centraal. Het doel van het project was om een theoretisch kader en praktische tools te ontwikkelen voor het intelligent gebruiken van operationele gegevens in de sierteelt. In dit rapport wordt een beschrijving gegeven over de ontwikkelingen met betrekking tot BI in de theorie en de praktijk waarbij vanuit diverse invalshoeken is gewerkt. Daarnaast is in het project aandacht besteed aan het operationeel maken van het gedachtegoed van operationele BI. Dat heeft zijn vorm gevonden in een blauwdruk voor de aanpak van BI projecten in de sector en een beschrijving van een uitgevoerd pilotproject. Uit de studie komt naar voren dat operationele BI waardevol is voor de verbetering van de bedrijfsvoering op ketenniveau en dat een (her)bruikbare blauwdruk is ontwikkeld.
    'Strijd om gunst maïsteler gestart' (interview met Jos Groten)
    Thelosen, Jos ; Groten, J.A.M. - \ 2010
    Nieuwe Oogst / Magazine Veehouderij 6 (2010)3. - ISSN 1871-0948 - p. 7 - 7.
    akkerbouw - maïs - rassen (planten) - catalogi - zaaien - rendement - voederwaardering - analyse - eiwitrijke voedingsmiddelen - rassenlijsten - co-vergisting - arable farming - maize - varieties - catalogues - sowing - returns - feed evaluation - analysis - protein foods - descriptive list of varieties - co-fermentation
    Rond 250.000 hectare maïs zal in 2010 op de Nederlandse akkers verschijnen. Nu de winter regeert is de aandacht voor het komende maïsseizoen nog beperkt. Toch zullen veel telers zich binnenkort verdiepen in de meest renderende snijmaïsrassen voor hun bedrijfssituatie. Korrelmaïs/cmm, bio-energie en landschapsmaïs kunnen andere opties. Een terugblik op 2009 en visie op 2010
    Proficiency study for antibiotics in beef
    Berendsen, B.J.A. ; Stolker, A.A.M. - \ 2009
    Wageningen : RIKILT (Report / RIKILT 2009.015) - 43
    analyse - analytische methoden - antibiotica - rundvlees - kwaliteitscontroles - analysis - analytical methods - antibiotics - beef - quality controls
    Supply chain analysis of peri-urban dairy chain around Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    Valk, O.M.C. van der - \ 2009
    [Wageningen] : Wageningen UR - 43
    melkproducten - bedrijfssystemen - melkveehouderijsystemen - ketenmanagement - melkconsumptie - analyse - ethiopië - milk products - farming systems - dairy farming systems - supply chain management - milk consumption - analysis - ethiopia
    Despite this large number of animals in Ethiopia, the consumption of milk per capita is amongst the lowest in the continent. There is an unmet and growing demand for fresh milk in urban centres whilst processing plants still operate at under-capacity. To ease this problem, donors and NGO’s undertake various support efforts aimed at strengthening production an improving access to markets; however there is hardly any rise in production and volume of marketed milk. While in the urban retail market, the perception exists that processed and packed dairy products are sold out quickly, small scale milk producers have difficulties entering the formal market chain. This report distinguish three areas of research: market and marketing issues (number and type of outlets for dairy products), organizational issues in the supply chain and technological issues (infrastructure; quality of inputs; farming systems).
    Leren hoe kennis wordt benut, monitoren en evalueren van kennisbenutting in onderzoekscluster verduurzaming, productie en transitie
    Potters, J.I. ; Peet, G.F.V. van der; Heeres-van der Tol, J.J. ; Jong, D. de; Korevaar, H. ; Wolf, P.L. de - \ 2009
    Lelystad : PPO AGV (PPO - Rapport PPO nr. 381) - 33
    kennis - onderzoeksprojecten - overheidsbeleid - bereikt resultaat - monitoren - evaluatie - analyse - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - verandering - productie - kennisoverdracht - knowledge - research projects - government policy - achievement - monitors - evaluation - analysis - sustainability - change - production - knowledge transfer
    Om de benutting van het onderzoek door beleid op relatief eenvoudige wijze en in korte tijd te kunnen meten heeft de Directie Kennis van LNV een methodiek ontwikkeld. Deze kennisbenuttingsmetingen worden ieder jaar uitgevoerd. De enquête geeft op hoofdlijnen inzicht in de kennisbenutting, maar dat het nog geen verklaring geeft voor het bereikte resultaat. Het verkrijgen van inzicht in het resultaat wil Directie Kennis gebruiken voor de rol van LNV in de onderzoekaansturing en helpt Wageningen UR bij verdere verbetering van de uitvoering van het onderzoek
    Report of species diagnosis of a tuna at Queens Products B.V. on 23 December 2009
    Couperus, A.S. - \ 2009
    IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C147/09) - 12
    voedselindustrie - etiketteren van voedingsmiddelen - productinformatie - visproducten - thunnus - morfologie - analyse - identificatie - food industry - nutrition labeling - merchandise information - fish products - thunnus - morphology - analysis - identification
    According to a company in the same marketsegment as Queen Products B.V. part of the tuna filet sold by Queens Products B.V. does not consist of the species that is mentioned on the label. According to DNA analysis filets were not from the species on the label, Albacore (Thunnus alalunga), but from Yellowfin tuna (T. albacares). The present intention of Queens Products is to check by means of DNA analysis of different lots of filets the originating species. A Spanish expert on DNA analysis who has travelled to the Netherlands to collect samples, has requested species identification by an independent scientist on the basis of morphological features as back up of the findings by means of DNA analysis
    Gewasgroei-analyse zet aan tot andere manier van denken : analytisch denken leidt tot beter inzicht in gewas
    Heuvelink, E. ; Kierkels, T. - \ 2009
    Onder Glas 6 (2009)10. - p. 44 - 45.
    tuinbouw - kassen - assimilatie - analyse - plantdichtheid - vruchtgroenten - vergelijkingen - glastuinbouw - gewasgroeimodellen - groenten - horticulture - greenhouses - assimilation - analysis - plant density - fruit vegetables - comparisons - greenhouse horticulture - crop growth models - vegetables
    Door de groei van het gewas te analyseren kan de teler veel opsteken voor de toekomst. Om cirkelredeneringen te voorkomen is het nodig steeds factoren uit te splitsen. Voorwaarde is dat deze factoren gezamenlijk de verklaring opleveren en elkaar niet overlappen. Zo is een eerlijke vergelijking met de prestaties van voorgaande jaren of met die van collega's mogelijk. In het verhaal zijn voorbeelden uitgewerkt van de manier van denken
    Econometric analysis of the performance of cooperatives and investor owned firms in the European dairy industry
    Soboh, R.A.M.E. - \ 2009
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Alfons Oude Lansink; Gert van Dijk. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085855538 - 133
    zuivelcoöperaties - firma's - zuivelindustrie - efficiëntie - prestatieniveau - econometrische modellen - econometrie - analyse - economische analyse - internationale vergelijkingen - europa - dairy cooperatives - firms - dairy industry - efficiency - performance - econometric models - econometrics - analysis - economic analysis - international comparisons - europe
    Keywords: Cooperatives, IOFs, European dairy industry, logistic regression, stochastic frontier analysis, inter- and intra-firm efficiency, catch-up component, data envelopment analysis, hyperbolic technical efficiency, overall efficiency, scale efficiency, bootstrapping.

    In this study we measure the performance of cooperatives and investor-owned firms in the European dairy processing industry. Comparing the performance between cooperatives and investor-owned firms requires accounting for differences in their mission and objectives. Traditionally, cooperatives were established by farmers to gain access to markets, balance market powers and have a secured and sustainable income. Generally, there is a consensus in the economic literature that a cooperative can be defined as a (members)user-owned and (members)user-controlled organization that aims to benefit its (members)user. Cooperatives are transaction oriented, the members provide themselves with services they could not secure otherwise. In addition member are owners and determine the mission and strategy of cooperatives equally as the owners of the cooperative enterprise. Our study takes into account the consequences of members’ strategies for the cooperatives’ organizational structure and subsequently the significance of structure on (technical and economical) efficiencies. Although the theoretical literature emphasizes the difference in economic behavior between cooperatives and IOFs, the empirical studies have failed to follow up with theoretical approaches. The failure of the empirical studies to apply the models proposed by the theoretical literature seems to be due to either the inaccessibility of data, the inability to take into account the interests of all the various types of members and stakeholders of the cooperative, or the difficulty in testing the various hypotheses in practice. An empirical analysis of differences in financial indicators between IOFs and cooperatives in six European countries shows that cooperatives are less profitable but operationally more efficient, they have higher material costs and lower debts than IOFs. Furthermore, cooperatives display a substantially greater variation in financial indicators than IOFs. Stochastic Frontier Analysis is used to measure and compare the efficiency and production technology of cooperatives and IOFs. Cooperatives are found to have a more productive technology than IOFs, but they use their production potential less efficiently. A further empirical analysis of technical efficiency using Data Envelopment Analysis shows that explicit accounting for the objectives of cooperatives generates different outcomes compared with treating cooperatives as if they were IOFs. The results of the empirical analyses in this study promote the conclusion that measuring the performance of cooperatives as if they were IOFs produces misleading insights about the cooperatives’ performance suggesting performance suggesting that cooperatives’ performance is influenced by their organizational characteristics and members objectives.

    Analyse van monsters uit Almere op aanwezigheid cyanotoxines
    Lürling, M.F.L.L.W. - \ 2009
    Wageningen : WUR Aquatische Ecologie en Waterkwaliteitsbeheer - 6
    cyanobacteriën - toxinen - neurotoxinen - cytotoxinen - microcystis - hepatotoxinen - monsters - slib - havens - analyse - flevoland - cyanobacteria - toxins - neurotoxins - cytotoxins - microcystis - hepatotoxins - samples - sludges - harbours - analysis - flevoland
    Er worden verschillende groepen van cyanotoxines onderscheiden, waarvan op basis van de werking de neurotoxines, cytotoxines en hepatotoxines de belangrijkste zijn. Dit document beschrijft de resultaten van een spoedanalyse van twee potten met drijflaagmateriaal uit de omgeving van Almere-Haven, met cyanobacteriënmateriaal op aanwezigheid van cyanotoxines. In opdracht van RWS en de gemeente Almere is het aangeleverde materiaal geanalyseerd op microcystines, saxitoxine en cylindrospermopsine.
    Jack-Mackerel stock assessment simulation
    Hintzen, N.T. - \ 2009
    IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR no. C123/09) - 210
    analyse - vis - makrelen - databanken - gegevensanalyse - visstand - gegevensbeheer - analysis - fish - mackerels - databases - data analysis - fish stocks - data management
    IMARES has been tasked to perform an ICA assessment on a simulated Jack Mackerel dataset. This in order to provide management advice within the SPRFMO framework. The results of the assessments are only briefly discussed, as the Assessment Simulation Task Team mainly focused on agreeing on the underlying simulated dataset and assessment settings during the 8th SPRFMO meeting in Auckland, New Zealand. The summarized outcome of these discussions was that more realistic characteristics of the real fishery and surveys should be incorporated into the simulated dataset. This has been communicated to the designer of the dataset and will result in a revised dataset. CVO (Centrum voor Visserij Onderzoek) has proposed to include the SPRFMO work in the near future into WOT tasks (Wettelijke Onderzoeks Taken). Early 2010 another meeting will be organized in which the Assessment Simulation Task Team will discuss the revised simulated datasets, discuss general assessment settings, perform assessments, compare and discuss these results. The results as listed in this report will be used within these discussions.
    Schade en populatiedynamica van aaltjes
    Schomaker, C.H. ; Molendijk, L.P.G. - \ 2009
    gewasbescherming - populatiedynamica - interspecifieke concurrentie - nematodenbestrijding - plantenparasitaire nematoden - modellen - analyse - plant protection - population dynamics - interspecific competition - nematode control - plant parasitic nematodes - models - analysis
    Posterpresentatie. Veel velden zijn besmet met verschillende aaltjessoorten. Aaltjes beconcurreren elkaar om ruimte en voedsel in de plant. Onderzoek wordt daarom uitgevoerd met als doel theorievorming over concurrentie tussen aaltjes: op welke wijze beconcurreren verschillende verwante aaltjessoorten elkaar op een gewas?
    Linking birds, fields and farmers
    Swagemakers, P. ; Wiskerke, J.S.C. ; Ploeg, J.D. van der - \ 2009
    Journal of Environmental Management 90 (2009)suppl. 2. - ISSN 0301-4797 - p. S185 - S192.
    agrarische bedrijfsvoering - vogels - monitoring - analyse - weidevogels - agrarisch natuurbeheer - farm management - birds - monitoring - analysis - grassland birds - agri-environment schemes - agricultural landscapes - breeding waders - limosa-limosa - biodiversity - management - wetland - success
    The dramatic decline in the presence of farmland birds during recent decades has provoked much attention in agri-environmental policy and ecological research. However, the still limited understanding of the socio-economical mechanisms that govern the decline in bird presence hampers the formulation of effective adjustments in land-use and farming practices that could support the return of birds to farmland, i.e. the required fine-tuning of management practices. As a consequence, the existing agri-environmental schemes that offer financial compensation to farmers for implementing generally simple and rather crude measures to stimulate the presence of birds have been limited in their effectiveness and subject to much debate. The objective of this paper is to provide a sociological appraisal of farmers¿ experiences with meadow bird protection in a mainly dairy farming area in the Netherlands. The methodology combined visual map analysis, surveys, interviews with farmers and experts, and monitoring farmers¿ discussions. The results allowed an assessment of (i) farmers¿ views on historical changes in bird numbers in the area and the current distribution of bird nests, (ii) locally adjusted, fine-tuned management practices that were considered to be promising for protecting bird nests, (iii) the importance of farm management with `an eye for birds¿, i.e. farmers and/or birdwatchers paying additional attention to the presence of nests and chicks before carrying out farming activities, and (iv) the views of key experts in the socio-institutional network in the case study area. The paper concludes that there are various promising options for fine-tuning farm management so it offers better bird protection, but it is expected that such measures will predominantly be adopted on less intensively managed farms.
    Vis in de Voordelta: nulmetingen 2007 in het kader van de aanleg van de Tweede Maasvlakte
    Couperus, A.S. ; Damme, C.J.G. van; Tulp, I.Y.M. ; Tribuhl, S.V. ; Pennock, I. ; Heessen, H.J.L. - \ 2008
    IJmuiden : IMARES (Rapport / Wageningen IMARES C061/08) - 61
    milieueffectrapportage - milieueffect - vissen - analyse - risicoschatting - evaluatie - natuurcompensatie - rotterdam - voordelta - environmental impact reporting - environmental impact - fishes - analysis - risk assessment - evaluation - nature compensation - rotterdam - voordelta
    Dit is de rapportage van de aanvullende, tweede nulmeting van vis in het kader van het monitoring- en evaluatie programma dat moet leiden tot bijstelling van het compensatie programma voor de geplande aanleg van de Tweede Maasvlakte. Het Project Mainportontwikkeling Rotterdam (PMR) heeft onder andere als doel een oplossing te bieden voor het (dreigende) ruimtetekort in de Rotterdamse haven. Onderdeel van dit project is de aanleg van nieuw havengebied in de Voordelta, de Tweede Maasvlakte. De bijbehorende natuurcompensatie is een wettelijke verplichting op grond van de Europese Vogel- en Habitatrichtlijn (RIKZ 2004). Om de circa 1000 hectare landaanwinning volgens Europese richtlijnen voldoende te compenseren, is voorgesteld een zeereservaat in de Voordelta in te stellen. Op basis van de verwachte verbetering van de natuur in het reservaat, wordt momenteel uitgegaan van een reservaat dat tien keer zo groot is (30.000 ha) als het stuk zee dat door de landaanwinning verloren zal gaan. Om na te gaan of de effecten van de landaanwinning (Tweede Maasvlakte, MVII) tijdig en afdoende worden gecompenseerd door de natuurcompensatiemaatregelen moet een monitoring- en evaluatieprogramma worden uitgevoerd. De uitkomsten van dit programma kunnen aanleiding geven tot een eventuele bijstelling van het compensatieprogramma.
    Duurzaamheidsanalyse van bodemgebruik ten behoeve van recreatieve voorzieningen in het landelijk gebied
    Smit, A. ; Zwart, K.B. ; Brunt, M.T. - \ 2008
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1730) - 98
    landgebruiksplanning - recreatiegebieden - openluchtrecreatie - recreatievoorzieningen - platteland - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - analyse - duurzaam bodemgebruik - duurzaamheidsscan - land use planning - amenity and recreation areas - outdoor recreation - recreational facilities - rural areas - sustainability - analysis - sustainable land use - sustainability scan
    Bodemgebruik omvat alle handelingen die worden uitgevoerd ten behoeve van inrichting, onderhoud en gebruik van recreatieve voorzieningen. Met recreatieve voorzieningen in het landelijk gebied wordt o.a. gedacht aan sportvelden, golfterreinen, faciliteiten voor paardensport, wandel- en fietspaden, recreatieterreinen, attractieparken, evenemententerreinen, volkstuincomplexen, campings en bungalowparken. Aan de hand van bodemfuncties is voor alle voorkomende handelingen een analyse gemaakt van de duurzaamheid ervan. We kunnen concluderen dat er over het algemeen sprake is van duurzaam bodemgebruik in recreatieve voorzieningen. Hierbij moet wel worden vermeld dat zich toch nog enkele risico´s voordoen. Het grootste risico doet zich voor bij de aanleg van terreinen wanneer er wordt gegraven. In dat geval komen archieffunctie, productiefunctie en opslagfunctie voor organische stof onder druk te staan. Behoud van aardkundige waarden is een aspect waarmee nog slechts onvoldoende rekening wordt gehouden. Over de effecten van bodemgebruikshandelingen op de habitatfunctie bestaat in veel gevallen onduidelijkheid.
    Vitamines, mineralen en smaak : verschillen tussen biologische en gangbare winkelmelk
    Vries, A. de; Wit, J. de; Slaghuis, B.A. ; Verstappen-Boerekamp, J.A.M. ; Vijver, L.P.L. van de - \ 2008
    Driebergen : Louis Bolk Instituut - 28
    biologische landbouw - biologische voedingsmiddelen - melk - melksamenstelling - vetzuren - vitaminen - vitaminegehalte - analyse - voeding en gezondheid - organic farming - organic foods - milk - milk composition - fatty acids - vitamins - vitamin content - analysis - nutrition and health
    Melk van biologische en gangbare oorsprong laat verschillen in vetzuursamenstelling zien. Uit onderzoek in het buitenland zijn ook verschillen gevonden in vitaminehoeveelheden tussen melk van biologische of gangbare herkomst. Dit was aanleiding om ook in Nederlandse winkelmelk na te gaan of de vitamines een onderscheidend kenmerk vormen. Daarnaast is onderzocht of biologische en gangbare melk onderscheidend is ten aanzien van smaak.
    Mensen in beweging: het gebruik van "tracking" gegevens binnen de ruimtelijke planvorming
    Ligtenberg, A. - \ 2008
    Agro Informatica 21 (2008)2. - ISSN 0925-4455 - p. 7 - 9.
    informatietechnologie - informatiewetenschap - globale plaatsbepalingssystemen - detectie - voortbeweging - computers - analyse - recreatie - geoinformatie - information technology - information science - global positioning systems - detection - locomotion - computers - analysis - recreation - geoinformation
    In dit artikel wordt een kort overzicht gegeven van de verschillende activiteiten die binnen deze projecten plaatsvinden. Begonnen wordt met een korte uitleg van een aantal basisconcepten en vervolgens zal een casestudie rondom een toepassing voor het analyseren van recreatie in natuurgebieden worden gepresenteerd
    Voorkomen van intersex bij Littorina littorea langs de Nederlandse kust in 2008
    Jol, J.G. - \ 2008
    Yerseke : IMARES (Rapport / Wageningen IMARES C059/08) - 10
    littorina littorea - interseksualiteit - geslachtsdifferentiatiestoornissen - organo-tinverbindingen - analyse - chemische analyse - waterkwaliteit - ecotoxicologie - littorina littorea - intersexuality - sex differentiation disorders - organotin compounds - analysis - chemical analysis - water quality - ecotoxicology
    Op 16, 17, 24 en 25 juni 2008 heeft IMARES op zeven locaties alikruiken verzameld voor de analyse van minimaal 40 alikruiken op intersex. Deze exemplaren zijn na onderzocht te zijn voorbewerkt ten behoeve van analyse op organotin (organische tin) verbindingen. Dit jaar werd in geen enkel exemplaar intersex vastgesteld.
    Reconstructing Biotechnologies: critical social analyses
    Ruivenkamp, G.T.P. ; Hisano, S. ; Jongerden, J.P. - \ 2008
    Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086860623 - 367
    biotechnologie - voedselbiotechnologie - samenleving - sociologie - analyse - technologie - kracht - politiek - plattelandssamenleving - landbouwontwikkeling - landbouw - kwaliteit - rurale sociologie - ontwikkelde landen - ontwikkelingslanden - sociologische analyse - plantenbiotechnologie - transgene organismen - politieke economie - landbouw als bedrijfstak - kennissystemen - kritische theorie - biotechnology - food biotechnology - society - sociology - analysis - technology - power - politics - rural society - agricultural development - agriculture - quality - rural sociology - developed countries - developing countries - sociological analysis - plant biotechnology - transgenic organisms - political economy - agriculture as branch of economy - knowledge systems - critical theory
    Resultaten vaan het Rijkswaterstaat JAMP 2007 monitoringsprogramma van milieukritische stoffen in mosselen
    Hoek-van Nieuwenhuizen, M. van - \ 2008
    IJmuiden : IMARES (Rapport / Wageningen IMARES nr. C006/08) - 11
    mossels - mosselteelt - analyse - aquatisch milieu - verontreiniging - aquacultuur en milieu - milieu-analyse - mussels - mussel culture - analysis - aquatic environment - pollution - aquaculture and environment - environmental analysis
    In opdracht van Rijkswaterstaat zijn door Wageningen IMARES werkzaamheden uitgevoerd in het kader van het Joint Assessment and Monitoring Program van de OSPARCOM. De werkzaamheden bestonden uit analyse van milieukritische stoffen in mosselen en zijn dit jaar (2007) volgens protocol uitgevoerd. Ook dit jaar was een gebrek aan grote mosselen.
    Fosfaatgift vaste planten in pot kan lager
    Dalfsen, P. van; Aendekerk, T.G.L. - \ 2008
    De Boomkwekerij 2008 (2008)2. - ISSN 0923-2443 - p. 14 - 15.
    potplanten - sierplanten - tuinplanten - overblijvende planten - fosfaat - voedingsoplossingen - groeimedia - analyse - gewassen, groeifasen - pot plants - ornamental plants - bedding plants - perennials - phosphate - nutrient solutions - growing media - analysis - crop growth stage
    PPO onderzocht vanaf 2006 of een lage fosfaatgift de groei van vaste planten in pot kan remmen. Deze manier van groeiremming bleek in de praktijk echter niet bruikbaar: de planten bleven wel compact, maar ze bloeiden ook later en minder rijk. Het onderzoek leverde wél een nieuw bemestingsadvies op.
    Het concentreren en opwerken van waterige monsters volgens de XAD procedure
    Velzeboer, I. ; Korytar, P. - \ 2007
    IJmuiden : IMARES IJmuiden (Rapport / Wageningen IMARES C130/07) - 11
    bemonsteren - monsters - toxicologie - laboratoria - analyse - ecotoxicologie - aquatische toxicologie - sampling - samples - toxicology - laboratories - analysis - ecotoxicology - aquatic toxicology
    In opdracht van RWS-RIZA is het project “Het concentreren en opwerken van waterige monsters volgens de XAD procedure” uitgevoerd. De XAD procedure is uitgevoerd volgens een protocol dat is gebaseerd op methoden ontwikkeld bij het RIVM, Laboratorium voor Ecotoxicologie te Bilthoven. Daarna zijn de waterige monsters naar TNO IMARES in Den Helder gegaan voor beoordeling van de toxiciteit.
    Monitoring imposex bij de purperslak, Nucella lapillus, in de Zeeuwse wateren
    Kaag, N.H.B.M. ; Jol, J.G. - \ 2007
    Den Helder : IMARES (Rapport / Wageningen IMARES C112/07) - 50
    tributyltinoxide - tendensen - analyse - populatie-ecologie - nederlandse wateren - tributyltin oxide - trends - analysis - population ecology - dutch waters
    In 2006 is een veldonderzoek uitgevoerd naar het huidige voorkomen van de purperslak in Nederlandse wateren. Op 36 locaties in de Oosterschelde en de Noordzeekust ten noorden (Brouwersdam) en ten zuiden (Westkapelle) van de Oosterschelde is de omvang van de aanwezig populaties bepaald en is door vergelijking met historische gegevens een trendanalyse uitgevoerd (Gmelig Meyling et al., 2006). In 2007 zijn deze 36 locaties opnieuw bezocht en is wederom de populatieomvang bepaald ten behoeve van trendanalyses. De resultaten van dit onderzoek worden besproken in Gmelig Meyling et al. (2007). Op 10 van deze locaties zijn exemplaren verzameld ten behoeve van imposex analyse. Aanbevolen wordt nader onderzoek te verrichten naar de temporele variatie in (zichtbare) dichtheden van purperslakken op de onderzoekslocaties en TBT-gehalten in purperslakken. Op deze manier kunnen relaties gelegd worden tussen populatieontwikkeling, imposex stadia en blootstelling aan TBT. Door ook TBT te analyseren in mosselen op de onderzoekslocaties, kan de VDSI gekoppeld worden aan het TBTgehalte in hun belangrijkste voedsel. Het herstel van ecologische waarden zou dan via de analyse van mosselen gemonitord kunnen worden in gebieden waar de purperslak niet voorkomt.
    Op zoek naar inrichtingsaspecten die een tuin tot helende tuin maken : verkennende literatuurstudie ten behoeve van een 'healing garden' voor De Hoge Born
    Custers, M.H.G. ; Vries, S. de - \ 2007
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1572) - 40
    ruimtebehoeften - tuinen - volksgezondheid - landschap - kwaliteit - analyse - belevingswaarde - landschapsbeleving - zorgboerderijen - gelderse vallei - space requirements - gardens - public health - landscape - quality - analysis - experiential value - landscape experience - social care farms - gelderse vallei
    Naar aanleiding van de wens om een deel van de zorgboerderij De Hoge Born (Wageningen) als 'helende ruimte' in te richten, is een verkennende literatuurstudie uitgevoerd. Om helderder te krijgen, welke aspecten van ruimtelijke inrichting ervoor zorgen, dat een omgeving als helend wordt ervaren. Een antwoord op deze vraag is niet gevonden
    Meten van zaadkwaliteit m.b.v. Nabij InfraRood Spectroscopie
    Brakel, R.P. van; Zedde, H.J. van de - \ 2007
    zaadkwaliteit - infraroodspectroscopie - meting - analyse - nabij infrarood spectroscopie - seed quality - infrared spectroscopy - measurement - analysis - near infrared spectroscopy
    Nabij InfraRood Spectroscopie (NIR) is één van de analysetechnieken waarmee kwaliteitsparameters kunnen worden bepaald. Het gaat daarbij niet alleen om concentratie-metingen maar ook om indirecte kwaliteitskenmerken die in het te meten product aanwezig zijn
    Visionsysteem voor de uitwendige inspectie van eieren
    Zedde, H.J. van de; Pauli, A. - \ 2007
    eieren - eierproductie - sorteermachines - analyse - beeldanalyse - eikwaliteit - eggs - egg production - sorters - analysis - image analysis - egg quality
    Doelstelling van het ontwikkeltraject was om een complete visionmodule te ontwikkelen (hardware, software en belichting). De visionmodule bepaalt per ei een objectieve waarde die de "mate van afkeurenswaardigheid" aangeeft
    Explanatory document for the validation of detection methods for plant pathogens and pests
    Vlugt, R.A.A. van der; Verbeek, M. ; Bonants, P.J.M. - \ 2007
    Wageningen : Plant Research International (Report / Plant Research International 135EN)
    plantenziekteverwekkers - plantenplagen - detectie - technieken - analyse - analytische methoden - geldigheid - normen - certificering - nederland - plant pathogens - plant pests - detection - techniques - analysis - analytical methods - validity - standards - certification - netherlands
    EffectModellering Indicatoren, Gebruikers en Management (EMIGMA)
    Meesters, H.W.G. - \ 2006
    tendensen - milieubeheer - geïntegreerde systemen - indicatoren - analyse - beslissingsmodellen - natuurbeheer - trends - environmental management - integrated systems - indicators - analysis - decision models - nature management
    Dit pamflet geeft een korte uitleg van EMIGMA, 'EffectModellering Indicatoren, Gebruik en Management', dat vanaf 2004 is ontwikkeld door Alterra voor het Milieu- en Natuurplanbureau (MNP). EMIGMA integreert trends in indicatoren, gebruiksfuncties en beleidsmaatregelen. De voordelen van EMIGMA zijn een centrale database met gegevens, snelle beschikbaarheid, gebruiksvriendelijkheid, analyse en vergelijking van trends
    Informatieblad Mest en Mineralen : DOVE 2. Berekeningen met SWAP-ANIMO van de nutriëntenbelasting van het oppervlaktewater in een veenweidegebied: omvang en bijdrage van bronnen
    Hendriks, R.F.A. ; Walvoort, D.J.J. - \ 2006
    Wageningen : Alterra (Informatieblad mest en mineralen 03) - 2
    velden - analyse - oppervlaktewater - melkveehouderij - neerslag - overschotten - uitspoelen - mineralisatie - veenweiden - nutrientenbeheer - nutriëntenstromen - oppervlaktewaterkwaliteit - fields - analysis - surface water - dairy farming - precipitation - surpluses - leaching - mineralization - peat grasslands - nutrient management - nutrient flows - surface water quality
    Procesgeoriënteerde modellen zijn goede hulpmiddelen om voor veenweidepercelen gemeten nutriëntenconcentraties te analyseren, en de N- en P-belasting van het oppervlaktewater te berekenen en te analyseren op bijdragen van bronnen. De bijdrage van de melkveehouderij, in de vorm van mest, levert in niet-extreme weerjaren niet de grootste bijdrage aan de N- en P-belasting van het oppervlaktewater van het DOVEveen-perceel. Voor N is 'veenafbraak/mineralisatie' de grootste bron en voor P 'uitloging van het bodemcomplex'. Onder natte omstandigheden door een groot neerslagoverschot kan mest wel de grootste bijdrage leveren. Mest en natte veenweidepercelen verdragen elkaar slecht.
    A computer model for welfare assessment of poultry production systems for laying hens
    Mol, R. de; Schouten, W.G.P. ; Evers, A.G. ; Houwers, H.W.J. - \ 2006
    NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 54 (2006)2. - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 157 - 168.
    pluimveehouderij - hennen - huisvesting, dieren - diergezondheid - dierenwelzijn - modellen - computers - analyse - scharrelhouderij - agrarische productiesystemen - poultry farming - hens - animal housing - animal health - animal welfare - models - computers - analysis - free range husbandry - agricultural production systems
    A computer model for welfare assessment in laying hens was constructed. This model, named FOWEL (fowl welfare), uses a description of the production system as input and produces a welfare score as output. To assess the welfare status a formalized procedure based on scientific knowledge is applied. In FOWEL the production system is described using 25 attributes (space per hen, beak trimming, free range, etc.), each with two or more levels, together defining the characteristics of a production system. A weighting factor is used for each attribute, based on the available scientific knowledge of the effects of the attribute levels on the welfare aspects. The welfare score of a production system results from the attribute levels combined with the weighting factors. The results show that feeding level, space per hen, perches, water availability and nests were the most important attributes. The attribute free range was of minor importance. FOWEL includes a description of 22 production systems. The welfare score of cage systems was low, of barn and aviary systems medium, and of organic systems high. The presence of a free range resulted only in a small improvement in the welfare score.
    Resultaten ringtest 2006 zware metalen en arseen in een monster compost en een monster zuiveringsslib in het kader van de regelin 'Bemonstering en analyse overige organische meststoffen'
    Driessen, J.J.M. ; Oostrom, J.J. van - \ 2006
    Wageningen : RIKILT (Rapport / RIKILT 2006.016) - 17
    compost - zware metalen - arsenicum - rioolslib - tests - analyse - organische meststoffen - nederland - kennis - composts - heavy metals - arsenic - sewage sludge - tests - analysis - organic fertilizers - netherlands - knowledge
    Van adoptiekip tot duurzame stadswijk: Natuur- en milieueducatie in de praktijk
    Hubeek, F.B. ; Geerling-Eiff, F.A. ; Kroon, S.M.A. van der; Wals, A.E.J. - \ 2006
    Wageningen : Milieu- en Natuurplanbureau (WOt-rapport 18) - 92
    milieueducatie - methodologie - gedrag - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - impact - analyse - nederland - natuurbescherming - utrechtse heuvelrug - natuur- en milieueducatie - environmental education - methodology - behaviour - sustainability - impact - analysis - netherlands - nature conservation - utrechtse heuvelrug - nature and environmental education
    In dit rapport worden de resultaten gepresenteerd van een praktijkstudie naar instrumenten voor natuur- en milieueducatie (NME), gericht op duurzame ontwikkeling in de samenleving. Twee benaderingen staan centraal in het onderzoek: de instrumentele en de emancipatoire benadering. Met de methode van casebeschrijving (casewriting) worden vier cases, ‘Adopteer een Kip’, ‘Duurzame Wijk’, ‘Den Hâneker’ en ‘Het Verhaal van de Heuvelrug’ geanalyseerd. De studie richt zich concreet op de werking van NME-instrumenten in de praktijk, de sturingsmogelijkheden voor beleid om draagvlak en gedrag van burgers voor duurzame ontwikkeling te beïnvloeden en welke rol kennis hierbij heeft. Trefwoorden: natuur- en milieueducatie (NME), instrumenteel, emancipatoir, gedrag, duurzame ontwikkeling en casebeschrijving
    Stakeholderanalyse "Oogsten in Ketens"
    Coppens, L.W.C.A. ; Pegge, S.M. ; Boer, E.P.J. - \ 2006
    Wageningen : Agrotechnology & Food Sciences Group (Rapport / Agrotechnology & Food Sciences Group 752) - ISBN 9789085851349 - 14
    kennis - informatieverspreiding - analyse - belangengroepen - projecten - bedrijfswetenschap - vragenlijsten - kennismanagement - knowledge - diffusion of information - analysis - interest groups - projects - management science - questionnaires - knowledge management
    Uitgegaan wordt voor "Oogsten in Ketens" dat er in co-innovatieprojecten van AKK kennis is ontwikkeld en ervaring is opgedaan. Doel is dan ook deze kennis en ervaring te verzamelen, deze expliciet en algemeen toepasbaar te maken, waardoor deze overdraagbaar wordt naar een bepaalde doelgroep. AFSG heeft een methode voor kenniscirculatie ontwikkeld, genaamd "Wageningen Experience Box" (WEB).
    Preparation of three biological reference material for QUASIMEME inter-laboratory testing
    Lohman, M. ; Korytar, P. - \ 2006
    IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / Wageningen IMARES C086/06) - 8
    visserijbeheer - visserijbeleid - mossels - haringen - analyse - visstand - visserijbiologie - fishery management - fishery policy - mussels - herrings - analysis - fish stocks - fishery biology
    Three biological materials have been prepared for IVM, Free University, Amsterdam to be used in QUASIMEME interlaboratory studies. The materials prepared are: 300 glass jars of homogenized Mediterranean mussels (QM06-1), 280 tins of homogenized blue mussels from German Bight (QM06-3) and 300 tins of homogenized Baltic herring fillets (QO06-4) The homogeneity test of the Mediterranean-mussel material (QM06-1) was performed by analysing mercury concentration and it was confirmed that the material is homogeneous.
    Analyseren en evalueren van beleidsmaatregelen met een effect op natuur en milieu
    Heide, M. van der; Bos, E.J. ; Vreke, J. - \ 2006
    Wageningen : WOT Natuur & Milieu (WOt-studie 3) - ISBN 9789078207030 - 126
    ruimtelijke ordening - overheidsbeleid - milieubeleid - natuurbescherming - analyse - evaluatie - kosten-batenanalyse - economische analyse - nederland - physical planning - government policy - environmental policy - nature conservation - analysis - evaluation - cost benefit analysis - economic analysis - netherlands
    Om te zien of beleid nog goed werkt en misschien niet anders moet, worden beleidsevaluaties uitgevoerd. In deze studie zijn de voor- en nadelen en onderlinge verschillen geïnventariseerd van de evaluatie-instrumenten MKBA, KKBA, MCA en KEA. Ook komen verschillende natuurwaarderingsmethoden in de studie aan bod, die vooral bij een kosten-batenanalyse (MKBA of KKBA) van belang zijn. Tot slot wordt via case-studies bepaald hoe MKBA en MCA van elkaar verschillen, niet alleen wat betreft doelstellingen en aanpak, maar ook qua uitkomsten.
    Analysis of water management measures in the Dovine River Basin, Lithuania; possibilities to restore a natural water regime
    Povilaitis, A. ; Querner, E.P. - \ 2006
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1370) - 67
    waterbeheer - rivieren - meren - litouwen - wetlands - analyse - maatregelen - water management - rivers - lakes - lithuania - wetlands - analysis - measures
    The Zuvintas Lake, located in southern Lithuania in the basin of the Dovine River is one of the biggest lakes and oldest nature reserves of the country. Both the lake as well as the adjacent wetland is a potential Site of Community Interest (SCI) according to the EU Habitats Directive. However, the changes in the hydrology of the Dovine River Basin, because of large scale melioration and water management works carried out in the 20th century, have significantly changed the water regime as well as a decrease in biodiversity of Zuvintas Lake and surrounding wetlands. In order to prevent the ongoing deterioration of Zuvintas Lake and adjacent wetlands solutions have to be found at a basin level. Therefore, various scenarios to evaluate the impact of water management alternatives in the Dovine River basin have been analyzed to get insight in the impact of changes on the water regime in Zuvintas Lake and adjacent wetlands. For these scenarios the SIMGRO model was used.
    Voorkomen van intersex bij Littorina littorea langs de Nederlandse kust 2006
    Jol, J.G. ; Poelman, M. - \ 2006
    IJmuiden : IMARES (Rapport C060/06) - 8
    aquatisch milieu - littorina littorea - analyse - analytische methoden - ecotoxicologie - aquacultuur en milieu - aquatische toxicologie - aquatic environment - littorina littorea - analysis - analytical methods - ecotoxicology - aquaculture and environment - aquatic toxicology
    In de periode van 20 juni 2006 tot 27 juni 2006 heeft IMARES op zeven locaties alikruiken verzameld. Op iedere locatie zijn alikruiken verzameld voor de analyse van 40 alikruiken op intersex en voor de chemische analyse van alikruiken op organotin verbindingen. In tegenstelling tot eerdere waarnemingen werd op geen enkele locatie intersex geconstateerd.
    Food for talk: discursive identities, food choice and eating practices
    Sneijder, P.W.J. - \ 2006
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees van Woerkum; Hedwig te Molder. - [S.l. ] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085044024 - 220
    voedingsgewoonten - ethiek - morele waarden - psychologie - consumptiepatronen - internet - communicatie - analyse - sociale interactie - eetstoornissen - moraal - verantwoordelijkheid - identiteit - feeding habits - consumption patterns - appetite disorders - ethics - moral values - psychology - social interaction - internet - communication - analysis - moral - responsibility - identity
    This thesis focuses on the construction and use of identities in food interaction. Insights from discursive psychology and conversation analysis are drawn upon to examine the interactional functions of identities in online food talk.

    Discursive psychology (DP) explores how psychological themes, such as identity, are handled and managed in discourse, by participants themselves. The main principle of this approach is that talk is action-oriented. Rather than assuming a cognitive basis for identity, a discursive study focuses on identity as a means of achieving particular interactional goals, such as accounting for food choice.In this respect, the DP perspective marks a shift away from current approaches in anthropology, sociology and social psychology, which largely ignore the notion that identities are part of social actions performed in talk, and thus designed and deployed for different interactional purposes.

    The project is spread across three research settings, namely online interaction on veganism, food pleasure and obesity. The main criterion for selecting these cases was their relationship to recent dominant trends in current food choice, namely ethical considerations, hedonism and weight concerns. These 'motives' are also likely resources for identity-related activities.

    Chapter 2

    In this chapter we draw on a corpus of online discussions on veganism in order to explore the relationship between food choice, eating practices and identity work. A discursive psychological analysis focuses on action, rhetoric and construction. The analyst studies how speakers react to one other and show interpretations of previous turns. The analyst also considers potential alternative versions of descriptions, in order to demonstrate which version of reality is being undermined or countered. The analysis in this chapter demonstrates that participants draw on specific discursive devices to (1) define vegan meals as ordinary and easy to prepare and (2) construct methods of preventing vitamin deficiency, such as taking supplements, as routine procedures. In 'doing being ordinary', participants systematically resist the notion that being a vegan is complicated - in other words, that it is both difficult to compose a meal and to protect your health. In this way, participants protect veganism as an ideology. More generally, it is argued that identities and their category-bound features are part and parcel of participants' highly flexible negotiation packages rather than cognitive predictors of their behaviour.

    Chapter 3

    In this chapter we apply methods developed by conversation analysis and discursive psychology in order to examine how participants manage rules, facts and accountability in a specific ideological area. In particular, we focus on how participants in online discussions on veganism manage the problem posed by alleged health risks such as vitamin deficiency. We show how speakers systematically attribute responsibility for possible deficiencies to individual recipients rather than to veganism.The analysis focuses on a conditional formulation that participants use in response to the recurrent question about supposed health problems in a vegan diet (for example, if you eat a varied diet, there shouldn't be any problems). By using this formulation, participants blur whether they attribute responsibility or predict the absence of health problems. The blurring of logic and morality is used to implicitly ascribe responsibility for potential, assumed shortcomings in the lifestyle (such as calcium deficiency) to the individual. This implicit attribution allows participants to protect veganism as an ideology.                                    

    Chapter 4

    Chapter 4 draws on insights from discursive psychology to demonstrate how members of an online forum on food pleasure handle the hedonic appreciation of food in everyday interaction. The analysis focuses on how participants work up and establish their identities as 'gourmets'. A dominant tool in performing this identity work is the discursive construction of independent access to knowledge of and experience with food items, in order to compete with or resist the epistemic superiority of a preceding evaluation. Participants formulate their judgments in such a way that they are independent of or even superior to evaluations of the same dish in previous turns. The construction of independent access to and knowledge of culinary items is important in the interactional achievement of an identity as a gourmet who not only likes good food, but who knows what good food is .   

    Contrary to sensory approaches to food choice, this study portrays the enjoyment of food as an achievement that comes into being through interaction. We discuss the wider implications of this study for the relationship between food, identity and taste.

    Chapter 5

    Weight management is a problematic activity, involving issues of accountability and control.  In this chapter, we focus on how people discursively manage these issues in an online support group.  A discursive psychological approach is used to highlight some of the practices employed by participants to handle their dieting failures, like overeating or binging, in terms of blame and accountability. We focus on the way in which participants describe lapses in dieting while at the same time heading off 'mind explanations' such as a lack of control of one's eating practices, which would raise delicate issues regarding the narrator's personal identity. It is shown how participants work up a disinterested account of their lapse by presenting a detailed factual account of what happened and how they feel, while not spelling out what these 'facts' mean. Furthermore, their accounts display the lapse as a one-off incident or choice in an ongoing process. The one-off event itself is scripted up as recognizable and logical in a chain of events, thereby inviting the recipient to dismiss a possible explanation in terms of the speaker's psychological make-up.

    Rather than treating attribution as a cognitive process, the study shows how attributions can be studied as situated productions that perform identity-implicative work through managing accountability and blame.

    Chapter 6

    In chapter 6, we provide an overview of the main observations in this study and formulate recommendations for future research. The study as a whole shows that identity construction is active and ongoing. This thesis has shown how identities were constructed to manage inferential implications of food choice. Such implications, for example 'complicatedness' in the case of veganism, 'abnormality' for obesity and 'subjectivity' for food pleasure, are managed by formulating rhetorical alternatives - ordinariness, normality and objectivity respectively. The relevance of rhetorical alternatives in everyday talk shows that identities are not fixed, but are flexible and negotiable. This implies that groups of consumers cannot be addressed as if they have only one identity, imposed from the outside. In this chapter, we discuss the importance of knowledge claims and accountability in identity work. We also discuss findings relating to the specifics of using online data compared to conversational data. Future research may draw attention to identity construction in face-to-face food conversations and in food interaction in other domains than the three examined in this study.
    Comparative analysis of EU Rural Development Policy in Central and Eastern European Countries and the Netherlands
    Terluin, I.J. ; Roza, P. ; Berkhout, P. ; Godeschalk, F.E. ; Betgen, M.G. - \ 2006
    Den Haag : LEI (Report / LEI : Domein 6, Policy ) - ISBN 9789086150847 - 83
    landbouwbeleid - plattelandsontwikkeling - analyse - vergelijkingen - europese unie - gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - centraal-europa - nederland - agricultural policy - rural development - analysis - comparisons - european union - cap - central europe - netherlands
    In this study a comparative analysis of the implementation of EU Rural Development Policy (second pillar of the CAP) in the Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) and the Netherlands is made. The aim is to identify themes where cooperation between the Netherlands and CEECs could be established. As a first step, the rural development situation in the countries is analysed and compared, mainly by means of data analysis and literature study. Then, the Rural Development Plans are compared, and finally the study touches upon the supervision and implementation of rural development policy. Cooperation between the Netherlands and the CEECs in the field of EU Rural Development Policy seems to be most likely in the field of agri-environmental measures
    Tulp op gescheurd grasland: zorgvuldige bemesting
    Wees, N.S. van; Dam, A.M. van - \ 2005
    BloembollenVisie 3 (2005)55. - ISSN 1571-5558 - p. 22 - 22.
    kunstmeststoffen - stikstof - toedieningshoeveelheden - graslanden - cultuurmethoden - grondbewerking - analyse - tulpen - bloembollen - fertilizers - nitrogen - application rates - grasslands - cultural methods - tillage - analysis - tulips - ornamental bulbs
    De vraag is of tulpen op gescheurd gras altijd wel bemest moeten worden. PPO heeft om die reden het stikstofverloop op een aantal praktijkpercelen met gescheurd grasland tussen zomer 2003 en winter 2004 gemeten
    Toepassingen van het pUMA systeem voor detectie van meerdere plantpathogenen in grond, water en lucht via een enkele toets
    Bonants, P.J.M. ; Szemes, M. ; Speksnijder, A.G.C.L. ; Zijlstra, C. ; Schoen, C.D. - \ 2005
    Gewasbescherming 36 (2005)Suppl.. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 38S - 39S.
    gewasbescherming - plantenziekten - pathogenen - plantenziekteverwekkers - detectie - analyse - analytische methoden - assays - polymerase-kettingreactie - oligopeptiden - diagnostische technieken - plant protection - plant diseases - pathogens - plant pathogens - detection - analysis - analytical methods - assays - polymerase chain reaction - oligopeptides - diagnostic techniques
    Met de nieuwe pUMA techniek (padlock based Universal Multiplex detection Array techniek) kunnen zes pathogenen in een monster simultaan worden gedetecteerd.
    Bodemweerbaarheid tegen Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-1 in bloemkool
    Postma, J. ; Schilder, M.T. - \ 2005
    Gewasbescherming 36 (2005)5. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 208 - 211.
    gewasbescherming - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - plantenziekteverwekkers - bodemschimmels - thanatephorus cucumeris - waardplanten - brassica - bodemflora - weerstand - bodemfactoren - toegepast onderzoek - analyse - bloemkolen - plant protection - plant pathogenic fungi - plant pathogens - soil fungi - thanatephorus cucumeris - host plants - brassica - soil flora - resistance - edaphic factors - applied research - analysis - cauliflowers
    Rhizoctonia solani is een algemeen voorkomende bodemschimmel die bij diverse gewassen schade veroorzaakt. Dit pathogeen is moeilijk te bestrijden vanwege zijn goede overleving in de bodem. Bovendien kunnen geringe hoeveelheden van het pathogeen onder gunstige omstandigheden het gewas reeds ernstige schade toebrengen. De mate van schade is slecht te voorspellen. Het is gebleken dat onder bepaalde omstandigheden een hoge bodemweerbaarheid tegen Rhizoctonia kan ontstaan. Om meer inzicht te krijgen in het vóórkomen van bodemweerbaarheid en maatregelen die bodemweerbaarheid stimuleren, is hiernaar onderzoek gedaan bij R. solani AG 2-1 in bloemkool. De belangrijkste bevindingen zijn in dit artikel beschreven
    Gebruik van TaqMan PCR voor het kwantificeren van Fusarium spp. en Microdochium nivale in gewassen en gewasresten van tarwe
    Köhl, J. ; Haas, B.H. de; Kastelein, P. ; Burgers, S.L.G.E. ; Waalwijk, C. - \ 2005
    Gewasbescherming 36 (2005)3. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 145 - 145.
    plantenziekten - schimmelziekten - fusarium - fusarium oxysporum - monographella nivalis - detectie - analyse - polymerase-kettingreactie - identificatie - pathogenesis-gerelateerde eiwitten - chromosomen - plant diseases - fungal diseases - fusarium - fusarium oxysporum - monographella nivalis - detection - analysis - polymerase chain reaction - identification - pathogenesis-related proteins - chromosomes
    Samenvattingen van 5 presentaties: 'Heterogenity of Dutch Fusarium oxysporum strains isolated as forma specialis radicis-lycopersici';'Een proteomics benadering om eiwitten te identificeren die door Fusarium oxysporum worden uitgescheiden in xyleemsap van tomaat'; 'Ontwikkeling en implementatie van een moleculaire toets voor in planta detectie van Fusarium foetens'; 'Gebruik van TaqMan PCR voor het kwantificeren van Fusarium spp. en Microdochium nivale in gewassen en gewasresten van tarwe'; 'Cytogenetica van Fusariumsoorten'
    Monstername en analyse van N-mineraal in de bodem en nitraat in het grondwater
    Hoving, I.E. ; Everts, H. ; Chardon, W.J. - \ 2005
    Lelystad : Animal Sciences Group (Reeks sturen op nitraat 14) - 38
    nitraten - stikstof - bodemwater - bodem - bemonsteren - analyse - landbouw - nederland - nitrates - nitrogen - soil water - soil - sampling - analysis - agriculture - netherlands
    Beschrijving methoden en -technieken van bemonstering bodem op N-mineraal en grondwater op nitraat toegepast in het project Sturen Op Nitraat
    A quantitative network analysis of participants in international biodiversity related conventions and programmes
    Bouwma, I.M. ; Chardon, J.P. - \ 2005
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1241) - 45
    biodiversiteit - internationale samenwerking - netwerken (activiteit) - bescherming - analyse - participatie - biodiversity - international cooperation - networking - protection - analysis - participation
    This report presents the result of a review of the network composition of countries and representatives that attended international conventions related to biodiversity conservation in the period 1990-2002. The analyses shows that the network of people visiting international conventions is dynamic and changes rapidly. Most of the people (85%) participate only within one convention
    Een nieuw baculovirus van en voor de Turkse mot
    Oers, M.M. van; Messelink, G.J. ; Peters, S. ; Vlak, J.M. - \ 2005
    Gewasbescherming 36 (2005)6. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 268 - 269.
    gewasbescherming - biologische bestrijding - chrysodeixis chalcites - baculovirus - baculoviridae - dna - dna-sequencing - analyse - genen - plant protection - biological control - chrysodeixis chalcites - baculovirus - baculoviridae - dna - dna sequencing - analysis - genes
    Samenvatting van de voordracht te houden op 30 november 2005 tijdens de Najaarsvergadering van de KNPV (Koninklijke Nederlandse Plantenziektekundige Vereniging). Onderzoek naar de mogelijke toepasbaarheid van een baculovirus uit de Turkse mot voor biologische bestrijding van de rups van deze mot
    Ontwikkeling en routinematige implementatie van een moleculaire detectietechniek voor stengelaaltjes (Ditylenchus dipsaci) en witrot (Sclerotium cepivorum) in grondmonsters
    Landeweert, R. ; Helder, J. ; Elsen, S.J.J. van den; Staps, R.V. ; Zwaardemaker, N. ; Keidel, H. - \ 2005
    In: Programma Najaarsvergadering KNPV Samenvattingen Hoogtepunten 2004-2005, Wageningen, 30-11-2005 Wageningen : - p. 270 - 270.
    gewasbescherming - ditylenchus dipsaci - nematoda - stromatinia cepivora - schimmels - analyse - kwalitatieve analyse - grondanalyse - detectie - microscopie - genen - plant protection - ditylenchus dipsaci - nematoda - stromatinia cepivora - fungi - analysis - qualitative analysis - soil analysis - detection - microscopy - genes
    Samenvatting van de voordracht te houden op 30 november 2005 tijdens de Najaarsvergadering van de KNPV (Koninklijke Nederlandse Plantenziektekundige Vereniging).
    Resultaten van het RWS-RIKZ JAMP 2004 monitoringsprogramma van bot (Platichthys flesus L.). Biologische gegevens van bot en milieukritische stoffen in bot en mosselen
    Kotterman, M.J.J. - \ 2005
    onbekend : RIVO Milieu en Voedselveiligheid (RIVO rapport C016/05) - 12
    bot (vissen) - mossels - mosselteelt - analyse - aquatisch milieu - toxiciteit - aquacultuur en milieu - flounder - mussels - mussel culture - analysis - aquatic environment - toxicity - aquaculture and environment
    In opdracht van RWS-RIKZ werden door het RIVO werkzaamheden uitgevoerd in het kader van het Joint Assessment and Monitoring Program van de OSPARCOM. De werkzaamheden bestonden uit het verzamelen van monsters bot waarvan biologische parameters werden bepaald. Tevens werden milieukritische stoffen geanalyseerd in monsters bot en mosselen. De verzamelde gegevens en analyseuitkomsten werden aangeleverd en in dit rapport gepresenteerd.
    Resultaten van het RWS-RIKZ JAMP 2003 monitoringsprogramma van bot (Platychthys flesus L.). Biologische gegevens van bot en milieukritische stoffen in bot en mosselen
    Kotterman, M.J.J. - \ 2004
    IJmuiden : RIVO (RIVO rapport C015/04) - 14
    bot (vissen) - mossels - mosselteelt - milieufactoren - biologische indicatoren - analyse - visvangsten - aquacultuur en milieu - milieuhygiëne - flounder - mussels - mussel culture - environmental factors - biological indicators - analysis - fish catches - aquaculture and environment - environmental hygiene
    In opdracht van RWS-RIKZ werden door het RIVO werkzaamheden uitgevoerd in het kader van het Joint Assessment and Monitoring Program van de OSPARCOM. De werkzaamheden bestonden uit het verzamelen van monsters bot waarvan biologische parameters werden bepaald. Tevens werden milieukritische stoffen geanalyseerd in monsters bot en mosselen. De verzamelde gegevens en analyse-uitkomsten werden aangeleverd.
    Beleid en onderzoek in actie; reflecties van bestuurskundig onderzoekers op hun nieuwe rol in groene beleidsprocessen
    Neven, I. ; Boonstra, F.G. ; Kuindersma, W. ; Groot, A.M.E. ; Kranendonk, R.P. ; Rutte, R.J.M. le; Wielen, P. van der; Jonge, J.M. de; Kolkman, G. ; Heijmans, E. - \ 2004
    Wageningen : Alterra - 107
    beleid - analyse - bestuur - overheidsbeleid - nederland - landschap - natuurbescherming - beleidsevaluatie - policy - analysis - administration - government policy - netherlands - landscape - nature conservation - policy evaluation
    "Beleid en onderzoek in actie" toont aan de hand van concrete ervaringen van beleidskundige onderzoekers in de groene ruimte tot welke nieuwe rollen en dilemma's dit leidt, qua beleidsprocessen, procesbegeleiding, interactief ontwerpen, draagvlak-onderzoek
    Microbiële kwaliteit voorspellen
    Vissers, M. ; Straver, J.M. ; Giffel, M.C. te; Jong, P. de; Zwietering, M.H. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van; Lankveld, J.M.G. - \ 2004
    Voedingsmiddelentechnologie 37 (2004)21. - ISSN 0042-7934 - p. 16 - 18.
    voedingsmiddelen - microbiologie - modellen - computersimulatie - simulatiemodellen - informatiesystemen - analyse - toepassingen - kwaliteit - foods - microbiology - models - computer simulation - simulation models - information systems - analysis - applications - quality
    Microbial quality and safety of foodstuffs can be improved by reducing the microbial load of the raw materials. Especially in products in which microbial spoilage is caused by sporeforming bacteria this can be the only solution. Combining existing datasets, expert knowledge and quantitative modeling techniques in a smart way have increased insight in the contamination of raw milk with the sporeforming butyric acid bacteria and Bacillus cereus. In this way the effect of various control points was quantified enabling a objective comparison of control points. Based on this information uncertainty about the true effect of various measures can be clarified and more effective measures can be identified
    Foot and Mouth Disease. New values, innovative research agendas and policies
    Zijpp, A.J. van der; Braker, M.J.E. ; Eilers, C.H.A.M. ; Kieft, H. ; Vogelzang, T.A. ; Oosting, S.J. - \ 2004
    Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (EAAP technical series no. 5) - ISBN 9789076998275 - 69
    mond- en klauwzeer - vee - infectieziekten - epidemieën - ziektebestrijding - crises - evaluatie - analyse - waarden - perceptie - landbouwbeleid - onderzoek - nederland - maatregelen - foot and mouth disease - livestock - infectious diseases - epidemics - disease control - crises - evaluation - analysis - values - perception - agricultural policy - research - netherlands - measures
    A Foot and Mouth Disease outbreak is not by definition similar to a Foot and Mouth Disease crisis. Why then did the 2001 outbreak result in a crisis situation in the Netherlands? It was not because nobody was prepared for it. The Ministry of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries had a scenario in stock.The scenario was applied as intended. The scenario did what it was supposed to do: it prevented the spreading of the disease, it resulted in a relatively soon eradication of the disease and it minimised damage to agricultural exports. Nevertheless, the crisis was there. “Foot and Mouth Disease: new values, innovative research agenda’s and policies” reports a process in which individuals and groups involved in the crisis participated in a joint analysis of what caused the crisis, and in the making of a policy and research agenda. The conclusion was that ignorance of the societal function of animals and countryside was the cause of the crisis: the scenario focussed on Foot and Mouth Disease control in a production-oriented environment. In reality many people perceived that the scenario and its rigid application threatened nonproduction values such as the companion role of animals and the recreation function of the landscape. Inevitably a next outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease will occur.However, research and policy makers should seriously take up this perception of animals and countryside to prevent an outbreak of becoming a deep crisis again.
    Integrating Geo-information Models with Participatory Approaches
    Nidumolu, U.B. - \ 2004
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Andrew Skidmore; Herman van Keulen. - Enschede : ITC - ISBN 9789085041382 - 153
    geografische informatiesystemen - landgebruik - analyse - participatie - participatief management - andhra pradesh - india - geographical information systems - land use - analysis - participation - participative management - andhra pradesh - india
    In this thesis we demonstrate some methods to integrate biophysical data with socio-economic variables with applications in agricultural land use analysis. Part of Nizamabad District of Andhra Pradesh State in India is considered for developing and testing the methods developed. First the study area is stratified as a pre-field work exercise for a focused land use analysis. Stratification of the land into categories on the basis of land use analysis objectives, such as crop management improvement, crop selection and conservation helped focus on these distinct areas with different analysis requirements. The relations between ‘land’ as a biophysical factor and its ‘use’ as a socio-economic factor were analysed using GIS techniques to spatially differentiate these categories. Two categories viz., Crop Management Improvement and Crop Selection were analysed further. Identifying yield-limiting factors in support of planning and extension agencies is the focus of study in areas identified for Crop Management Improvement. While traditional yield gap studies compared yields at research stations and in farmers’ fields, we considered yield variability among farmers’ fields in similar socio-economic and environmental conditions. In this situation, the yield gaps are mainly due to differences in management practices. What if?- scenarios, generated using the multiple goal optimisation modelling tool, were integrated with a stakeholder communication matrix (SCM) in the Crop Selection areas. SCM indicates the level of communication and information-sharing among key stakeholders in the district. The multiple goal model considered the aspirations of various stakeholders and the matrix presented the communication and information-sharing dynamics, understanding of which is essential for participatory land use analysis. Integration of the goal model with the SCM allowed identification of the possible bottlenecks in the implementation of the model results, allowing resource managers to initiate curative measures where required. Fuzzy modelling of farmers’ perceptions of land suitability emphasised the need for biophysical planners to consider the views of farmers while formulating land viii use options. The preference of farmers for crops was based on variables such as cropping season, soils and water availability. The study explores similarities and contrasts in the way scientists and farmers perceive land suitability.
    Nutrient and quality analysis of coffee cherries in Huong Hoa district, Vietnam
    Pinkert, C.J. - \ 2004
    Wageningen : Plant Research International (Nota / Plant Research International 280) - 47
    coffea - koffie - bedrijfssystemen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - kunstmeststoffen - voedingsstoffen - opbrengsten - kwaliteit - vietnam - analyse - coffea - coffee - farming systems - sustainability - fertilizers - nutrients - yields - quality - vietnam - analysis
    Verzekeren van diergezondheid in de melkveesector: een risico-analyse
    Hogeveen, H. ; Meuwissen, M.P.M. ; Huirne, R.B.M. - \ 2003
    Wageningen : S.n. - ISBN 9789067547093 - 82
    dierverzekering - landbouwverzekering - risico - analyse - melkvee - rundveeteelt - melkveehouderij - agrarische economie - nederland - risicobeheersing - bedrijfseconomie - animal insurance - agricultural insurance - risk - analysis - dairy cattle - cattle farming - dairy farming - agricultural economics - netherlands - risk management - business economics
    Mathematical analysis of [13CO2]-expiration curves from human breath tests using [1-13C]-amino acids as oral substrate
    Schreurs, V.V.A.M. ; Krawielitzki, K. - \ 2003
    In: Progress in research on energy and protein metabolism / Souffrant, W.B., Metges, C.C., Rostock-Warnemünde, Germany : Wageningen Academic Publishers (EAAP publication 109) - ISBN 9789076998244 - p. 239 - 242.
    eiwitmetabolisme - aminozuren - isotopenlabelling - koolstof - adem - analyse - protein metabolism - amino acids - isotope labeling - carbon - breath - analysis
    A [13CO2]-breath test examines the expiration of [13CO2] as function of time after oral intake of a [13C]-labelled test substrate (single dose). In clinical settings, breath test studies are often used as a simple and non-invasive tool to diagnose the activity of metabolic functions. From a nutritional point of view, breath test studies can also be used to trace the catabolic fate of dietary nutrients. The fcMius of this paper was a mathematical analysis of [13CO2]-expiration curves. Human breath test results for [13C]-labelled amino acids (leucine, methionine, lysine) under different dietary conditions were used to illustrate this approach. The mathematical parameters were meant to characterise changes in the catabolic fate of dietary amino acids as influenced by the ingestion of a meal
    A ring trial for the detection of animal tissues in feeds in the presence of fish meal
    Raamsdonk, L.W.D. van; Voet, H. van der - \ 2003
    Wageningen : RIKILT (Report / RIKILT 2003.012)
    voer - dierlijke weefsels - vismeel - proeven - detectie - analyse - voer van dierlijke oorsprong - voedselveiligheid - dierlijke eiwitten - kwaliteitscontroles - feeds - animal tissues - fish meal - trials - detection - analysis - feed of animal origin - food safety - animal proteins - quality controls
    Analysis of TBBP-A and HBCD in peregine falcon eggs
    Leslie, H. ; Kwadijk, C. ; Leonards, P.E.G. - \ 2003
    IJmuiden : RIVO (RIVO report C077/03) - 4
    toxiciteit - voedselketens - eieren - falconidae - analyse - bioaccumulatie - broomhoudende vlamvertragers - toxicity - food chains - eggs - falconidae - analysis - bioaccumulation - brominated flame retardants
    The brominated flame retardants (BFRs) tetrabromobisphenyl-A (TBBP-A) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) are widely used in Europe and may be transported to northern regions by long range transport, as has been modelled for other BFRs [Wania and Dugania, 2003] or via bird migration from southern source areas [Lindberg et al. 2003].Due to their physicalchemical properties, these chemicals have the potential to bioaccumulate and cause toxicity in exposed organisms. Biomagnification of TBBP-A and HBCD in the food chain puts predators high in the chain, such as the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), at increased risk of exposure and accumulation. Recent studies have demonstrated substantial levels of different flame retardants, including HBCD, in eggs of Swedish populations of F. peregrinus [Lindberg et al., 'Research ASAP'] and guillemot (Uria algae) eggs collected over the last three decades [Sellström et al., 2003]. The objective of the present study was to analyse concentrations of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A) in 34 peregrine falcon eggs collected in Greenland from 1986 to 2003.
    Analysis of the ICES short-term forecasts of North Sea plaice and sole: dealing with the 'current year' assumption
    Kraak, S.B.M. ; Pastoors, M.A. ; Rijnsdorp, A.D. - \ 2003
    IJmuiden : RIVO (RIVO report C033/03) - 34
    voorspellingen - schol - soleidae - onderzoek - analyse - voorspelling - visstand - forecasts - plaice - soleidae - research - analysis - prediction - fish stocks
    The F1 working package of the F-project is concerned with the improvement of stock assessment of plaice and sole. The full range of problems of uncertainty and bias in the stock assessment will be analysed through a series of small investigations of single problems. The present report deals with the “current year” assumption in the short-term forecast. From this study we conclude that in order to minimise the prediction error in the short-term forecast, given the uncertainty and bias in the VPA, the status quo F assumption should be preferred. We also found that the quality of the outcome of the VPA itself plays a large role in the quality of the forecast. Further study of the uncertainty and bias in the stock assessment, as planned in the F-project, is clearly necessary.
    Biologische Monitoring Zoete Rijkswateren: microverontreinigingen in rode aal - 2002
    Kotterman, M.J.J. ; Pieters, H. - \ 2003
    IJmuiden : RIVO (Rapport / Nederlands Instituut voor Visserij Onderzoek C011/03) - 39
    waterkwaliteit - watersystemen - palingen - bemonsteren - analyse - nederland - nederlands - water quality - water systems - eels - sampling - analysis - netherlands - dutch
    In het jaar 2002 zijn wederom op 14 locaties in watersystemen van de Nederlandse rijkswateren monsters rode aal verzameld. In de filet zijn analyses uitgevoerd van kwik, PCB’s en een aantal andere prioritaire organochloorverbindingen. De MTR waarden voor kwik werden in bijna alle locaties, de waarden voor ?DDT en DDE werden in slechts enkele locatie en de MTR waarde voor CB153 werd in geen enkele locatie overschreden.
    Market Sampling of Landings of Commercial Fish Species in the Netherlands in 2002
    Vries, M. de; Rink, G.J. ; Groeneveld, K. ; Beintema, J.J. ; Poos, J.J. ; Eltink, A.T.G.W. - \ 2003
    IJmuiden : RIVO (Internal RIVO report / Netherlands Institute for Fisheries Research no. 03.012) - 14
    visserij - visserijbeheer - analyse - bemonsteren - biologie - monitoring - visvangsten - visstand - fisheries - fishery management - analysis - sampling - biology - monitoring - fish catches - fish stocks
    This report contains information on the biological sampling for the market sampling program: which species are sampled, how they were caught, when and where the samples are taken (date and position), how many fish have been measured, how many fish have been aged, etc. The report gives an overview of all the biological sampling activities in 2002 by RIVO on the landings of the commercial important species of herring, mackerel, horse mackerel, blue whiting, greater argentine, sole, plaice, turbot, brill, dab, lemon sole, cod, whiting, Norway lobster and four different species of rays from all ICES areas. This biological sampling took place on landings by both the Dutch fleet as well as foreign fleets landing in the Netherlands. In addition this report contains information on the biological samples collected during research vessel surveys and discard trips both on commercial and non-commercial species.
    HACCP plan fresh fish processing Marituna
    Aalberts, C.H.J. - \ 2003
    IJmuiden : RIVO (RIVO report C020/03) - 19
    voedselveiligheid - visproducten - eu regelingen - voedselinspectie - preventie - analyse - food safety - fish products - eu regulations - food inspection - prevention - analysis
    In the past regulatory authorities for food products had a duty to ensure that foods offered tothe consumer are at least safe to eat. The authorities required a positive approach of using Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), producing food in a hygienic manner, and by inspection of finished product. It is now realised that inspection of finished product gives a poor control over the safety of foods. Therefore, since 1 January 1993, regulatory authorities in Europe required that companies take a preventative approach to safety based on the principles of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP). Anyone exporting fish products to Europe or North America will have to implement a programme based on HACCP. If a company cannot demonstrate to the satisfaction of regulating agencies in importing countries that it has an effective programme operating in their processing plant, importers will not be permitted to accept the products. The United Nations food standard group Codex Alimentarius Commission has recommended HACCP's adoption as a system for ensuring the safety of foods (including finfish and shellfish) and the prevention of foodborne diseases.
    Environmental labelling in the Netherlands: A framework for integrated farming
    Manhoudt, A.G.E. ; Ven, G.W.J. van de; Udo de Haes, H.A. ; Snoo, G.R. de - \ 2002
    Journal of Environmental Management 64 (2002)3. - ISSN 0301-4797 - p. 269 - 283.
    analyse - certificering - landbouw - vergelijkingen - voedsel - vergelijkend onderzoek - analysis - certification - agriculture - comparisons - food - comparative research
    This article compares four Dutch environmental certification schemes for agricultural food crops, analysing their methodology and the completeness of their criteria on five aspects: pesticide use, nutrient use, water management, energy and materials consumption, and habitat management. The least stringent of the labels, the MBT (`Environmentally Aware Cultivation¿) certificate, serves mainly to increase farmers' awareness of nutrient and pesticide use. With regard to both administrative obligations and actual management practices, the MBT label largely mirrors the terms of standing Dutch legislation. The CC (`Controlled Cultivation¿) and AMK (`Agro-Environmental¿) labels comprise more and more stringent criteria. With their restrictions on nutrient and pesticide use, these two labels serve as the two principal labels in the field of integrated agriculture. There is little difference between the two and it is recommended that they be merged, on the basis of a standardised definition of integrated agriculture. The EKO (`Organic Agriculture¿) label proceeds from different principles, but as a minimum should also comply with Dutch legislation without exception. For both integrated and organic agriculture, in addition to criteria on pesticide and nutrient use, criteria should also be developed for water management, energy and materials use and habitat management. The relationship between the criteria and their respective thresholds and Dutch legislation is also addressed. Existing criteria are frequently specified in such a way that the environmental benefits cannot be ascertained. This is a serious drawback for the parties further down the chain: auctioneers, retailers and consumers. It is recommended to develop qualitative guidelines for an Agricultural Stewardship Council at international level, like the Forest Stewardship Council, and a separate label for integrated agriculture per country comprising quantitative criteria for all relevant aspects of farming operations
    Estimation of uncertainties in the performance indices of an oxidation ditch benchmark
    Abusam, A. ; Keesman, K.J. ; Spanjers, H. ; Straten, G. van; Meinema, K. - \ 2002
    Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology 77 (2002). - ISSN 0268-2575 - p. 1058 - 1067.
    afvalwater - afvalwaterbehandeling - geactiveerd slib - oxidatiesloten - modellen - onzekerheid - analyse - prestatieniveau - waste water - waste water treatment - activated sludge - oxidation ditches - models - uncertainty - analysis - performance
    Estimation of the influence of different sources of uncertainty is very important in obtaining a thorough evaluation or a fair comparison of the various control strategies proposed for wastewater treatment plants. This paper illustrates, using real data obtained from a full-scale oxidation ditch wastewater treatment plant, how the effect of the various uncertainty sources can be quantified. A Monte Carlo simulation analysis method was preferred over a first-order variance analysis method because it is more reliable and it provides the complete probability distribution. For various sources of uncertainty, except for the additive modelling error, samples were selected using the efficient Latin Hypercube Sampling technique. Large deviations in the benchmark performance indices from the nominal values, due to uncertainty in influent loads and parameter values, were found, in particular, for effluent quality and total sludge production indices. However, relatively smaller deviations are found due to uncertainty in the states' initial conditions. The effect of the model structural uncertainty on the performance indices was found to be negligible. ? 2002 Society of Chemical Industry.
    Comparing specialised and mixed farming systems in the clay areas of the Netherlands under future policy scenarios: an optimisation approach
    Bos, J. - \ 2002
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): H. van Keulen; J.A. Renkema; G.W.J. van de Ven. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058087393 - 256
    bedrijfssystemen - gemengde landbouw - landbouwbeleid - milieubeleid - gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - interdisciplinair onderzoek - modellen - analyse - stikstofbalans - verontreiniging - nederland - lineair programmeren - farming systems - mixed farming - agricultural policy - environmental policy - cap - linear programming - interdisciplinary research - models - analysis - nitrogen balance - pollution - netherlands

    Keywords: interdisciplinary analysis, mixed farming, linear programming, agricultural policy, environmental policy

    Increasing attention for the sustainability concept also caused renewed interest in mixed farming systems in the Netherlands, which supposedly have some advantages over specialised farming systems. These advantages are not unambiguous and may also be realised in specialised farming systems. A systematic quantification of differences in environmental and economic performance between specialised and mixed farming systems was therefore considered useful. The multiple goal linear programming model developed in this study optimises the configuration of regionally specialised or mixed farming systems, subject to a set of constraints, to one of a set of defined objectives, selecting from a large set of agricultural activities. A second focal point of this thesis is agricultural policy analysis. With regard to these policies, numerous 'what if' questions can be posed. Such questions addressed in this thesis consider the optimal configuration of farming systems under Dutch manure policy regulations, the efficacy of these regulations in reducing emissions and the impact of reforms of the European Union's Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) on optimal configuration of farming systems.

    Model results suggest that economic performance of mixed farming systems is better than that of specialised farming systems. Differences in economic performance originate from agronomic-technical, organisational and institutional differences. Significant differences in environmental performance are absent.

    Dutch manure policy regulations still allow agricultural practices that are associated with relatively high leaching losses. It is proposed to implement additional, means-oriented policy instruments, specifically targeted to reducing leaching loss and incorporating financial incentives.

    Moderate CAP reforms as anticipated in Agenda 2000 are not likely to induce drastic changes in land use in the Netherlands other than resulting from autonomous developments. In contrast, a drastic reform - full liberalisation - is likely associated with considerable changes in agricultural land use. Farms will roughly be divided in two categories: large-scale, highly specialised farms and farms combining food production with contributions to other societal goals.

    Waterkansen in het SGR2; potenties voor realisatie van de wateropgaven
    Gaast, J.W.J. van der; Massop, H.T.L. ; Os, J. van; Stuyt, L.C.P.M. ; Bakel, P.J.T. van; Kwakernaak, C. - \ 2002
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 558) - 88
    waterbeheer - ruimtelijke ordening - overheidsbeleid - nederland - hydrologie - wateropslag - waterbescherming - analyse - beleid - vernatting - waterberging - waterconservering - water management - physical planning - government policy - netherlands - hydrology - water storage - water conservation - analysis
    In het Structuurschema Groene Ruimte 2 (SGR2) is een belangrijke plaats ingeruimd voor water; voor 8 landschapsregio's en 17 deelstroomgebieden worden waterdoelstellingen en bijbehorende ruimteclaims gespecificeerd. Het ministerie van LNV heeft Alterra verzocht deze beleidskeuzes nader te onderbouwen en uit te werken naar aard, ligging en consequenties. In een landsdekkende analyse zijn hiertoe gegevens en bestaande kennis volgens een transparant en verifieerbaar protocol samengebracht. Doel hiervan was om een globaal landsdekkend beeld te krijgen van de kansrijkdom van ingrepen in het watersysteem ter realisering van beleidsthema's als vasthouden, bergen, beekherstel en waterconservering. De resultaten van de analyses zijn beschikbaar in de vorm van landsdekkende kaarten en cijfers en verdiepen het globale inzicht in de regionaal gedifferentieerde kansen om wateropgaven te realiseren.
    Measuring acid volatile sulphide in floodplain lake sediments: effect of reaction time, sample size and aeration
    Griethuysen, C. van; Gillissen, F. ; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2002
    Chemosphere 47 (2002). - ISSN 0045-6535 - p. 395 - 400.
    bodemchemie - chemische eigenschappen - sulfiden - analyse - laboratoriumdiagnose - sediment - meren - waterbodems - soil chemistry - sediment - lakes - chemical properties - sulfides - analysis - laboratory diagnosis - water bottoms
    Zelfcontrole stikstofgit levert besparingen op
    Brouwer, J. ; Derkx, M.P.M. - \ 2001
    De Boomkwekerij 14 (2001)18. - ISSN 0923-2443 - p. 18 - 19.
    bosbouw - plantenvoeding - stikstof - stikstofmeststoffen - mestbehoeftebepaling - analyse - chemische eigenschappen - bodem - fraxinus excelsior - bos- en haagplantsoen - forestry - plant nutrition - nitrogen - nitrogen fertilizers - fertilizer requirement determination - analysis - chemical properties - soil - woody nursery stock
    Stikstofbemestingsadvies voor bos- en haagplantsoen: onderdeel van het project 'Innovatieve teelt van bos- en haagplantsoen'. Gegevens in bijgaande tabel en figuren: 1) N-min metingen in de bouwvoor bij verplante Fraxinus excelsior; 2) Restwaarden N-min in bodem (0-90 cm) bij verplante Fraxinus excelsior; 3) Maatverdeling bij verplante Fraxinus excelsior na drie methoden N-bemesting
    Land use analysis and planning for sustainable food security: with an illustration for the state of Haryana, India
    Aggarwal, P.K. ; Roetter, R.P. ; Kalra, N. ; Keulen, H. van; Hoanh, C.T. ; Laar, H.H. van - \ 2001
    New Delhi [etc.] : IARI [etc.] - ISBN 9789712201684 - 167
    landgebruik - analyse - landgebruiksplanning - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - gewasproductie - bruikbaar land - bedrijfssystemen - voedselproductie - optimalisatie - modellen - india - beslissingsondersteunende systemen - bemesting - gewasbescherming - landbouw - milieu - waterbeheer - Azië - land use - analysis - land use planning - sustainability - crop production - land resources - farming systems - food production - optimization - models - india - decision support systems
    Samen werken aan duurzaamheid
    Jacobs, J. - \ 2001
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): M.J.J.A.A. Korthals; H.G.J. Gremmen. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058084354 - 133
    duurzaamheid (sustainability) - filosofie - analyse - hermeneutiek - filosofische stelsels - sustainability - analysis - philosophy - hermeneutics - philosophical systems

    This thesis is about a particular dilemma of sustainability. It arises if a sustainable solution of one sector implies a non-sustainable solution for another sector involved. I use Gadamers theory of hermeneutic as an analytical tool for a possible approach of this dilemma.

    I assume that in the case of sustainability, the interpretation of actions is prominent and not the interpretation of definitions in for instance international treaties. I claim that sustainability is achieved only if we actually do something. At an abstract level this means that I start from actions and that, in my view, language is an action.

    There is one opinion that we may wonder whether sustainability is an ideal that may never be achieved. In that case sustainability is considered to be a dream, as it were. There is another opinion that we could also start with the assumption that sustainability has been present for centuries. Many dynamic processes in society are responsible for the fact that sustainability is visible or not, as the case may be. In this approach to sustainability tradition is very important. It is the latter approach to sustainability that appeals to me. Sustainability is part of a dynamic process, a process that is in perpetual motion. Because of the fact that tradition is such an important element in sustainability, we can obviously describe sustainability as a hermeneutical problem. If we then add the notion that sustainability is all about actions, we conceive the notion that sustainability is a her meneutical problem of action.

    I shall first tell some more about the hermeneutical process.

    Gadamer's hermeneutics

    Gadamer's theory is my basis for a hermeneutics of action. In the case of Gadamer's hermeneutics, we are dealing with the interpretation of texts. Gadamer is interested in the question as to how we can understand a text that is for instance twentyfive centuries old. On the face of it, doesn't the application of Gadamer's hermeneutics appear to be counter-Intuitive? Why do I want to apply Gadamer's hermeneutics in particular for the interpretation of actions? The various propositions in Gadamer's hermeneutics, such as tradition, fusion of horizons, finiteness, historicity and dialogue fit in quite well to my conceptual analysis of sustainability. Can I then apply Gadamer's hermeneutics to actions just like that? In my thesis I show that Gadamer himself offers possibilities in his theory that allow the application of his hermeneutics to actions. His theory allows me to widen its sphere from products to processes, or actions. The dynamic aspect of processes is expressed in the dialogic character of Gadamer's hermeneutics. Usually dialogue is the characteristic in Gadamer's hermeneutics that people continue to focus on, but in my view the emphasis must be on tradition.

    Hermeneutics as dialogue

    Gadamer's hermeneutics has the character of a dialogue. How can I transpose this to the problem of sustainability? What is being interpreted in sustainability and who are 'conducting this dialogue'? In sustainability we are dealing with a dialogue between two or more practices that have to understand each other, in which either of them has its own interpretation of sustainability. A practice must be understood to be a combination of actions.

    Because of the fact that the practice concept is proposed to be the conceptual instrument for sustainability, the latter automatically assumes the structure of a practice. This means that the way in which sustainability develops, is related to the way in which internal and external aspects of a practice develop. It is thus no longer sufficient that sustainability develops solely within a practice. Sustainability must also be geared to the interaction with other connecting practices. The problem of sustainability arises in a situation in which the internal and external development of sustainability clash.

    This internal and external development of sustainability is reflected in the distinction of actions directed either towards making or toward doing. Actions leading to an end product typically occur within a practice, whereas actions dealing with a process take place between practices. Of course these two types of actions are interrelated. They may be distinguished, but not separated. According to Gremmen: 'the competence is in the performance.'

    A practice in Gremmen's view is a combination of knowledge and instrumental action. Even scientific knowledge cannot be separated from the practice - practicing science - from which it stems.

    What is known as scientific knowledge is the shared background of standards and values shown in the scientific achievements such as experimental results. This also applies to technical sciences. The only difference between knowledge that is part of, for instance daily life, the arts or crafts, is the difference in practice this knowledge is part of. Though the practice structure of technical scientists differs from that of other practices, this does not mean that it deserves an appreciation that is different from that of the practices it is dealing with.

    From the concept of practice to the concept of style

    By choosing a hermeneutic approach to sustainability you assume that actions must be interpreted. One and the same action may have different interpretations. Do we find this in the concept of practice? No, the concept of practice merely indicates that the development of a practice occurs within and between practices. This concept does not offer an explanation to the question as to what the differences in interpretation are within comparable practices. A particular practice is distinguished by a particular way of action. We call this a particular style. So, the concept of practice alone is not sufficient. The theory of the practice must be extended. We have to search for a concept that shows equivalent actions and activities in groups from different practices.

    This concept must show that groups belong together. These conditions are satisfied when we extend the concept of practice with the concept of style, The concept of style distinguishes the different ways of acting. It is a concept that structures actions and activities, so that these belong together as a group. Thus what we gain from the concept of style, is the fact that the different actions and activities and characteristics fit into a pattem, are related to each other. The different actions are organised. The relations between the actions are explained. I only call it a style, following Harwood (1992) when different styles may be distinguished within a practice and when the same style may be identified in another practice.

    The concrete material substrate

    I explained that the aspects that practices have in common are expressed by a comparable style. The question is, in what way the equivalence between styles is apparent in the coordination of people, knowledge and objects. We have seen that knowledge is typical for a particular practice and a person may well participate in two practices, though exercising different capacities in each. Therefore the common aspects must be the objects. On an abstract level, a concrete thing or object consists of something you could call substrate. This substrate stands for the physical characteristics of that thing. Obviously the aspects practices have in common are found on the level of the substrate. Subsequently the question is how to retrieve this notion on the level of the object, meaning how can we recognise it in the actions themselves. The concrete material substrate is an artefact. And how does this artefact fit into my theory about the hermeneutical approach to the sustainability dilemma? I assume that sustainability has its basis in reality. Sustainability is reflected in the way people deal with reality. Problems of sustainability take place on the object level. At first sight reality, such as a technical construct can only be used for a single purpose. Apparently people are able to deal with the technical construct in different ways. On the abstract level this may be explained hermeneutically by the fact that practices have a different interpretation of the substrate. These different interpretations on the abstract level are expressed in the actions on the object level in that each practice utilises the identical object differently. The fact that a technical construct may be used in different ways, offers a possibility of finding a solution to a dilemma of sustainability.

    A number of examples in my thesis show the role a concrete material substrate plays in practice. A good example of this is the American power company that built a dam in the Columbia River to generate clean power. This well intentioned project proved to be a barrier for the salmon in the river. The dam prevented them from returning to the place where they spawned. On the one hand therefore, the dam contributed to sustainability, on the other hand it prevented another kind of sustainability. The local fishermen, who contributed to sustainability by catching the salmon only after they had spawned, protested against the dam. The power plant could have put a big stack of dollar bills on the table to buy out the fishermen, but in that case the salmon would have perished. In such a situation, with both antagonists striving for sustainability, financial arguments are not sufficient. Nor are technical solutions: the fish farm built by the power company below the dam did not yield the desired results.

    The eventual solution is beautiful in its simplicity, and typical for successful solutions to this dilemma of sustainability: a maintenance gate in the dam was opened from time to time to allow the salmon passage upstream. Important is the realisation that we can interpret things in a different way from what we are accustomed to. The dam was initially understood to be something that closed off the river. It was only later that people realised that a dam with a maintenance gate also will be able to let something through.

    I have shown that, for sustainability to be achieved within this sustainability dilemma there must be a hermeneutical process. But what is it? Can a hermeneutical process be compared to negotiating. No, negotiations are about the form, hermeneutics however deals with content. When negotiating people can come to a solution on the basis of economic arguments. The outcome is predictable. The same economic arguments no longer apply in a hermeneutical process. By taking the sustainability dilemma mentioned above, as a hermeneutical problem, this is shown to arise from differences in interpretations by the practices concerned. When you want to cluster these differences in interpretation, a creative moment is required involving the traditions of the practices concerned. One condition is that people get to know each other's habits in order to reach a solution. The differences in interpretation may be clustered in a fusion of horizons. This blending of horizons is achieved through the co-operation of the practices concerned. The co-operation takes place on the action level. The actions themselves leads to the fusion of horizons. By exchanging views people attempt to agree on the subject. This is not a situation in which people aim at being in the right or in which they try to fathom the other's individuality, but in which they try to understand each other and continue to interpret. All this takes place in reality, in the way we deal with things. In the case of sustainability this may be a technical artefact or a certain method.

    In other words, the hermeneutical moment can only arise from an activity, and I call this cooperation. Eventually a comparable style develops. The concrete material substrate is the go-between or the interface between the practices. This substrate can also serve as interface within practices. For instance in the transition from a non-sustainable style to a sustainable style within the same practice. The substrate within a practice shows that a concrete thing may be helpful cementing the relationship between sustainability and the world. A particular style makes us sustain reality.

    Sustainability arises from the way in which different practices cooperate in dealing with reality.

    Red, redder, madder : analysis and isolation of anthraquinones from madder roots (Rubia tinctorum)
    Derksen, G.C.H. - \ 2001
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Æ. de Groot; A. Capelle; T.A. van Beek. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058084620 - 150
    antrachinonen - rubia tinctorum - analyse - plantextracten - anthraquinones - rubia tinctorum - analysis - plant extracts

    The roots of Rubia tinctorum L. (madder) are the source of a natural dye. The dye components are anthraquinones with alizarin being the main dye component. Alizarin as such is present in madder root in only small quantities, most of the alizarin is present as its glycoside ruberythric acid. The sugar in this disaccharide is primeverose. Madder roots have been used to dye textiles in many parts of the world since ancient times. From 1600-1900 there was a heavy trade in madder throughout Europe. Madder root was an important export product for Holland. In 1868 Graebe and Liebermann discovered how to prepare alizarin synthetically. At the end of the 19 thcentury the madder culture rapidly declined due to the cheaper production of synthetic alizarin. Production of synthetic alizarin gives polluting side products. Nowadays the use and production of natural dyes becomes more popular due to the growing awareness for the environment and the need for alternative crops. An important element in the revitalisation of madder as an industrial crop is that the dye preparation from madder should be able to compete in quality and price with synthetic alizarin.Due to this renewed interest this research was initiated with this thesis as result.

    For the simultaneous identification of the anthraquinone glycosides and aglycones in extracts of madder root a high-pressure liquid chromatography method (HPLC) was developed. The anthraquinones were separated on an end-capped C 18 -RP column with a water-acetonitrile gradient as eluent and measured with ultra violet (UV) detection at 250 nm. For the identification of anthraquinones on-line a mass spectrometer (MS) and a diode-array detector were used.

    The main anthraquinones in an ethanol-water extract of madder root are the glycosides lucidin primeveroside and ruberythric acid and the anthraquinones pseudopurpurin and munjistin, which contain a carboxylic acid moiety. Beside these compounds also small amounts of the aglycones alizarin and purpurin could be detected and sometimes also lucidin was present.

    For the production of a commercially useful dye preparation from madder, the glycoside ruberythric acid should be hydrolysed to the aglycone alizarin, which is the main dye component. An intrinsic problem of the hydrolysis of ruberythric acid in madder root is the simultaneous conversion of lucidin primeveroside to the unwanted mutagenic aglycone lucidin. Madder root was treated with strong acid, strong base or enzymes to convert ruberythric acid into alizarin. The anthraquinone composition of the suspensions was analysed with HPLC-UV, HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS.

    Stirring of dried madder root in water at room temperature for 90 min gave a suspension with pseudopurpurin, munjistin, alizarin and nordamnacanthal. Nordamnacanthal originates from lucidin primeveroside, which is hydrolysed to lucidin and subsequently oxidised to the corresponding aldehyde nordamnacanthal by an endogenous hydrolase and oxidase respectively. Nordamnacanthal is not mutagenic. During this conversion oxygen is obligatory and can be added by stirring the suspension. This stirring is an easy method for simultaneously hydrolysing ruberythric acid and to getting rid of the mutagenic lucidin.

    Different madder root cultivars were screened for their anthraquinone composition and amount of the main anthraquinones. The concentration of alizarin varied from 6.1 to11.8 mg/g root. If madder root was cultivated for three instead of two years the amount of alizarin increased from 6.7 mg/g to 8.7 mg/g.

    A number of different methods were compared for their capacity to isolate alizarin from the rest of the plant material. To make a first selection attention was mainly paid to the yield of alizarin. Three routes were selected as most promising for an industrial application. These three methods were tested at a larger scale. The first method consisted of the following steps: conversion of madder root (250 g) by endogenous enzymes, extraction of madder root with refluxing ethanol-water, hot filtration, evaporation to half of the original volume and precipitation at 4°C. An extract of 14.7 g was obtained which consisted for 35 % of anthraquinones. Of the total amount of alizarin available in the starting material 78% was extracted. The second method consisted of the following steps: extraction of madder root (250 g) with refluxing water, hot filtration, conversion of the glycosides in the filtrate by a madder root enzyme extract and precipitation at 4°C. An extract of 3.2 g was obtained of which 38 % were anthraquinones. Of the total amount of alizarin available in the starting material 19% was extracted. The third method consisted of the following steps: extraction of madder root with an aqueous surfactant solution, twice C 18 chromatography for extracting alizarin, elution of alizarin with methanol and evaporation. An extract of 17.1 g was obtained of which 11 % were anthraquinones. Of the total amount of alizarin available in the starting material 98% was extracted.

    For the development of an economically feasible route these three methods have to be further optimised. After optimisation the three routes have to be compared in terms of amount of extract obtained, alizarin content, dyeing capacity, costs and industrial applicability of the procedure.

    Triticale voor melkvee en jongvee
    Duinkerken, G. van; Bleumer, E. - \ 2000
    Lelystad : Praktijkonderzoek Rundvee, Schapen en Paarden (Rapport / Praktijkonderzoek Rundvee, Schapen en Paarden 183) - 33
    proeven op proefstations - melkveehouderij - melkvee - jonge dieren - voeropname - triticale - graskuilvoer - voederwaardering - analyse - station tests - dairy farming - dairy cattle - young animals - feed intake - triticale - grass silage - feed evaluation - analysis
    Op proefbedrijf Cranendonck zijn drie proeven met melkvee en drie proeven met jongvee uitgevoerd om ervaring op te doen met het voeren van triticale Gehele Planten Silage (GPS).
    Micromorfologisch onderzoek t.b.v. het archeologisch projekt Westland west : Broekpolder : onderzoek aan twee secties in profiel EF ten behoeve van de archeologie
    Kooistra, M.J. - \ 2000
    Wageningen : Alterra - 21
    bodemmicromorfologie - micromorfologische bodemkenmerken - geschiedenis - cultureel onderzoek - archeologie - landschap - analyse - menselijke activiteit - zuid-holland - westland - soil micromorphology - soil micromorphological features - history - cultural research - archaeology - landscape - analysis - human activity
    LARCH: een toolbox voor ruimtelijke analyses van een landschap
    Pouwels, R. - \ 2000
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 43) - 48
    landschap - biodiversiteit - soortendiversiteit - modellen - expertsystemen - natuurbescherming - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - ruimtelijke verdeling - analyse - habitats - populatie-ecologie - nederland - habitatfragmentatie - landscape - biodiversity - species diversity - models - expert systems - nature conservation - sustainability - spatial distribution - analysis - habitats - population ecology - netherlands - habitat fragmentation
    Voor het ministerie van Landbouw, Natuurbeheer en Visserij wordt het kennissysteem LARCH ontwikkeld. Met LARCH kunnen de effecten van versnippering van een landschap in beeld worden gebracht. Het kennissysteem kan met name worden toegepast bij vraagstukken over natuurbehoud en de inrichting van het landschap. Met LARCH wordt het landschap bekeken 'door de ogen van een diersoort'. In dit rapport wordt ingegaan op de theoretische achtergrond van de versnipperingsproblematiek en op de verschillende analyses die met het huidige model LARCH gedaan kunnen worden. LARCH is een model in ontwikkeling. De komende jaren zal de methodiek verder verfijnd worden en zal de functionaliteit worden uitgebreid.
    Uncertainty propagation in model chains: a case study in nature conservancy
    Schouwenberg, E.P.A.G. ; Houweling, H. ; Jansen, M.J.W. ; Kros, J. ; Mol-Dijkstra, J.P. - \ 2000
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1) - 90
    natuurbescherming - onzekerheid - voorspellen - waarden - modellen - analyse - nature conservation - uncertainty - forecasting - values - models - analysis
    The availability of high-quality models is considered a critical success factor for Alterra. To answer the complex questions of policy makers it is often necessary to link models that have been developed initially to study more limited questions. Whenmodels are linked, error propagation may enlarge the uncertainty of the model results. However, the quantification of uncertainty propagation may become more complex. This problem of uncertainty propagation in model chains is explored using a chain of the models SMART2/SUMO, P2E and NTM that predicts the potential nature conservation value of natural areas. Two methods have been explored to study the uncertainty propagation in the model chain: a regression-free method that estimates the uncertainty contributions of groups of sources of uncertainty, and an analysis by means of linear regression approximations of the sub-models of the model chain. The final analysis was done with a regression-free method. The results are presented as the contributions ofthe various sources of uncertainty to the uncertainty of the potential conservation value. From the results of this study, lessons are learned for the analyses of error propagation in model chains.
    Oppervlakte-afvoer: een combinatie van helling, bodem, gewas en regen
    Stolte, J. ; Ritsema, C.J. ; Wösten, J.H.M. - \ 2000
    Stromingen : vakblad voor hydrologen 6 (2000)4. - ISSN 1382-6069 - p. 27 - 36.
    oppervlakkige afvoer - regen - infiltratie - hydrologie - analyse - runoff - rain - infiltration - hydrology - analysis
    Tools for Land Use Analysis on Different Scales : With Case Studies for Costa Rica
    Bouman, B.A.M. ; Jansen, H.G.P. ; Schipper, R.A. ; Hengsdijk, H. ; Nieuwenhuyse, A. - \ 2000
    Dordrecht [etc.] : Kluwer Academic Publishers - ISBN 9780792364795 - 274
    landgebruik - analyse - modellen - evaluatie - methodologie - landbouw - beleid - sociale economie - ruimtelijke evenwichtsanalyse - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - costa rica - land use - analysis - models - evaluation - methodology - agriculture - policy - socioeconomics - spatial equilibrium analysis - sustainability - costa rica
    Substraat : analyse, eigenschappen, advies
    Kipp, J.A. ; Wever, G. ; Kreij, C. de - \ 1999
    Doetinchem : Elsevier - ISBN 9789054390831 - 112
    cultuur zonder grond - sierplanten - tuinbouw - normen - analyse - handboeken - nederland - groeimedia - soilless culture - ornamental plants - horticulture - standards - analysis - handbooks - netherlands - growing media
    Betrouwbaarheid en herhaalbaarheid microscopische analysemethode diermeel
    Voet, H. van der; Jong, J. de; Pinckaers, V.G.Z. - \ 1999
    Wageningen : DLO-Rijks-Kwaliteitsinstituut voor land- en tuinbouwprodukten (RIKILT-DLO) (Rapport / RIKILT-DLO 99.015) - 13
    analyse - microscopie - statistische analyse - detectie - voer van dierlijke oorsprong - beendermeel - herhaalbaarheid - nauwkeurigheid - analysis - microscopy - statistical analysis - detection - feed of animal origin - bone meal - repeatability - accuracy
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