Records 21 - 40 / 405
Post-transcriptional control of GRF transcription factors by microRNA miR396 and GIF co-activator affects leaf size and longevity
Debernardi, J.M. ; Mecchia, M.A. ; Vercruyssen, L. ; Smaczniak, C. ; Kaufmann, K. ; Inze, D. ; Rodriguez, R.E. ; Palatnik, J.F. - \ 2014
The Plant Journal 79 (2014)3. - ISSN 0960-7412 - p. 413 - 426.
chromatin-remodeling complexes - tandem affinity purification - arabidopsis-thaliana - gene-expression - organ size - cell-division - protein complexes - shoot development - small rnas - growth
The growth-regulating factors (GRFs) are plant-specific transcription factors. They form complexes with GRF-interacting factors (GIFs), a small family of transcriptional co-activators. In Arabidopsis thaliana, seven out of the nine GRFs are controlled by microRNA miR396. Analysis of Arabidopsis plants carrying a GRF3 allele insensitive to miR396 revealed a strong boost in the number of cells in leaves, which was further enhanced synergistically by an additional increase of GIF1 levels. Genetic experiments revealed that GRF3 can still increase cell number in gif1 mutants, albeit to a much lesser extent. Genome-wide transcript profiling indicated that the simultaneous increase of GRF3 and GIF1 levels causes additional effects in gene expression compared to either of the transgenes alone. We observed that GIF1 interacts in vivo with GRF3, as well as with chromatin-remodeling complexes, providing a mechanistic explanation for the synergistic activities of a GRF3-GIF1 complex. Interestingly, we found that, in addition to the leaf size, the GRF system also affects the organ longevity. Genetic and molecular analysis revealed that the functions of GRFs in leaf growth and senescence can be uncoupled, demonstrating that the miR396-GRF-GIF network impinges on different stages of leaf development. Our results integrate the post-transcriptional control of the GRF transcription factors with the progression of leaf development.
Conserved histidine of metal transporter AtNRAMP1 is crucial for optimal plant growth under manganese deficiency at chilling temperatures
Ihnatowicz, A. ; Siwinska, J. ; Meharg, A.A. ; Carey, M. ; Koornneef, M. ; Reymond, M. - \ 2014
New Phytologist 202 (2014)4. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 1173 - 1183.
yeast saccharomyces-cerevisiae - barley hordeum-vulgare - arabidopsis-thaliana - drosophila-melanogaster - iron transport - ion transporters - diploid strains - calcareous soil - nramp family - environment
Manganese (Mn) is an essential nutrient required for plant growth, in particular in the process of photosynthesis. Plant performance is influenced by various environmental stresses including contrasting temperatures, light or nutrient deficiencies. The molecular responses of plants exposed to such stress factors in combination are largely unknown. Screening of 108 Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) accessions for reduced photosynthetic performance at chilling temperatures was performed and one accession (Hog) was isolated. Using genetic and molecular approaches, the molecular basis of this particular response to temperature (GxE interaction) was identified. Hog showed an induction of a severe leaf chlorosis and impaired growth after transfer to lower temperatures. We demonstrated that this response was dependent on the nutrient content of the soil. Genetic mapping and complementation identified NRAMP1 as the causal gene. Chlorotic phenotype was associated with a histidine to tyrosine (H239Y) substitution in the allele of Hog NRAMP1. This led to lethality when Hog seedlings were directly grown at 4 degrees C. Chemical complementation and hydroponic culture experiments showed that Mn deficiency was the major cause of this GxE interaction. For the first time, the NRAMP-specific highly conserved histidine was shown to be crucial for plant performance.
Drought stress provokes the down-regulation of methionine and ethylene biosynthesis pathways in Medicago truncatula roots and nodules
Larrainzar, E. ; Molenaar, J.A. ; Wienkoop, S. ; Gil-Quintana, E. ; Alibert, B. ; Limami, A.M. ; Arrese-Igor, C. ; Gonzalez, E.M. - \ 2014
Plant, Cell & Environment 37 (2014)9. - ISSN 0140-7791 - p. 2051 - 2063.
cystathionine gamma-synthase - signal-transduction pathway - acetylene-reduction assay - nitrogen-fixation - n-2 fixation - arabidopsis-thaliana - sucrose synthase - soybean nodules - atp sulfurylase - water-deficit
Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is one of the first physiological processes inhibited in legume plants under water-deficit conditions. Despite the progress made in the last decades, the molecular mechanisms behind this regulation are not fully understood yet. Recent proteomic work carried out in the model legume Medicago truncatula provided the first indications of a possible involvement of nodule methionine (Met) biosynthesis and related pathways in response to water-deficit conditions. To better understand this involvement, the drought-induced changes in expression and content of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of Met, S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) and ethylene in M.truncatula root and nodules were analyzed using targeted approaches. Nitrogen-fixing plants were subjected to a progressive water deficit and a subsequent recovery period. Besides the physiological characterization of the plants, the content of total sulphur, sulphate and main S-containing metabolites was measured. Results presented here show that S availability is not a limiting factor in the drought-induced decline of nitrogen fixation rates in M.truncatula plants and provide evidences for a down-regulation of the Met and ethylene biosynthesis pathways in roots and nodules in response to water-deficit conditions.
KORRIGAN1 Interacts Specifically with Integral Components of the Cellulose Synthase Machinery
Mansoori Zangir, N. ; Timmers, J.F.P. ; Desprez, T. ; Lessa Alvim Kamei, C. ; Dees, D.C.T. ; Vincken, J.P. ; Visser, R.G.F. ; Höfte, H. ; Vernhettes, S. ; Trindade, L.M. - \ 2014
PLoS ONE 9 (2014)11. - ISSN 1932-6203
secondary cell-wall - arabidopsis-thaliana - endo-1,4-beta-glucanase - expression - membranes - protein - system - plants - gene - endo-1,4-beta-d-glucanase
Cellulose is synthesized by the so called rosette protein complex and the catalytic subunits of this complex are the cellulose synthases (CESAs). It is thought that the rosette complexes in the primary and secondary cell walls each contains at least three different non-redundant cellulose synthases. In addition to the CESA proteins, cellulose biosynthesis almost certainly requires the action of other proteins, although few have been identified and little is known about the biochemical role of those that have been identified. One of these proteins is KORRIGAN (KOR1). Mutant analysis of this protein in Arabidopsis thaliana showed altered cellulose content in both the primary and secondary cell wall. KOR1 is thought to be required for cellulose synthesis acting as a cellulase at the plasma membrane–cell wall interface. KOR1 has recently been shown to interact with the primary cellulose synthase rosette complex however direct interaction with that of the secondary cell wall has never been demonstrated. Using various methods, both in vitro and in planta, it was shown that KOR1 interacts specifically with only two of the secondary CESA proteins. The KOR1 protein domain(s) involved in the interaction with the CESA proteins were also identified by analyzing the interaction of truncated forms of KOR1 with CESA proteins. The KOR1 transmembrane domain has shown to be required for the interaction between KOR1 and the different CESAs, as well as for higher oligomer formation of KOR1.
Genetic dissection of leaf development in Brassica rapa using a ‘geneticalgenomics’ approach
Xiao, D. ; Wang, H. ; Basnet, R.K. ; Jianjun Zhao, Jianjun ; Lin, K. ; Hou, X. ; Bonnema, A.B. - \ 2014
Plant Physiology 164 (2014)3. - ISSN 0032-0889 - p. 1309 - 1325.
quantitative trait loci - flowering time - arabidopsis-thaliana - morphological traits - functional divergence - natural variation - duplicated genes - organ growth - expression - cell
The paleohexaploid crop Brassica rapa harbors an enormous reservoir of morphological variation, encompassing leafy vegetables, vegetable and fodder turnips (Brassica rapa, ssp. campestris), and oil crops, with different crops having very different leaf morphologies. In the triplicated B. rapa genome, many genes have multiple paralogs that may be regulated differentially and contribute to phenotypic variation. Using a genetical genomics approach, phenotypic data from a segregating doubled haploid population derived from a cross between cultivar Yellow sarson (oil type) and cultivar Pak choi (vegetable type) were used to identify loci controlling leaf development. Twenty-five colocalized phenotypic quantitative trait loci (QTLs) contributing to natural variation for leaf morphological traits, leaf number, plant architecture, and flowering time were identified. Genetic analysis showed that four colocalized phenotypic QTLs colocalized with flowering time and leaf trait candidate genes, with their cis-expression QTLs and cis- or trans-expression QTLs for homologs of genes playing a role in leaf development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The leaf gene BRASSICA RAPA KIP-RELATED PROTEIN2_A03 colocalized with QTLs for leaf shape and plant height; BRASSICA RAPA ERECTA_A09 colocalized with QTLs for leaf color and leaf shape; BRASSICA RAPA LONGIFOLIA1_A10 colocalized with QTLs for leaf size, leaf color, plant branching, and flowering time; while the major flowering time gene, BRASSICA RAPA FLOWERING LOCUS C_A02, colocalized with QTLs explaining variation in flowering time, plant architectural traits, and leaf size. Colocalization of these QTLs points to pleiotropic regulation of leaf development and plant architectural traits in B. rapa.
Prioritization of candidate genes in QTL regions based on associations between traits and biological processes
Bargsten, J.W. ; Nap, J.P.H. ; Sanchez Perez, G.F. ; Dijk, A.D.J. van - \ 2014
BMC Plant Biology 14 (2014). - ISSN 1471-2229
genome-wide association - protein function prediction - arabidopsis-thaliana - nucleotide polymorphisms - enrichment analysis - flowering time - complex traits - oryza-sativa - rice - architecture
Background Elucidation of genotype-to-phenotype relationships is a major challenge in biology. In plants, it is the basis for molecular breeding. Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) mapping enables to link variation at the trait level to variation at the genomic level. However, QTL regions typically contain tens to hundreds of genes. In order to prioritize such candidate genes, we show that we can identify potentially causal genes for a trait based on overrepresentation of biological processes (gene functions) for the candidate genes in the QTL regions of that trait. Results The prioritization method was applied to rice QTL data, using gene functions predicted on the basis of sequence- and expression-information. The average reduction of the number of genes was over ten-fold. Comparison with various types of experimental datasets (including QTL fine-mapping and Genome Wide Association Study results) indicated both statistical significance and biological relevance of the obtained connections between genes and traits. A detailed analysis of flowering time QTLs illustrates that genes with completely unknown function are likely to play a role in this important trait. Conclusions Our approach can guide further experimentation and validation of causal genes for quantitative traits. This way it capitalizes on QTL data to uncover how individual genes influence trait variation.
Regulatory Network of Secondary Metabolism in Brassica rapa: Insight into the Glucosinolate Pathway
Pino del Carpio, D. ; Kumar, R. ; Arends, D. ; Lin, K. ; Vos, R.C.H. de; Muth, D. ; Kodde, J. ; Boutilier, K.A. ; Bucher, J. ; Wang, X. ; Jansen, R.C. ; Bonnema, G. - \ 2014
PLoS ONE 9 (2014)9. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 11 p.
arabidopsis-thaliana - mass-spectrometry - coexpression networks - genomics approach - genetic genomics - biosynthesis - metabolomics - identification - plants - fruit
Brassica rapa studies towards metabolic variation have largely been focused on the profiling of the diversity of metabolic compounds in specific crop types or regional varieties, but none aimed to identify genes with regulatory function in metabolite composition. Here we followed a genetical genomics approach to identify regulatory genes for six biosynthetic pathways of health-related phytochemicals, i.e carotenoids, tocopherols, folates, glucosinolates, flavonoids and phenylpropanoids. Leaves from six weeks-old plants of a Brassica rapa doubled haploid population, consisting of 92 genotypes, were profiled for their secondary metabolite composition, using both targeted and LC-MS-based untargeted metabolomics approaches. Furthermore, the same population was profiled for transcript variation using a microarray containing EST sequences mainly derived from three Brassica species: B. napus, B. rapa and B. oleracea. The biochemical pathway analysis was based on the network analyses of both metabolite QTLs (mQTLs) and transcript QTLs (eQTLs). Colocalization of mQTLs and eQTLs lead to the identification of candidate regulatory genes involved in the biosynthesis of carotenoids, tocopherols and glucosinolates. We subsequently focused on the well-characterized glucosinolate pathway and revealed two hotspots of co-localization of eQTLs with mQTLs in linkage groups A03 and A09. Our results indicate that such a large-scale genetical genomics approach combining transcriptomics and metabolomics data can provide new insights into the genetic regulation of metabolite composition of Brassica vegetables.
Morphology, Carbohydrate Composition and Vernalization Response in a Genetically Diverse Collection of Asian and European Turnips (Brassica rapa subsp. rapa)
Zhang, N. ; Jianjun Zhao, Jianjun ; Lens, F. ; Visser, J. de; Menamo, T. ; Fang, W. ; Xiao, D. ; Bucher, J. ; Basnet, R.K. ; Lin, K. ; Cheng, F. ; Wang, X. ; Bonnema, A.B. - \ 2014
PLoS ONE 9 (2014)12. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 29 p.
storage root-formation - sucrose metabolizing enzymes - raphanus-sativus l - sugar-beet - flowering-time - gene-expression - transcriptome analysis - arabidopsis-thaliana - organ development - tuber development
Brassica rapa displays enormous morphological diversity, with leafy vegetables, turnips and oil crops. Turnips (Brassica rapa subsp. rapa) represent one of the morphotypes, which form tubers and can be used to study the genetics underlying storage organ formation. In the present study we investigated several characteristics of an extensive turnip collection comprising 56 accessions from both Asia (mainly Japanese origin) and Europe. Population structure was calculated using data from 280 evenly distributed SNP markers over 56 turnip accessions. We studied the anatomy of turnip tubers and measured carbohydrate composition of the mature turnip tubers of a subset of the collection. The variation in 16 leaf traits, 12 tuber traits and flowering time was evaluated in five independent experiments for the entire collection. The effect of vernalization on flowering and tuber formation was also investigated. SNP marker profiling basically divided the turnip accessions into two subpopulations, with admixture, generally corresponding with geographical origin (Europe or Asia). The enlarged turnip tuber consists of both hypocotyl and root tissue, but the proportion of the two tissues differs between accessions. The ratio of sucrose to fructose and glucose differed among accessions, while generally starch content was low. The evaluated traits segregated in both subpopulations, with leaf shape, tuber colour and number of shoots per tuber explaining most variation between the two subpopulations. Vernalization resulted in reduced flowering time and smaller tubers for the Asian turnips whereas the European turnips were less affected by vernalization.
Enhancing crop resilience to combined abiotic and biotic stress through the dissection of physiological and molecular crosstalk
Kissoudis, C. ; Wiel, C.C.M. van de; Visser, R.G.F. ; Linden, C.G. van der - \ 2014
Frontiers in Plant Science 5 (2014). - ISSN 1664-462X - 20 p.
systemic acquired-resistance - activated protein-kinase - programmed cell-death - regulated gene-expression - plant immune-responses - abscisic-acid - salicylic-acid - disease resistance - arabidopsis-thaliana - transcription factor
Plants growing in their natural habitats are often challenged simultaneously by multiple stress factors, both abiotic and biotic. Research has so far been limited to responses to individual stresses, and understanding of adaptation to combinatorial stress is limited, but indicative of non-additive interactions. Omics data analysis and functional characterization of individual genes has revealed a convergence of signaling pathways for abiotic and biotic stress adaptation. Taking into account that most data originate from imposition of individual stress factors, this review summarizes these findings in a physiological context, following the pathogenesis timeline and highlighting potential differential interactions occurring between abiotic and biotic stress signaling across the different cellular compartments and at the whole plant level. Potential effects of abiotic stress on resistance components such as extracellular receptor proteins, R-genes and systemic acquired resistance will be elaborated, as well as crosstalk at the levels of hormone, reactive oxygen species, and redox signaling. Breeding targets and strategies are proposed focusing on either manipulation and deployment of individual common regulators such as transcription factors or pyramiding of non- (negatively) interacting components such as R-genes with abiotic stress resistance genes. We propose that dissection of broad spectrum stress tolerance conferred by priming chemicals may provide an insight on stress cross regulation and additional candidate genes for improving crop performance under combined stress. Validation of the proposed strategies in lab and field experiments is a first step toward the goal of achieving tolerance to combinatorial stress in crops.
Apoplastic Venom Allergen-like Proteins of Cyst Nematodes Modulate the Activation of Basal Plant Innate Immunity by Cell Surface Receptors
Lozano Torres, J.L. ; Wilbers, R.H.P. ; Warmerdam, S. ; Finkers-Tomczak, A.M. ; Diaz Granados Muñoz, A. ; Schaik, C.C. van; Helder, J. ; Bakker, J. ; Goverse, A. ; Schots, A. ; Smant, G. - \ 2014
PLoS Pathogens 10 (2014)12. - ISSN 1553-7366 - 18 p.
root-knot nematode - cf-2-dependent disease resistance - pamp-triggered immunity - arabidopsis-thaliana - globodera-rostochiensis - heterodera-schachtii - ancylostoma-caninum - parasitic nematodes - extracellular-matrix - functional-analysis
Despite causing considerable damage to host tissue during the onset of parasitism, nematodes establish remarkably persistent infections in both animals and plants. It is thought that an elaborate repertoire of effector proteins in nematode secretions suppresses damage-triggered immune responses of the host. However, the nature and mode of action of most immunomodulatory compounds in nematode secretions are not well understood. Here, we show that venom allergen-like proteins of plant-parasitic nematodes selectively suppress host immunity mediated by surface-localized immune receptors. Venom allergen-like proteins are uniquely conserved in secretions of all animal- and plant-parasitic nematodes studied to date, but their role during the onset of parasitism has thus far remained elusive. Knocking-down the expression of the venom allergen-like protein Gr-VAP1 severely hampered the infectivity of the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis. By contrast, heterologous expression of Gr-VAP1 and two other venom allergen-like proteins from the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in plants resulted in the loss of basal immunity to multiple unrelated pathogens. The modulation of basal immunity by ectopic venom allergen-like proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana involved extracellular protease-based host defenses and non-photochemical quenching in chloroplasts. Non-photochemical quenching regulates the initiation of the defense-related programmed cell death, the onset of which was commonly suppressed by venom allergen-like proteins from G. rostochiensis, H. schachtii, and the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Surprisingly, these venom allergen-like proteins only affected the programmed cell death mediated by surface-localized immune receptors. Furthermore, the delivery of venom allergen-like proteins into host tissue coincides with the enzymatic breakdown of plant cell walls by migratory nematodes. We, therefore, conclude that parasitic nematodes most likely utilize venom allergen-like proteins to suppress the activation of defenses by immunogenic breakdown products in damaged host tissue.
Rice cytochrome P450 MAX1 homologs catalyze distinct steps in strigolactone biosynthesis
Zhang, Y. ; Dijk, A.D.J. van; Scaffidi, A. ; Flematti, G.R. ; Hofmann, M. ; Charnikhova, T. ; Verstappen, F.W.A. ; Hepworth, J. ; Krol, A.R. van der; Leyser, O. - \ 2014
Nature Chemical Biology 10 (2014). - ISSN 1552-4450 - p. 1028 - 1033.
arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi - structural requirements - germination stimulants - biological-activities - arabidopsis-thaliana - crystal-structures - plant hormones - protein - inhibition - expression
Strigolactones (SLs) are a class of phytohormones and rhizosphere signaling compounds with high structural diversity. Three enzymes, carotenoid isomerase DWARF27 and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases CCD7 and CCD8, were previously shown to convert all-trans-¿-carotene to carlactone (CL), the SL precursor. However, how CL is metabolized to SLs has remained elusive. Here, by reconstituting the SL biosynthetic pathway in Nicotiana benthamiana, we show that a rice homolog of Arabidopsis MORE AXILLARY GROWTH 1 (MAX1), encodes a cytochrome P450 CYP711 subfamily member that acts as a CL oxidase to stereoselectively convert CL into ent-2'-epi-5-deoxystrigol (B-C lactone ring formation), the presumed precursor of rice SLs. A protein encoded by a second rice MAX1 homolog then catalyzes the conversion of ent-2'-epi-5-deoxystrigol to orobanchol. We therefore report that two members of CYP711 enzymes can catalyze two distinct steps in SL biosynthesis, identifying the first enzymes involved in B-C ring closure and a subsequent structural diversification step of SLs.
Control of anthocyanin and non-flavonoid compounds by anthocyanin-regulating MYB and bHLH transcription factors in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves
Outchkourov, N.S. ; Carollo, C.A. ; Gomez Roldan, M.V. ; Vos, C.H. de; Bosch, H.J. ; Hall, R.D. ; Beekwilder, M.J. - \ 2014
Frontiers in Plant Science 5 (2014). - ISSN 1664-462X - 9 p.
r2r3-myb gene family - mass-spectrometry - tomato fruit - arabidopsis-thaliana - biosynthesis - tobacco - accumulation - metabolomics - plants - health
Coloration of plant organs such as fruit, leaves and flowers through anthocyanin production is governed by a combination of MYB and bHLH type transcription factors (TFs). In this study we introduced Rosea1 (ROS1, a MYB type) and Delila (DEL, a bHLH type), into Nicotiana benthamiana leaves by agroinfiltration. ROS1 and DEL form a pair of well-characterized TFs from Snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus), which specifically induce anthocyanin accumulation when expressed in tomato fruit. In N. benthamiana, robust induction of a single anthocyanin, delphinidin-3-rutinoside (D3R) was observed after expression of both ROS1 and DEL. Surprisingly in addition to D3R, a range of additional metabolites were also strongly and specifically up-regulated upon expression of ROS1 and DEL. Except for the D3R, these induced compounds were not derived from the flavonoid pathway. Most notable among these are nornicotine conjugates with butanoyl, hexanoyl, and octanoyl hydrophobic moieties, and phenylpropanoid-polyamine conjugates such as caffeoyl putrescine. The defensive properties of the induced molecules were addressed in bioassays using the tobacco specialist lepidopteran insect Manduca sexta. Our study showed that the effect of ROS1 and DEL expression in N. benthamiana leaves extends beyond the flavonoid pathway. Apparently the same transcription factor may regulate different secondary metabolite pathways in different plant species.
A novel approach for multi-domain and multi-gene famliy identification provides insights into evolutionary dynamics of disease resistance genes in core eudicot plants
Hofberger, J.A. ; Zhou, B. ; Tang, H. ; Jones, J. ; Schranz, M.E. - \ 2014
BMC Genomics 15 (2014). - ISSN 1471-2164
genome-wide analysis - nb-arc domain - arabidopsis-thaliana - whole-genome - draft genome - phylogenetic analysis - triggered immunity - mildew resistance - defense responses - encoding genes
Background Recent advances in DNA sequencing techniques resulted in more than forty sequenced plant genomes representing a diverse set of taxa of agricultural, energy, medicinal and ecological importance. However, gene family curation is often only inferred from DNA sequence homology and lacks insights into evolutionary processes contributing to gene family dynamics. In a comparative genomics framework, we integrated multiple lines of evidence provided by gene synteny, sequence homology and protein-based Hidden Markov Modelling to extract homologous super-clusters composed of multi-domain resistance (R)-proteins of the NB-LRR type (for NUCLEOTIDE BINDING/LEUCINE-RICH REPEATS), that are involved in plant innate immunity. Results To assess the diversity of R-proteins within and between species, we screened twelve eudicot plant genomes including six major crops and found a total of 2,363 NB-LRR genes. Our curated R-proteins set shows a 50% average for tandem duplicates and a 22% fraction of gene copies retained from ancient polyploidy events (ohnologs). We provide evidence for strong positive selection acting on all identified genes and show significant differences in molecular evolution rates (Ka/Ks-ratio) among tandem- (mean = 1.59), ohnolog (mean = 1.36) and singleton (mean = 1.22) R-gene duplicates. To foster the process of gene-edited plant breeding, we report species-specific presence/absence of all 140 NB-LRR genes present in the model plant Arabidopsis and describe four distinct clusters of NB-LRR "gatekeeper" loci sharing syntenic orthologs across all analyzed genomes. Conclusion By curating a near-complete set of multi-domain R-protein clusters in an eudicot-wide scale, our analysis offers significant insight into evolutionary dynamics underlying diversification of the plant innate immune system. Furthermore, our methods provide a blueprint for future efforts to identify and more rapidly clone functional NB-LRR genes from any plant species.
A roadmap to embryo identity in plants
Radoeva, T.M. ; Weijers, D. - \ 2014
Trends in Plant Science 19 (2014)11. - ISSN 1360-1385 - p. 709 - 716.
microspore-derived embryos - somatic embryogenesis - arabidopsis-thaliana - pattern-formation - transcription factor - leafy cotyledon1 - seed development - gene-expression - wuschel gene - cell
Although plant embryogenesis is usually studied in the context of seed development, there are many alternative roads to embryo initiation. These include somatic embryogenesis in tissue culture and microspore embryogenesis, both widely used in breeding and crop propagation, but also include other modes of ectopic embryo initiation. In the past decades several genes, mostly transcription factors, were identified that can induce embryogenesis in somatic cells. Because the genetic networks in which such regulators operate to promote embryogenesis are largely unknown, a key question is how their activity relates to zygotic and alternative embryo initiation. We describe here the many roads to plant embryo initiation and discuss a framework for defining the developmental roles and mechanisms of plant embryogenesis regulators.
Group VII Ethylene Response Factor diversification and regulation in four species from flood-prone environments.
Veen, H. van; Akman, M. ; Jamar, D.C.L. ; Vreugdenhil, D. ; Kooiker, M. ; Tienderen, P.H. van; Voesenek, L.A.C.J. ; Schranz, M.E. ; Sasidharan, R. - \ 2014
Plant, Cell & Environment 37 (2014)10. - ISSN 0140-7791 - p. 2421 - 2432.
end rule pathway - submergence tolerance - transcription factors - arabidopsis-thaliana - comparative genomics - rorippa-sylvestris - gene-expression - rice - hypoxia - plants
Flooding events negatively affect plant performance and survival. Flooding gradients thereby determine the dynamics in vegetation composition and species abundance. In adaptation to flooding, the group VII Ethylene Response Factor genes (ERF-VIIs) play pivotal roles in rice and Arabidopsis through regulation of anaerobic gene expression and antithetical survival strategies. We investigated if ERF-VIIs have a similar role in mediating survival strategies in eudicot species from flood-prone environments. Here, we studied the evolutionary origin and regulation of ERF-VII transcript abundance and the physiological responses in species from two genera of divergent taxonomic lineages (Rumex and Rorippa). Synteny analysis revealed that angiosperm ERF-VIIs arose from two ancestral loci and that subsequent diversification and duplication led to the present ERF-VII variation. We propose that subtle variation in the regulation of ERF-VII transcript abundance could explain variation in tolerance among Rorippa species. In Rumex, the main difference in flood tolerance correlated with the genetic variation in ERF-VII genes. Large transcriptional differences were found by comparing the two genera: darkness and dark submergence-induced Rumex ERF-VIIs, whereas HRE2 expression was increased in submerged Rorippa roots. We conclude that the involvement of ERF-VIIs in flooding tolerance developed in a phylogenetic-dependent manner, with subtle variations within taxonomic clades.
Effect of sequential induction by Mamestra brassicae L. and Tetranychus urticae Koch on Lima bean plant indirect defense
Menzel, T.R. ; Huang, T.Y. ; Weldegergis, B.T. ; Gols, R. ; Loon, J.J.A. van; Dicke, M. - \ 2014
Journal of Chemical Ecology 40 (2014)9. - ISSN 0098-0331 - p. 977 - 985.
induced volatile emission - host-plant - jasmonic acid - mediated interactions - arabidopsis-thaliana - methyl salicylate - induced responses - predatory mite - herbivores - prey
Attack by multiple herbivores often leads to modification of induced plant defenses compared to single herbivory, yet little is known about the effects on induced indirect plant defense. Here, we investigated the effect of sequential induction of plant defense by Mamestra brassicae caterpillar oral secretion and an infestation by Tetranychus urticae spider mites on the expression of indirect plant defense in Lima bean plants. The effect on indirect defense was assessed using behavior assays with the specialist predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis in an olfactometer, headspace analysis of 11 major herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) including (E)-ß-ocimene, and transcript levels of the corresponding gene Phaseolus lunatus (E)-ß-ocimene synthase (PlOS). Predatory mites were found to distinguish between plants induced by spider mites and caterpillar oral secretion but not between plants with single spider mite infestation and plants induced by caterpillar oral secretion prior to spider mite infestation. Indeed, the volatile blends emitted by plants induced by spider mites only and the sequential induction treatment of caterpillar oral secretion followed by spider mite infestation, were similar. Our results suggest that plant indirect defense is not affected by previous treatment with oral secretion of M. brassicae caterpillars.
Synergism in the effect of prior jasmonic acid application on herbivore-induced volatile emission by Lima bean plants: transcription of a monoterpene synthase gene and volatile emission
Menzel, T.R. ; Weldegergis, B.T. ; David, A. ; Boland, W. ; Gols, R. ; Loon, J.J.A. van; Dicke, M. - \ 2014
Journal of Experimental Botany 65 (2014)17. - ISSN 0022-0957 - p. 4821 - 4831.
induced resistance - arabidopsis-thaliana - brassica-oleracea - phytoseiulus-persimilis - attract parasitoids - signaling pathway - methyl salicylate - predatory mite - corn plants - host-plant
Jasmonic acid (JA) plays a central role in induced plant defence e.g. by regulating the biosynthesis of herbivore-induced plant volatiles that mediate the attraction of natural enemies of herbivores. Moreover, exogenous application of JA can be used to elicit plant defence responses similar to those induced by biting-chewing herbivores and mites that pierce cells and consume their contents. In the present study, we used Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) plants to explore how application of a low dose of JA followed by minor herbivory by spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) affects transcript levels of P. lunatus (E)-ß-ocimene synthase (PlOS), emission of (E)-ß-ocimene and nine other plant volatiles commonly associated with herbivory. Furthermore, we investigated the plant’s phytohormonal response. Application of a low dose of JA increased PlOS transcript levels in a synergistic manner when followed by minor herbivory for both simultaneous and sequential infestation. Emission of (E)-ß-ocimene was also increased, and only JA, but not SA, levels were affected by treatments. Projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of other volatiles showed overlap between treatments. Thus, a low-dose JA application results in a synergistic effect on gene transcription and an increased emission of a volatile compound involved in indirect defence after herbivore infestation.
Caterpillar-induced plant volatiles remain a reliable signal for foraging wasps during dual attack with a plant pathogen or non-host insect herbivore
Ponzio, C.A.M. ; Gols, R. ; Weldegergis, B.T. ; Dicke, M. - \ 2014
Plant, Cell & Environment 37 (2014)8. - ISSN 0140-7791 - p. 1924 - 1935.
interspecific interactions - pseudomonas-syringae - arabidopsis-thaliana - phytophagous insects - multiple herbivory - cotesia-glomerata - pieris-brassicae - fungal-infection - natural enemies - damaged plants
Plants respond to herbivory with the emission of plant volatiles, which can be used by the herbivores' natural enemies to locate their hosts or prey. In nature, plants are often simultaneously confronted with insect herbivores and phytopathogens, potentially interfering with the attraction of the herbivores' enemies as a result of modifications of the induced volatile blend. Here, we investigated parasitoid (Cotesia glomerata) attraction to volatiles of plants challenged by different attackers, either alone or in combination with Pieris brassicae caterpillars, hosts of C.¿glomerata. We used a natural system consisting of Brassica nigra plants, eggs and larvae of P.¿brassicae, Brevicoryne brassicae aphids and the bacterial phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. In all cases, parasitoids successfully located host-infested plants, and wasp foraging behaviour was unaffected by the simultaneous presence of a non-host attacker or host eggs. Analysis of the volatile emissions show that the volatile blends of caterpillar-infested treatments were different from those without caterpillars. Furthermore, dually attacked plants could not be separated from those with only caterpillars, regardless of non-host identity, supporting the behavioural data. Our results suggest that, in this system, indirect plant defences may be more resistant to interference than is generally assumed, with volatiles induced during dual attack remaining reliable indicators of host presence for parasitoids.
Ecology of plant volatiles: taking a plant community perspective
Pierik, R. ; Ballaré, C.L. ; Dicke, M. - \ 2014
Plant, Cell & Environment 37 (2014)8. - ISSN 0140-7791 - p. 1845 - 1853.
shade-avoidance - nicotiana-attenuata - neighbor detection - methyl jasmonate - associational resistance - arabidopsis-thaliana - defense responses - natural enemies - predatory mites - canopy light
Although plants are sessile organisms, they can modulate their phenotype so as to cope with environmental stresses such as herbivore attack and competition with neighbouring plants. Plant-produced volatile compounds mediate various aspects of plant defence. The emission of volatiles has costs and benefits. Research on the role of plant volatiles in defence has focused primarily on the responses of individual plants. However, in nature, plants rarely occur as isolated individuals but are members of plant communities where they compete for resources and exchange information with other plants. In this review, we address the effects of neighbouring plants on plant volatile-mediated defences. We will outline the various roles of volatile compounds in the interactions between plants and other organisms, address the mechanisms of plant neighbour perception in plant communities, and discuss how neighbour detection and volatile signalling are interconnected. Finally, we will outline the most urgent questions to be addressed in the future.
Identification of quantitative trait loci and a candidate locus for freezing tolerance in controlled and outdoor environments in the overwintering crucifer Boechera stricta.
Heo, J. ; Feng, D. ; Niu, X. ; Mitchell-Olds, T. ; Tienderen, P.H. van; Tomes, D. ; Schranz, M.E. - \ 2014
Plant, Cell & Environment 37 (2014)11. - ISSN 0140-7791 - p. 2459 - 2469.
cold-acclimation - arabidopsis-thaliana - chlorophyll fluorescence - transcription factor - natural variation - frost tolerance - genes - temperature - wheat - expression
Development of chilling and freezing tolerance is complex and can be affected by photoperiod, temperature and photosynthetic performance; however, there has been limited research on the interaction of these three factors. We evaluated 108 recombinant inbred lines of Boechera stricta, derived from a cross between lines originating from Montana and Colorado, under controlled long day (LD), short-day (SD) and in an outdoor environment (OE). We measured maximum quantum yield of photosystem II, lethal temperature for 50% survival and electrolyte leakage of leaves. Our results revealed significant variation for chilling and freezing tolerance and photosynthetic performance in different environments. Using both single- and multi-trait analyses, three main-effect quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified. QTL on linkage group (LG)3 were SD specific, whereas QTL on LG4 were found under both LD and SD. Under all conditions, QTL on LG7 were identified, but were particularly predictive for the outdoor experiment. The co-localization of photosynthetic performance and freezing tolerance effects supports these traits being co-regulated. Finally, the major QTL on LG7 is syntenic to the Arabidopsis C-repeat binding factor locus, known regulators of chilling and freezing responses in Arabidopsis thaliana and other species.