Staff Publications

Staff Publications

  • external user (warningwarning)
  • Log in as
  • language uk
  • About

    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

    We have a manual that explains all the features 

    Current refinement(s):

    Records 1 - 93 / 93

    • help
    • print

      Print search results

    • export

      Export search results

    Check title to add to marked list
    Understanding poverty-related diseases in Cameroon from a salutogenic perspective
    Makoge, Valerie - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): M.A. Koelen, co-promotor(en): H. Maat; H.W. Vaandrager. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463434515 - 193
    armoede - kameroen - malaria - tyfus - acquired immune deficiency syndrome - hiv-infecties - cholera - tuberculose - diarree - gezondheidsgedrag - gezondheidsvoorzieningen - spanningen - poverty - cameroon - malaria - typhoid - acquired immune deficiency syndrome - hiv infections - cholera - tuberculosis - diarrhoea - health behaviour - health services - stresses

    Poverty-related diseases (PRDs) assume poverty as a determinant in catching disease and an obstacle for cure and recovery. In Cameroon, over 48 % of the population lives below the poverty line. This dissertation starts from the premise that the relation between poverty and disease is mediated by a person’s capacity to cope with the challenges posed by the natural and social environment. The central problem addressed is that in (inter)national health promotion, disease eradication is overemphasized whereas strengthening the capacity of people to cope with harsh conditions is disregarded. Research efforts show a similar division in emphasis, resulting in a limited understanding of the way people deal with health challenges in conditions of poverty. This dissertation is based on the salutogenic model of health that emphasizes the combined effects of (natural) disease conditions, mental conditions and social factors as determinants of health. This implies an emphasis on health as a positive strategy to deal with stressors and also an emphasis on the agency of people to respond to challenges that hamper their health and wellbeing. The study is carried out among two different groups of people in Cameroon. These are workers including dependants of workers of the Cameroon Development Corporation (CDC) and students from the universities of Buea and Yaoundé. The overall aim of this dissertation is to understand how conditions of poverty impact the health of people and how they manage these challenges. Specifically, the study aims to unravel the interlinkages between poverty and health by creating a deeper understanding of the social and material dynamics which enable people’s capacity to preserve health, anticipate health risks, and mitigate or recover from stressors such as PRDs. The main research question addressed is: What factors underlie the maintenance of good health and overcoming stressors in the face of PRDs in Cameroon?

    Different research methods were used to collect data. Interviews were carried out with respondents from both groups addressing PRDs, other stressors and coping strategies. General surveys were carried out to identify perceptions as well as health behaviour patterns across the two groups. Standardised surveys were carried out to measure individual factors such as sense of coherence, resilience, self-efficacy, subjective well-being and self-rated health. Results presented in different empirical chapters of the thesis each respond to a specific research question. In Chapters 2 and 3 are presented surveys with 272 students and 237 camp-dwellers respectively. Perceptions, attributed causes of, and responses towards PRDs are explored as well as motivations for given responses to health challenges. In chapter 4, a qualitative study with 21 camp-dwellers and 21 students is presented in which the dynamics of health-seeking behaviour is highlighted. In this chapter also, factors which are influential in seeking formal healthcare are indicated. Chapter 5 elaborates on what people experience as stressors and the mechanisms they put in place to cope with the stressors. In this chapter, not only is the diversity of stressors outlined for both groups, but also presented are the different identified coping mechanisms put in place by respondents. Chapter 6 which is the last empirical chapter presents coping with PRDs through an analysis of individual, demographic and environmental factors.

    Based on the studies carried out, this thesis concludes that the two groups investigated are very aware of what PRDs are and can differentiate them from common diseases. Major PRDs listed by the two groups of respondents were malaria, cholera and diarrhoea. This classification is different from what is considered major PRDs by (inter)national health bodies such as the World Health Organisation and the Ministry of Public Health in Cameroon. Also, organisations such as CDC and Universities, offer limited contributions towards better health for camp-dwellers and students respectively. This is experienced relative to the living conditions, quality of the healthcare system and poor work or study conditions. That notwithstanding, people play an active role in maintaining their health through diverse coping mechanisms. Coping was most strongly related to enabling individual factors such as sense of coherence and subjective health, perceptions of effective strategies to respond to diseases as well as social factors such as the meaningful activities in the social groups to which they belong. The results presented in this thesis are intended to contribute to sustainable and effective response strategies towards PRDs.

    Stadium Coltan : artisanal mining, reforms and social change in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo
    Wakenge, Claude Iguma - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): D.J.M. Hilhorst, co-promotor(en): K. Vlassenroot; J.G.R. Cuvelier. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463434560 - 210
    mining - conflict - economic sociology - cooperatives - reconstruction - poverty - rural sociology - workers - feedstocks - minerals - congo democratic republic - central africa - mijnbouw - conflict - economische sociologie - coöperaties - reconstructie - armoede - rurale sociologie - werkers - industriële grondstoffen - mineralen - democratische republiek kongo - centraal-afrika

    In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the mining sector has the potential to play a pivotal role in post-conflict reconstruction (World Bank, 2008), and artisanal mining sustains the livelihoods of millions people in the country (PACT, 2010). However, in the last 15 years, minerals from this artisanal mining have been ill-reputed. Eastern DRC has often been characterised by chronic instability and violent conflicts (Autesserre, 2010; Stearns, 2011) because it is widely believed that minerals in this region have attracted the greed of national and foreign armed groups, who benefit from the mining business.

    Although this ‘greed hypothesis’ has been criticised for its inconsistent performance in explaining resource-related conflicts (Le Billon, 2010; Ross, 2006), various national and international reform initiatives have gained momentum (Verbruggen et al., 2011). These initiatives aim to make the Congolese artisanal mining sector more transparent and to prevent ‘conflict minerals’ from entering the international market. In 2014, 13 reform initiatives—10 focusing on 3T (tantalum, tin and tungsten) and three on gold—were operational in eastern DRC (Cuvelier et al. 2014: 5). The implicit assumptions are that mining reforms will fully ‘clean’ artisanal mining of violence and corruption and that this will contribute to sustaining people’s livelihoods (Garrett and Mitchell, 2009: 12).

    This study investigated initiatives intended to ‘formalise’ artisanal mining in DRC—in other words, they aimed to bring mining under state control. The study especially focuses on the effects of one among these initiatives—the ITRI Tin Supply Chain Initiative (iTSCi)—on two groups of actors: miners (creuseurs) and middlemen (négociants). This thesis thus presents a fine-grained case study of the iTSCi. Designed by the International Tin Research Institute in 2009, iTSCi provides a means of determining the origin of 3T and documenting the trading chain for these minerals by ‘tagging and bagging’ the loads of 3T near miners’ shafts (at postes d’achat/selling points or buying stations), at counting offices (comptoirs) and in mineral depots, before the minerals are exported through the international market.

    This is a qualitative study undertaken at three coltan mining sites of northern Katanga: Kahendwa, Kisengo and Mai-Baridi. Coltan has been extracted at these sites since 2007. From March 2013 to September 2014, data were collected using participant observation of people’s practices (extraction/sale of coltan and various types of interactions between trading houses, cooperatives, mineworkers (creuseurs) and middlemen (négociants), as well as detailed in-depth interviews with creuseurs, négociants and their households. Data were also collected from the staff of mining cooperatives, trading houses, state authorities and civil servants—predominantly of the Service d’Assistance et d’Encadrement du Small-Scale Mining (SAESSCAM) and the Division des Mines. The last group of informants were a group of clandestine coltan négociants (known as hiboux—literally, ‘owls’), who were followed in the study.

    The purpose of this research is to study the micro-dynamics of changes after the reforms following the implementation of iTSCi. The study thus provides insights into how iTSCi is concretely implemented and how it has altered the organisation of mining and the trade of coltan. The study also aims to examine how this organisation affected creuseurs and négociants. The main research question of this study is as follows:

    How have initiatives to reform artisanal mining (iTSCi in particular) affected institutional change, how does this relate to changes in patterns of coltan production and trade, how were creuseurs and négociants affected by these changes, and how did these groups respond in the coltan mining areas of Kahendwa, Kisengo and Mai Baridi (northern Katanga) from 2009 to 2014?

    Analytically, the study adopted three main theoretical perspectives. First, an actor-oriented approach was taken, building on the premise that individual actors have the agency, knowledge and experience to reflect upon their situation and to respond to changes in their surrounding context (Giddens, 1984). Although the examined mining reforms consist predominantly of ‘ready-made’ techniques such as iTSCi’s ‘tagging and bagging’, analysing reforms with an actor orientation helps to highlight people’s reactions and responses. This includes how reform policies are applied in institutions (e.g. mining cooperatives), how they interact, how they are assigned meaning and how they are negotiated by social actors (Christoplos and Hilhorst, 2009).

    Second, the study builds on the sociology of economic life, which holds that economic action is a form of social action that is socially ‘embedded’, meaning that it is linked with or dependent on actions and institutions (such as social networks) that are noneconomic in content, goals and processes (Granovetter, 2005). This perspective facilitates the analysis of the livelihoods of négociants, including mechanisms of smuggling minerals into and beyond the mining areas where iTSCi is in force.

    Third, this thesis introduced the original concept of ‘enclaves of regulations’. These enclaves refer to the mining areas where iTSCi or other reforms are in force. This thesis has shown that, although these ‘enclaves’ appear to be ‘closed’ and insulated from the environment in terms of the locally applied rules for the mining and trading of minerals (e.g. ‘tagging and bagging’), in reality, such closure is not complete. This thesis has demonstrated that it would therefore be more appropriate to consider these ‘enclaves’ as semi-autonomous fields with porous boundaries.

    Apart from the introduction and the concluding chapters, this thesis is composed of five chapters. Chapter 2 explores the evolution of the mineral sector in the Katanga province. It analyses the history of mining, the initiation of artisanal mining and how the ongoing reforms have been informed by this history. In this chapter, it is shown that there is a long history of the organisation of mining in the Katangese province. The reforms therefore did not enter into a stage of anarchy, or an institutional void, but they added a layer to already existing forms of organisation.

    Chapter 3 focuses on mining cooperatives as newly introduced institutions aimed at governing the artisanal mining sites. Through a single case study, the chapter analyses how these cooperatives —especially the Coopérative des Artisanaux Miniers du Congo, CDMC—were introduced into the mining areas and how they interacted and blended with pre-existing miners’ organisations. This chapter demonstrates that cooperatives have been an emergent—rather than durable—solution in terms of representing the interests of artisanal miners.

    In Chapter 4, I provide a different perspective on ‘conflict minerals’. I thus introduce the notion of ‘reform conflicts’ to emphasise that, although ongoing reforms aim to sever the supposed linkages between the artisanal mining business and violent conflicts, these reforms have become a driving force behind the emergence of new conflicts over property rights and access to minerals.

    Chapter 5 is about livelihoods. It analyses how the reforms have influenced the livelihoods and socioeconomic position of négociants. This chapter also explores what kind of opportunities the reforms have offered to this group of mineral brokers often considered powerful in the mineral supply chain and explains what kind of constraints the négociants have confronted and why they have opted to diversify their livelihood portfolios. The chapter has shown that the reforms have affected this group of mineral brokers in different ways. Some négociants were well off, whereas others have been excluded from the mineral commodity chain. These findings contradict the widespread opinion that négociants are always abusive brokers in the mineral production and commodity chain.

    Chapter 6 analyses the responses of creuseurs and négociants to iTSCi. Although the mining sites where iTSCi is in force appear to be ‘enclaves of regulations’, I explore the strategies of creuseurs and négociants to bypass iTSCi and the reforms, especially around the coltan trade. This chapter demonstrates that coltan smuggling is a deeply rooted practice. Despite the reforms, smuggling continues in different forms.

    All of the elements highlighted above suggest that mining reforms have undergone a major shift, from addressing the initial problems associated with ‘conflict minerals’ to creating or reinforcing various types of problems, such as the influence of ‘big men’ in the mining business, coltan smuggling and the emergence of new conflicts over accessing minerals. This means that reform initiatives such as iTSCi should be based on knowledge about the actual situation. Thus, understanding and addressing these new types of problems calls for a comprehensive approach at both local and broader levels.

    Is sustainable development of semi-subsistence mixed crop-livestock systems possible? : an integrated assessment of Machakos, Kenya
    Valdivia, R.O. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tammo Bult, co-promotor(en): J. Antle; Jetse Stoorvogel. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578272 - 233
    sustainable development - development economics - livestock - cash crops - agriculture - mixed farming - development policy - policy - rural areas - poverty - farming - kenya - east africa - duurzame ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingseconomie - vee - marktgewassen - landbouw - gemengde landbouw - ontwikkelingsbeleid - beleid - platteland - armoede - landbouw bedrijven - kenya - oost-afrika

    Sub-Saharan Africa countries face the challenge of reducing rural poverty and reversing the declining trends of agricultural productivity and the high levels of soil nutrient depletion. Despite of numerous efforts and investments, high levels of poverty and resource degradation persist in African agriculture. The Millennium Development Goals Report (MDGR) states that the majority of people living below the poverty line of $1.25 a day belong to Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and South Asia. About two thirds of the global rural population lives in mixed crop-livestock systems (CLS), typical of SSA, where interactions between crops and livestock activities are important for the subsistence of smallholders. CLS are characterized by high degree of biophysical and economic heterogeneity, complex and diversified production system that frequently involves a combination of several subsistence and cash crops and livestock. Increasing crop productivity is clearly a key element to improve living standards and to take these people out of poverty. However, agricultural productivity in most of SSA has been stagnant or increased slowly. In addition, the likely negative impacts of climate change on agriculture have accentuated the vulnerability of smallholders.

    The international research community has once more the eyes on SSA with the recently proposed post-2015 MDGs, the Sustainable Development Goals that emphasize the need to achieve sustainable development globally by 2030 by promoting economic development, environmental sustainability, good governance and social inclusion. Governments and scientists are making considerable efforts to develop strategies that include structural transformations of the different sectors of the economy in search of the recipe to achieve the SDGs. Most of these strategies are based on policy and technology interventions that seek to achieve the “win-win” outcomes and move from the usual “tradeoffs” between poverty-productivity-sustainability to synergies. A key message of this thesis is that achieving the goal of sustainable development in semi-subsistence African agriculture will require better understanding of the poverty-productivity-sustainability puzzle: why high poverty and resource degradation levels persist in African agriculture. I hypothesize that the answer to this puzzle lies, at least in part, in understanding and appropriately analyzing key features of semi-subsistence crop-livestock systems (CLS) typical of Sub-Saharan Africa. The complexity and diversity of CLS often constrain the ability of policy or technology interventions to achieve a “win-win” outcome of simultaneously reducing poverty while increasing productivity sustainably (i.e., avoiding soil nutrient losses).

    This thesis focuses on the Machakos Region in Kenya. Machakos has been the center of many studies looking at soil fertility issues and its implications for poverty and food security, including the well-known study by Tiffen et al. (1994). Recently, the Government of Kenya developed the Kenya Vision 2030, a long-term development strategy designed to guide the country to meet the 2015 MDGs and beyond. The agricultural sector is recognized as one of the economic actors that can lead to reduce poverty if appropriate policies are in place. For the Vision 2030, the key is to improve smallholder productivity and promote non-farm opportunities. The Vision 2030 was used to assess if the implementation of some of the proposed plans and policies can lead to a sustainable agriculture for smallholders in the Machakos region.

    This thesis describes and uses the Tradeoff Analysis Model (TOA), an integrated modeling approach designed to deal with the complexities associated to production systems such as the CLS and at the same time, quantify economic and sustainability indicators for policy tradeoff analysis (e.g., poverty indexes and measures of sustainability). The TOA was linked to Representative Agricultural Pathways and Scenarios to represent different future socio-economic scenarios (based on the Vision 2030) to assess the impacts of policy interventions aimed to move agricultural systems towards meeting sustainable development goals.

    One important finding is that the complex behavior of CLS has important implications for the effectiveness of policy interventions. The Machakos analysis provides important findings regarding the implementation and effectiveness of policy interventions addressing poverty and sustainability in Africa and other parts of the developing world. The analysis shows that policy interventions tend to result in much larger benefits for better-endowed farms, implying that farm heterogeneity results in differential policy impacts and that resilience of agricultural systems is likely to be highly variable and strongly associated with heterogeneity in bio-physical and economic conditions. The results shows that a combination of these interventions and strategies, based on the GoK Vision 2030 and the Machakos County plans, could solve the poverty-productivity-sustainability puzzle in this region. The pathway from tradeoffs to synergies (win-win) seems to be feasible if these interventions and strategies are well implemented, however the analysis also shows that some villages may respond better to these strategies than others. The analysis suggests that these interventions may actually benefit most the areas with better initial endowments of soils and climate.

    The analysis also suggested that prices (e.g., maize price) play a key role in the assessment of policy interventions. There is an increasing recognition that analysis of economic and environmental outcomes of agricultural production systems requires a bottom-up linkage from the farm to market, as well as top-down linkage from market to farm. Hence, a two-way linkage between the TOA model and a partial equilibrium market model (ME) was developed. The TOA model links site-specific bio-physical process models and economic decision models, and aggregate economic and environmental outcomes to a regional scale, but treats prices as exogenous. The resulting TOA-ME allows the effects of site-specific interactions at the farm scale to be aggregated and used to determine market equilibrium. This in turn, can be linked back to the underlying spatial distribution of economic and environmental outcomes at market equilibrium quantities and prices. The results suggest that market equilibrium is likely to be important in the analysis of agricultural systems in developing countries where product and input markets are not well integrated, and therefore, local supply determines local prices (e.g., high transport costs may cause farm-gate prices be set locally) or where market supply schedules are driven not only by prices but also by changes in farm characteristics in response to policy changes, environmental conditions or socio-economic conditions. The results suggest that the market equilibrium price associated to a policy intervention could be substantially different than the prices observed without the market equilibrium analysis, and consequently could play an important role in evaluating the impacts of policy or technology interventions.

    As mentioned above, climate change poses a long-term threat for rural households in vulnerable regions like Sub-Saharan Africa. Policy and technology interventions can have different impacts under climate change conditions. In this thesis the likely economic and environmental impacts of climate change and adaptations on the agricultural production systems of Machakos are analyzed.

    Climate change impact assessment studies have moved towards the use of more integrated approaches and the use of scenarios to deal with the uncertainty of future condition. However, several studies fall short of adequately incorporating adaptation in the analysis, they also fall short of adequately assessing distributional economic and environmental impacts. Similarly, climate change is likely to change patterns of supply and demand of commodities with a consequent change in prices that could play an important role in designing policies at regional, national and international levels. Therefore, a market equilibrium model should also be incorporated in the analysis to assess how markets react to changing prices due to shifts in supply and demand of commodities. The TOA-ME was used to incorporate the elements mentioned above to assess the impacts of climate change. Using data from 5 Global Circulation Models (GCMs) with three emission scenarios (SRES, 2000) to estimate the climate change projections, these projections were used to perturb weather data used by a crop simulation model to estimate the productivity effects of climate change. Land use change and impacts on poverty and nutrient depletion at the market equilibrium were then assessed using the TOA-ME model.

    The simulation was carried out for three scenarios, which are a combination of socio-economic and climate change scenarios: a baseline scenario that represents current socio-economic conditions and climate conditions, a climate change and current socio-economic scenarios (i.e., future climate change with no policy or technology intervention), and a climate change and future socio economic conditions which are a consequence of rural development policies.

    Our findings show that in this particular case, the changes on precipitation, temperature and solar radiation do not show a significant difference among the selected emission scenarios. However, the variability is significant across GCMs. The effects of climate change on crop productivity are negative on average. These results show that policy and technology interventions are needed to reduce this region’s vulnerability. Furthermore, the socio-economic scenarios based on policy and technology interventions presented in the case study would be effective to offset the negative effect of climate change on the sustainability (economical and environmental) of the system across a range of possible climate outcomes represented by different GCMs. Finally, the results show that ignoring market equilibrium analysis can lead to biased results and incorrect information for policy making, in particular for the scenario based on policy and technology interventions.

    One of the major conclusions of the thesis are that policy interventions aimed to deal with poverty and sustainability can have unintended consequences if they are not accompanied by a set of policy strategies and investments. For example, increasing the maize price can result in substitution from subsistence crops to maize, without much increase in nutrient inputs, thus increasing soil nutrient losses. The analysis shows that improving soil nutrient balances by increasing fertilizer and manure use is critically important, but is not enough to move the system to a sustainable path.

    There is no one factor that can reverse the negative nutrient balances and move the system towards sustainability. Rather, a broad-based strategy is required that stimulates rural development, increases farm size to a sustainable level, and also reduces distortions and inefficiencies in input and output markets that tend to discourage the use of sustainable practices. The Machakos case shows that a combination of these interventions and strategies, based on the GoK Vision 2030 and the Machakos County plans, could solve the poverty-productivity-sustainability puzzle in this region.

    Endline report – Ethiopia, Amref MFS II country evaluations
    Ingen, T. van; Kusters, C.S.L. ; Buizer, N.N. ; Zerfu, E. ; Kefyalew, D. ; Getu, D. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-031) - 112
    development - community development - development cooperation - evaluation - ethiopia - netherlands - poverty - social participation - civil society - capacity - ontwikkeling - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - ethiopië - nederland - armoede - sociale participatie - maatschappelijk middenveld - capaciteit
    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, Amref. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.
    Endline report – Ethiopia, CARE Ethiopia MFS II country evaluations
    Ingen, T. van; Kusters, C.S.L. ; Zerfu, E. ; Kefyalew, D. ; Peters, B. ; Buizer, N.N. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-057) - 78
    civil society - community development - development - development cooperation - evaluation - ethiopia - netherlands - poverty - social participation - capacity - maatschappelijk middenveld - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - ethiopië - nederland - armoede - sociale participatie - capaciteit
    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, CARE Ethiopia. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.
    Endline report – Ethiopia, ECFA MFS II country evaluations
    Ingen, T. van; Kusters, C.S.L. ; Zerfu, E. ; Kefyalew, D. ; Getu, D. ; Buizer, N.N. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-054) - 110
    civil society - community development - development cooperation - evaluation - ethiopia - netherlands - poverty - social participation - capacity - maatschappelijk middenveld - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - ethiopië - nederland - armoede - sociale participatie - capaciteit
    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, ECFA. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.
    Ninasam end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
    Klaver, D.C. ; Hofstede, M. ; Wadhwa, S. ; Madaan, A. ; Pandey, R. ; Prasad Mohapatra, B. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-040) - 72
    poverty - civil society - society - empowerment - development projects - india - south asia - asia - armoede - maatschappelijk middenveld - samenleving - empowerment - ontwikkelingsprojecten - india - zuid-azië - azië
    This report describes the findings of the end line assessment of the Indian theatre and arts organisation Ninasam that is a partner of Hivos. It assesses Ninasam’s contribution to Civil Society in India and it used the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which Ninasam contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain Ninasam’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
    Endline report – Ethiopia, TTCA MFS II country evaluations
    Ingen, T. van; Kusters, C.S.L. ; Zerfu, E. ; Kefyalew, D. ; Getu, D. ; Peters, B. ; Buizer, N.N. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-053) - 74
    civil society - community development - development cooperation - evaluation - ethiopia - netherlands - poverty - social participation - capacity - maatschappelijk middenveld - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - ethiopië - nederland - armoede - sociale participatie - capaciteit
    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, TTCA. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.
    Endline report – Ethiopia, NVEA MFS II country evaluations
    Ingen, T. van; Kusters, C.S.L. ; Zerfu, E. ; Kefyalew, D. ; Getu, D. ; Peters, B. ; Buizer, N.N. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-052) - 76
    civil society - community development - development cooperation - evaluation - ethiopia - netherlands - poverty - social participation - capacity - maatschappelijk middenveld - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - ethiopië - nederland - armoede - sociale participatie - capaciteit
    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, NVEA. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.
    Endline report – Ethiopia, HUNDEE MFS II country evaluations
    Ingen, T. van; Kusters, C.S.L. ; Zerfu, E. ; Kefyalew, D. ; Peters, B. ; Buizer, N.N. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-059) - 116
    civil society - community development - development cooperation - evaluation - ethiopia - netherlands - poverty - social participation - capacity - maatschappelijk middenveld - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - ethiopië - nederland - armoede - sociale participatie - capaciteit
    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, HUNDEE. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.
    Endline report – Ethiopia, HOA-REC MFS II country evaluations
    Ingen, T. van; Kusters, C.S.L. ; Zerfu, E. ; Kefyalew, D. ; Peters, B. ; Buizer, N.N. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-058) - 84
    civil society - community development - development - development cooperation - evaluation - ethiopia - netherlands - poverty - social participation - capacity - maatschappelijk middenveld - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - ethiopië - nederland - armoede - sociale participatie - capaciteit
    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, HOA-REC. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.
    Endline report – Ethiopia, FSCE MFS II country evaluations
    Ingen, T. van; Kusters, C.S.L. ; Zerfu, E. ; Kefyalew, D. ; Buizer, N.N. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (CDI rapporten CDI-15-055) - 104
    development - community development - civil society - development cooperation - evaluation - ethiopia - netherlands - poverty - social participation - capacity - ontwikkeling - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - maatschappelijk middenveld - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - ethiopië - nederland - armoede - sociale participatie - capaciteit
    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, FSCE. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.
    Yayasan RUANGRUPA end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
    Klaver, D.C. ; Nugroho, K. ; Smidt, H. ; Prasetyo, K. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / CDI 15-038)
    maatschappelijk middenveld - verandering - governance - sociale participatie - beeldende kunsten - armoede - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - nederland - indonesië - civil society - change - governance - social participation - visual arts - poverty - community development - development - development cooperation - evaluation - netherlands - indonesia
    This report describes the results of the end line assessment of Yayasan RUANGRUPA that is a partner of Hivos. It assesses RUANGRUPA’s contributions towards strengthening Civil Society in Indonesia using the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which RUANGRUPA contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain RUANGRUPA’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
    KKI-WARSI end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
    Klaver, D.C. ; Nugroho, K. ; Smidt, H. ; Sinung Prasetya, K. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / CDI 15-062) - 86
    maatschappelijk middenveld - verandering - sociale participatie - natuurbescherming - armoede - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - nederland - indonesië - civil society - change - social participation - nature conservation - poverty - community development - development - development cooperation - evaluation - netherlands - indonesia
    This report describes the results of the end line assessment of the Indonesian Organisation KKI-WARSI that is a partner of IUCN-NL. It assesses KKI-WARSI’s efforts towards strengthening Civil Society in Indonesia and used the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which KKI-WARSI contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain the organisation’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
    NTFP-EP end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
    Klaver, D.C. ; Nugroho, K. ; Smidt, H. ; Larastiti, C. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / CDI 15-068) - 92
    maatschappelijk middenveld - sociale participatie - armoede - bosbestanden - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - nederland - indonesië - civil society - social participation - poverty - forest resources - community development - development - development cooperation - evaluation - netherlands - indonesia
    This report describes the results of the end line assessment of Non Timber Forest Product-Exchange Programme (NTFP-EP) that is a partner of IUCN and a part of the Ecosystem Alliance. It assesses NTFP-EP’s contributions towards strengthening Civil Society in Indonesia using the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which NTFP-EP contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain NTFP-EP’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
    LPPSLH end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
    Klaver, D.C. ; Nugroho, K. ; Smidt, H. ; Sinung Prasetyo, K. ; Sutantio, S. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / CDI 15-060) - 86
    maatschappelijk middenveld - verandering - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - milieu - sociale participatie - armoede - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - nederland - indonesië - civil society - change - natural resources - environment - social participation - poverty - community development - development - development cooperation - evaluation - netherlands - indonesia
    This report describes the results of the end line assessment of the Indonesian Foundation for Research and Development of Natural Resources and Environment –LPPSLH that is a partner of Hivos. It assesses LPPSLH’s efforts towards strengthening Civil Society in Indonesia, using the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which LPPSLH contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain LPPSLH’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
    KWLM end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
    Klaver, D.C. ; Prasetyo, K. ; Smidt, H. ; Sutikno, - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / CDI 15-066) - 74
    maatschappelijk middenveld - verandering - sociale participatie - armoede - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - nederland - indonesië - civil society - change - social participation - poverty - community development - development - development cooperation - evaluation - netherlands - indonesia
    This report describes the results of the end line assessment of KWLM that is a partner of Hivos. It assesses KWLM’s contribution towards strengthening Civil Society in Indonesia and it used the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which KWLM contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain KWLM’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
    Kantor Berita Radio (KBR) end line reportKantor Berita Radio (KBR) end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
    Klaver, D.C. ; Smidt, H. ; Nugroho, K. ; Amir, S. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / CDI 15-024) - 74
    maatschappelijk middenveld - sociale participatie - radio - armoede - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - nederland - indonesië - civil society - social participation - radio - poverty - community development - development - development cooperation - evaluation - netherlands - indonesia
    This report describes the results of the end line assessment of the Kantor Berita Radio 68H (KBR68H), a partner of Free Press Unlimited in Indonesia. It assesses how KBR68H has contributed towards strengthening civil society in Indonesia using the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered relate to changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which KBR68H contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made, and an identification of factors that explain KBR68H’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
    FIELD end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
    Klaver, D.C. ; Prasetyo, K. ; Smidt, H. ; Sutikno, - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / CDI 15-067) - 80
    maatschappelijk middenveld - sociale participatie - armoede - boeren - plattelandscoöperaties - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - nederland - indonesië - civil society - social participation - poverty - farmers - rural cooperatives - community development - development - development cooperation - evaluation - netherlands - indonesia
    This report describes the results of the end line assessment of FIELD that is a partner of Hivos. It assesses FIELD’s contribution towards strengthening Civil Society in Indonesia and it used the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which FIELD contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain FIELD’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
    ELSAM end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
    Klaver, D.C. ; Nugroho, K. ; Smidt, H. ; Amir, S. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / CDI 15-039) - 83
    maatschappelijk middenveld - sociale participatie - armoede - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - governance - evaluatie - nederland - indonesië - civil society - social participation - poverty - community development - development - development cooperation - governance - evaluation - netherlands - indonesia
    This report describes the results of the end line assessment of ELSAM that is a partner of Hivos. It assesses ELSAM’s contribution towards strengthening Civil Society in Indonesia and it used the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which ELSAM contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain ELSAM’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
    Combine Resource Institute end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
    Klaver, D.C. ; Nugroho, K. ; Smidt, H. ; Sinung Prasetyo, K. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / CDI 15-064) - 88
    maatschappelijk middenveld - sociale participatie - armoede - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - nederland - indonesië - civil society - social participation - poverty - community development - development - development cooperation - evaluation - netherlands - indonesia
    This report describes the results of the end line assessment of Combine Resource Institute (CRI) in Indonesia that that is a partner of Hivos. It assesses CRI’s contribution towards strengthening Civil Society in Indonesia and for this exercise it used the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which CRI contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain CRI’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
    Common Room end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
    Klaver, D.C. ; Nugroho, K. ; Smidt, H. ; Prasetyo, K. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / CDI 15-061) - 77
    maatschappelijk middenveld - sociale participatie - armoede - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - evaluatie - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - ontwikkeling - indonesië - nederland - civil society - social participation - poverty - community development - evaluation - development cooperation - development - indonesia - netherlands
    This report describes the findings of the end line assessment of the Indonesian organisation Common Room that is a partner of Hivos. It assesses Common Room’s contribution towards strengthening Civil Society in Indonesia and for this exercise it used the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which Common Room contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain Common Room’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
    Adaptive collaborative governance of Nepal's community forests: shifting power, strenghtening livelihoods
    McDougall, C.L. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Leeuwis, co-promotor(en): J.L.S. Jiggins. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572881 - 322
    bewonersparticipatie - governance - sociale samenwerking - sociaal leren - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - bosbouw - gemeenschappen - middelen van bestaan - adaptatie - sociaal kapitaal - vrouwen - armoede - nepal - community participation - governance - social cooperation - social learning - natural resources - forestry - communities - livelihoods - adaptation - social capital - women - poverty - nepal

    Short Summary

    Cynthia McDougall--PhD Dissertation

    Knowledge, Technology, &Innovation Chairgroup (WASS)

    Adaptive collaborative governance of Nepal’s community forests: Shifting power, strengthening livelihoods

    Community-based natural resource governance has taken root around the globe. And, yet, as demonstrated by community forestry in Nepal, such programmes have generally not yet lived up to their goals and expectations. After decades of implementation, community forestry in Nepal faces several key challenges. Central to these challenges are: the need to increase equity in community forest user group decision making and benefit sharing; and, to increase the livelihood benefits from community forestry overall. The research project on which this study is based sought to address these challenges at the community forest user group scale. The research objective was to contribute empirically-based insights regarding if and how adaptive collaborative governance of community forests in Nepal can constructively influence engagement, livelihoods, social capital and conflict—especially in regard to women and the poor. Further, the research aimed to elucidate the underlying issue of power in community-based natural resource governance. In particular, it sought to contribute deeper, theoretically-based understanding of the persistence of power imbalances in community forestry, and of the potential of adaptive collaborative governance to shift such imbalances.

    The roles of exploration and exploitation in the export market integration of Beninese producers at the base of the pyramid
    Adékambi, S.A. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Hans van Trijp, co-promotor(en): Paul Ingenbleek. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572461 - 205
    marketing - landbouwproducten - export - instellingen - armoede - sheaboter - ontwikkelingseconomie - economische groei - afrika - benin - west-afrika - marketing - agricultural products - exports - institutions - poverty - shea butter - development economics - economic growth - africa - benin - west africa

    Keywords: Base of the pyramid, Bottom of the pyramid, Supply chains, Export market integration, Market learning, Developing and Emerging countries, Exploitation and Exploration, Institutional arrangements, Transaction cost economics, Livelihood performance, BoP producers

    Abstract

    Organizing supply chains that are based in producer groups that live in conditions of widespread poverty and weak institutional support (sometimes referred to as the Base of the Pyramid [BoP] producers) is challenging. These challenges have predominantly been studied in the development literature, while the marketing perspective has received less attention. Drawing on both transaction cost and market learning theories, the thesis integrates producers’ opportunity exploitation and exploration processes with the institutional framework adopted in the development literature to understand producers’ integration with export markets. Overall, the findings show that exploitation mediates between drivers investigated by development economists (quality of infrastructure, microcredit, and community culture) and integration with export markets. The results show that BoP producers’ export market integration also depends on the institutional arrangements that exporting companies offer. The results indicate that contrary to more-developed settings like those in Western Europe and Northern America, there is no need to develop both opportunity exploration and exploitation in environments characterized by scarce opportunities with relatively high purchasing powers. The findings imply that developing competencies that enable to produce the demanded quality are crucial in seizing export market integration opportunities.

    Wealth and poverty in European rural societies from the Sixteenth to Nineteenth century
    Schuurman, A.J. ; Broad, J. - \ 2014
    Turnhout : Brepols - ISBN 9782503545165 - 253
    geschiedenis - plattelandssamenleving - agrarische samenleving - landbouw - platteland - vermogensverdeling - armoede - levensstandaarden - consumptie - europa - history - rural society - agricultural society - agriculture - rural areas - wealth distribution - poverty - living standards - consumption - europe
    This book sheds new light on old problems of wealth, poverty and material culture in rural societies. Much of the debate has concentrated on north-west Europe and the Atlantic world. This volume widens the geographic range to compare less well known areas, with case studies on the Mediterranean world (Catalonia and Greece), from central Europe (Bohemia and Hungary), and from the Nordic countries (Denmark). Methodologically, several papers link the possession of goods to the use of room space, while others highlight the importance of the channels for the circulation of goods, problems of stocks and flows of goods, and the complexities of urban/rural difference. Finally, this book seeks to stimulate new comparative studies in living standards and lifestyles by providing an overview of achievements up till now. John Broad is visiting academic at the Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure, University of Cambridge. He has published on rural society and poverty in England, and his current research interests include a book on English rural housing, and large-scale surveys of population, religion, and landholding in England in the eighteenth century. Anton Schuurman is associate professor of Rural History at Wageningen University. He has published on the history of material culture and rural transformations in the Netherlands. Currently he is writing a book on the processes of modernisation and democratisation in the Dutch countryside from 1840 till 1920.
    Petits producteurs et marchés : la recherche au service des organisations paysannes
    Ton, G. ; Proctor, F. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : LEI - ISBN 9789461739681 - 139
    boeren - boerenorganisaties - kleine landbouwbedrijven - plattelandscoöperaties - plattelandsontwikkeling - platteland - plattelandsvrouwen - armoede - innovaties - landbouw - farmers - farmers' associations - small farms - rural cooperatives - rural development - rural areas - rural women - poverty - innovations - agriculture
    Reaching resilience : handbook resilience 2.0 for aid practioners and policymakers in disaster risk reduction, climate change adaptation and poverty reduction
    Heijmans, E.P.M. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wageningen University, Wageningen UR - 125
    rampen - risicovermindering - klimaatverandering - armoede - ontwikkelingsprogramma's - humanitaire hulp - ontwikkelingshulp - handboeken - disasters - risk reduction - climatic change - poverty - development programmes - humanitarian aid - development aid - handbooks
    Over the last few decades, the alarming increase in both the frequency and impact of disasters has drastically affected the livelihoods of people living in both developing and developed countries. A growing number of weather-related hazards can be observed such as floods, droughts and forest fires. Climate change most likely contributes to this rise, as well as people’s mounting vulnerability due to, for instance, population growth, insecure land rights, rising food prices and unemployment. Over the last few years a sense of urgency has emerged among platforms and networks related to Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) and Poverty Reduction (PR) to integrate the three domains in order to cope with future risks more effectively. This handbook is designed to encourage thinking and provide insights and ideas about how to design well-integrated, step-by-step actions and strategies to foster resilience at the local level. The handbook aims to support students and young professionals in their DRR, CCA and PR related work and secondly to acquaint policymakers involved in these three domains with the integration issue and help them to take a resilience 2.0 approach into their (present or future) daily work.
    Empowering smallholder farmers in markets. Experiences with farmer-led research for advocacy
    Ton, G. ; Proctor, F. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461738912 - 140
    boeren - boerenorganisaties - kleine landbouwbedrijven - plattelandscoöperaties - plattelandsontwikkeling - platteland - plattelandsvrouwen - armoede - innovaties - landbouw - farmers - farmers' associations - small farms - rural cooperatives - rural development - rural areas - rural women - poverty - innovations - agriculture
    Ontwikkeling hoezo?
    Visser, L.E. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit - ISBN 9789461733283
    ontwikkeling - sociologie - ontwikkelingsstudies - antropologie - ontwikkelingstheorie - armoede - interdisciplinair onderzoek - globalisering - development - sociology - development studies - anthropology - development theory - poverty - interdisciplinary research - globalization
    De vraag of er ontwikkeling is, kan altijd en overal positief worden beantwoord. Maar de betekenis ervan verschilt voor een visser in Indonesië of een handelaar in Honduras. De Sociologie van Ontwikkeling staat voor een niet-normatieve benadering van ontwikkeling en tracht de meervoudigheid ervan in de praktijk van het alledaagse leven te begrijpen. Een kritische toetsing van regels en modellen vraagt de noodzakelijke aandacht voor de diversiteit en creativiteit van mensen die ontwikkeling in eigen hand willen houden in de marges van de globale wereld.
    Seas of Change: A report on scaling inclusive agri-food markets
    Woodhill, A.J. ; Guijt, W.J. ; Wegner, L. ; Blomne Sopov, M. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Centre for Development Innovation - ISBN 9789461736024 - 64
    ontwikkeling - innovaties - landbouw - voedselproductie - goederenmarkten - ontwikkelingslanden - landbouwindustrie - armoede - development - innovations - agriculture - food production - commodity markets - developing countries - agribusiness - poverty
    Can agri-food companies do it all? Develop new markets, secure supply, protect reputations, ensure profits and reduce poverty, create jobs and guarantee food supplies? Company strategies now commonly refer to ‘creating shared value’ and ‘inclusive business’. But with growing pressure on resources, a billion hungry people and some four billion people at the base of the economic pyramid by 2050, are we making progress fast enough? What options are there with real promise? And, how can all stakeholders collaborate better to bring change at scale? This report gives the outcomes of the ‘From Islands of Success to Seas of Change’ initiative on scaling inclusive agri-food markets. It combines background research, interviews and case studies with the insights of 100 leaders from business, government, NGOs, research, and farmer organizations who attended the Seas of Change workshop in April 2012. The case for scaling inclusive agrifood markets is explained and ten key challenges are explored. This leads to lessons for key stakeholders and a follow-up agenda for improved targeting of inclusive investments.
    Essays on microfinance in Latin America
    Servin Juarez, R. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Robert Lensink, co-promotor(en): Marrit van den Berg. - [S.l.] : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734082 - 196
    microfinanciering - ontwikkelingseconomie - instellingen - banken - rurale welzijnszorg - armoede - huishoudens - latijns-amerika - microfinance - development economics - institutions - banks - rural welfare - poverty - households - latin america

    In the early 1970s, microfinance came to public attention as a promising tool to reduce poverty. However, some people began to claim that microcredit is unsuitable for sustainable development. Nevertheless, the lack of scientific support for both viewpoints has created a need for empirical studies to disentangle whether microfinance interventions should be implemented, and if so, how. The objective of this thesis is to provide evidence on the role of microfinance in Latin America, with a particular emphasis on Mexico. The main innovation of this study is the focus on four topics that have thus far received relatively little attention. Firstly, the relationship between efficiency and the ownership structure of microfinance institutions (MFIs) in Latin America is investigated. Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and Cooperative/Credit Unions are found to be less technically efficient and have an inferior technology relative to Banks and Non-Banks Financial Intermediaries (NBFIs). Secondly, this study assesses five different microfinance programs on household welfare in Mexico. The findings reveal that savings-oriented microfinance programs outperform programs that primarily offer microcredit, in reducing poverty. Thirdly, the impact of microfinance on vulnerability to poverty is analyzed. The results of this analysis show that membership in a savings and credit society in Mexico improves the well-being of households and reduces their vulnerability. Finally, the impact of the loan officer’s characteristics on determining repayment rates in microfinance is examined. The main outcome suggests that the gender of the loan officer and his/her professional experience are important determinants of repayment rates. Further conclusions are that loan officers who work longer in Pro Mujer have higher default probabilities and that peer monitoring of group members is not a significant determinant of loan default.

    Poor people and poor fields? : integrating legumes for smallholder soil fertility management in Chisepo, central Malawi
    Kamanga, B. - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ken Giller, co-promotor(en): Conny Almekinders; S.R. Waddington. - [s.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461730046 - 168
    gewassen - bodemvruchtbaarheidsbeheer - maïs - peulgewassen - kunstmeststoffen - zelfvoorzieningslandbouw - kleine landbouwbedrijven - voedselzekerheid - landbouwhuishoudens - malawi - armoede - crops - soil fertility management - maize - legumes - fertilizers - subsistence farming - small farms - food security - agricultural households - malawi - poverty

    Soil infertility undermines the agriculture-based livelihoods in Malawi, where it is blamed for poor crop yields and the creation of cycles of poverty. Although technologies and management strategies have been developed to reverse the decline in soil fertility, they are under-used by smallholder farmers. This study was conducted to assess with farmers the performance of a range of maize-legume technologies and their benefits on soil fertility management in central Malawi. Farmer participatory experimentation was a focus of the study. The aim was to facilitate learning and the interpretation of experiences, improve the communication of information about the concepts and technologies to farmers, and provide insights for researchers.

    Using a combination of survey and participatory methods, 136 smallholder farmers from Chisepo were grouped into four resource groups, comprising of better-resourced (RG 1 with 6 farmers), medium resourced (RG 2, 14 farmers), less well-resourced (RG 3, 64 farmers) and least-resourced groups (RG 4, 52 farmers). Analysing their livelihoods for their effects on soil fertility revealed that soil fertility management is a complex activity which is influenced by ownership of assets. Farmers from RG 1 and RG 2 owned more resources including cattle, had larger fields, hired-in labour for timely farm operations, earned more income and invested far more in soil fertility improvement. Farmers from RG 3 and 4 (who are in the large majority) were resource constrained and did not invest adequately in improving soil fertility. They had large food deficits due to poor crop yields. Ganyu labour (casual work done for other farmers for food or cash) was their main strategy to reduce food deficits. Farmers from all the four RGs were interested in working with research to explore strategies to improve soil fertility. They tested various grain- and green-manure-legumes, and mineral N and P fertiliser on maize and the legumes for effects on crop productivity and soil fertility. Associated production risk and interest in technology adoption were assessed.

    On-farm evaluation was done on maize (cv. MH18) in rotation with pigeonpea cv. ICP 9145,intercropped with groundnut (cv. CG 7), (Mz/Pp+Gn); intercropped with tephrosia (Mz+Tv); intercropped with pigeonpea (Mz+Pp) and in rotation with mucuna (Mz/Mp). These technologies were compared with sole crop maize without fertiliser (Mz−Ft) or with 35 kg N ha-1(Mz+Ft) in experiments with 32 farmers from the four RGs over four years. Economic and risk assessments were made. Maize grain yields (accumulated over the four years) were greater for farmers from RG 1 and 2 than RGs 3 and 4. Mz+Pp and Mz+Tv gave greater cumulative yields than Mz/Pp+Gn and Mz/Mp. The legumes improved maize grain yields by between 0.2 and 4 t ha-1(P < 0.001) over Mz-Ft and additionally they gave legume grain to the household.Mz+Pp was less risky to all RGs, and applying 35 kg N ha-1to the legumes resulted in Mz+Tv, Mz/Pp+Gn and Mz/Mp being least risky to RG 1, RG2 and RG 3. Farmers in RG 1 had the highest returns to labour (USconv2.info.8 day-1with Mz-Ft and US.1 day-1with Mz+Pp) and these increased to 1.9 and 1.7 respectively with 35 kg N ha-1. Mz+Pp intercrop gave consistent positive returns across the RGs and was the only technology to provide positive returns to labour in RG 4. Use of pigeonpea was overall the least risky option, and was especially suited to least-resourced farmers.

    Application of phosphorus fertiliser (0, 20 kg P ha-1) to legumes significantly (P = 0.05) increased grain and biomass yields for mucuna, groundnut, soyabean, Bambara groundnut and cowpea by 1.0, 0.8, 0.5, 1.0 and 0.3 t ha-1compared with unfertilised plots. Cowpea and fertilised groundnut had larger yields in the home fields than middle fields, but other legumes performed better (P = 0.05) in the middle fields.

    Maize responses to small amounts of fertiliser (0, 15, and 30 kg N ha-1and 0, 20 kg P ha-1) in two weeding regimes showed that weeding twice significantly (P < 0.001) raised maize yields by 0.4 t ha-1over weeding once (0.9 t ha-1). Stover yields (significant at P < 0.001) were 2.3 and 1.6 t ha-1respectively. Mean grain N kg ha-1was 17.1 and 9.8 for plots weeded twice and once respectively while that of stover were 10.1 and 5.6 kg N ha-1. Applying N at 15 kg N ha-1increased maize yields, but the 30 kg N ha-1increased yield only on more clay soils due to the effects of mid-season dry spells on sandy soils. Except for the physiological efficiency of N (PEN), all agronomic indices of N use showed significant differences due to weeding (agronomic efficiency of applied fertiliser N (AEN) at P < 0.001, recovery efficiency of applied N (REN) and partial factor productivity for N (PFPN) at P < 0.01). The average PENof 40.7and PFPNof 78.8 in plots weeded twice were within the ranges of 40–60 kg grain kg-1N and 40–80 kg grain kg-1N applied respectively. AENand REN values of 38.7 and 0.9 respectively were above the common range of 10-30 kg grain kg-1 N applied and 0.3-0.5 or 0.5–0.8 kg N kg-1. Mean indices from plots weeded just once were all within the ranges stated above but lower than indices from plots weeded twice; suggesting the unsustainability of the use of fertiliser without means to raise its efficiency through better management or combination with organic resources. Weeding twice gave higher returns to labour (USconv2.info.30 day-1) than weeding once (USconv2.info.05 day-1) and gross margins of US5.00 and US.00 with labour taken into account respectively.Farmers need to ensure timely weeding to get decent efficiencies and returns from the fertiliser, especially in drier cropping seasons.

    Using surveys, focus group discussions and the analytical hierarchy process (AHP), adoption of the ten legumes introduced to farmers in Chisepo was assessed among 136 farmers in 2004 and 84 farmers in 2007. Thirty-five percent of the farmers in 2004 and 22% in 2007 had adopted at least one of the legumes, with food grain legumes predominantly soyabean, groundnut, pigeonpea and to a lesser extent Bambara groundnut and cowpea being most adopted. Mucuna and tephrosia were adopted by few farmers while sunnhemp and grahamiana were not adopted at all. Farmers from RGs 1 and 2 adopted more of the legumes than those from RG 3 and 4. Lack of consistent markets, a lack of seed for planting, as well as land and labour shortages were cited for weak adoption.

    Soil fertility management by smallholder farmers is influenced by ownership of assets and the majority poorer farmers fail to invest adequately in improving soil fertility. In the absence of such resources, grain legumes will play an important role as a source of both food and organic matter to improve soil fertility. The participatory methods used in the study helped farmers better understand some of the soil fertility concepts and options, including the legumes. There is need to focus on how to assist farmers with practical knowledge to help them best combine organic and mineral fertiliser resources for improving soil fertility, and to develop and promote new dual-purpose legume options that feed humans and the soil.

    Key words: Adoption, analytical hierarchy process, crop yield, financial returns, food security, household assets, legume integration, livelihoods, NP fertiliser, nitrogen use efficiency, production risk, resource groups, smallholder, soil fertility, weeding.

    Fairly efficient or efficiently fair: success factors and constraints of payment and reward schemes for environmental services in Asia
    Beria, L. - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rik Leemans, co-promotor(en): Dolf de Groot. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461730404 - 163
    ecosysteemdiensten - betaling - stroomgebieden - beheer van waterbekkens - armoede - milieubeleid - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - watervoorraden - azië - indonesië - ecosystem services - payment - watersheds - watershed management - poverty - environmental policy - natural resources - water resources - asia - indonesia

    Payment for environmental service (PES) is strictly defined as a market-based environmental policy instrument to achieve environmental protection in the most efficient way. However, an increasing body of literature shows that the prescriptive conceptualization of PES cannot be easily generalized and implemented in practice and the commodification of ecosystem services is problematic. To investigate the underlying causes, this PhD study combines a quantitative and qualitative research approach using case studies in Indonesia, the Philippines and Nepal. The empirical observations on emerging PES-mechanisms in the Asian case studies show that interdependency of fairness and efficiency should be the main consideration in designing and implementing a PES scheme in developing countries. Neither fairness nor efficiency alone should be the primary aim but an intermediate PES that is “fairly efficient and efficiently fair” may bridge the gap between PES theory and the practical implementation of PES to increase ES provision and improve livelihoods.

    Poverty dynamics, income inequality and vulnerability to shocks in rural Kenya
    Radeny, M.A.O. - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte, co-promotor(en): Rob Schipper; Marrit van den Berg. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085859369 - 213
    ontwikkelingseconomie - armoede - inkomen - platteland - middelen van bestaan - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - participatie - landbouwhuishoudens - rurale welzijnszorg - economische verandering - ontwikkelingslanden - kenya - oost-afrika - development economics - poverty - income - rural areas - livelihoods - sustainability - participation - agricultural households - rural welfare - economic change - developing countries - kenya - east africa

    Persistent poverty remains a huge challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Kenya, official statistics indicate that the incidence of rural poverty was 49% in 2005/2006. This study uses different approaches and data sources to explore temporal and spatial dimensions of rural welfare in Kenya. The objective is to identify and understand the linkages between welfare, livelihood assets, livelihood strategies, local-level institutions, and exposure to shocks. First, we compared participatory and income approaches to studying poverty and poverty dynamics. We found a significant positive correlation between the results obtained using the two approaches, with both approaches showing evidence of geographical clusters of poverty. Nevertheless, discrepancies in poverty rates and dynamics were found as well. Second, we used asset-based approaches to explore the nature of rural poverty dynamics over multiple periods. We found that majority of households that were poor in two consecutive survey years were structurally poor. Of the households escaping poverty, a large proportion was characterized by stochastic transitions. Few households successfully escaped poverty through asset accumulation, while a large proportion of households declining into poverty experienced structural movements. A combination of livelihood strategies, shocks, and other factors interact to influence household structural transition. Third, we characterized shocks facing rural households. Health expenses, ill-health, funeral expenses, livestock losses, land sub-division, and death of major income earner were the most frequently reported shocks. We also found limited evidence that welfare level affects exposure to specific shocks, but a significant geographical effect. Finally, we revisited the geography versus institutions debate at the micro-level suing local data to explain within-country income differences. We found that certain geographical variables appear more important drivers of per capita income levels than local institutions. Our community-level measures of institutions did not explain within-Kenya income differences. Altogether, the findings underscore the importance of geographical targeting of poverty reduction interventions. Moreover, the coexistence of high rural poverty rates and limited asset accumulation, and strong macroeconomic growth highlight the fact that causes of poverty are complex. Macroeconomic growth policies need to be complimented with policies that enhance escapes from poverty (“cargo net” policies) and those that prevent descents into poverty (“cargo net” policies).

    A green revolution from below? : science and technology for global food security and poverty alleviation
    Richards, P. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789085858850 - 21
    wetenschap - technologie - ontwikkeling - landbouwontwikkeling - armoede - honger - voedselzekerheid - landbouw bedrijven - plattelandsontwikkeling - ontwikkelingslanden - science - technology - development - agricultural development - poverty - hunger - food security - farming - rural development - developing countries
    Tourism for development: Environmental sustainability, poverty reduction and empowering communities; Thematic proceedings of ATLAS Africa Conferences Volume 6, Gaborone, Botswana, 1-3 July, 2009
    Zellmer, K. ; Duim, R. van der; Saarinen, J. - \ 2010
    Arnhem, The Netherlands : ATLAS Association for Tourism and Leisure Education (Thematic proceedings of ATLAS Africa Conferences 6) - ISBN 9789075775433 - 138
    toerisme - ontwikkeling van toerisme - toeristenindustrie - regionale ontwikkeling - armoede - basisbehoeften - milieubescherming - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - afrika - duurzame ontwikkeling - tourism - tourism development - tourist industry - regional development - poverty - basic needs - environmental protection - community development - africa - sustainable development
    Tourism is a global scale industry with increasing impacts on the environment, regional and local development. In many African countries tourism provides increasingly new opportunities, jobs and economic benefits to local communities, and currently many countries in the continent see tourism promotion as a good and relatively inexpensive strategy that can be used to attract foreign direct investment through showing natural areas and local indigenous cultures. As a result of growing tourism activities many places and rural areas in the region are increasingly tied to the industry and related cultural, social, economic and political networks. At the same time tourism in the region is deeply influenced by its changing physical and social environments and larger processes such as global climate change. Tourism has become an important policy tool for community and regional development in Africa, including Southern Africa. Tourism has also a significant potential to influence and change the use of natural and cultural resources in the continent and region. This has highlighted the role of sustainability, management and governance in tourism development and turned tourism not only into an economic but also social and political activity that influences the wider environment in various ways. At policy level, tourism is increasingly viewed as an essential sector of regional and national reconstruction and development in the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC), for example. In this sense the rationale for tourism development has evolved towards the idea of tourism as a tool for regional and sustainable developlment and recently to a relatively new kind of ideas of tourism as an instrument of social and economic empowerment and poverty reduction. In this respect there are many regional and local development programmes that are highlighting the role of tourism in regional and sustainable development and empowerment.
    Food, diversity, vulnerability and social change : research findings from insular Southeast Asia
    Niehof, A. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (Mansholt publication series vol. 9) - ISBN 9789086861392 - 141
    huishoudens - voedselzekerheid - gezinsinkomen - huishouduitgaven - sociale verandering - armoede - zuidoost-azië - indonesië - filippijnen - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - households - food security - household income - household expenditure - social change - poverty - south east asia - indonesia - philippines - livelihood strategies
    Food is a universal basic need. The diverse ways in which people and households try to meet this need, the constraints they are up against in doing so, and the strategies they develop to reduce their vulnerability to food insecurity form the core of this book. A large range of findings on these subjects is reviewed and analysed, based on recent research carried out in Southeast Asia, with a focus on Indonesia and the Philippines. Household food provision and the nutritional status of household members reflect processes and outcomes that reach far beyond agricultural parameters of food production and biological indicators of nutrient intake. They evolve in a dynamic and gendered context shaped by ecological, socio-cultural, economic and political factors. Hence, research in the field provides a meeting ground for researchers with various disciplinary backgrounds, like agronomists, nutrition scientists, anthropologists, sociologists, and economists. The methodological implications of this are discussed in the book as well.
    Targeting married women in microfinance programmes: transforming or reinforcing gender inequalities? : evidence from Ethiopia
    Bekele, H. - \ 2010
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Henk Folmer, co-promotor(en): Bettina Bock. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085855309 - 234
    vrouwen - laag inkomen - armoede - financiën - krediet - man-vrouwrelaties - empowerment - marginale gebieden - ontwikkelingslanden - efficiëntie - ethiopië - microfinanciering - getrouwde personen - geslacht (gender) - gelijke behandeling van de vrouw - women - low income - poverty - finance - credit - gender relations - empowerment - less favoured areas - developing countries - efficiency - ethiopia - microfinance - married persons - gender - female equality
    With the expansion of microfinance programmes in the low-income countries, millions of poor women in these countries have been able to access microfinancial services, particularly microcredit and savings. The provision of microfinance services to women has been largely premised on the assumption that credit facilitates or expands women’s selfemployment opportunities, and consequently leads to their empowerment. In recent years, however, this proposition is under scrutiny and debate, as the available studies provide
    conflicting evidence. This study explores whether and how microfinance granted to married women affects the intra-household division of labour and decision-making power. It also investigates the effect of an HIV/AIDS infection on microfinancing results. The study compared the effects across two regions in Ethiopia in order to understand the role of local socio-cultural practices and economic structures. Simultaneously, the effects across two (regional) microfinancing institutions were compared, which differed in institutional regulations and strategies. The study took as its point of departure the bargaining theory approach of the household and the differentiation between cooperative and non-cooperative models, in order to examine how women’s access to microfinance services affected women’s bargaining power within the household. The study employed a (comparative) case study research strategy in order to understand the complexity of (structural, cultural and individual) factors shaping the outcomes of microfinance programmes with regard to gender relations. A mix of research methods and data collection techniques, including key informant interviews, in-depth interviews, a small-scale household survey, and focus group discussions were used to understand the resource allocation and bargaining dynamics within the household. The study focused on the Amhara Credit and Saving Institution (ACSI) and the Omo Microfinance Institution (OMFI), which were operational in the Amhara and Southern Nations and Nationalities People’s (SNNPR) regions during 2004, respectively. Both of them worked with female clients in the rural areas and had five or more years of experience in microfinancing. In the Amhara region, the study was conducted in the Mangudo Kebele, located in the Moretena Juru district, of the North Shoa zone, while in the SNNPR, the study was conducted in the Dirama, Wita and Wolenshu Kebeles, located in the Meskan district of the Gurage zone. The case study’s locations were selected because of their distinctiveness in socio-cultural practices and economic structures, and because of accessibility. The study aimed to answer the following research questions.
    Essays on Impact evaluation: new empirical evidence from Vietnam
    Nguyen Viet Cuong, N. - \ 2009
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): D. Bigman; Robert Lensink, co-promotor(en): Marrit van den Berg. - Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789085854302 - 198
    armoede - overheidsbeleid - migratie - sociale zekerheid - inkomen - dispariteit - economische evaluatie - vietnam - azië - microfinanciering - welzijn - poverty - government policy - migration - social security - income - disparity - economic evaluation - vietnam - asia - microfinance - well-being
    Keywords: Credit, cash transfers, remittances, migration, poverty, inequality, impact evaluation, Vietnam, Asia

    This study estimates the impact of various economic flows including government-subsidized micro-credit, informal credit, public and private transfers, international remittances, and migration on poverty and inequality for Vietnam using Vietnam Household Living Standard Surveys in 2004 and 2006. Impact evaluation methods employed in the study include fixedeffects regression and difference-in-differences with propensity score matching. Poverty is measured by three Foster-Greer-Thorbecke poverty indexes, while inequality is measured by the Gini coefficient, Theil’s L and Theil’s T indexes. It is found that the impact of the governmental micro-credit, public transfers and international remittances on poverty reduction is very limited. On the contrary, informal credit, domestic (internal) private transfers and migration have positive and statistically significant impacts on poverty reduction. The domestic private transfers have the largest effect on the total poverty of the population due to a high impact on expenditure and a large coverage of the poor. Regarding inequality, both government-subsidized micro-credit and informal credit do not affect inequality significantly. Public transfers and international remittances increase inequality slightly, while domestic private transfers and migration lead to a decrease in inequality.



    Climate change versus development: trade-offs and synergies
    Swart, R.J. - \ 2009
    London, United Kingdom : Policy Network - 12
    klimaatverandering - opwarming van de aarde - ontwikkeling - armoede - honger - climatic change - global warming - development - poverty - hunger
    Econometric analyses of microfinance credit group formation, contractual risks and welfare impacts in Northern Ethiopia
    Berhane Tesfay, G. - \ 2009
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arie Oskam, co-promotor(en): Koos Gardebroek; Tassew Woldehanna. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085854258 - 146
    krediet - landbouwhuishoudens - financiële instellingen - econometrie - risico - dynamische modellen - groepen - contracten - armoede - plattelandsbevolking - ethiopië - microfinanciering - panelgegevens - credit - agricultural households - financial institutions - econometrics - risk - dynamic models - groups - contracts - poverty - rural population - ethiopia - microfinance - panel data

    Key words
    Microfinance, joint liability, contractual risk, group formation, risk-matching, impact evaluation, Panel data econometrics, dynamic panel probit, trend models, fixed-effects, composite counterfactuals, propensity score matching, farm households, Ethiopia.

    Lack of access to credit is a key obstacle for economic development in poor countries. The underlying problem is related to information asymmetry combined with the poor’s lack of collateral to pledge. New mechanisms in microfinance offer ways to deal with this problem without resorting to collateral requirements. The objective of this thesis is to examine the mechanisms of providing credit through microfinance and assess the long-run borrowing effects on household welfare in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian environment provides a suitable setting to examine these issues. To meet this objective, two unique data sets - a five-wave panel data on 400 and a cross-sectional data on 201 households - from northern Ethiopia are used.
    Borrowing decision is first conceptualized using a dynamic stochastic theoretical framework. Two types of risks involved in joint liability lending are incorporated, i.e., risk of partner failure and risk of losing future access to credit. Empirical analysis using recent dynamic panel data probit techniques show that these contractual risks indeed impede participation in borrowing. The impediment is higher for the poorer, and for new than repeat participants. Second, group formation is analyzed within the framework of alternative microeconomic theories of joint liability where the commonly held hypothesis that groups formed are homogeneous in risk profiles is tested. Empirical results reject this hypothesis indicating that the formation of heterogeneous risk profiles is an inherent feature in group formation and repayment. In fact, there is evidence that borrowers take advantage of established informal credit and saving, and other social networks, which also suggests that group formation outcomes vary depending on underlying socioeconomic contexts.
    Third, the impact of long-term borrowing on household welfare is assessed from the dimension of intensity and timing of participation in borrowing. Panel data covering relatively long period enabled to account for duration and timing concerns in program evaluation. Recent parametric and semi-parametric panel data techniques are innovatively employed to mitigate participation selection biases. Results from both approaches indicate that borrowing has increased household welfare significantly: the earlier and more frequent the participation the higher the impact partly due to lasting effects of credit. This also suggests that impact studies that are based on a single-shot observation of outcomes and that do not account for the timing and duration of participation may underestimate microfinance credit impacts.



    In fear of abandonment : slum life, community leaders and politics in Recife, Brazil
    Koster, M. - \ 2009
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Th. Blom Hansen, co-promotor(en): Monique Nuijten; Pieter de Vries. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085852971 - 356
    sociologie - sociale antropologie - steden - stedelijke gebieden - armoede - economisch achtergestelden - buurten - sociale structuur - stedelijke samenleving - stedelijke bevolking - gemeenschappen - leiderschap - politiek - stadsontwikkeling - brazilië - latijns-amerika - sociology - social anthropology - towns - urban areas - poverty - economically disadvantaged - neighbourhoods - social structure - urban society - urban population - communities - leadership - politics - urban development - brazil - latin america
    This book sets out to contribute to the pursuit of ‘making nonpersons full human beings’
    (Boff & Boff:1987:8). It provides insights in the lives of residents of the slum of “Chão de
    Estrelas” in Recife, Brazil. I argue that slum dwellers should not be mystified and
    misrecognised as “the other”, as different from “normal” citizens, because of their
    marginalised position. I show that the slum is, in fact, an eminently knowable world.
    This book presents how slum dwellers, directed by local lideres comunitarios, community
    leaders, strive for material and intangible resources and engage in utopian projects. I
    argue that the needs and aspirations of these people, who are at constant risk of being
    ignored, disconnected, and abandoned, emerge from their yearnings for recognition and
    connectivity, and a fear of abandonment. To understand this life in the slum, I focus on
    the ways slum dwellers attempt to realise their needs and aspirations, modes of
    operating which I call “slum politics”.
    Chapter 1 defines slum politics as grounded in the needs and aspirations of those
    who live in the margins. Drawing on the work of Oscar Lewis (1959, 1965), it analyses
    how life in the slum, through stigmatisation and a long history of marginalisation, is
    reproduced in ways that are fundamentally different from middle- and upper-class
    people. This difference, expressed in particular needs and aspirations, is not generated
    because slum dwellers are a different kind of people, but because have they been
    structurally segregated in the dominant political and economic order. This chapter
    documents how these particular needs and aspirations, although not solely held by
    slum dwellers, are more emphatically and urgently present in their lives in the margins
    of the political and economic order, and have material, intangible and utopian
    dimensions. Material needs exist, for instance, for money, food, and employment.
    Intangible, or social, needs can be viewed in attempts to establish connections to all
    kinds of people and to gain prestige. Utopian aspirations find their expression in slum
    dwellers’ cravings for solidarity, a better environment, and a desire to be connected to
    the world instead of being ignored by it.
    This chapter coins the concept of slum politics as the ongoing and never finished
    endeavour of slum dwellers of creating connections and possibilities which break off all
    the time. Slum politics, driven by attempts to be connected to the political and economic
    order, centres on the notion of connectivity, the intricate face-to-face relations between
    persons which need to be constantly maintained, and a fear abandonment, which means
    being forsaken and excluded by everybody. It includes practices in the realms of family
    life, making a living, and dreaming about the future.
    Chapter 2 provides a portrait of community leadership. It shows how community
    leaders are the main facilitators of slum politics, as they articulate and consolidate needs
    and aspirations of their fellow slum dwellers, which they, being slum dwellers
    340
    themselves, know well. Community leaders distinguish themselves from other slum
    dwellers by their talent to establish and maintain myriad connections, both to other
    slum dwellers and people outside the slum. Through these connections they attempt to
    create access to resources, to gain prestige, and arrive at recognition of their needs and
    those of their fellow slum dwellers.
    Community leaders also need their connections in order to make a living. They
    engage in the realm of electoral politics, looking for resources and prestige. Yet, their
    practices inevitably implicate them in particular tensions between opposing dimensions.
    They are confronted with the diverging expectations of fellow slum dwellers. This
    results in tensions of love for the community versus self-interest, and between the
    expectation that community leaders derive prestige and resources through electoral
    politics and the accusation that they are contaminated by electoral political interests.
    Slum dwellers are attracted by electoral politics’ image of opulence and possibilities
    beyond compare. Meanwhile, they distrust involvement in it, as it seemingly
    marginalises community issues in favour of assuming and maintaining public positions
    and making money.
    Chapter 3 introduces the community leaders Ovídio, Creuza, and Zezinho, their
    personalities, their projects, their operational styles, and their competition. It pays
    attention to how they articulate and consolidate needs and aspirations of their fellow
    slum dwellers, and operate between the tensions introduced in chapter 2. Each leader’s
    trajectory towards becoming a leader is presented, including their historical record of
    achievements and their thematic interests, comprising issues in which they specialise,
    which allow them to establish connections with people around specific topics. Three
    case studies are presented, one on each community leader, closely examining how they
    give shape to slum politics in their projects.
    Chapter 4 discusses how ordinary life in the slum is lived, through narrating
    histories of how four families in the slum organise their lives. These stories shed light on
    the way the economy is lived in a site where unemployment is high, self-employment
    often the only way to make a living, and allowances form a great part of the money
    coming in. I show a particular economic dynamic, where much of the money remains
    circulating within the slum, with a specific gendered labour division, an emphasis on
    connections, gift-giving, and a social use of money.
    In Chapter 5, I analyse how slum politics is intertwined with, but different from,
    electoral and themselves, know well. Community leaders distinguish themselves from other slum
    dwellers by their talent to establish and maintain myriad connections, both to other
    slum dwellers and people outside the slum. Through these connections they attempt to
    create access to resources, to gain prestige, and arrive at recognition of their needs and
    those of their fellow slum dwellers.
    Community leaders also need their connections in order to make a living. They
    engage in the realm of electoral politics, looking for resources and prestige. Yet, their
    practices inevitably implicate them in particular tensions between opposing dimensions.
    They are confronted with the diverging expectations of fellow slum dwellers. This
    results in tensions of love for the community versus self-interest, and between the
    expectation that community leaders derive prestige and resources through electoral
    politics and the accusation that they are contaminated by electoral political interests.
    Slum dwellers are attracted by electoral politics’ image of opulence and possibilities
    beyond compare. Meanwhile, they distrust involvement in it, as it seemingly
    marginalises community issues in favour of assuming and maintaining public positions
    and making money.
    Chapter 3 introduces the community leaders Ovídio, Creuza, and Zezinho, their
    personalities, their projects, their operational styles, and their competition. It pays
    attention to how they articulate and consolidate needs and aspirations of their fellow
    slum dwellers, and operate between the tensions introduced in chapter 2. Each leader’s
    trajectory towards becoming a leader is presented, including their historical record of
    achievements and their thematic interests, comprising issues in which they specialise,
    which allow them to establish connections with people around specific topics. Three
    case studies are presented, one on each community leader, closely examining how they
    give shape to slum politics in their projects.
    Chapter 4 discusses how ordinary life in the slum is lived, through narrating
    histories of how four families in the slum organise their lives. These stories shed light on
    the way the economy is lived in a site where unemployment is high, self-employment
    often the only way to make a living, and allowances form a great part of the money
    coming in. I show a particular economic dynamic, where much of the money remains
    circulating within the slum, with a specific gendered labour division, an emphasis on
    connections, gift-giving, and a social use of money.
    In Chapter 5, I analyse how slum politics is intertwined with, but different from,
    electoral and governmental politics. I follow Partha Chatterjee’s theorising on popular
    politics, conceptualised as those ‘contrary mobilisations’ that may have ‘transformative
    effects … among the supposedly unenlightened sections of the population’ (2004:49).
    Chatterjee distinguishes the politics of marginalised people from the politics of the state
    apparatus and the government, and argues that the former should not be understood as
    “pre-political” and backward, but as a politics with its own parameters and logics,
    ‘different from that of the elite’ (idem:39). My reservation to Chatterjee’s theorisations is that he presents popular politics as a residual category, derived from governmental
    politics. I argue instead that slum politics is not primarily reactive to or derived from
    governmental politics, but co-exists with it as it is constituted in the needs and
    aspirations of slum dwellers.
    Chapter 6, zeroing in on the 2004 municipal elections, shows the overlap between
    slum politics and electoral politics. It documents how electoral politics penetrates into
    the slum and contaminates slum politics. Community leaders employ the moment of the
    elections to negotiate with candidates to garner resources for the community and
    themselves. However, electoral politics entails the possible risk of steering away from
    community interests into issues of self-interested yearnings for power and money. Two
    case studies show attempts of community leaders, as political canvassers, to manoeuvre
    in the realm of electoral politics in such ways as to also make money, cater to needs and
    aspirations of fellow slum dwellers, and steer clear of accusations of being selfinterested.
    Chapter 7 presents a case study of encounters between slum politics and
    governmental politics. Parts of Chão de Estrelas were planned to be regenerated by a
    large World Bank funded slum upgrading programme. I analyse the preamble of the
    programme, how it affected the population of the slum, and how community leaders
    dealt with it. With reference to Bruno Latour’s work, I argue that the ambiguity which
    existed around the programme actually called it into existence. I contend that a project
    creates a context in which it becomes real, through rumours and ‘little solidities’ (Latour
    1996:45), like meetings, surveys, maps, aerial photographs, offices, brochures, registers,
    maps, surveyors and their reports, and census stickers.
    I also argue that the programme affected slum dwellers in their most vulnerable
    places: their homes, neighbourhoods, and possibilities for work. As a consequence,
    feelings of despair, evoking fears of being ignored as a person with specific needs and
    aspirations, hit hard in the lives of slum dwellers.
    Chapter 8 analyses how life in the slum is framed by violence. Next to the symbolic
    and structural violence of discrimination, slum dwellers face acts of violence on a daily
    basis, like fights, assaults and shoot-outs, often related to drug trade. Community
    leaders and drug traders maintain a tacit balance by which they steer clear of contact
    with each other. Slum dwellers, I show, perceive of violence as extraordinary through
    acts of mentioning it, reflecting upon it, avoiding it, and expressing aspirations for a life
    without it. In contrast, they also see violence as normal, as it is an everyday life
    experience.
    Furthermore, this chapter argues that, whereas actual violence occurs at random,
    potential violence is structured and structuring. Dealing with potential violence, slum
    dwellers ban violence discursively from their personal lives by depicting it as related to
    ‘the other’ and ‘elsewhere’. In addition, they adhere to moral categories which define
    those who die from violence as evil, as such seeing their death as a good thing which rids the community of wrong-doers.
    Turning again to the intersection between slum politics and governmental politics,
    the chapter argues that the concept of citizenship does not resonate with the lives of
    slum dwellers who reside in sites where citizenship rights per definition do not hold.
    Part of the violence slum dwellers face is related to the intrusive workings of the statedesigned
    project of registered citizenship, which centres on the compulsory carrying of
    identity cards. Slum dwellers, instead of being recognised as citizens through their
    identity cards, are discriminated and approached in violent ways by the police who
    consider them as criminals.
    Chapter 9, as a conclusion, argues once more against the mystification and
    “othering” of slum dwellers, and distances them from the philosopher Giorgio
    Agamben’s notion of homo sacer (1998, 2005). Slum dwellers do not coincide with homo
    sacer, as they are not officially abandoned by law and maintain personal connections
    with people outside the slum. Further, the dominant image of the slum dweller as a
    dangerous criminal separates him from homo sacer, who is harmless. Moreover, slum
    politics assigns a political quality to life in the slum, which makes it a politically
    qualified life (bios) instead of the bare life (zoē) of homo sacer. Slum dwellers’ position in
    the political and economic order, although marginalised, is different from the position of
    homo sacer, who exists outside of the order. Finally, in contrast to homo sacer, slum
    dwellers are not a minority, but a fast growing social class which will soon exist of more
    than half of the world’s population. I incite anthropologists to study not only the general
    exclusionary workings of political systems, but also the mundane practices and utopian
    aspirations of people living in the margins, as an analysis of these may help to imagine
    novel political possibilities.
    Migration, Poverty, and Inequality: Evidence from Burkina Faso
    Wouterse, F.S. - \ 2008
    Washington D.C. : IFPRI (IPPRI discussion paper / International Food Policy Research Institute 00786) - 24
    migratie - armoede - sociaal welzijn - landbouwhuishoudens - burkina faso - afrika - vermogensverdeling - migration - poverty - social welfare - agricultural households - burkina faso - africa - wealth distribution
    New Avenues for tourism and wealth creation in Africa. Thematic proceedings of Atlas Africa Conferences Volume 5 (Kampala, Uganda, 27-29 October 2007)
    Duim, V.R. van der; Kloek, M.E. - \ 2008
    Arnhem : ATLAS - ISBN 9789075775372 - 118
    toerisme - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - armoede - plattelandsgemeenschappen - afrika - tourism - sustainability - poverty - rural communities - africa
    Tourism, nature conservation and wealth creation in Africa. Thematic proceedings of Atlas Africa Conferences Volume 4 (Kampala, Uganda, 27-29 October 2007)
    Duim, V.R. van der; Kloek, M.E. - \ 2008
    Arhnem : ATLAS - ISBN 9789075775365 - 74
    toerisme - natuurbescherming - armoede - afrika - ecotoerisme - plattelandsgemeenschappen - tourism - nature conservation - poverty - africa - ecotourism - rural communities
    EU-India free trade agreement : a quantitative assessment
    Achterbosch, T.J. ; Kuiper, M.H. ; Roza, P. - \ 2008
    The Hague : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI : Area 2, Development issues ) - ISBN 9789086152667 - 68
    handel - vrijhandel - internationale handel - handelspolitiek - liberalisering van de handel - handelsrelaties - voedselgranen - armoede - toegang - handelsonderhandelingen - wereldmarkten - handelsprotectie - india - europese unie - trade - free trade - international trade - trade policy - trade liberalization - trade relations - food grains - poverty - access - trade negotiations - world markets - trade protection - india - european union
    This report analyses the effects of a regional trade agreement (FTA) between the EU and India, for which negotiations are underway. The study starts with abrief overview of the key insights from the existing literature on FTAs and their relationship with multilateral negotiations. The remainder of the study is devoted to analysing the impact of tariff slashes under an FTA on merchandise trade between the EU and India. Of particular interest are the implications for agricultural markets, given the tension between agricultural liberalisation and India's policy goals relating to self-sufficiency in food grains and poverty reduction. The analysis employs GTAP, a global general equilibrium model using a recent database which has 2004 as its reference year. The results suggest that India's interests in a regional trade agreement with the EU are downplayed by the fact that India's economy is not well integrated in global markets. Impacts on the EU are minor and further reduced if a Doha agreement is in place when the FTA is implemented. Results indicate the rationale for a strongly asymmetric arrangement: it would be in the interest of both partners if the EU provides large concessions to India for market access, while India maintains the bulk of current border protection. An EU - India FTA delivers little scope for achieving efficiency gains via adjustments to the pattern of international specialisation. An EU - India agreement on merchandise trade is unlikely to embody substantial preferential treatment with regard to market access. Probably, India can find more suitable FTA partners. Agriculture is a key sector for India in the consideration of equity and growth purposes of a FTA with EU.
    Fragmented lives: reconstructing rural livelihoods in post-genocide Rwanda
    Koster, M. - \ 2008
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Anke Niehof, co-promotor(en): Georg Frerks; Lisa Price. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049678 - 468
    plattelandsontwikkeling - huishoudens - gezinsinkomen - oorlog - conflict - sociologie - sociale economie - platteland - plattelandsbevolking - huishoudelijke consumptie - zelfvoorzieningslandbouw - landbouw - armoede - plattelandsvrouwen - positie van de vrouw - etnische groepen - rwanda - middelen van bestaan - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - sociaal kapitaal - geslacht (gender) - rural development - households - household income - war - conflict - sociology - socioeconomics - rural areas - rural population - household consumption - subsistence farming - agriculture - poverty - rural women - woman's status - ethnic groups - rwanda - livelihoods - livelihood strategies - social capital - gender
    During the genocide in Rwanda (1994) nearly a million Tutsi and moderate Hutu were killed and millions of people were displaced. Since 2002, social scientist Marian Koster has regularly visited the country for her PhD-research at Wageningen University. Her study centred on the strategies that households in the northeast of Rwanda use to secure their livelihoods. During her visits to Rwanda, Koster was told that the poorest and most vulnerable households consist of those headed by women, and specifically those headed by widows. However, her research clearly indicates that this is not the case and that widowed heads of households perform much better than is generally assumed. This has important consequences for development interventions which, in an attempt to reach the poorest of the poor, continue to target widows. Koster’s research also shows that many new laws and policies, meant to increase land tenure security and agricultural production, are counterproductive and directly undermine poor people’s livelihood strategies.
    Long-term global availability of food: continued abundance or new scarcity?
    Koning, N.B.J. ; Ittersum, M.K. van; Becx, G.A. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van; Brandenburg, W.A. ; Broek, J.A. van den; Goudriaan, J. ; Hofwegen, G. van; Jongeneel, R.A. ; Schiere, J.B. ; Smies, M. - \ 2008
    NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 55 (2008)3. - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 229 - 292.
    voedselzekerheid - voedselprijzen - productiemogelijkheden - voedselvoorziening - honger - armoede - populatiegroei - biobrandstoffen - food security - food prices - production possibilities - food supply - hunger - poverty - population growth - biofuels - precision agriculture - use efficiency - climate-change - bioenergy production - developing-countries - economic-development - production systems - specialized dairy - green-revolution - soil degradation
    During the 20th century hunger has become a problem of poverty amidst plenty rather than absolute food scarcity. The question is whether this will remain so or whether the hunger of the poor will once more be exacerbated by rising food prices. In this paper we discuss biophysical conditions, social forces and non-linear interactions that may critically influence the global availability of food in the long term. Until 2050, the global demand for primary phytomass for food will more than double, while competing claims to natural resources for other purposes (including biobased non-foods) will increase. A sober assessment of the earth¿s biophysical potential for biomass production, which recognizes competing claims and unavoidable losses, suggests that this is in itself still large enough for accommodating this rising demand. However, the exploitation of this biophysical potential proceeds through technical paradigms that set a relative maximum to food production. In addition, socio-economic mechanisms make the food economy run up against a ceiling even before this maximum is reached. As a consequence, current developments may well entail a new trend change in international markets. These developments include the depletion of land and water reserves, the stagnation of the potential yields of major crops, the rise in energy prices, and the way in which systemic socio-economic factors lead to a strong underutilization of production possibilities in the developing world. Given these conditions, the avoidance of steep rises in food prices may depend on the timely relaxation of socio-economic constraints in developing countries and on timely breakthroughs in sustainable yield increases, biorefinement and non-farm production systems. Myopic expectations make it doubtful whether spontaneous market forces will provide the necessary incentives for this, which may be reason for societal actors to consider the need for more active policies
    Waarom zijn de huidige wereldvoedselprijzen zo hoog?
    Banse, M.A.H. ; Nowicki, P.L. ; Meijl, H. van - \ 2008
    Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Werkveld 1, Internationaal beleid ) - ISBN 9789086152384 - 33
    agrarische economie - voedselprijzen - wereldmarkten - markten - basisproducten - internationale handel - wereld - globalisering - landbouwprijzen - armoede - wereldbevolking - aanbod - vraag - prijsbeleid - biobrandstoffen - biobased economy - agricultural economics - food prices - world markets - markets - commodities - international trade - world - globalization - agricultural prices - poverty - world population - supply - demand - price policy - biofuels - biobased economy
    De gestage stijging van de voedselprijzen in de afgelopen twee jaar treft de gehele wereldbevolking, met name de allerarmsten. Het duidelijk in kaart brengen van de diverse oorzaken die ten grondslag liggen aan deze prijsverhoging is cruciaal om beleidsmaatregelen te vermijden die mogelijk averechts zouden werken. Dit overzicht van de factoren die momenteel van invloed zijn op de voedselprijzen helpt om de passende beleidsmix te ontwikkelen en in de komende tijd ten uitvoer te leggen.
    War veterans in Zimbabwe's land occupations: complexities of a liberation movement in an African post-colonial settler society
    Sadomba, W. - \ 2008
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Paul Richards, co-promotor(en): S. Moyo; Kees Jansen. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049173 - 257
    veteranen - belangengroepen - politiek - landbouwhervorming - landbouwgrond - grondbeleid - overheidsbeleid - kolonialisme - imperialisme - conflict - boeren - armoede - sociale verandering - platteland - zimbabwe - geschiedenis - bezetting - westerse wereld - verhoudingen tussen bevolking en staat - politieke conflicten - sociaal conflict - nationale politiek - veterans - interest groups - politics - agrarian reform - agricultural land - land policy - government policy - colonialism - imperialism - conflict - farmers - poverty - social change - rural areas - zimbabwe - history - occupation - western world - relations between people and state - political conflicts - social conflict - national politics
    In 2000, Zimbabwe’s century old land movement took a swift turn, rupturing into
    nationwide occupation of mainly White owned commercial farms. The speed with
    which occupations spread, their organisation, the political and economic context, the
    historical origins and interaction of the forces, shaped an unprecedented and
    complex land movement impacting on the region, the continent and beyond.
    Zimbabwe’s land occupations were unique in two ways. First, the leading role of
    War Veterans of the 1970s anti-colonial guerrilla war in the land occupations was
    exceptional. Second, the simultaneous challenge to racial, settler economic
    dominance and neo-colonialism by marginalised peasants, farm workers, war
    veterans, urban youth and the unemployed, was a new experience in post-colonial
    history of Africa’s liberation movements. Zimbabwe’s land occupations were a long
    continuum of land struggles to resolve the colonial legacy of racial resource
    distribution but as they occurred, the role played by the state, the contested terrain of
    the civil society, formidable political opposition and imperialist interventions of
    western powers clouded the identity of the land movement thereby making it
    difficult to distinguish the moving current and the identity of forces from the wider
    political conflicts swirling around it. Who exactly initiated the occupations and for
    what reasons? This thesis attempts to unpack these intricately locked forces in a bid
    to understand their origins, interests, strategies, tactics and above all, the alliances
    between and amongst them, for clearer understanding of the core of the movement.
    This thesis traces the history of Zimbabwe’s liberation movement as foundation to
    understanding political reconfigurations that shaped post independence social
    movements and assesses agrarian technology responses to such a dramatic social
    change of Africa’s post-colonial settler society. The thesis provokes prognostic
    thoughts about the role played by social capital of liberation struggles in future
    economic and cultural emancipation from shackles of neo-colonialism and racial,
    settler capitalism.
    Economics of poverty, environment and natural-resource use
    Dellink, R.B. ; Ruijs, A.J.W. - \ 2008
    Dordrecht [etc.] : Springer (Wageningen UR Frontis series vol. 25) - ISBN 9781402083037 - 218
    economische ontwikkeling - armoede - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnenbeheer - milieubeheer - economische hulpbronnen - ontwikkelingslanden - ontwikkelingseconomie - milieueconomie - economic development - poverty - natural resources - resource management - environmental management - economic resources - developing countries - development economics - environmental economics
    Reduction of poverty is a tremendous and persistent challenge for the global community. Given that the livelihood of millions is at stake, there is an urgent need to reconsider the causes of and the remedies for poverty. Poverty and its reduction are closely linked to the natural-resources base. The quality and bounty of the local environment certainly affect living conditions of the poor and their poverty is often seen as a contributing factor to the degraded condition of the local environment. Teasing apart the direction of causality in this resource–poverty nexus is a serious empirical challenge. This book contributes to an improved understanding of the economic dimensions of environmental and natural-resource management and poverty alleviation. The ten chapters of the book offer an overview of the current knowledge concerning the relation between poverty, environment and natural-resource use. Three sides of the debate receive particular attention. First, the relation between resource use and poverty is discussed from a theoretical point of view. Second, it is questioned whether payments for environmental services or considering values of resources can be an effective tool for stimulating both sustainable resource use and poverty alleviation. Third, alternative strategies to break the land degradation–poverty cycle are discussed.
    Living with AIDS in Uganda : impacts on banana-farming households in two districts
    Karuhanga, M. - \ 2008
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Anke Niehof, co-promotor(en): Paul Hebinck. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085048176 - 399
    acquired immune deficiency syndrome - humaan immunodeficiëntievirussen - ziektepreventie - man-vrouwrelaties - sociale economie - landbouwsector - landbouwsituatie - economische situatie - voedselzekerheid - armoede - landbouwhuishoudens - boerengezinnen - bananen - platteland - uganda - middelen van bestaan - geslacht (gender) - acquired immune deficiency syndrome - human immunodeficiency viruses - disease prevention - gender relations - socioeconomics - agricultural sector - agricultural situation - economic situation - food security - poverty - agricultural households - farm families - bananas - rural areas - uganda - livelihoods - gender
    The research was carried out among banana-farming households in the districts of Masaka and Kabarole in Uganda. A gendered livelihood approach was used. The research focused on the identification of critical factors that need to be taken into consideration in the development of relevant policies for HIV/AIDS-affected agriculture-based households or those that are at risk. The book shows that HIV/AIDS causes significant negative effects on the lives of those affected and their resources due to HIV/AIDS-related labour loss and asset-eroding effects and disinvestment in production and child education. While in the overwhelming majority of the affected cases the effects of AIDS are negative and lead to increased impoverishment and vulnerability, for some households HIV/AIDS-related effects are manageable. It is concluded that a household’s socio-economic status and demographic characteristics influence the magnitude of HIV/AIDS-related impacts experienced and capacity to cope. The study also highlights some historically specific social practices, policies, and ideologies that continue to maintain or reproduce distinct forms of inequality, with certain social groups being marginalized and others being privileged. Unless these are redressed, they will continue to aggravate people’s vulnerability regardless of the type of shock that they are exposed to or experience.

    Rural innovation and smallholders' livelihoods: modes of intervention in hillside communities of Latin America
    Gottret, M.V. - \ 2007
    Inistute of Social Studies. Promotor(en): A. Saidh; C. Kay; Kees Jansen. - Den Haag : International Institute of Social Studies - ISBN 9789042303317
    ontwikkelingsstudies - plattelandsontwikkeling - innovaties - innovatie adoptie - kleine landbouwbedrijven - plattelandsgemeenschappen - armoede - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - latijns-amerika - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - development studies - rural development - innovations - innovation adoption - small farms - rural communities - poverty - sustainability - latin america - livelihood strategies
    Taking stock: An inventory study of quality assurance systems' contributions to poverty alleviation and biodiversity conservation. Background report to the conference Making Quality Systems work for Poverty Alleviation, Biodiversity Conservation and Compagny Performance
    Vellema, S. ; Valk, O.M.C. van der - \ 2007
    Den Haag : LEI
    internationale handel - armoede - agrobiodiversiteit - kwaliteitsnormen - certificering - landbouwproducten - international trade - poverty - agro-biodiversity - quality standards - certification - agricultural products
    The aim of the report is to inform a discussion among stakeholders on how to make quality assurance systems work for the major development impact areas: poverty alleviation and biodiversity conservation. The Biodiversity Fund selected five quality assurance systems operational in niche and mainstream markets for the investigation: the Fairtrade Labelling Organisations International (FLO), the European regulations on organic production of agricultural products and foodstuffs (2092/91 and 834/2007), the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) and Utz Certified
    Armoedebestrijding, energiewinning en gebruik van biomassa
    Ouwens, K.D. ; Rabbinge, R. ; Bindraban, P.S. - \ 2007
    Spil 239-240 (2007)4. - ISSN 0165-6252 - p. 29 - 32.
    biomassa - armoede - energiebronnen - energie - landbouwbeleid - ontwikkelingshulp - opinies - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - kritiek - biomass - poverty - energy sources - energy - agricultural policy - development aid - opinions - development cooperation - criticism
    2 ingezonden brieven, waarin het standpunt voor de teelt en het gebruik van biobrandstoffen wordt geplaatst tegenover een tegenstandpunt
    Globalization and the Least Developed Countries: Potentials and Pitfalls
    Bigman, D. - \ 2007
    Wallingford, United Kingdom : CABI - ISBN 9781845933081 - 336
    economische ontwikkeling - economische groei - globalisering - armoede - minst ontwikkelde landen - ontwikkelingslanden - afrika ten zuiden van de sahara - ontwikkelingsbeleid - ontwikkelingsprogramma's - wereldeconomie - economic development - economic growth - globalization - poverty - least developed countries - developing countries - africa south of sahara - development policy - development programmes - world economy
    One of the most notable changes in the world economy during the past three decades has been the diverging trends in the growth of the developing countries. Compared to East Asian countries that have integrated well into the global economy, those of Sub-Saharan Africa have remained stagnant and have become the world's least developed area. The policies and programmes of international organizations have failed to improve the situation while the global economy becomes dominated by trans-national corporations. A review of the suitability of globalization as an economic strategy for these under-developed countries is therefore needed. Focusing on the impact of globalization and on the constraints imposed by the changes in the world's production and trade, this book examines the opportunities open to the least developed countries as they design their strategies to accelerate growth and alleviate poverty.
    Integrating forest conservation and livehood improvement in South-West Ethiopia
    Wiersum, F. ; Bognetteau, E. ; Haile, A. - \ 2007
    Mizan Teferi, Ethiopia : NFTP (Policy briefing note / NFTP 2) - 4
    bossen - conservering - bosproducten anders dan hout - plaatselijke bevolking - bosbeleid - armoede - ethiopië - inheemse volkeren - middelen van bestaan - forests - conservation - non-wood forest products - local population - forest policy - poverty - ethiopia - indigenous people - livelihoods
    Development Economics between markets and institutions
    Bulte, E.H. ; Ruben, R. - \ 2007
    Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (Mansholt publication series vol. 4) - ISBN 9789086860470 - 447
    economische groei - voedselzekerheid - armoede - platteland - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - financiën - markten - bedrijfsvoering - globalisering - landbouwontwikkeling - internationale handel - ontwikkelingslanden - ontwikkelingseconomie - economic growth - food security - poverty - rural areas - natural resources - finance - markets - management - globalization - agricultural development - international trade - developing countries - development economics
    This volume in the Mansholt series presents state of the art discussions on a wide variety of topics in the field of (agricultural) development. More than 20 chapters have been prepared by internationally known scholars and policy analysts, providing a concise overview of a variety of recent debates in development economics. While the background of most contributors is in economic science, the chapters are prepared so that they feed into ongoing policy discussions and are accessible to a wide readership. The contributions in this volume are organized around five themes: prospects for rural poverty alleviation, sustainable management of natural resources, strategies for enhancing food security, markets and the role of the state, and institutions and governance. It is obvious there are many links between these themes, and indeed the integration between them is emphasized in various chapters. This book is prepared as a festschrift or Liber Amicorum for professor Arie Kuyvenhoven. His retirement from the Development Economics Group at Wageningen University, The Netherlands is a good opportunity to take stock of recent developments in the area of agricultural development economics. Therefore, in addition to being a valuable source of information for readers with an interest in development, this volume is also intended as a farewell gift: to Arie, from friends and colleagues.
    International review of the Globio model version 3
    Leemans, R. ; Gaston, K.J. ; Jaarsveld, A.S. van; Dixon, J. ; Harrison, J. ; Cheatle, M.E. - \ 2007
    Bilthoven : Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP report 555050002/2007) - 29
    biodiversiteit - biologische indicatoren - armoede - modelleren - biodiversity - biological indicators - poverty - modeling
    In April 2005, a review committee gathered to assess the scientifically validity and policyrelevance of the GLOBIO3 model as part of the International Biodiversity project. Four members of the committee are scientists with a great experience in biological research assessing the GLOBIO3 model from a scientific perspective, while two members are working at UNEP assessing the model from a user¿s perspective. Their judgment and recommendations are presented in this report. The conclusions are important in order to keep the modelling work scientifically sound as well as focussed on the major political key questions in the international arena. The review committee concluded the GLOBIO3 project is well suited to play in important role in providing information on understanding ongoing trends and depicting future trends in regional and global assessments. However, the scientific imbedding and acceptance has to improve, while, simultaneously, the dialogue with policy makers needs to be strengthened. This report serves primarily as guidance for the International Biodiversity project but can also serve as an independent review on the validity of the model for any potential end user.
    Livelihoods and landscapes: The people of Guquka and Koloni and their resources
    Hebinck, P.G.M. ; Lent, P.C. - \ 2007
    Leiden/Boston : Brill Academic Publishers (Afrika-Studiecentrum series vol. 9) - ISBN 9789004161696 - 408
    rurale sociologie - plattelandsontwikkeling - landschap - landgebruik - hulpbronnenbeheer - landbouwproductie - teeltsystemen - teelt - wilde planten - sociale verandering - armoede - sociaal welzijn - boerenstand - zuid-afrika - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - natuur - rural sociology - rural development - landscape - land use - resource management - agricultural production - cropping systems - cultivation - wild plants - social change - poverty - social welfare - peasantry - south africa - livelihood strategies - nature
    Water Harvesting for Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Resource Use: Environment and technical issues
    Yazawa, E. ; Girmay, G. ; Hagos, F. ; Kruseman, G. ; Linderhof, V.G.M. ; Mekonen, Y. ; Mulugeta, A. ; Abreha, Z. - \ 2007
    Amsterdam : Vrije Universiteit; Institute for Environmental Studies (PREM working paper 07/02)
    regenwateropvang - armoede - hulpbronnenbehoud - waterbescherming - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - milieu - putten - plassen - irrigatie - ethiopië - ontwikkelingseconomie - water harvesting - poverty - resource conservation - water conservation - natural resources - environment - wells - ponds - irrigation - ethiopia - development economics
    This paper investigates environmental and design related issues that can affect the performance of small-scale water harvesting schemes in theTigray region of northern Ethiopia. Results indicate that the impact of evaporation loss during the rainy season on net harvested water is generally small, and depends on the extent of the surface area of the ponds. However, the impact of the seepage loss on the net harvested water is very high unless there is proper lining of the bed and walls of the ponds. The irrigated area can be increased considerably if proper water saving and utilization measures and mechanisms are implemented. The current silt trap structures are ineffective in minimizing the sediment deposition in the ponds. The design, construction and maintenance of the structures need to be improved in order to reduce the sediment deposition and increase the water storage capacity of the ponds. As there is little experience with the extensive use of ponds and hand dug wells for supplementary irrigation in Tigray, the soils of almost all schemes are currently salt free. If the soil salinity and good quality water of the ponds are taken into account, salinity may not be a threat for farmers using ponds for supplementary irrigation. However, the water quality of wells is poor. Besides, since they are continuously recharged by the groundwater, most of the wells irrigate longer period than the ponds. Farmers using wells would have to implement necessary measures indicated earlier to minimize the effect of salinity.
    Impact of small scale water harvesting on household poverty : evidence from northern Ethiopia
    Hagos, F. ; Kruseman, G. ; Abreha, Z. ; Linderhof, V.G.M. ; Mulugeta, A. ; Girmay, G. - \ 2007
    Amsterdam : Vrije Universiteit; Institute for Environmental Studies (PREM working paper 07/01)
    ontwikkelingslanden - regenwateropvang - landbouwhuishoudens - armoede - uitgaven voor consumptie - putten - plassen - kleine landbouwbedrijven - ethiopië - ontwikkelingseconomie - developing countries - water harvesting - agricultural households - poverty - consumer expenditure - wells - ponds - small farms - ethiopia - development economics
    Water harvesting is increasingly seen as a means of reducing poverty in many drought prone areas. While extensive efforts are going on in constructing and providing smallholder farmers with water harvesting structures, such as household ponds and wells in Ethiopia, there is limited effort to systematically assess the impact of households¿ access to ponds and wells on household welfare. This study applies advanced econometric evaluation techniques to assess whether households with ponds and wells are better off compared to those without. It also explores the factors that explain household level poverty. Results show that households with ponds and wells are not significantly better off compared to households without, even though they are comparable in essential household characteristics. A range of household characteristics, demographics, asset endowments and village level factors were found to be significant in explaining household poverty. Policy conclusions are drawn.
    Stepping-stones to improve upon functioning of participatory agricultural extension programmes : farmer field schools in Uganda
    Isubikalu, P. - \ 2007
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Paul Richards, co-promotor(en): Harro Maat. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085046561 - 225
    participation - program participants - rural communities - technology - rural development - poverty - schools - practical education - uganda - agricultural extension - participatie - deelnemers aan een programma - plattelandsgemeenschappen - technologie - plattelandsontwikkeling - armoede - scholen - praktijkonderwijs - uganda - landbouwvoorlichting
    This thesis deals with Farmer Field Schools (FFS) inUganda.FFSis a grassroots learning and application device for technological improvements in agriculture, primarily aimed at resource-poor farmers. It is rooted by background in pest management (IPM) but is also a group learning approach based on doing. The specific role ofFFSis to provide a practical framework through which generative, adaptive and observation-based learning can develop, specific to local problems and opportunities.This thesis analyses the functioning ofFFSwithin the wider set of programmes, organisations and institutions aimed at crop improvement, i.e. the agricultural innovation system. TheFFSis studied with technographic methods. Technography is asystematic description and analysis of the interaction of human agents, tools, techniques and technical processes, i.e. it is the study of instrumentality within the broader field of ethnography.FFSclaims to be able to form new technical knowledge "in situ" through a modified self-help approach (using local resources of time and energy).The introduction ofFFSin Uganda fits within a wider national and international development agenda, an agenda driven by Poverty Reduction Strategic Plans/Papers (PRSP) and the (wider) Millenium Development Goals (MDGs) that put emphasis on community participation in development activities. There is concern that the increasing levels of poverty in the developing world,Africain particular, are attributed to powerlessness, social exclusion and lack of opportunity of the masses (especially the rural poor) in actively influencing programmes or projects that affect their lives. 

    After a general introduction of the topic, major issues and research approach in chapter one, the thesis continues with an empirical analysis of fiveFFSprojects, operating in the districts of Soroti, Busia, Tororo, Kumi, Iganga (eastern Uganda), Mukono and Kiboga (central Uganda) formed the empirical cases underlying this study. The main highlights of findings generated through an intensive and prolonged contact with the field from January 2003 through December 2005 are presented in common themes, identified across the five projects. This not only minimises repetition across projects and districts but it also gives a clearer view on the processes that determine the performance ofFFS. The main findings are organised in four empirical chapters.

    Chapter two displays an analysis of the national and international development strategies in relation to the introduction of FFS inUganda, i.e. a political economy of donors, agricultural institutes and other actors in agricultural research and extension services. The focus is on the actors and their roles in the operation or implementation of UgandanFFS. Actors, activities and roles at international, national and local levels were analysed. Because of the participatory background ofFFS, interest was how farmers or the local levels got actively engaged inFFSactivities at all levels. In spite of the participatory background,FFSdid not translate well in the Ugandan context. The local level actors did not take active part in the identification and prioritization of problems addressed inFFSinterventions. Decisions were already made from above (by donors and researchers) with traditional structures and functioning remaining strong in shaping interactions and focus ofFFS. Farmers had no negotiation capacity/power to influence the agenda towards addressing their interests given that objectives, problems, and technology were pre-defined from above. This contradicted the basis ofFFSwhere farmers' participation was to influence technology development. The implementation process was top-down with farmers remaining at the receiving end and researchers remaining at the giving end. This turnsFFSinto a platform where researchers promote their mandates and interests rather than actually addressing farmers' interests.

    Chapter three further zooms in on mobilisation of actors and instruments. Technology is a central element around which actors are mobilised. From a technographic perspective, technologytypically involves a nexus of human agents, tools, instruments and processes, and associated knowledge. In order to arrive at how the nexus of technology and society in rural Uganda advanced, specific types of technologies or interventions covered underFFSin Uganda, the rationale for choice of specific technological intervention points, and the mobilisation process involving facilitators and farmers were analysed. Findingssuggest thatFFSis adapted to disseminate what is already in stock rather than to develop technologies that suit current local realities. Choice of existing technologies based on the criteria of major cash or food crop as opposed to in-situ technology development and mobilisation of specific elite farmers capable of showing results all point towards stimulating effective adoption of introduced technologies. The process through which facilitators were prepared did not translate into building competence of extension workers in understanding and analysing local contexts in which the technologies were to be introduced but strengthened the technology transfer model. The orientation towards dissemination of technology in stock rather than participatory technology development and discovery based learning fitted the top-down instructional biases of research and extension institutions.Mobilisation of farmers perceived to be hard-working maintained the conventional community mobilization method that extension workers used to ensure success of a project. Focus on elites raises a fundamental issue about the inclusiveness and relevance of introduced technologies to the farming system of the targeted community. The tendency is to increase marginalization of the already disadvantaged category of people in a community.

    Chapter four examines howFFSinterventions fitted or matched the local contexts within which they were introduced. What goes on in the local farming practices with respect to the crops targeted inFFS, social system or practices of the farmers and farmers' response toFFSinterventions were analysed. According the findings,FFSinterventions did not match well the local farming and social system of the communities in which they were introduced. Although farmers are keen learners, constantly looking out for opportunities to improve upon their way of life, they do not, in all circumstances, take up technological inputs from external sources. The main reason lies in the difference of focus. Whereas researchers are more interested in improved yields and resistance to pests (targeting commercial orientation), farmers (especially subsistence oriented, who form the majority) are more interested in palatability and compatibility with local available resources like labour, time, land, cost as well as daily practices. Besides, farmers face various problems and their perception of priority issues vary. What is observed as a problem or solution in a researcher's perception is not necessarily the problem or solution in farmers' perspective. For instance, farmers perceived health and income generating activities as issues of higher priority yet throughFFS, low crop yields was the issue. Gender, has a general and cultural dimension. Inspite of more women than men inFFS, the men dominated most discussions and activities inFFS. Yet most agricultural activities were carried out by women. The patrilineal system where men own household assets and are the main decision makers in the home affects operation and impact ofFFS.

    In chapter five a closer look is given to organisational features on the ground and how that relates to other local initiatives and structures higher up in theFFSorganisation.This chapter gives an analytic description of features known as agro-ecosystem analysis, energizers, field tours, field visits and field days, as a major tool for keeping up an appearance of close and effective interaction between the lower and higher level structures. It also describes the linkage or integration ofFFSwith other local structures and activities. In spite of the centrality ofAgro ecosystem analysis (AESA) in the local or internal organisation ofFFS, the process and objective of AESA was not internalised or clearly understood by farmers and facilitators. The integration process ofFFSwith other outside actors was unidirectional and not two-way, with lower levels being accountable to higher levels and not vice versa. The nature of the reporting system translated reports into technical documents, resulting in a narrow technical accountability to researchers and funders. The field days turned out to be activities where project implementers sought back-up from higher authorities, to justify existence and funding. Field tours and visits were perceived differently by the two levels. The aim at the higher level was to expose farmers to other technologies while farmers seized on trips to broaden their social horizons. When using different methods to integrate lower levels and higher levels there is need for a clear objective and strategy to reshapeFFSinto a participatory model serving interests or concerns at both levels.

    The final and concluding chapter comes with an overall identification ofFFSin the Ugandan context as resulting from the technographic approach used in this thesis. The key lesson, addressed to researchers, is to put into consideration farmers' perceived priority issues besides project objectives ifFFSis to realise the expected people based development. This implies the need for actors, especially at higher levels, to revisit and change the institutional thinking and functioning in a way that creates space for farmers' as active players for their own destination and hence development. The need to understand and analyse local contexts (what farmers locally do and think in farming and social practices) is important if new interventions are to be useful to the people for whom it is intended.

    In general, althoughFFSmakes a better, more creative and challenging connection between scientists, extensionists and farmers than was achieved under the earlier extension systems it replaced, findings in this study lead to a general conclusion that the way in whichFFSwas implemented has failed adequately to re-orient agricultural extension systems in Uganda towards being effective and responsive to local people's problems.
    Diversity of impact : agricultural trade liberalisation, poverty and development
    Achterbosch, T.J. ; Roza, P. - \ 2007
    Den Haag : LEI (Report / LEI : Domain 6, Policy ) - ISBN 9789086151219 - 66
    landbouwbeleid - agrarische economie - liberalisering van de handel - agrarische handel - wereldhandelsorganisatie - economische groei - armoede - ontwikkelingslanden - agricultural policy - agricultural economics - trade liberalization - agricultural trade - world trade organization - economic growth - poverty - developing countries
    There appears to be a consensus that the interests of developing countries lie mostly liberalisation of trade in manufactures and services. Despite this insight, the WTO negotiations on agriculture have been a stumbling bloc for the developing countries. This reviews the effects of agricultural trade liberalisation on economic growth and poverty alleviation. A recurring theme is the wide diversity of effects across regions, economic activities, groups in society (urban consumers, rural producers), and households.
    Household Welfare, Investment in Soil and Water Conservation and Tenure Security: Evidence from Kenya
    Kabubo-Mariara, J. ; Linderhof, V.G.M. ; Kruseman, G. ; Atieno, R. ; Mwabu, G. - \ 2006
    Amsterdam : Vrije Universiteit; Institute for Environmental Studies (PREM working paper PREM 06/06)
    hulpbronnenbehoud - hulpbronnenbeheer - milieu - armoede - landbouwhuishoudens - pachtstelsel - bodembescherming - waterbescherming - dorpen - ontwikkelingsbeleid - kenya - afrika ten zuiden van de sahara - ontwikkelingseconomie - resource conservation - resource management - environment - poverty - agricultural households - tenure systems - soil conservation - water conservation - villages - development policy - kenya - africa south of sahara - development economics
    In Kenya, conservation and sustainable utilization of the environment and natural resources form an integral part of national planning and poverty reduction efforts. However, weak environmental management practices are a major impediment to agricultural productivity growth. This study was motivated by the paucity of literature on the poverty-environment nexus in Kenya, since poverty, agricultural stagnation and environmental degradation are issues of policy interest in the country¿s development strategy. The paper builds on the few existing studies from Kenya and explores the impact of household, farm and village characteristics as well as the development domain dimensions on household welfare and investment in soil and water conservation. The results show that strengthening the tenure security improves household welfare. Further, soil quality, topography and investments in soil and water conservation affect household welfare. Agroecological potential, which is related to environmental conservation, is also a key correlate of poverty. Results for investment in water and soil conservation confirm the importance of tenure security in determining adoption and also the intensity of SWC investments. We also find that household assets, farm characteristics, presence of village institutions and development domain dimensions are important determinants of adoption and intensity of soil and water conservation investments. The results for both poverty and investment in soil and water conservation suggest the existence of a strong poverty-environment link in our sample. The results also suggest that rural poverty can be alleviated by policies that improve environmental conservation and strengthen land tenure security. The study also underscores the importance of village institutions in both investment adoption of soil and water conservation and in improving household welfare.
    Micro water harvesting for climate change mitigation: Trade-offs between health and poverty reduction in Northern Ethiopia
    Fitsum, H. ; Mekonen, Y. ; Linderhof, V.G.M. ; Kruseman, G. ; Mulugeta, A. ; Girmay, G. ; Zenebe, A. - \ 2006
    Amsterdam : Vrije Universiteit; Institute for Environmental Studies (PREM working paper 06/05)
    volksgezondheid - malaria - putten - plassen - kosten - regenwateropvang - klimaatverandering - armoede - gezondheidsvoorzieningen - ethiopië - ontwikkelingseconomie - public health - malaria - wells - ponds - costs - water harvesting - climatic change - poverty - health services - ethiopia - development economics
    Water harvesting is an important tool for mitigating the adverse effects of climate change. This report investigates the trade-offs between health and poverty reduction by considering the impacts of water harvesting on health in Tigray region, northern Ethiopia. In particular, we assess the prevalence of malaria in association with ponds and wells. Moreover, the determinants of malaria incidence are explored with multivariate analysis. Additionally, we investigate people¿s willingness to pay (WTP) for improved malaria control using a contingent valuation method (CVM). In particular, we applied a double-bounded dichotomous choice CV surveys to elicit households¿ WTP for improved health services to control malaria. With interval regression, the WTP was explained as a function of household characteristics, health and health service conditions, and village level factors. The malaria prevalence rate is very high, more than 30 percent in low land communities, although rates are higher after rainy season. This suggests that ponds and wells are important factors in determining the prevalence of malaria. Better conditions of housing and toilet type, availability of bed nets reduce incidence. Pond and well ownership affects the WTP for improved malaria control in a negative and positive way respectively indicating differences in their economic attractiveness. WTP decreases with altitude and thus malaria incidence. Education and household asset holding generally increases WTP for improved health services. The results suggest that valuation results on household¿s WTP in poor economies may be underestimated because of cash constraint. Consequently, alternative payment vehicles in eliciting households¿ WTP have to be considered. Similarly, the estimated mean WTP for the external health cost of wells and ponds may be underestimated. In our case, ponds and wells are not fully exploited, as our results suggest that they do not contribute to household income or welfare. In that case, the presence of ponds and wells pose high external costs to the economy
    Acceptance and suitability of renewable energy technologies in Lao PDR
    Bush, S.R. - \ 2006
    München : Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sonnenenergie - 26
    milieubeleid - vervangbare hulpbronnen - elektriciteit - hulpbronnenbeheer - biomassa - zonne-energie - platteland - armoede - plattelandsgemeenschappen - elektrische energie - laos - environmental policy - renewable resources - electricity - resource management - biomass - solar energy - rural areas - poverty - rural communities - electrical energy - laos
    Based on the findings of the various studies completed under the Asia Pro Eco (APE) project, this paper reviews the social acceptability of PV Solar and biomass in the context of the Lao PDR. The analysis is guided by two key questions: What are the constraints and barriers to successful extension of RE to rural areas? What improvements can should be made to RE policy and extension services, meeting the needs of local social and environmental drivers for change?
    Natural resource use by agricultural systems : linking biodiversity to poverty
    Tonneijck, A.E.G. ; Hengsdijk, H. ; Bindraban, P.S. - \ 2006
    Wageningen : Plant Research International (Note / Plant Research International 406) - 28
    natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnenbeheer - bedrijfssystemen - armoede - voedselzekerheid - agro-ecosystemen - agrobiodiversiteit - natural resources - resource management - farming systems - poverty - food security - agroecosystems - agro-biodiversity
    Agricultural development is a well-known threat to the conservation of biodiversity and the loss and fragmentation of native habitats. It also is considered to be an important engine of economic development in developing countries. Changes in agricultural production systems might affect directly and/or indirectly both biodiversity and aspects of livelihood such as poverty and hunger. In this study it is attempted to described, as quantitatively as possible, the direct relation between species diversity within agricultural production systems and the productivity of these systems. A line of thought also is presented on how to link livelihood to agricultural outputs
    Rural development in Sub-Saharan Africa: Policy Perspectives for agriculture, Sustainable Resource Management and Poverty Reduction
    Ruben, R. ; Steenhuijsen Piters, B. de - \ 2005
    Amsterdam : KIT Publishers (Bulletin / Royal Tropical Institute 370) - ISBN 9789068321647 - 61
    plattelandsontwikkeling - afrika ten zuiden van de sahara - regionaal beleid - landbouwbeleid - hulpbronnenbeheer - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - armoede - rural development - africa south of sahara - regional policy - agricultural policy - resource management - sustainability - poverty
    The Role of Public Infrastructure in Market Development in Rural Peru
    Escobal, J.A. - \ 2005
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arie Kuyvenhoven, co-promotor(en): Ruerd Ruben. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789085041610 - 254
    plattelandsontwikkeling - economie - markten - ontwikkeling - openbare voorzieningen - infrastructuur - overheidsbeleid - platteland - armoede - overheidsinvestering - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - economische groei - inkomen - peru - rural development - economics - markets - development - public utilities - infrastructure - government policy - rural areas - poverty - public investment - sustainability - economic growth - income - peru
    Keywords:Peru, rural infrastructure, poverty, economic geography, rural roads, impact evaluation, non-agricultural employment.

    This study provides a conceptual framework toanalysethe impact of rural infrastructure investment on market development for the enhancement of income generating opportunities for the poor in ruralPeru. The study uses descriptive methods and regression analysis together with relatively new impact evaluation techniques, like propensity score matching, to understand the causal paths through which access to new or improved infrastructure services affects the livelihood strategies and livelihood outcomes of rural households. The data sources used in this study include regional time series data, several cross-section household level data sets coming from rural representative Living Standard Measurement Surveys,ahousehold panel data set coming from the same source, together with specialized surveys developed by the author. The analysis shows that there are important complementarities in rural infrastructure investment. While any particular infrastructure investment (related to roads, electricity, telecommunication, water, or sanitation services) may be subject to diminishing returns, if done in isolation, this effect can be overcome if it takes place in combination with other investments. In this way it is possible to get a sustained growth effect on rural incomes from infrastructure investment. The study shows that infrastructure investments reduce transaction costs and enhance the opportunity for spatial arbitrage, paving the way for improving market efficiency. However, the study warns that efficiency and equity gains may not occur simultaneously, because those that are better off in rural areas may obtain higher returns to infrastructure investments because of a larger private asset base or because of a better access to other public infrastructure.

    Where there's a will there's a way: supply management for supporting the prices of tropical export crops
    Koning, N.B.J. ; Robbins, P. - \ 2005
    In: Agricultural Commodities, Trade and Sustainable Development / Lines, T., London : IIED/ICTSD - ISBN 9781843695936 - p. 181 - 200.
    basisproducten - agrarische handel - internationale handel - milieuafbraak - milieu - armoede - marginalisering - plattelandsontwikkeling - ontwikkelingsbeleid - commodities - agricultural trade - international trade - environmental degradation - environment - poverty - marginalization - rural development - development policy
    The crisis in agricultural commodities is closely linked to issues of poverty and environmental degradation. Dealing with entrenched rural poverty and major impacts from agriculture on ecosystem viability requires a new look at how commodity markets succeed or fail. There is a need for better understanding of how commodity markets work and how policy makers and businesses can intervene to introduce fairness, justice and sustainability into these markets.
    Toerisme verrijkt? : een discussie over de relatie tussen toerisme en armoedebestrijding, inleiding
    Duim, V.R. van der - \ 2005
    Vrijetijdstudies 23 (2005)3. - ISSN 1384-2439 - p. 37 - 38.
    toerisme - armoede - ontwikkelingsbeleid - ontwikkelingslanden - tourism - poverty - development policy - developing countries
    Na ecotourism, duurzaam en verantwoord toerisme is er de laatste jaren een nieuwe loot aan de stam gegroeid: pro-poor tourism. Het wordt gedragen door organisaties als: World Tourism Organisation (tijdens de wereldtop in Johannesburg), de SNV (met zo'n 40 toeristische adviseurs over diverse landen uitgezet), de Engelse organisaties ODI en IIED hebben diverse publicaties het licht doen zien. In deze discussie bijdragen o.a. vanuit SNV, Hogeschool Breda, Radboud Universitieit, Boabob Reizen
    An analytical framework for linking biodiversity to poverty
    Hengsdijk, H. ; Meijerink, G.W. ; Tonneijck, A.E.G. ; Bindraban, P.S. - \ 2005
    Wageningen : Plant Research International (Rapport / Plant Research International 106) - 50
    biodiversiteit - armoede - plattelandsontwikkeling - hulpbronnenbehoud - agrobiodiversiteit - biodiversity - poverty - rural development - resource conservation - agro-biodiversity
    This report aims to develop a framework linking poverty reduction and biodiversity conservation in order to identify research questions and to contribute to improved policy formulation. A general overview of the subject, definitions and concepts of poverty and biodiversity are described.
    Rural Industrial Entrepreneurship - The Case of Bardhaman District in West Bengal
    Dutta, S. - \ 2004
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Henk Folmer; Wim Heijman, co-promotor(en): A. Majumder. - Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit - ISBN 9789085040460 - 371
    ondernemerschap - plattelandsindustrie - plattelandsontwikkeling - west bengal - inkomsten van buiten het landbouwbedrijf - industrialisatie - armoede - cultuur - lineaire modellen - india - boeren - schatting - entrepreneurship - rural industry - rural development - west bengal - india - non-farm income - farmers - industrialization - poverty - culture - linear models - estimation
    For a living, most of the rural people in developing countries are primarily dependent on agriculture. If the farmers, who have investible surplus generated from agriculture, are interested in non-farm entrepreneurship then rural economy can find an industrial route of development. With this consideration, the study has posed the research question as to what determines non-farm entrepreneurship among farmers and thus attempted to identify the factors that may influence farmer's non-farm entrepreneurship. The theoretical part constituted a set of 13 hypotheses which in turn led to formulation of two questionnaires in order to collect data—one questionnaire was for interviewing the farmers who were engaged in non-farm manufacturing activities and the other questionnaire was for interviewing the farmers who were engaged in farming only. So far as the investigation part of the study is concerned Bardhaman district of the state of West Bengal in India was selected because during 1980s and 1990s the state has experiencedhighagricultural growth compared to the previous decades, which implies that farmers might have been able to gather surplus generated from agricultural development and therefore it was considered interesting to study non-farm entrepreneurship of farmers of West Bengal Five administrative blocks were randomly selected from the eastern part (agricultural part) of Bardhaman district, and then six panchayats have been randomly selected from each block, and finally 10 farm households were randomly selected from each panchayat, i.e. totally 300 samples were randomly selected for interviews. The LISREL (LInear Structural RELations) approach was applied to estimate the model which was constituted in the form of simultaneous equations system that included a set of 10 equations (indicating interdependencies between the endogenous and explanatory variables) with a consideration of the hypotheses of the theoretical model; and we applied the LISREL approach, by using its maximum likelihood estimator, since this approach can control for simultaneity bias in the model, and simultaneously deal with latent variables and the observable variable or, as we may say, can simultaneously estimate the measurement model and the structural model. The farmers who are married, engaged in producing three crops year, and risk takers have been found to have a relatively high probability to become non-farm entrepreneurs. The farmers who are relatively wealthy and have high levels of education have been found to be less likely in becoming non-farm entrepreneurs whereas age of farmer has indirect positive impact on non-farm entrepreneurship via marriage and indirect negative impact on non-farm entrepreneurship via risk attitude and wealth. The number of children of a farmer has been found to have an insignificant effect on non-farm entrepreneurship, but interestingly non-farm entrepreneurship has been found to have a positive impact on the number of children. Three exogenous variables—viz. age squared, farmer's primary involvement in agriculture either as a landowner or as a sharecropper, and farmer's faith in work-effort or fate - have been found to be highly insignificant and therefore have been removed from the structural model. Three explanatory variables - viz. political affiliation of farmer, financial family support, marriage relation, and innovativeness - have also been found to have insignificant impacts on non-farm entrepreneurship.
    Livelihood and Microfinance. Anthropological and Sociological Perspectives on Savings and Debt
    Lont, H. ; Hospes, O. - \ 2004
    Delft : Eburon Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789059720169 - 304
    financiën - krediet - leningen - kredietbeleid - schuld - armoede - ontwikkelingslanden - microfinanciering - finance - credit - loans - credit policy - debt - poverty - developing countries - microfinance
    Voluntary resettlement in China : policy and outcomes of government-organised poverty reduction projects
    Lin, Z. - \ 2003
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): N.E. Long. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789058087652 - 256
    plattelandsontwikkeling - bevolkingsverplaatsing - overheidsbeleid - armoede - sociale economie - sociologie - vrouwen - plattelandsgemeenschappen - ningxia - yunnan - china - rural development - resettlement - government policy - poverty - socioeconomics - sociology - women - rural communities - ningxia - yunnan - china

    The primary concern of this research is the justice of using government resources for poverty reduction, in other words investigating whether or not such investment has served its claimed purpose. My central argument is that government organized resettlement projects have mobilized many resources and some have brought potential prosperity to the resettled farmers. However, they have not sufficiently benefited the government claimed target groups, namely the poorer populations of the places of origin. Many of the beneficiaries are not the poorer members of the population but come instead from the more affluent of those places.

    The central argument of my thesis is elaborated in three dimensions: socio-economic, the policy and the development sociological dimension. Socio-economic dimension is to illustrate the outcome of resettlement projects. The socio-economic analysis provides evidence about who has benefited and in what ways. The data used for the socio-economic analysis are drawn from both the questionnaire survey and participatory research. The argument concerning the policy dimension is that when modernization theory and the economic growth model dominate the rationale of policy formulation and implementation, a poverty reduction policy will not serve its aims. Sociological debates about development are explored to interpret the processes that have brought about the outcomes. My argument in regard to development sociology is that given the dynamics of resettlement, better-off farmers will take economic advantage, utilize their knowledge and their well-established social networks to benefit directly from the resettlement, and that the poorer farmers, who are supposed to the primary beneficiaries, get left out. Using an interface perspective and drawing on the key concepts of the actor-oriented approach enables me to interpret what has precisely happened in the resettlement process and why a development project is not simply about executing government policy.

    Adverse Geography and Differences in Welfare in Peru
    Escobal, J.A. ; Torero, M. - \ 2003
    Helsinki : UNU-WIDER (WIDER discussion paper no. 2003/73) - ISBN 9789291905324 - 44
    armoede - economie - sociaal welzijn - peru - regionale economie - welzijn - poverty - economics - social welfare - peru - regional economics - well-being
    Globalization and Developing Countries: Emerging Strategies of Rural Development and Poverty Alleviation
    Bigman, D. - \ 2002
    Wallingford [etc.] : CABI [etc.] - ISBN 9780851995755 - 336
    globalisering - economische groei - armoede - plattelandsontwikkeling - economische ontwikkeling - gevalsanalyse - agrarische economie - economisch beleid - internationale handel - ontwikkelingslanden - globalization - economic growth - poverty - rural development - economic development - case studies - agricultural economics - economic policy - international trade - developing countries
    The globalization process and the internal policy reforms that the developing countries have implemented during the past decade have changed the relative prices of practically all their inputs and outputs. Agricultural producers have therefore been forced to change the structure and methods of their production. The objective of this book is to review the impact of globalization on a number of issues. These include the effects of changes in global trading rules and regulations, the removal of trade barriers and the elimination of many country-specific and commodity-specific trade agreements, on the economies of developing countries in general and their agricultural sectors in particular.
    Financial mechanisms for poverty-environment issues; the case of Central Kalimantan (Kalteng)
    Clements-Hunt, P. ; Diemont, W.H. ; Limin, S. ; Page, S. ; Rieley, J. ; Setiadi, B. ; Sjarkowi, F. ; Silvius, M. ; Radjagukgug, B. ; Vasander, H. ; Verhagen, J. - \ 2002
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 589) - 17
    armoede - landschap - armoedebestrijding - biodiversiteit - economie - milieu - natuurbehoud - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - Indonesië - Kalimantan - poverty - landscape
    Veranderende patronen van armoede op het platteland : Een halve eeuw Nederland, 1950-2000
    Ploeg, B. van der; Hoog, K. de; Venema, G. ; Vervloet, J. - \ 2002
    Spil 2002 (2002)183-184. - ISSN 0165-6252 - p. 13 - 19.
    agrarische bevolking - boerengezinnen - armoede - geschiedenis - nederland - agricultural population - farm families - poverty - history - netherlands
    Deze bijdrage gaat over de veranderende patronen van armoede op het platteland en bij boeren in de periode 1950-2000. Na een algemene inleiding wordt ingegaan op het begrip armoede. In dit gedeelte schetsen we verschillende soorten armoede, aan de hand van de metaforen over kapitaal van Bourdieu (1977), en wijzen we op een vierde vorm van kapitaal die voor boeren van belang is: het ecologische kapitaal. Dan volgt een beschrijving van de armoede op het platteland in de late jaren veertig en de jaren vijftig. Dit gebeurt door de situatie van welvaart en armoede te plaatsen tegen de achtergrond van oorspronkelijke landschaps- en nederzettingstypen. Daarna volgt een case-study over veranderingen en ontwikkelingen in een Fries dorp (Ureterp) met meerdere landschappen. Het volgende deel is een samenvatting van de resultaten van recente onderzoeken naar armoede bij agrarische gezinsbedrijven. In het slotdeel wordt de huidige aan de landbouw gerelateerde armoede op het platteland vergeleken met die van een halve eeuw terug
    De stellingen van Wageningen : beleidsaanbevelingen om de bestaanszekerheid van agrarische gezinnen te vergroten
    Vinkers, J. ; Hoog, K. de - \ 2000
    Wageningen : Leerstoelgroep Sociologie van Consumenten en Huishoudens, Wageningen Universiteit - ISBN 9789067546065 - 16
    sociaal welzijn - armoede - boerengezinnen - familiebedrijven, landbouw - landbouwhuishoudens - particuliere landbouwbedrijven - sociale zekerheid - nederland - inkomen - levensstandaarden - laag inkomen - economische situatie - welzijn - social welfare - poverty - income - living standards - low income - economic situation - farm families - family farms - agricultural households - private farms - social security - netherlands - well-being
    Think big, start small : restricted room for manoeuvre by practitioners in socio-spatial planning of peripheral regions in Third World Countries
    Ham, A. van den; Veenstra, J. - \ 2000
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): D.B.W.M. van Dusseldorp, co-promotor(en): J.G.M. Hilhorst. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058083005 - 341
    ontwikkelingsstudies - plattelandsontwikkeling - marginale gebieden - ontwikkelingsprojecten - ontwikkelingsplanning - armoede - internationale samenwerking - ontwikkeling - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - ontwikkelingslanden - bedrijfsvoering - basisbehoeften - hulpbronnenbeheer - ontwikkelingshulp - vermogensverdeling - development studies - rural development - less favoured areas - development projects - development planning - poverty - basic needs - international cooperation - development aid - development - sustainability - resource management - management - developing countries - wealth distribution

    In a first part of this study van den Ham reacts to the increased free-market thinking and makes in chapter 1 a plea for continued efforts in active, public socio-spatial development policies in order to contribute to sustainable poverty alleviation in remote areas. This policy should aim at lifting restrictions, both material and socio-cultural, of people to realise their human capabilities to qualitatively and sustainably change the conditions of life and livelihood. It is argued why, from a development practitioner's perspective, it is important to understand the dynamics in both development thinking and doing. A research construct is introduced to explore the framework within which development paradigms, policies and practices at normative ( "what for" and " for whom?" ), strategic ( "how ") and operational ( "what, where, when, by and with whom?" ) level change over time. This change is assumed to be influenced by key-development practitioner's 'inner-guiding' individual beliefs and values, acquired academic insights and practical, learning-by-doing experiences. In practice the proposed policies seem to be very much constrained or stimulated by the development practitioner's appreciated, influenceable and controllable environment which are subject to changing power relations between the state, the corporate sector and civil society.

    In chapter 2 Veenstra elaborates the above research framework by highlighting the various components on the three axes depicting (1) inward-looking personal perspectives, focusing on habitual life-attitudes and roles of both indigenous and expatriate development practitioners (2) outward-looking, professional knowledge bases expanding in substantive, procedural as well as politico-institutional sense and (3) problem and action orientations as tried-out in time at various levels.

    In chapter 3 van den Ham reviews at a glance the origins of international development co-operation and the elements that in practice impact upon the outcome of foreign-supported, expatriate-staffed development projects; they relate to identification, organisational setting, the role of expatriate practitioners, co-operation with local counterparts, the time dimension, the role models in transfer of knowledge and "voice, loyal and exit" strategies of the practitioners.

    In the second part of the book seven case studies from Africa and Asia, all within the framework of international development assistance, are presented and related to the framework that has been introduced in the previous three chapters. In chapter 4 Veenstra explores his sequential experiences and struggles with emic and etic aspects in the evolving design of development programmes and practices in five projects in Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Yemen, Indonesia and Cameroon with special reference to area development planning and natural resource management. Both in sub-sections 4.6 and 6.3 Veenstra sums up his conclusions from outer and inner learning rounds in socio-spatial planning practices. In reaching after 'sustainable' livelihoods, -particularly in agrarian societies under patrimonial resource control in Sierra Leone, West Africa, of the 1960s-, strategic and operational incommensurabilities, with hindsight, cropped up as related to large-scale 'hard' infrastructure and agro-technical innovations. After actuality had completed its developmental course, shortcomings were, later on, laid open inside and between knowledge bases used, of corresponding policy instruments (not) employed, of statutory powers (not) granted and skilled personnel, budgets plus equipment (not) available. Above all, incongruity made itself manifest among stakeholders' normative outlooks holding sway at various territorial levels for prioritising their own resource claims. So it happened that in spite of 'common-good and great cause' intentions, 'kleptocratic' life styles both of rural and urban élites in a 'soft-state' setting were to be, distrustfully, endured.

    In the case of socialist single-party Tanzania of the 1970s 'integrated' rural development pointed toward self-reliance, poverty alleviation and fair distribution of social and physical infrastructure. These laudable aims were thwarted, however, by a over-burdened state-apparatus and the rural populace, of necessity, exiting both into 'black-market' sales of its produce and clientship-like distribution channels for local provision of its basic services,- without revenues for the state coffers. So, both the Tanzanian bureaucracy and its open-handed foreign-aid advisors made themselves not responsive and trust-worthy, - in terms of the 'good local governance' fashion of the 1990s. Under these adversary working conditions expatriate area planners were willy-nilly forced to self containment, - for instance, in our 'remote' case of the neglected Shinyanga Region. Here, a prudent step-by-step integration both in planning and eventual implementation was intended 'from overseas' through initially restricting sectoral, time/space, problem and resource development perspectives to prioritised, low-level and small-scale, concentrated area project packages. So, 'for the time being', long-haul normative policy making, including its medium-term strategic issues, were put aside; socio-spatial arithmetics were to prevail through index-number, factor-, and flow-analysis methods; thus entrapped, both expatriate and indigenous planning officers felt their 'rationalising' efforts being frustrated by short-sighted detachment in public choice situations - like ostriches bury sometimes their heads in the sand.

    In entering the 1980s, this neutral technocratic habitus was, -depending on politico-institutional contexts-, re-shaped towards those of mediatory brokers and advocates on behalf of beneficiary target groups. In the Rada'-case of North Yemen, 1981/82, phased social differentiation and changing leadership-styles in the long run were accounted for, but immediately shifting gears from operational towards strategic models of resource management emerged as leading theme. Here, in promoting still sustainable livelihoods, foreign development practitioners were to manoeuvre between the 'devil and the deep blue sea' of conflicting policy sets:

    • on the one hand, in response to self-interests of national government headquarters and of private enterprise including 'progressive farmers', in favour of politico-institutional stability and free-market economic growth guided 'from above'; and
    • on the other hand, in response to local community interests of deprived peasants and herdsmen in favour of equalisation, citizen participation and resource mobilisation 'from below', in combination with local value patterns and natural resources to be left in a well balanced order.

    After a decade of Rada'-development efforts, i.e. 1975-85, it was concluded that in spite (or because) of selectively applied, concentrated area project packages local village life remained principally unchanged; that at a higher level of district government implementation capacity improved through ad hoc foreign assistance; but that at the higher sub-national level of the province strategic planning and governance did not find their co-ordinating niche, neither divergent statesman-like leadership. Therefore, the two case-studies of Aceh in Indonesia, 1977-1986, and of the Tikar water catchment basin around 1990 in Cameroon, West Africa, refrained initially from formulating a e state, corporate sector and civil society was rather modest.

    In sub-sections 6.1 and 6.2 van den Ham concludes that the views of the key-players in the development projects can very much be traced to their previous experiences. The extent to which their views can be 'translated' into new approaches towards local area development is only to a small extent influenced by the 'power' of either the normative/inward-looking or the academic/outward-looking perspective of the concerned development practitioners. Effectuating the aspired 'real' participatory development, -implying redistribution of resources and (decision-making) power-, within the context of 'foreign' projects would for example run up against the resistance of vested interests; such an approach, whatever its desirability, can therefore not be pursued. Political room for manoeuvre turns out to be the determining factor in the normative domain. However, there is usually (limited) room at the strategic and operational levels. There it appears that the design and implementation of the advocated strategies and practices is guided by the (normative) disposition of the key players towards the essence of development and their perception of the (strategic) role of the various actors in the development process. These are fed by a commensurate cognitive outlook on reality as well as their practical experiences. Again, substantive 'objective' knowledge bases appear to play only a rather limited role in the actual formulation of programmes and practices. Hence, the foreign-funded socio-spatial development projects 'ploughed through' with limited, isolated and above all 'accidental' (because very much depending on the individual practitioner involved and very specific local conditions capacitating or constraining the potential actors) experiments.

    With a view towards the future van den Ham outlines in sub-section 6.4 a changing context for local development practitioners. As in sub-section 6.5 van den Ham explains, this changing context poses new challenges to, and requires new roles to be played by (teams of) future development practitioners. It is suggested that specific capabilities are required to more structurally and successfully address the socio-spatial inequalities from the local level upwards. Development practitioners should not only be technically trained in a number of skills that have traditionally been linked to the function of regional development officer. They rather should start with acquiring a thorough understanding of the dynamic way normative, strategic and operational dispositions are achieved in practice and can be influenced in an effective and legitimate way. Empathy towards other stakeholder's dispositions and potential contributions as actors in their own right, as well as self-critically reflecting on their own positioning, should development practitioners make more conscious of the link between personal or inner change, and social or outer change. This (un-)conscious reflection on implementation will contribute again to reshaping the perspectives on intended societal advancement and results in new approaches to deal with the outstanding issues.

    However, development practitioners should be aware that neither their own understanding of reality and their way to deal with it, nor the other stakeholder's positioning and his/her use of the results are fixed or value-neutral. These are all very much influenced by personal and professional life history, inner normative guidelines of individual beliefs as well as values, economic interests, gender, class - all very much time-, space- and context-bound possibilities and constraints. Therefore, it is for development practitioners highly important that they are capable of opening up space for public dialogue on the directions of development. They should be able to analyse the diverse options of the participants and identify the potential conflict of interest that will occur among the various stakeholders, before certain positions getting accepted as "appreciated' and translating them in (normatively) disputable strategies, projects and programmes.

    In addition to the 'traditional' technical skills in economics, regional science, physical geography, public administration, data management etc., communicative and analytical skills as well as abilities in the field of conflict prevention and resolution are needed to (help) translating the normative dispositions in strategic and operational terms. Next to engaging actor groups in shaping development processes, local development practitioners should also be able to facilitate reconciliation of the claims of people living in poverty with those of other contesting actor groups and to integrate them in the framework of (central) state policies. Thus, the development practitioner should facilitate that lower-level needs, aspirations and potentials meet response at the higher influenceable/strategic and appreciated/normative levels with the ultimate aim of creating an effectively enabling environment that continuously facilitates and supports people to build sustainably upon their own strengths.

    De beleving van armoede in agrarische gezinsbedrijven
    Vinkers, J. ; Hoog, K. de - \ 2000
    Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel 165) - ISBN 9789067546003 - 80
    armoede - inkomen van landbouwers - boerengezinnen - familiebedrijven, landbouw - landbouwhuishoudens - particuliere landbouwbedrijven - nederland - poverty - farmers' income - farm families - family farms - agricultural households - private farms - netherlands
    Armoede in land- en tuinbouw
    Cooten, A. van; Venema, G. ; Everdingen, W. van; Bommel, K. van; Vinkers, J. ; Hoog, K. de - \ 2000
    Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel 166) - ISBN 9789067546027 - 14
    armoede - inkomen - landbouwsector - tuinbouw - boerengezinnen - boeren - nederland - poverty - income - agricultural sector - horticulture - farm families - farmers - netherlands
    Agrarische gezinnen en hun inkomens; Is er sprake van armoede?
    Everdingen, W.H. van; Venema, ; Bommel, K.H.M. van - \ 1999
    Den Haag : LEI - ISBN 9789052425368 - 95
    plattelandsbevolking - rurale welzijnszorg - armoede - boerengezinnen - nederland - rural population - rural welfare - poverty - farm families - netherlands
    Welfare inequality, regionalisation, and welfare policy : measurement and analysis for Spain
    Quadrado, L. - \ 1999
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): H. Folmer; W.J.M. Heijman. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058081636 - 305
    sociaal welzijn - gezondheid - onderwijs - armoede - inkomensverdeling - regio's - welvaartseconomie - overheidsbeleid - spanje - europese unie - welvaartsstaat - social welfare - health - education - poverty - income distribution - regions - welfare economics - government policy - spain - european union - welfare state

    This study is focused on the changes in regional inequality in Spain over the last four decades, with emphasis on regional welfare. The two most important items of welfare in Spain are, health and education, and so these are the main focus of this study. Attention is paid to the levels and trends in inter and intra-regional disparities in the welfare components of health, education and housing. The extent to which changes in inequality with respect to welfare relate to changes in regional welfare policy is evaluated. Various methodological issues are explored in the context of measuring welfare inequality between regions. A specific procedure to measure inequality in longitudinal analyses is developed. The study is organised in three parts. The first part includes Chapter 2 and 3, and deals with regional structure and policy to provide a foundation for the analysis. The second part focuses on the methodology developed in this study and the techniques used for that purpose (Chapter 4). The third part includes all the results of the analysis (Chapter 5, 6, and 7) and the conclusion chapter (Chapter 8).

    Chapter 2 focuses on the development of the Spanish welfare state and its socio-economic context. A substantial part of the policy changes relating to the welfare system in Spain have resulted from the redefinition of the government's duties following the 1978 Constitution. Since the sixties the Spanish economy has been unstable and there have been important developments such as, the population explosion, and the ageing of the population. This situation has resulted in the need for significant changes in the welfare state as seen in a variety of policy changes.

    The devolution of power to the regions and the regionalisation process of the welfare state in particular are of major interest in the present study. The regional state in Spain, known as Co munidades Autónomas, is a decentralised policy model composed of any of the nineteen Autonomies or admisnistrative regions consisting of one or several provinces (from a total of fifty two). The development of the welfare state in Spain has involved increased autonomy for the regions in welfare issues. The nineteen regions are responsible for welfare programs relating to basic infrastructure (ports, road networks, etc). But only seven out of the nineteen Spanish regions have gained full autonomy in education and health (the largest expenditure items of the welfare state). So the regionalisation process has not been symmetric among all regions. This situation may have some implications for the inequality between regions. The impact on inequality of the regionalisation of the welfare state is therefore one of the important issue investigated in the present study. In the coming years, regions with high levels of autonomy are likely to contribute greatly to policy making since they will be responsible for modelling the structure of the welfare state.

    In Chapter 3, the regional policy of the European Union, and the Spanish regional policy is described in detail. Spain is today one of the leading beneficiaries of the EU's financial assistance for regional development known as the Structural Funds . The relevance of the European Union (EU) regional policy in mitigating existing disparities between regions is discussed. The rapid development of mechanisms for the regional support of (economically) weak regions has contributed to a reduction of inequality. The Compensation Funds which started in 1978 have played an important role in the regions although the Structural Funds remain more important.

    In Part II we discuss the selection of a measure of inequality for our study. The Theil's Second measure for multidimensional inequality is selected (Chapter 4). A specific procedure is developed to estimate this measure for longitudinal analyses. We use several indicators to represent each of the welfare components under consideration. This involves defining a composite index of indicators. Inequality in regional welfare is investigated focusing on the following welfare components: health facilities and health status, education facilities and education enrollment and finally, household expenditures and housing conditions. The underlying multidimensionality of the welfare components is thus taken into account. In the present study, Maasoumi's (1986) aggregator function is used to aggregate the indicators. This function enables us to reproduce the maximum amount of information contained in the original indicators. The data used relates to the following years (or periods): 1964, 1974, 1981, and 1991. There are also no studies that have done a longitudinal analysis of welfare inequality. Regional disparities in Spain over time with respect to health and/or education facilities have not been analyzed using an inequality measure. Thus it is not possible to compare inequality results from other literature sources with our results.

    For empirical purposes the use of Maasoumi's function requires weights associated with the indicators. Different weights are used for the different indicators. The estimation procedure for these weights developed in the present study is based on the Partial Common Principal Component model (PCPC) whenever appropriate or Principal Component Analysis (PCA) otherwise. The weights attached to the indicators are the component coefficients of the first component obtained using PCPC (or PCA). PCA has been applied for longitudinal analysis using Theil's second measure for multidimensional inequality (Maasoumi and Jeong, 1985;, Maasoumi and Nickelsburg, 1988; Zandvakili, 1992, 1999). When the periods under consideration share the same first component, the composite index is obtained on the basis of the component coefficients computed using a partial common principal component model. So the component coefficients are not sample-specific because they are the same in all the periods. In other words, the composite indexes for these periods depend on the values of the variables rather than the weights attached to variables. If the hypothesis of one partial common component is not rejected for a number of periods (for first three, and then two periods in this study), the composite index is then constructed on the basis of the maximum likelihood estimates for these periods together with the individual component coefficients for the remaining periods. When a partial principal component model does not fit the data, the composite index is based on individually computed component coefficients. Finally, the overall inequality of the Theil's second measure is computed.

    The Theil's second measure is applied in the present study to achieve the following objectives. First, the magnitude and direction of overall inequality , between-regioninequality , and within-region inequality is computed with respect to each of the welfare components under study. The wide variations in the geographic and socio-economic structure of the Spanish regions require an in-depth analysis of inequality focusing on intra- and inter-region disparities. In addition, the estimates of the composite indexes for the geographical units (regions) have been used for a statistical cluster analysis which identifies the similarities between one group of regions in contrast with another group of (similar) regions. The cluster analysis identifies two groups of high similar values ( most-favored regions ) and low similar values ( least-favored regions ). A picture of the geographical distribution of welfare components is obtained, and changes over time are compared. The inequality results and the results from the cluster analysis form the main findings of our study.

    The empirical results with respect to the welfare components are presented in Part III. Health facilities and health status are studied separately (Chapter 5). A substantial part of Chapter 5 is focused on health facilities. The inclusion of geographical effects ( spatialspillovers ) resulting from the contiguity (or geographical proximity) between geographical units forms the major contribution of this study. Spatial spillovers across geographical areas are inevitable since individuals can commute from their own area to contiguous areas when health facilities are not available in the home area. A procedure is developed to incorporate contiguity into the analysis. The geographical units considered for contiguity are provinces which are the smaller territorial divisions of regions.

    In the method developed for incorporating contiguity, the level of facilities available in a certain province is considered to consist of the facilities in the own province plus the facilities located in contiguous provinces weighted by spatial weights . Spatial weights used here correspond to the simple inverse distance (optimal distance by road) between the provincial capital of the Spanish provinces and the provincial capital in contiguous provinces. For health facilities and health status the notion of contiguous provinces refers to first-order contiguous provinces connected at the first order of contiguity . The first order of contiguity describes two provinces that have a common boundary, common vertex or both. The use of this order of contiguity is justified as patients seek a first contact with doctors or specialized treatment and diagnosis at the nearest place to their home province.

    The results show improvements in inequality with respect to health facilities are between 1981 and 1991. The sharp drop in inequality coincides with the enactment of the 1986 Health act (LGS). In addition there is also an important decline in the components of between-region inequality between 1981 and 1991. It is possible that regional policies and the devolution of power in health issues in the mid-eighties may have caused changes in the pattern of regional inequality.

    The regionalisation process of the health system may also have had important implications for regions with transferred powers in health issues. In these regions the results reveal that within-region inequality decreases between 1981 and 1991. So it is possible that the regional policies have resulted in a more uniform distribution of health facilities within certain regions. The geographical distribution of facilities obtained using cluster analysis reveals a North-South pattern with facilities located mostly in the North of Spain. The group of most-favoured regions consists of regions with transferred powers, regions which are central places like Madrid, and regions with certain socio-economic characteristics. It is suggested, therefore, that the geographical distribution of facilities may be affected by the socio-economic conditions of regions.

    The comparison of the contiguity and non-contiguity cases reveals that there are important spatial effects, especially among the regions situated in the North and the Centre of the Iberian Peninsula. Geographical proximity benefits only a few number of regions resulting in a dramatic increase in inequality in the contiguity case. When contiguity is not taken into account, the results for inequality show a very different impact for health policies. Inequality with respect to health status is investigated, but the results obtained are not very satisfactory possibly because of inaccuracies in the data used.

    Education facilities and education enrollment are studied in Chapter 6. With respect to education facilities, spatial spillovers are also incorporated since education is one of the most common causes of individuals commuting. But contiguity is not often taken into account in the literature on education. For computing available facilities in secondary education, the first order of contiguity is considered. The available facilities for university education consist of facilities located in contiguous provinces at the first order of contiguity plus the second order of contiguity, (plus the facilities in Madrid and Barcelona for 1964 and 1974). Here a second order of contiguity is defined as between two contiguous provinces, one of them being first-order contiguous (facilities in provinces adjacent to the neighbouring province).

    The results for inequality with respect to education facilities show that inequality has declined between 1974 and 1991. This may be due to the promotion of non-compulsory education. Over the last few decades the Spanish government has pursued a policy intended to distribute university and vocational training facilities more evenly. The increase in the contribution to inequality of between-region inequality between 1981 and 1991 may be due to the impact of regional policies.

    Intra-regional disparities are more important in Castilla León, Castilla la Mancha, and Andalucía. All these regions are bound by similar regional characteristics such as limited industry, abundant potential in natural resources, predominance of agriculture and their geographical situation in the Centre and South of the Iberian Peninsula. In addition, these three regions cover 53% of the Iberian Peninsula and 52% of the total land size. Regional authorities in Andalucía are responsible for education powers while there has been no devolution of power in Castilla León and Castilla la Mancha. The socio-economic characteristics of these regions appear to be more influential with respect to inequality than autonomy. The geographical distribution of facilities with respect to education has changed dramatically between the 60s and the 90s. This result from cluster analysis shows that changes in education policies have affected inequality.

    Spillover effects have improved the education facilities in the Spanish regions resulting in smaller values of overall inequality in the contiguity case compared to the non-contiguity. Spatial spillovers are observed in the Centre of Spain in 1991 between the region of Aragón and its first or second order neighbours (Madrid, Cataluña and Navarra). Further, the trends in inequality in the contiguity case are more in line with the policy measures than results in the non-contiguity case. So the inclusion of spillovers in the contiguity case seems to be a good approach for the study of inequality.

    Education enrollment in the non-compulsory education is also investigated in Chapter 6. The results for overall inequality and the inequality decomposition with respect to enrollment are very similar to those for education facilities. The results suggest that education facilities and education enrollment have been influenced by policy measures and the regionalisation process.

    Trends in inequality with respect to household consumption and housing conditions are analysed in Chapter 7. The results suggest that the magnitudes, and the trends for inequality that might be expected with respect to household incomes are similar to those obtained with respect to household expenditures. Inequality in household consumption and housing conditions has narrowed significantly over the last four decades. This is consistent with the changes in the economic situation which occurred during this period.

    Finally, Chapter 8 summarises and discusses the main conclusions based on the findings in this study. One of the main conclusions is that the procedure that we develop for the longitudinal analysis of multidimensional inequality in the welfare components is successful and performs satisfactory. In addition, spatial spillovers must be taken into account by using the procedure developed for incorporating contiguity. When contiguity is considered a more accurate picture of inequality is obtained. With respect to the empirical findings in this study, we conclude that firstly, the setting up of the welfare system and the social policies undertaken over the last few decades in education and health have had important consequences for inequality. Secondly, the impact of the regionalisation process on inequality with respect to education and health also appears to be important. New insights with respect to the relationship between welfare policies and the actual changes in welfare inequality may be provided by extending the present analysis.

    More jobs per drop : targeting irrigation to poor women and men
    Koppen, B. van - \ 1998
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): C. Safiliou - Rothschild; L. Stroosnijder. - S.l. : Van Koppen - ISBN 9789054859109 - 187
    irrigatie - armoede - participatie - vrouwen - nationaal vermogen - vermogensverdeling - irrigation - poverty - participation - women - national wealth - wealth distribution

    Research theme
    The central theme of this thesis is the relation between irrigation development and gendered poverty alleviation in rural areas in developing countries. The focus is on the role of the irrigation sector. The sector comprises national and international governmental and non-commercial non-governmental agencies which develop irrigation infrastructure. They provide organizational, technical, and financial support to that end and participate in arranging the vesting of rights to the improved resources of irrigated land and water. The research questions concern, firstly, the effects of access by poor men and women to irrigated land and water on both poverty alleviation and productivity; secondly, inclusion and exclusion processes in irrigation; and, thirdly the role of the irrigation sector in these processes. This provides insight into the agencies' targeting of their support, and into the factors that critically contribute to vesting rights to irrigated land and water in poor men and women, and, hence, to poverty alleviation and productivity.

    The analysis explicitly includes rural women. They constitute the majority of the poor. Improvement of their incomes strongly contributes to family welfare and to the reduction of fertility rates. A gender-differentiated analysis requires the distinction of intra-household production units and women's and men's own resource rights.

    Method
    The three research questions are addressed in a review of global literature (Chapter Two, Three and Four), and in two field studies on external irrigation support for rice cultivation. The case in Burkina Faso concerns public irrigation by a state agency. The intervention is accompanied by land expropriation and reallocation. Ten subsequently constructed schemes are studied. Rice cultivation is a female cropping system in the region (Chapter Five). The subject in Bangladesh is NGO-supported private pump ownership by groups of marginal farmers and landless women and men, who use the water for irrigating their own household land and for sale. A country-wide study is made of 52 irrigation groups in which the irrigation loans are taken in women's names. They are supported by six NGOs. Irrigated rice cultivation is a male cropping system there (Chapter Six).

    Irrigation, poverty alleviation and productivity
    Access to irrigated land and water by poor men and women generally improves their well-being (Chapter Two). Water is often a leading input for agricultural intensification, and for stabilization and growth of production during a longer period of the year. It fits the needs of farmers in increasingly smaller holdings. Water sale by smallholders and landless people provides an income, in principle. Remarking these positive effects is not to deny that lack of access to irrigated land and water is only one aspect of the state of multidimensional deprivation which poverty is. Improved access is not necessarily the most urgent need, the sufficient solution, nor the most feasible solution. It is a potential solution for only part of the world's poor. It is a sustainable solution only if the ecological resource base is conserved.

    The field study in Burkina Faso highlights the importance of women's own resource rights for their own well-being and for family welfare, and also for improved productivity. In Bangladesh, however, there appear to be hardly or no economic benefits from water sale for most irrigation groups. On the other hand, the non-economic status of women members of irrigation groups tends to improve, in the sense of women's self-concept and public behavior and their status within the family and the community.

    In many circumstances, access to irrigated land and water by the poor not only alleviates poverty but also leads to higher productivity (Chapter Two). Evidence shows that agricultural output per unit of land in smaller irrigated holdings is higher than in larger holdings. This relative higher productivity may disappear, however, if large farmers adopt large-scale mechanization; secondly, if the poor have limited access to other agricultural inputs; and, thirdly, if income diversification strategies lead the poor to take up employment far from home. There is also considerable evidence in the literature that gender by itself does not effect a farmer's production efficiency. The case studies also indicate the relatively good performance of poor producers and water sellers. In female cropping systems, like rice cultivation by most ethnic groups studied in the Burkina Faso case, women are the main producers.

    Evidence in the literature shows that if larger farmers obtain access to irrigated land and water, this may provide paid employment and a commercial offer of water to smallholders, and thus alleviate poverty indirectly. An increased food supply lowers the food prices. However, the effects are limited since the larger farmers largely set the terms of inclusion. The purchasing power of poor net buyers of food may still be too limited to buy the increased food supply. Poor net producers of food, on the other hand, benefit from high food prices. Moreover, access to irrigated land and water by larger farmers can also be at the direct expense of the poor. Such competition is likely to become more severe with growing water scarcity. Therefore, the irrigation sector contributes optimally to both poverty alleviation and productivity by targeting the poor and avoiding leakage of external support to the non-poor.

    Targeting
    The contribution that the irrigation sector can make to poverty alleviation and increased productivity, given its mandate and core competence, is in vesting rights to irrigated land and water primarily in poor men and women, and redressing existing imbalances in resource rights in favor of the poor. The role of the irrigation sector in providing some users' groups with access to newly developed irrigated land and water, and excluding others, is identified in Chapters Three and Four, and empirically researched in the field studies. The type of irrigation support, the phase of a scheme, and the communication networks at the interface of agency and local people, are important variables in these inclusion and exclusion processes.

    The influence of the agency is especially strong in public irrigation, which is defined as irrigation in which the external agencies bear most of the costs of the infrastructure. Agencies usually have a powerful say in the physical design, and as investors their definition of their own claims and the users' claims to the water tends to be seen as legitimate. In private irrigation the water users are the main investors in the infrastructure. These private investors largely decide on the physical characteristics of the scheme and dispose of the water conveyed. The steering role of agencies is indirect and usually more limited.

    The definition of rights, and the role of agencies, differ according to the phase of a scheme. Usually the most important negotiations on the rights to irrigated land and water take place when infrastructure is newly constructed. Participation in these investments, either in cash or kind, are a firm basis to claim rights to the fruits in later phases, and over the generations. New construction is rare nowadays. Instead, the major redefinition of water rights occurs in irrigation management transfer and rehabilitation programs.

    It is an empirical question in which social fields the expropriation and reallocation of resource rights of users are negotiated under intervention, but, generally, these fields are embedded in the communication networks between local people and external agencies. Processes of inclusion and exclusion of the poor take place in these fields. If the poor are included in these networks, this network is called an 'inclusive forum'. Any new initiative of the agency, such as rehabilitation or irrigation management transfer, entails more or less substantially restructuring the local networks and redefining their competences.

    From the analysis of inclusion and exclusion processes in externally supported irrigation development, according to the literature and as studied in the field, it is concluded that there is considerable scope to improve the performance of the irrigation sector in vesting rights to irrigated land and water primarily in poor men and women, and in avoiding leakage. A combination of the following factors in agencies' targeting approaches appears to be pivotal.

    Organizational support
    Targeting support is only possible if agencies work through inclusive forums at local level, composed of the priority target groups. The earlier these forums are established in an intervention process, the fewer rights become vested in the non-poor, which would hamper the later inclusion of new groups, in particular the poor. Organizational support in creating this forum is required, since poor women and men are usually not organized to that end.

    By now, several governmental and non-governmental irrigation agencies worldwide have succeeded in establishing such forums. These agencies have explicit and clear target group criteria, and adhere to those criteria during implementation. Culturally appropriate forms for effective participation of women in mixed-sex forums are created as well. Women are even the majority of the members of such forums in, for example, NGO-supported groups in Bangladesh.

    Poor people's existing organizations, and their motivation to be included in irrigation development, provide a substantive basis for these inclusive forums. In the later schemes studied in Burkina Faso, inclusive forums with women emerged even in spite of the male-biased targeting approach of the project management, which they had already implemented in earlier schemes. Such inclusion better fitted the prevailing social relations of production, for which the field staff was more receptive than the management.

    A rather poorly documented but important factor in excluding the poor from irrigation development appears to be the tendency of agencies themselves to confine their interactions to the decentralized branches of administrative and technical ministries, and to the local people who have most contacts with these institutions. These communication channels are dominated by the male local elite. By defining irrigation development as a matter of neutral tasks, and by failing to specify who at local level is supposed to participate and to be vested with the rights to these resources, the male elite act as a quick and effective partner in implementing these tasks. Tight implementation schedules and task-oriented reward structures for agencies' staff foster this. Within these task-oriented local networks, the elite easily claim the rights to the newly developed resources. In the early schemes studied in Burkina Faso, women lost their former land rights in this way, whereas men were endowed with rights they traditionally never had. The project's unrealistic concept of the unitary household farm represented by the male head was instrumental in this.

    The social fields in which rights are defined evolve over time as the social fields in which rights are implemented. In the use phase this social field is currently called a water users' organization. Membership of these organizations is closely related to having legitimate rights to irrigated land and water. Exclusion of women implicitly takes place if rights are vested in households, thought to be represented by the male head. Womens' inclusion requires the separate vesting of rights in both men and women. Poor land users with weak land rights are included as potential right holders if water rights are disconnected from land ownership. The recognition of pre-project rights, including those according to local legal systems, as a basis to vest new rights is likely to favor the poor, who, in the past, often lost their former rights without compensation.

    Only through inclusive forums can technical and financial support reach the poor. The types of technical and financial support, in their turn, further shape the organizational support required.

    Technical support
    In public irrigation, the technical support in the construction, operation and maintenance of infrastructure entails major inclusion or exclusion processes in two respects. Firstly, the site-selection, layout and division structures heavily influence whose land can be irrigated, and how well. If land tenure in the command area does not change, the physical design directly determines whether the poor or the non-poor obtain access to irrigated land. In the past, the non-poor have often been favored in this way. If land reform in the command area is possible or needed, this usually offers good opportunities to provide primarily the poor with access to irrigated land. However, these opportunities are rarely used. Land expropriation even ousted poor men and especially poor women not only in Burkina Faso but also elsewhere.

    Secondly, agencies in public irrigation can vest users' rights to the newly developed water, and sometimes to irrigated land as well, by arranging co-investments in construction and maintenance work in the form of labor and/or other contributions. An effective means to include the poor is explicitly opening up these opportunities to poor men and women. Timely and transparent procedures better guarantee that investments by the poor are effectively linked to rights. Poor women have often been entirely excluded from these opportunities, or their investments did not lead to rights as they did for men.

    In private irrigation, the poor obtain access to irrigated land and water as owners of equipment if appropriate equipment and energy sources are available. Commercial technology often does not fit these needs, or collective ownership is needed. The latter has been studied in Bangladesh. A free technology choice for optimal adaptation to local conditions, is primordial. Some NGOs develop appropriate equipment for small-scale or individual use.

    Financial support
    Investments in infrastructure are often the most costly part of irrigation. The poor typically lack the access to capital and to longer-term credit facilities that prosperous farmers tend to have. Hence, subsidized investments in public irrigation infrastructure should support the poor especially in obtaining access to irrigated land and water. In reality, however, these funds for irrigated land and water development have often leaked to the well-off. In private irrigation longer-term credit facilities for the poor are primordial. The study in Bangladesh shows that the poor take even substantial risks as soon as these credits are available. Therefore, sound feasibility studies and safety nets are warranted.

    The poorest of the poor tend to be excluded as owners of modern infrastructure, because they lack a minimal regular source of income for long-term repayment of credits. They remain largely dependent on the targeting efforts of irrigation agencies in public and private irrigation, and on the terms of inclusion set by private or semi-private owners of infrastructure, who sell the water.

    Order information

    Ordering copies 'More jobs per drop: targeting irrigation to poor women and men' by Barbara van Koppen
    ISBN 90 683201242
    Price f 49,-

    Via:
    KIT Publishers
    Postbus 95001
    1090 HA Amsterdam
    Tel. 31 20 5688406
    Fax31 20 5688286
    Email kitpress@kit.nl

    Or via:
    IT Publications
    103-105 Southampton Row
    London WC1B 4HH
    United Kingdom
    Tel 44 171 436 9761
    Fax 44 171 436 2013

    Or via:
    Eiron Inc.
    P.O. Box 40072
    Washington D.C. 20016
    USA
    Tel 1 202 966 3240
    Fax 1 202 244 0913
    Email Eironinc@aol.com

    Welvaartsfuncties in de landbouw : ontwikkeling en toepassing
    Kingma, D. - \ 1995
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): A.J. Oskam; A. Kapteyn. - S.l. : Kingma - ISBN 9789054854029 - 185
    landbouw - landbouwbeleid - inkomen - inkomsten uit het landbouwbedrijf - bevolking - armoede - familiebedrijven, landbouw - agrarische economie - nederland - bezit - inkomensbeleid - vermogensverdeling - arbeid in de landbouw - agriculture - agricultural policy - income - farm income - human population - poverty - family farms - agricultural economics - netherlands - property - income policy - wealth distribution - farm labour

    An individual's well-being (also referred to as welfare or utility) is intimately linked to the extent to which the desires and wishes of that individual are fulfilled, and pain and distress avoided. These desires can relate to various aspects of daily life. Some pertain to economics, others are more sociological in nature. The economic aspect that has received the most attention is income. In this respect income has a very broad meaning: command over commodities. It covers elements such as income distribution, wealth and its distribution, poverty, etc. Closely related to income and income distribution is the division of time between labour and leisure (in some instances also time spent in the household). To a large extent the distribution of time between labour (paid time) and leisure (unpaid time) determines the amount of income an individual can earn, In addition, the choice of a particular job (at least if one has the option of choosing) also has implications regarding the amount of income. Some aspects of life usually considered as belonging to the field of sociology such as health, education, safety, social relations and feelings of fear, have nonetheless received an increasing interest of economists (Becker, 1965; Rosen, 1986).

    This research concerns income and labour in agriculture. Literature on agricultural economics devides income research into three general categories:
    -income formation and income distribution in agriculture
    -comparison of incomes earned inside and outside agriculture - research on the incidence of poverty in rural areas.
    Research on labour is mainly concerned with:
    -the quality of jobs: working conditions, education, on-the job-training, etc.
    -the amount of work done: for example, how many hours a day does a farmer work.

    In this study a special kind of utility function (Van Praag, 1968) is used to describe farm families' preferences with respect to income and labour. This socalled individual welfare function is a cardinally measurable utility function. This function was originally derived as a lognormal distribution function. Up to now most applications of this special utility function have been aimed at deriving the welfare function of income.

    The univariate lognormal distribution function is determined by two parameters, μand σ. In order to measure the welfare function of income, that is, to estimate the parameters μand σthe 'Income Evaluation Question' was developed. Under the assumption that utility can be measured directly, respondents to surveys have to specify the amounts of income they associate with verbal qualifications such as 'very bad', 'bad', etc. The parameters of the welfare function can be estimated using those evaluations, making some special assumption about the way those surveyed provide these evaluations (the so-called 'equal interval' assumption). Differences in estimated parameter values can be explained by the differences in economic and demographic background among the people being surveyed.

    The welfare function of labour is measured in a way that is analogous to the welfare function of income. In the labour evaluation, respondents express their feelings about two different, yet related aspects of labour. First, working on the farm provides 'psychic income' for the workers involved. Therefore, to a certain extent, labour will be evaluated positively. Second, the provision of labour reduces the amount of leisure time available. This aspect of labour provision is evaluated negatively. According to the theory of the welfare function, the evaluation of both aspects of labour can be approximated by a bivariate lognormal distribution function (Van Praag, 1968; Van de Stadt, 1983). The four parameters of this specification are measured similarly to the welfare function of income. Survey respondents are asked to answer the 'Labour Evaluation Question', which indicates a range of hypothetical working hours. The respondent is supposed to give a (numerical) evaluation for the various working hours relevant to him or her. As the bivariate lognormal distribution function is rather demanding as far as the number of parameters to be estimated is concerned, additional specifications such as a gamma and a beta specification were also estimated. Just as with the welfare function of income, differences in parameters can partly be attributed to differences in the respondents' economic and demographic circumstances.

    Both the welfare function of income and that of labour should be considered partial welfare functions. When evaluating working hours, income is assumed to be constant, whereas the amount of working hours is constant when evaluating different amounts of income. According to the theory of the welfare function, the simultaneous evaluation of income and labour should be specified as the product of the partial welfare functions (at least whenever the aspects evaluated, in this case income and labour, are independent). It will probably be very difficult for a respondent to evaluate an amount of income that is very high (or very low), compared with that respondent's usual income, without (even if implicitly) changing the amount of labour involved. The same is true when evaluating labour. Respondents might relate different amounts of working time to changes in income. This means that any simultaneous evaluation of income and labour based on such partial evaluations can only be valid when conducted within the scope of respondents' own actual labourlincome combinations. In addition to the (theoretically correct) specification as a product of partial welfare functions, the simultaneous evaluation of income and labour has also been specified as the (convex) weighted sum of the partial evaluations.

    The parameters of the welfare function are estimated using survey results. The answers to the specific evaluation questions (the 'Income Evaluation Question' and the 'Labour Evaluation Question') are particularly relevant in the estimation procedure. For the purpose of estimating the welfare function of farm families in the Netherlands, a small sample of farmers (arable, dairy, intensivelivestock, and others) was chosen from among the Dutch farm population. In addition to answering the evaluation questions, respondents were also requested to provide information about the technical characteristics of their farms and the demographic characteristics of their farm families. Contrary to most previous applications, the evaluation questions were put to both the farmers and their wifes (if present). Although the sample used is certainly not a perfect reflection of the Dutch farm population, the farms selected seem to have provided a reasonable picture of farm type subgroups within the population.

    As far as the preferences regarding income are concerned, the results broadly correspond to those for the Dutch population. (For results concerning the population at large, see, e.g. Kapteyn, 1977). It generally takes a higher income to satisfy a farmer than it does to satisfy his spouse. This fact has been explained in Kapteyn et al., 1986.
    Past incomes do affect perceived satisfaction with certain amounts of income in the present. This is the so-called 'preference drift'. Because of the highly fluctuating incomes of farmers, this effect is less pronounced for the farm population than for the average Dutch citizen. Using some kind of permanent income measure that fluctuates less than actual farm incomes, substantially reduces the differences between farmers and nonfarmers.
    The number of persons in a family can be considered an indication of the costs involved in feeding and clothing the family. Although family size does have a comparable effect on the farmer's income preferences, as in studies covering the Dutch population, family size has a much greater effect on the preferences of the farmer's wife. This is due to the fact that previous research only addressed the income evaluation question to the head of the family, in most cases a man.
    The welfare function of income can be used to calculate parity incomes for different groups of farmers. Group A earns a parity income compared with group B when both groups are equally satisfied with their incomes. Based upon the (small) sample, intensive-livestock farmers seem to be the most satisfied with their incomes, whereas arable farmers are the least satisfied. In general, farmers seem to be less satisfied with their incomes than the average Dutch citizen. It should be kept in mind however, that this observation is related to the period of the survey. In different circumstances the comparison result could very well be reversed.

    The evaluation of labour is not monotonically decreasing in time, as is almost always assumed in neoclassical economics. If only a small number of hours is worked on the farm, the perceived sense of well-being increases. If the amount of labour exceeds a certain number of hours, perceived welfare decreases. The increase in perceived welfare is the result of 'psychic income' derived by farmers working their farms. The welfare perception eventually starts decreasing as the amount of leisure time is reduced due to increasing labour time. Various specifications of the welfare function of labour have been estimated. The lognormal specification fit the data best.
    As with the parameters of the welfare function of income, habit formation determines to some degree the estimated values of the parameters of the welfare function of labour.

    The combination of the welfare function of income and the welfare function of labour results in the welfare function of income and labour. If both partial evaluations are independent, then the combined welfare function is the product of the partial welfare functions. The cardinality of the welfare function makes it possible to determine the unique welfare levels of the indifference curves.
    The shape of the indifference curves is different than in the neoclassical case because of the 'psychic income' derived from working, whether it is on the farm or elsewhere.
    The amount of income needed to persuade a farmer to work an extra hour (the so- called marginal rate of transformation) can be calculated from the estimated welfare function of income and labour. The interpretation of the calculated values is rather difficult. Compared with the values in other research (based on neoclassical assumptions), the calculated rates of transformation based on the welfare- function are very high.

    Given that farmers would have the same preferences regarding on-farm and off-farm labour, calculations based on neoclassical assumptions show that the on-farm amount of labour for individual farmers is not compatible with utilitymaximizing behaviour. Because farmers are working too many hours, their wage rate, measured by the value of the marginal product, is low. Nonfarming wage rates in 'comparable' jobs are higher. Here farmers could earn a higher income with presumably less labour. One reason why farmers do not leave agriculture is that in the above comparison an incorrect value for the opportunity cost of farm labour is used in calculating off-farm income opportunities. Nonagricultural wage rates for current farmers would be even lower than their agricultural wage rates. There is also the chance that the right kind of jobs (part-time, close to the farm) are not available. Another explanation is that the income measure is too restricted. In addition to providing money, farming also supplies other kinds of income (e.g. housing, home- grown goods, etc.). From this point of view, farmers' incomes would not be (relatively) low as long as all components were adequately assessed. Another explanation takes preferences towards labour into account. It could be that farmers have such preferences (with respect to farm labour), that they are satisfied with a relatively low reward.

    The results based on the welfare function of income do not confirm explanations concerning income, as such. Farmers are less satisfied with their money income than workers outside agriculture. Obviously non-money income does not fully compensate for the low money reward. When preferences regarding labour and income are simultaneously taken into account, in order to justify an additional hour of work, the wage rate should be substantially higher than the marginal wage rate calculated in previous (neoclassical) research. So, even when preferences towards farm labour are taken into account, it is still impossible to explain the low wage rates in agriculture.

    The high values for farmers' transformation rates, based on their preferences regarding income and labour, do not fit with the incidence of low agricultural wage rates. One explanation could be that the welfare function should contain other arguments besides income and labour. Or perhaps attention should be paid to nonagricultural circumstances in order to discover why farmers are so reluctant to leave agriculture. Despite the fact that circumstances in agriculture do not concur with farmers' preferences, farmers seem to be trapped in agriculture without any opportunities for leaving and taking a job elsewhere. This inquiry into the preferences of farm families cannot, by itself, provide the ultimate answer to the question of why farmers remain farmers.

    Gender, economic growth and poverty : market growth and state planning in Asia and the Pacific
    Heyzer, N. ; Sen, G. - \ 1994
    Utrecht [etc.] : IB - ISBN 9789062249848 - 395
    asia - development projects - economic growth - microeconomics - pacific islands - planning - poverty - women - national wealth - wealth distribution - azië - ontwikkelingsprojecten - economische groei - micro-economie - pacifische eilanden - armoede - vrouwen - nationaal vermogen - vermogensverdeling
    Werkloze hoofdkostwinners in Friesland en hun omgang met geld.
    Ophem, J.A.C. van - \ 1990
    Tijdschrift voor huishoudkunde 11 (1990)3. - ISSN 0169-1295 - p. 65 - 72.
    budgetten - samenstelling - uitgaven voor consumptie - consumptie - gezinnen - huishoudelijke consumptie - huishouduitgaven - huishoudens - inkomen - armoede - sociale structuur - sociaal welzijn - sociologie - structuur - werkloosheid - financieel beheer - friesland - nationaal vermogen - personen - vermogensverdeling - budgets - composition - consumer expenditure - consumption - families - household consumption - household expenditure - households - income - poverty - social structure - social welfare - sociology - structure - unemployment - financial management - friesland - national wealth - persons - wealth distribution
    Bespreking van een onderzoek naar de economische omstandigheden en het arbeidsmarktgedrag van langdurig werklozen in Friesland
    Financieel management en het conventionele huishouden.
    Ophem, J.A.C. van; Knippers, E.W. - \ 1990
    Tijdschrift voor huishoudkunde 11 (1990)1. - ISSN 0169-1295 - p. 15 - 19.
    samenstelling - consumptie - gezinnen - financiële planning - huishoudens - nederland - armoede - structuur - financieel beheer - nationaal vermogen - vermogensverdeling - composition - consumption - families - financial planning - households - netherlands - poverty - structure - financial management - national wealth - wealth distribution
    Zuinigheid met vlijt bouwt huizen als kastelen.
    Hoog, C. de - \ 1989
    Tijdschrift voor huishoudkunde 10 (1989)4. - ISSN 0169-1295 - p. 101 - 104.
    samenstelling - consumptie - gezinnen - huishoudens - laag inkomen - armoede - structuur - financieel beheer - nationaal vermogen - personen - vermogensverdeling - composition - consumption - families - households - low income - poverty - structure - financial management - national wealth - persons - wealth distribution
    Beschouwing over armoede in relatie tot huishoudelijk handelen
    Inkomen en vermogensvorming op het gezinsbedrijf
    Veer, J. de - \ 1982
    Den Haag : L.E.I. (Mededeling / Landbouw-Economisch Instituut no. 279) - 11
    familiebedrijven, landbouw - armoede - landbouw - bedrijfsresultaten in de landbouw - rentabiliteit - inkomen - bevolking - nederland - bezit - vermogensverdeling - family farms - poverty - agriculture - farm results - profitability - income - human population - netherlands - property - wealth distribution
    Inleiding over inkomen, vermogensvorming en reserveringen in verschillende takken van de Nederlandse landbouw en verschillende ondernemingssituaties: bedrijven die naar continuiteit streven (jonge boeren, bedrijven met opvolgers) en bedrijven met oudere boeren zonder opvolgers
    Check title to add to marked list

    Show 20 50 100 records per page

     
    Please log in to use this service. Login as Wageningen University & Research user or guest user in upper right hand corner of this page.