Staff Publications

Staff Publications

  • external user (warningwarning)
  • Log in as
  • language uk
  • About

    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

    We have a manual that explains all the features 

    Current refinement(s):

    Records 1 - 50 / 93

    • help
    • print

      Print search results

    • export

      Export search results

    Check title to add to marked list
    Understanding poverty-related diseases in Cameroon from a salutogenic perspective
    Makoge, Valerie - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): M.A. Koelen, co-promotor(en): H. Maat; H.W. Vaandrager. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463434515 - 193
    armoede - kameroen - malaria - tyfus - acquired immune deficiency syndrome - hiv-infecties - cholera - tuberculose - diarree - gezondheidsgedrag - gezondheidsvoorzieningen - spanningen - poverty - cameroon - malaria - typhoid - acquired immune deficiency syndrome - hiv infections - cholera - tuberculosis - diarrhoea - health behaviour - health services - stresses

    Poverty-related diseases (PRDs) assume poverty as a determinant in catching disease and an obstacle for cure and recovery. In Cameroon, over 48 % of the population lives below the poverty line. This dissertation starts from the premise that the relation between poverty and disease is mediated by a person’s capacity to cope with the challenges posed by the natural and social environment. The central problem addressed is that in (inter)national health promotion, disease eradication is overemphasized whereas strengthening the capacity of people to cope with harsh conditions is disregarded. Research efforts show a similar division in emphasis, resulting in a limited understanding of the way people deal with health challenges in conditions of poverty. This dissertation is based on the salutogenic model of health that emphasizes the combined effects of (natural) disease conditions, mental conditions and social factors as determinants of health. This implies an emphasis on health as a positive strategy to deal with stressors and also an emphasis on the agency of people to respond to challenges that hamper their health and wellbeing. The study is carried out among two different groups of people in Cameroon. These are workers including dependants of workers of the Cameroon Development Corporation (CDC) and students from the universities of Buea and Yaoundé. The overall aim of this dissertation is to understand how conditions of poverty impact the health of people and how they manage these challenges. Specifically, the study aims to unravel the interlinkages between poverty and health by creating a deeper understanding of the social and material dynamics which enable people’s capacity to preserve health, anticipate health risks, and mitigate or recover from stressors such as PRDs. The main research question addressed is: What factors underlie the maintenance of good health and overcoming stressors in the face of PRDs in Cameroon?

    Different research methods were used to collect data. Interviews were carried out with respondents from both groups addressing PRDs, other stressors and coping strategies. General surveys were carried out to identify perceptions as well as health behaviour patterns across the two groups. Standardised surveys were carried out to measure individual factors such as sense of coherence, resilience, self-efficacy, subjective well-being and self-rated health. Results presented in different empirical chapters of the thesis each respond to a specific research question. In Chapters 2 and 3 are presented surveys with 272 students and 237 camp-dwellers respectively. Perceptions, attributed causes of, and responses towards PRDs are explored as well as motivations for given responses to health challenges. In chapter 4, a qualitative study with 21 camp-dwellers and 21 students is presented in which the dynamics of health-seeking behaviour is highlighted. In this chapter also, factors which are influential in seeking formal healthcare are indicated. Chapter 5 elaborates on what people experience as stressors and the mechanisms they put in place to cope with the stressors. In this chapter, not only is the diversity of stressors outlined for both groups, but also presented are the different identified coping mechanisms put in place by respondents. Chapter 6 which is the last empirical chapter presents coping with PRDs through an analysis of individual, demographic and environmental factors.

    Based on the studies carried out, this thesis concludes that the two groups investigated are very aware of what PRDs are and can differentiate them from common diseases. Major PRDs listed by the two groups of respondents were malaria, cholera and diarrhoea. This classification is different from what is considered major PRDs by (inter)national health bodies such as the World Health Organisation and the Ministry of Public Health in Cameroon. Also, organisations such as CDC and Universities, offer limited contributions towards better health for camp-dwellers and students respectively. This is experienced relative to the living conditions, quality of the healthcare system and poor work or study conditions. That notwithstanding, people play an active role in maintaining their health through diverse coping mechanisms. Coping was most strongly related to enabling individual factors such as sense of coherence and subjective health, perceptions of effective strategies to respond to diseases as well as social factors such as the meaningful activities in the social groups to which they belong. The results presented in this thesis are intended to contribute to sustainable and effective response strategies towards PRDs.

    Stadium Coltan : artisanal mining, reforms and social change in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo
    Wakenge, Claude Iguma - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): D.J.M. Hilhorst, co-promotor(en): K. Vlassenroot; J.G.R. Cuvelier. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463434560 - 210
    mining - conflict - economic sociology - cooperatives - reconstruction - poverty - rural sociology - workers - feedstocks - minerals - congo democratic republic - central africa - mijnbouw - conflict - economische sociologie - coöperaties - reconstructie - armoede - rurale sociologie - werkers - industriële grondstoffen - mineralen - democratische republiek kongo - centraal-afrika

    In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the mining sector has the potential to play a pivotal role in post-conflict reconstruction (World Bank, 2008), and artisanal mining sustains the livelihoods of millions people in the country (PACT, 2010). However, in the last 15 years, minerals from this artisanal mining have been ill-reputed. Eastern DRC has often been characterised by chronic instability and violent conflicts (Autesserre, 2010; Stearns, 2011) because it is widely believed that minerals in this region have attracted the greed of national and foreign armed groups, who benefit from the mining business.

    Although this ‘greed hypothesis’ has been criticised for its inconsistent performance in explaining resource-related conflicts (Le Billon, 2010; Ross, 2006), various national and international reform initiatives have gained momentum (Verbruggen et al., 2011). These initiatives aim to make the Congolese artisanal mining sector more transparent and to prevent ‘conflict minerals’ from entering the international market. In 2014, 13 reform initiatives—10 focusing on 3T (tantalum, tin and tungsten) and three on gold—were operational in eastern DRC (Cuvelier et al. 2014: 5). The implicit assumptions are that mining reforms will fully ‘clean’ artisanal mining of violence and corruption and that this will contribute to sustaining people’s livelihoods (Garrett and Mitchell, 2009: 12).

    This study investigated initiatives intended to ‘formalise’ artisanal mining in DRC—in other words, they aimed to bring mining under state control. The study especially focuses on the effects of one among these initiatives—the ITRI Tin Supply Chain Initiative (iTSCi)—on two groups of actors: miners (creuseurs) and middlemen (négociants). This thesis thus presents a fine-grained case study of the iTSCi. Designed by the International Tin Research Institute in 2009, iTSCi provides a means of determining the origin of 3T and documenting the trading chain for these minerals by ‘tagging and bagging’ the loads of 3T near miners’ shafts (at postes d’achat/selling points or buying stations), at counting offices (comptoirs) and in mineral depots, before the minerals are exported through the international market.

    This is a qualitative study undertaken at three coltan mining sites of northern Katanga: Kahendwa, Kisengo and Mai-Baridi. Coltan has been extracted at these sites since 2007. From March 2013 to September 2014, data were collected using participant observation of people’s practices (extraction/sale of coltan and various types of interactions between trading houses, cooperatives, mineworkers (creuseurs) and middlemen (négociants), as well as detailed in-depth interviews with creuseurs, négociants and their households. Data were also collected from the staff of mining cooperatives, trading houses, state authorities and civil servants—predominantly of the Service d’Assistance et d’Encadrement du Small-Scale Mining (SAESSCAM) and the Division des Mines. The last group of informants were a group of clandestine coltan négociants (known as hiboux—literally, ‘owls’), who were followed in the study.

    The purpose of this research is to study the micro-dynamics of changes after the reforms following the implementation of iTSCi. The study thus provides insights into how iTSCi is concretely implemented and how it has altered the organisation of mining and the trade of coltan. The study also aims to examine how this organisation affected creuseurs and négociants. The main research question of this study is as follows:

    How have initiatives to reform artisanal mining (iTSCi in particular) affected institutional change, how does this relate to changes in patterns of coltan production and trade, how were creuseurs and négociants affected by these changes, and how did these groups respond in the coltan mining areas of Kahendwa, Kisengo and Mai Baridi (northern Katanga) from 2009 to 2014?

    Analytically, the study adopted three main theoretical perspectives. First, an actor-oriented approach was taken, building on the premise that individual actors have the agency, knowledge and experience to reflect upon their situation and to respond to changes in their surrounding context (Giddens, 1984). Although the examined mining reforms consist predominantly of ‘ready-made’ techniques such as iTSCi’s ‘tagging and bagging’, analysing reforms with an actor orientation helps to highlight people’s reactions and responses. This includes how reform policies are applied in institutions (e.g. mining cooperatives), how they interact, how they are assigned meaning and how they are negotiated by social actors (Christoplos and Hilhorst, 2009).

    Second, the study builds on the sociology of economic life, which holds that economic action is a form of social action that is socially ‘embedded’, meaning that it is linked with or dependent on actions and institutions (such as social networks) that are noneconomic in content, goals and processes (Granovetter, 2005). This perspective facilitates the analysis of the livelihoods of négociants, including mechanisms of smuggling minerals into and beyond the mining areas where iTSCi is in force.

    Third, this thesis introduced the original concept of ‘enclaves of regulations’. These enclaves refer to the mining areas where iTSCi or other reforms are in force. This thesis has shown that, although these ‘enclaves’ appear to be ‘closed’ and insulated from the environment in terms of the locally applied rules for the mining and trading of minerals (e.g. ‘tagging and bagging’), in reality, such closure is not complete. This thesis has demonstrated that it would therefore be more appropriate to consider these ‘enclaves’ as semi-autonomous fields with porous boundaries.

    Apart from the introduction and the concluding chapters, this thesis is composed of five chapters. Chapter 2 explores the evolution of the mineral sector in the Katanga province. It analyses the history of mining, the initiation of artisanal mining and how the ongoing reforms have been informed by this history. In this chapter, it is shown that there is a long history of the organisation of mining in the Katangese province. The reforms therefore did not enter into a stage of anarchy, or an institutional void, but they added a layer to already existing forms of organisation.

    Chapter 3 focuses on mining cooperatives as newly introduced institutions aimed at governing the artisanal mining sites. Through a single case study, the chapter analyses how these cooperatives —especially the Coopérative des Artisanaux Miniers du Congo, CDMC—were introduced into the mining areas and how they interacted and blended with pre-existing miners’ organisations. This chapter demonstrates that cooperatives have been an emergent—rather than durable—solution in terms of representing the interests of artisanal miners.

    In Chapter 4, I provide a different perspective on ‘conflict minerals’. I thus introduce the notion of ‘reform conflicts’ to emphasise that, although ongoing reforms aim to sever the supposed linkages between the artisanal mining business and violent conflicts, these reforms have become a driving force behind the emergence of new conflicts over property rights and access to minerals.

    Chapter 5 is about livelihoods. It analyses how the reforms have influenced the livelihoods and socioeconomic position of négociants. This chapter also explores what kind of opportunities the reforms have offered to this group of mineral brokers often considered powerful in the mineral supply chain and explains what kind of constraints the négociants have confronted and why they have opted to diversify their livelihood portfolios. The chapter has shown that the reforms have affected this group of mineral brokers in different ways. Some négociants were well off, whereas others have been excluded from the mineral commodity chain. These findings contradict the widespread opinion that négociants are always abusive brokers in the mineral production and commodity chain.

    Chapter 6 analyses the responses of creuseurs and négociants to iTSCi. Although the mining sites where iTSCi is in force appear to be ‘enclaves of regulations’, I explore the strategies of creuseurs and négociants to bypass iTSCi and the reforms, especially around the coltan trade. This chapter demonstrates that coltan smuggling is a deeply rooted practice. Despite the reforms, smuggling continues in different forms.

    All of the elements highlighted above suggest that mining reforms have undergone a major shift, from addressing the initial problems associated with ‘conflict minerals’ to creating or reinforcing various types of problems, such as the influence of ‘big men’ in the mining business, coltan smuggling and the emergence of new conflicts over accessing minerals. This means that reform initiatives such as iTSCi should be based on knowledge about the actual situation. Thus, understanding and addressing these new types of problems calls for a comprehensive approach at both local and broader levels.

    Is sustainable development of semi-subsistence mixed crop-livestock systems possible? : an integrated assessment of Machakos, Kenya
    Valdivia, R.O. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tammo Bult, co-promotor(en): J. Antle; Jetse Stoorvogel. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578272 - 233
    sustainable development - development economics - livestock - cash crops - agriculture - mixed farming - development policy - policy - rural areas - poverty - farming - kenya - east africa - duurzame ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingseconomie - vee - marktgewassen - landbouw - gemengde landbouw - ontwikkelingsbeleid - beleid - platteland - armoede - landbouw bedrijven - kenya - oost-afrika

    Sub-Saharan Africa countries face the challenge of reducing rural poverty and reversing the declining trends of agricultural productivity and the high levels of soil nutrient depletion. Despite of numerous efforts and investments, high levels of poverty and resource degradation persist in African agriculture. The Millennium Development Goals Report (MDGR) states that the majority of people living below the poverty line of $1.25 a day belong to Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and South Asia. About two thirds of the global rural population lives in mixed crop-livestock systems (CLS), typical of SSA, where interactions between crops and livestock activities are important for the subsistence of smallholders. CLS are characterized by high degree of biophysical and economic heterogeneity, complex and diversified production system that frequently involves a combination of several subsistence and cash crops and livestock. Increasing crop productivity is clearly a key element to improve living standards and to take these people out of poverty. However, agricultural productivity in most of SSA has been stagnant or increased slowly. In addition, the likely negative impacts of climate change on agriculture have accentuated the vulnerability of smallholders.

    The international research community has once more the eyes on SSA with the recently proposed post-2015 MDGs, the Sustainable Development Goals that emphasize the need to achieve sustainable development globally by 2030 by promoting economic development, environmental sustainability, good governance and social inclusion. Governments and scientists are making considerable efforts to develop strategies that include structural transformations of the different sectors of the economy in search of the recipe to achieve the SDGs. Most of these strategies are based on policy and technology interventions that seek to achieve the “win-win” outcomes and move from the usual “tradeoffs” between poverty-productivity-sustainability to synergies. A key message of this thesis is that achieving the goal of sustainable development in semi-subsistence African agriculture will require better understanding of the poverty-productivity-sustainability puzzle: why high poverty and resource degradation levels persist in African agriculture. I hypothesize that the answer to this puzzle lies, at least in part, in understanding and appropriately analyzing key features of semi-subsistence crop-livestock systems (CLS) typical of Sub-Saharan Africa. The complexity and diversity of CLS often constrain the ability of policy or technology interventions to achieve a “win-win” outcome of simultaneously reducing poverty while increasing productivity sustainably (i.e., avoiding soil nutrient losses).

    This thesis focuses on the Machakos Region in Kenya. Machakos has been the center of many studies looking at soil fertility issues and its implications for poverty and food security, including the well-known study by Tiffen et al. (1994). Recently, the Government of Kenya developed the Kenya Vision 2030, a long-term development strategy designed to guide the country to meet the 2015 MDGs and beyond. The agricultural sector is recognized as one of the economic actors that can lead to reduce poverty if appropriate policies are in place. For the Vision 2030, the key is to improve smallholder productivity and promote non-farm opportunities. The Vision 2030 was used to assess if the implementation of some of the proposed plans and policies can lead to a sustainable agriculture for smallholders in the Machakos region.

    This thesis describes and uses the Tradeoff Analysis Model (TOA), an integrated modeling approach designed to deal with the complexities associated to production systems such as the CLS and at the same time, quantify economic and sustainability indicators for policy tradeoff analysis (e.g., poverty indexes and measures of sustainability). The TOA was linked to Representative Agricultural Pathways and Scenarios to represent different future socio-economic scenarios (based on the Vision 2030) to assess the impacts of policy interventions aimed to move agricultural systems towards meeting sustainable development goals.

    One important finding is that the complex behavior of CLS has important implications for the effectiveness of policy interventions. The Machakos analysis provides important findings regarding the implementation and effectiveness of policy interventions addressing poverty and sustainability in Africa and other parts of the developing world. The analysis shows that policy interventions tend to result in much larger benefits for better-endowed farms, implying that farm heterogeneity results in differential policy impacts and that resilience of agricultural systems is likely to be highly variable and strongly associated with heterogeneity in bio-physical and economic conditions. The results shows that a combination of these interventions and strategies, based on the GoK Vision 2030 and the Machakos County plans, could solve the poverty-productivity-sustainability puzzle in this region. The pathway from tradeoffs to synergies (win-win) seems to be feasible if these interventions and strategies are well implemented, however the analysis also shows that some villages may respond better to these strategies than others. The analysis suggests that these interventions may actually benefit most the areas with better initial endowments of soils and climate.

    The analysis also suggested that prices (e.g., maize price) play a key role in the assessment of policy interventions. There is an increasing recognition that analysis of economic and environmental outcomes of agricultural production systems requires a bottom-up linkage from the farm to market, as well as top-down linkage from market to farm. Hence, a two-way linkage between the TOA model and a partial equilibrium market model (ME) was developed. The TOA model links site-specific bio-physical process models and economic decision models, and aggregate economic and environmental outcomes to a regional scale, but treats prices as exogenous. The resulting TOA-ME allows the effects of site-specific interactions at the farm scale to be aggregated and used to determine market equilibrium. This in turn, can be linked back to the underlying spatial distribution of economic and environmental outcomes at market equilibrium quantities and prices. The results suggest that market equilibrium is likely to be important in the analysis of agricultural systems in developing countries where product and input markets are not well integrated, and therefore, local supply determines local prices (e.g., high transport costs may cause farm-gate prices be set locally) or where market supply schedules are driven not only by prices but also by changes in farm characteristics in response to policy changes, environmental conditions or socio-economic conditions. The results suggest that the market equilibrium price associated to a policy intervention could be substantially different than the prices observed without the market equilibrium analysis, and consequently could play an important role in evaluating the impacts of policy or technology interventions.

    As mentioned above, climate change poses a long-term threat for rural households in vulnerable regions like Sub-Saharan Africa. Policy and technology interventions can have different impacts under climate change conditions. In this thesis the likely economic and environmental impacts of climate change and adaptations on the agricultural production systems of Machakos are analyzed.

    Climate change impact assessment studies have moved towards the use of more integrated approaches and the use of scenarios to deal with the uncertainty of future condition. However, several studies fall short of adequately incorporating adaptation in the analysis, they also fall short of adequately assessing distributional economic and environmental impacts. Similarly, climate change is likely to change patterns of supply and demand of commodities with a consequent change in prices that could play an important role in designing policies at regional, national and international levels. Therefore, a market equilibrium model should also be incorporated in the analysis to assess how markets react to changing prices due to shifts in supply and demand of commodities. The TOA-ME was used to incorporate the elements mentioned above to assess the impacts of climate change. Using data from 5 Global Circulation Models (GCMs) with three emission scenarios (SRES, 2000) to estimate the climate change projections, these projections were used to perturb weather data used by a crop simulation model to estimate the productivity effects of climate change. Land use change and impacts on poverty and nutrient depletion at the market equilibrium were then assessed using the TOA-ME model.

    The simulation was carried out for three scenarios, which are a combination of socio-economic and climate change scenarios: a baseline scenario that represents current socio-economic conditions and climate conditions, a climate change and current socio-economic scenarios (i.e., future climate change with no policy or technology intervention), and a climate change and future socio economic conditions which are a consequence of rural development policies.

    Our findings show that in this particular case, the changes on precipitation, temperature and solar radiation do not show a significant difference among the selected emission scenarios. However, the variability is significant across GCMs. The effects of climate change on crop productivity are negative on average. These results show that policy and technology interventions are needed to reduce this region’s vulnerability. Furthermore, the socio-economic scenarios based on policy and technology interventions presented in the case study would be effective to offset the negative effect of climate change on the sustainability (economical and environmental) of the system across a range of possible climate outcomes represented by different GCMs. Finally, the results show that ignoring market equilibrium analysis can lead to biased results and incorrect information for policy making, in particular for the scenario based on policy and technology interventions.

    One of the major conclusions of the thesis are that policy interventions aimed to deal with poverty and sustainability can have unintended consequences if they are not accompanied by a set of policy strategies and investments. For example, increasing the maize price can result in substitution from subsistence crops to maize, without much increase in nutrient inputs, thus increasing soil nutrient losses. The analysis shows that improving soil nutrient balances by increasing fertilizer and manure use is critically important, but is not enough to move the system to a sustainable path.

    There is no one factor that can reverse the negative nutrient balances and move the system towards sustainability. Rather, a broad-based strategy is required that stimulates rural development, increases farm size to a sustainable level, and also reduces distortions and inefficiencies in input and output markets that tend to discourage the use of sustainable practices. The Machakos case shows that a combination of these interventions and strategies, based on the GoK Vision 2030 and the Machakos County plans, could solve the poverty-productivity-sustainability puzzle in this region.

    Endline report – Ethiopia, Amref MFS II country evaluations
    Ingen, T. van; Kusters, C.S.L. ; Buizer, N.N. ; Zerfu, E. ; Kefyalew, D. ; Getu, D. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-031) - 112
    development - community development - development cooperation - evaluation - ethiopia - netherlands - poverty - social participation - civil society - capacity - ontwikkeling - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - ethiopië - nederland - armoede - sociale participatie - maatschappelijk middenveld - capaciteit
    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, Amref. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.
    Endline report – Ethiopia, CARE Ethiopia MFS II country evaluations
    Ingen, T. van; Kusters, C.S.L. ; Zerfu, E. ; Kefyalew, D. ; Peters, B. ; Buizer, N.N. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-057) - 78
    civil society - community development - development - development cooperation - evaluation - ethiopia - netherlands - poverty - social participation - capacity - maatschappelijk middenveld - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - ethiopië - nederland - armoede - sociale participatie - capaciteit
    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, CARE Ethiopia. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.
    Endline report – Ethiopia, ECFA MFS II country evaluations
    Ingen, T. van; Kusters, C.S.L. ; Zerfu, E. ; Kefyalew, D. ; Getu, D. ; Buizer, N.N. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-054) - 110
    civil society - community development - development cooperation - evaluation - ethiopia - netherlands - poverty - social participation - capacity - maatschappelijk middenveld - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - ethiopië - nederland - armoede - sociale participatie - capaciteit
    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, ECFA. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.
    Ninasam end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
    Klaver, D.C. ; Hofstede, M. ; Wadhwa, S. ; Madaan, A. ; Pandey, R. ; Prasad Mohapatra, B. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-040) - 72
    poverty - civil society - society - empowerment - development projects - india - south asia - asia - armoede - maatschappelijk middenveld - samenleving - empowerment - ontwikkelingsprojecten - india - zuid-azië - azië
    This report describes the findings of the end line assessment of the Indian theatre and arts organisation Ninasam that is a partner of Hivos. It assesses Ninasam’s contribution to Civil Society in India and it used the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which Ninasam contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain Ninasam’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
    Endline report – Ethiopia, TTCA MFS II country evaluations
    Ingen, T. van; Kusters, C.S.L. ; Zerfu, E. ; Kefyalew, D. ; Getu, D. ; Peters, B. ; Buizer, N.N. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-053) - 74
    civil society - community development - development cooperation - evaluation - ethiopia - netherlands - poverty - social participation - capacity - maatschappelijk middenveld - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - ethiopië - nederland - armoede - sociale participatie - capaciteit
    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, TTCA. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.
    Endline report – Ethiopia, NVEA MFS II country evaluations
    Ingen, T. van; Kusters, C.S.L. ; Zerfu, E. ; Kefyalew, D. ; Getu, D. ; Peters, B. ; Buizer, N.N. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-052) - 76
    civil society - community development - development cooperation - evaluation - ethiopia - netherlands - poverty - social participation - capacity - maatschappelijk middenveld - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - ethiopië - nederland - armoede - sociale participatie - capaciteit
    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, NVEA. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.
    Endline report – Ethiopia, HUNDEE MFS II country evaluations
    Ingen, T. van; Kusters, C.S.L. ; Zerfu, E. ; Kefyalew, D. ; Peters, B. ; Buizer, N.N. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-059) - 116
    civil society - community development - development cooperation - evaluation - ethiopia - netherlands - poverty - social participation - capacity - maatschappelijk middenveld - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - ethiopië - nederland - armoede - sociale participatie - capaciteit
    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, HUNDEE. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.
    Endline report – Ethiopia, HOA-REC MFS II country evaluations
    Ingen, T. van; Kusters, C.S.L. ; Zerfu, E. ; Kefyalew, D. ; Peters, B. ; Buizer, N.N. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-058) - 84
    civil society - community development - development - development cooperation - evaluation - ethiopia - netherlands - poverty - social participation - capacity - maatschappelijk middenveld - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - ethiopië - nederland - armoede - sociale participatie - capaciteit
    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, HOA-REC. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.
    Endline report – Ethiopia, FSCE MFS II country evaluations
    Ingen, T. van; Kusters, C.S.L. ; Zerfu, E. ; Kefyalew, D. ; Buizer, N.N. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (CDI rapporten CDI-15-055) - 104
    development - community development - civil society - development cooperation - evaluation - ethiopia - netherlands - poverty - social participation - capacity - ontwikkeling - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - maatschappelijk middenveld - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - ethiopië - nederland - armoede - sociale participatie - capaciteit
    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, FSCE. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.
    Yayasan RUANGRUPA end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
    Klaver, D.C. ; Nugroho, K. ; Smidt, H. ; Prasetyo, K. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / CDI 15-038)
    maatschappelijk middenveld - verandering - governance - sociale participatie - beeldende kunsten - armoede - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - nederland - indonesië - civil society - change - governance - social participation - visual arts - poverty - community development - development - development cooperation - evaluation - netherlands - indonesia
    This report describes the results of the end line assessment of Yayasan RUANGRUPA that is a partner of Hivos. It assesses RUANGRUPA’s contributions towards strengthening Civil Society in Indonesia using the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which RUANGRUPA contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain RUANGRUPA’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
    KKI-WARSI end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
    Klaver, D.C. ; Nugroho, K. ; Smidt, H. ; Sinung Prasetya, K. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / CDI 15-062) - 86
    maatschappelijk middenveld - verandering - sociale participatie - natuurbescherming - armoede - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - nederland - indonesië - civil society - change - social participation - nature conservation - poverty - community development - development - development cooperation - evaluation - netherlands - indonesia
    This report describes the results of the end line assessment of the Indonesian Organisation KKI-WARSI that is a partner of IUCN-NL. It assesses KKI-WARSI’s efforts towards strengthening Civil Society in Indonesia and used the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which KKI-WARSI contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain the organisation’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
    NTFP-EP end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
    Klaver, D.C. ; Nugroho, K. ; Smidt, H. ; Larastiti, C. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / CDI 15-068) - 92
    maatschappelijk middenveld - sociale participatie - armoede - bosbestanden - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - nederland - indonesië - civil society - social participation - poverty - forest resources - community development - development - development cooperation - evaluation - netherlands - indonesia
    This report describes the results of the end line assessment of Non Timber Forest Product-Exchange Programme (NTFP-EP) that is a partner of IUCN and a part of the Ecosystem Alliance. It assesses NTFP-EP’s contributions towards strengthening Civil Society in Indonesia using the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which NTFP-EP contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain NTFP-EP’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
    LPPSLH end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
    Klaver, D.C. ; Nugroho, K. ; Smidt, H. ; Sinung Prasetyo, K. ; Sutantio, S. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / CDI 15-060) - 86
    maatschappelijk middenveld - verandering - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - milieu - sociale participatie - armoede - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - nederland - indonesië - civil society - change - natural resources - environment - social participation - poverty - community development - development - development cooperation - evaluation - netherlands - indonesia
    This report describes the results of the end line assessment of the Indonesian Foundation for Research and Development of Natural Resources and Environment –LPPSLH that is a partner of Hivos. It assesses LPPSLH’s efforts towards strengthening Civil Society in Indonesia, using the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which LPPSLH contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain LPPSLH’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
    KWLM end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
    Klaver, D.C. ; Prasetyo, K. ; Smidt, H. ; Sutikno, - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / CDI 15-066) - 74
    maatschappelijk middenveld - verandering - sociale participatie - armoede - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - nederland - indonesië - civil society - change - social participation - poverty - community development - development - development cooperation - evaluation - netherlands - indonesia
    This report describes the results of the end line assessment of KWLM that is a partner of Hivos. It assesses KWLM’s contribution towards strengthening Civil Society in Indonesia and it used the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which KWLM contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain KWLM’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
    Kantor Berita Radio (KBR) end line reportKantor Berita Radio (KBR) end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
    Klaver, D.C. ; Smidt, H. ; Nugroho, K. ; Amir, S. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / CDI 15-024) - 74
    maatschappelijk middenveld - sociale participatie - radio - armoede - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - nederland - indonesië - civil society - social participation - radio - poverty - community development - development - development cooperation - evaluation - netherlands - indonesia
    This report describes the results of the end line assessment of the Kantor Berita Radio 68H (KBR68H), a partner of Free Press Unlimited in Indonesia. It assesses how KBR68H has contributed towards strengthening civil society in Indonesia using the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered relate to changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which KBR68H contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made, and an identification of factors that explain KBR68H’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
    FIELD end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
    Klaver, D.C. ; Prasetyo, K. ; Smidt, H. ; Sutikno, - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / CDI 15-067) - 80
    maatschappelijk middenveld - sociale participatie - armoede - boeren - plattelandscoöperaties - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - nederland - indonesië - civil society - social participation - poverty - farmers - rural cooperatives - community development - development - development cooperation - evaluation - netherlands - indonesia
    This report describes the results of the end line assessment of FIELD that is a partner of Hivos. It assesses FIELD’s contribution towards strengthening Civil Society in Indonesia and it used the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which FIELD contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain FIELD’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
    ELSAM end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
    Klaver, D.C. ; Nugroho, K. ; Smidt, H. ; Amir, S. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / CDI 15-039) - 83
    maatschappelijk middenveld - sociale participatie - armoede - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - governance - evaluatie - nederland - indonesië - civil society - social participation - poverty - community development - development - development cooperation - governance - evaluation - netherlands - indonesia
    This report describes the results of the end line assessment of ELSAM that is a partner of Hivos. It assesses ELSAM’s contribution towards strengthening Civil Society in Indonesia and it used the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which ELSAM contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain ELSAM’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
    Combine Resource Institute end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
    Klaver, D.C. ; Nugroho, K. ; Smidt, H. ; Sinung Prasetyo, K. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / CDI 15-064) - 88
    maatschappelijk middenveld - sociale participatie - armoede - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - nederland - indonesië - civil society - social participation - poverty - community development - development - development cooperation - evaluation - netherlands - indonesia
    This report describes the results of the end line assessment of Combine Resource Institute (CRI) in Indonesia that that is a partner of Hivos. It assesses CRI’s contribution towards strengthening Civil Society in Indonesia and for this exercise it used the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which CRI contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain CRI’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
    Common Room end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
    Klaver, D.C. ; Nugroho, K. ; Smidt, H. ; Prasetyo, K. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / CDI 15-061) - 77
    maatschappelijk middenveld - sociale participatie - armoede - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - evaluatie - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - ontwikkeling - indonesië - nederland - civil society - social participation - poverty - community development - evaluation - development cooperation - development - indonesia - netherlands
    This report describes the findings of the end line assessment of the Indonesian organisation Common Room that is a partner of Hivos. It assesses Common Room’s contribution towards strengthening Civil Society in Indonesia and for this exercise it used the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which Common Room contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain Common Room’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
    Adaptive collaborative governance of Nepal's community forests: shifting power, strenghtening livelihoods
    McDougall, C.L. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Leeuwis, co-promotor(en): J.L.S. Jiggins. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572881 - 322
    bewonersparticipatie - governance - sociale samenwerking - sociaal leren - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - bosbouw - gemeenschappen - middelen van bestaan - adaptatie - sociaal kapitaal - vrouwen - armoede - nepal - community participation - governance - social cooperation - social learning - natural resources - forestry - communities - livelihoods - adaptation - social capital - women - poverty - nepal

    Short Summary

    Cynthia McDougall--PhD Dissertation

    Knowledge, Technology, &Innovation Chairgroup (WASS)

    Adaptive collaborative governance of Nepal’s community forests: Shifting power, strengthening livelihoods

    Community-based natural resource governance has taken root around the globe. And, yet, as demonstrated by community forestry in Nepal, such programmes have generally not yet lived up to their goals and expectations. After decades of implementation, community forestry in Nepal faces several key challenges. Central to these challenges are: the need to increase equity in community forest user group decision making and benefit sharing; and, to increase the livelihood benefits from community forestry overall. The research project on which this study is based sought to address these challenges at the community forest user group scale. The research objective was to contribute empirically-based insights regarding if and how adaptive collaborative governance of community forests in Nepal can constructively influence engagement, livelihoods, social capital and conflict—especially in regard to women and the poor. Further, the research aimed to elucidate the underlying issue of power in community-based natural resource governance. In particular, it sought to contribute deeper, theoretically-based understanding of the persistence of power imbalances in community forestry, and of the potential of adaptive collaborative governance to shift such imbalances.

    The roles of exploration and exploitation in the export market integration of Beninese producers at the base of the pyramid
    Adékambi, S.A. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Hans van Trijp, co-promotor(en): Paul Ingenbleek. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572461 - 205
    marketing - landbouwproducten - export - instellingen - armoede - sheaboter - ontwikkelingseconomie - economische groei - afrika - benin - west-afrika - marketing - agricultural products - exports - institutions - poverty - shea butter - development economics - economic growth - africa - benin - west africa

    Keywords: Base of the pyramid, Bottom of the pyramid, Supply chains, Export market integration, Market learning, Developing and Emerging countries, Exploitation and Exploration, Institutional arrangements, Transaction cost economics, Livelihood performance, BoP producers

    Abstract

    Organizing supply chains that are based in producer groups that live in conditions of widespread poverty and weak institutional support (sometimes referred to as the Base of the Pyramid [BoP] producers) is challenging. These challenges have predominantly been studied in the development literature, while the marketing perspective has received less attention. Drawing on both transaction cost and market learning theories, the thesis integrates producers’ opportunity exploitation and exploration processes with the institutional framework adopted in the development literature to understand producers’ integration with export markets. Overall, the findings show that exploitation mediates between drivers investigated by development economists (quality of infrastructure, microcredit, and community culture) and integration with export markets. The results show that BoP producers’ export market integration also depends on the institutional arrangements that exporting companies offer. The results indicate that contrary to more-developed settings like those in Western Europe and Northern America, there is no need to develop both opportunity exploration and exploitation in environments characterized by scarce opportunities with relatively high purchasing powers. The findings imply that developing competencies that enable to produce the demanded quality are crucial in seizing export market integration opportunities.

    Wealth and poverty in European rural societies from the Sixteenth to Nineteenth century
    Schuurman, A.J. ; Broad, J. - \ 2014
    Turnhout : Brepols - ISBN 9782503545165 - 253
    geschiedenis - plattelandssamenleving - agrarische samenleving - landbouw - platteland - vermogensverdeling - armoede - levensstandaarden - consumptie - europa - history - rural society - agricultural society - agriculture - rural areas - wealth distribution - poverty - living standards - consumption - europe
    This book sheds new light on old problems of wealth, poverty and material culture in rural societies. Much of the debate has concentrated on north-west Europe and the Atlantic world. This volume widens the geographic range to compare less well known areas, with case studies on the Mediterranean world (Catalonia and Greece), from central Europe (Bohemia and Hungary), and from the Nordic countries (Denmark). Methodologically, several papers link the possession of goods to the use of room space, while others highlight the importance of the channels for the circulation of goods, problems of stocks and flows of goods, and the complexities of urban/rural difference. Finally, this book seeks to stimulate new comparative studies in living standards and lifestyles by providing an overview of achievements up till now. John Broad is visiting academic at the Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure, University of Cambridge. He has published on rural society and poverty in England, and his current research interests include a book on English rural housing, and large-scale surveys of population, religion, and landholding in England in the eighteenth century. Anton Schuurman is associate professor of Rural History at Wageningen University. He has published on the history of material culture and rural transformations in the Netherlands. Currently he is writing a book on the processes of modernisation and democratisation in the Dutch countryside from 1840 till 1920.
    Petits producteurs et marchés : la recherche au service des organisations paysannes
    Ton, G. ; Proctor, F. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : LEI - ISBN 9789461739681 - 139
    boeren - boerenorganisaties - kleine landbouwbedrijven - plattelandscoöperaties - plattelandsontwikkeling - platteland - plattelandsvrouwen - armoede - innovaties - landbouw - farmers - farmers' associations - small farms - rural cooperatives - rural development - rural areas - rural women - poverty - innovations - agriculture
    Reaching resilience : handbook resilience 2.0 for aid practioners and policymakers in disaster risk reduction, climate change adaptation and poverty reduction
    Heijmans, E.P.M. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wageningen University, Wageningen UR - 125
    rampen - risicovermindering - klimaatverandering - armoede - ontwikkelingsprogramma's - humanitaire hulp - ontwikkelingshulp - handboeken - disasters - risk reduction - climatic change - poverty - development programmes - humanitarian aid - development aid - handbooks
    Over the last few decades, the alarming increase in both the frequency and impact of disasters has drastically affected the livelihoods of people living in both developing and developed countries. A growing number of weather-related hazards can be observed such as floods, droughts and forest fires. Climate change most likely contributes to this rise, as well as people’s mounting vulnerability due to, for instance, population growth, insecure land rights, rising food prices and unemployment. Over the last few years a sense of urgency has emerged among platforms and networks related to Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) and Poverty Reduction (PR) to integrate the three domains in order to cope with future risks more effectively. This handbook is designed to encourage thinking and provide insights and ideas about how to design well-integrated, step-by-step actions and strategies to foster resilience at the local level. The handbook aims to support students and young professionals in their DRR, CCA and PR related work and secondly to acquaint policymakers involved in these three domains with the integration issue and help them to take a resilience 2.0 approach into their (present or future) daily work.
    Empowering smallholder farmers in markets. Experiences with farmer-led research for advocacy
    Ton, G. ; Proctor, F. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461738912 - 140
    boeren - boerenorganisaties - kleine landbouwbedrijven - plattelandscoöperaties - plattelandsontwikkeling - platteland - plattelandsvrouwen - armoede - innovaties - landbouw - farmers - farmers' associations - small farms - rural cooperatives - rural development - rural areas - rural women - poverty - innovations - agriculture
    Ontwikkeling hoezo?
    Visser, L.E. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit - ISBN 9789461733283
    ontwikkeling - sociologie - ontwikkelingsstudies - antropologie - ontwikkelingstheorie - armoede - interdisciplinair onderzoek - globalisering - development - sociology - development studies - anthropology - development theory - poverty - interdisciplinary research - globalization
    De vraag of er ontwikkeling is, kan altijd en overal positief worden beantwoord. Maar de betekenis ervan verschilt voor een visser in Indonesië of een handelaar in Honduras. De Sociologie van Ontwikkeling staat voor een niet-normatieve benadering van ontwikkeling en tracht de meervoudigheid ervan in de praktijk van het alledaagse leven te begrijpen. Een kritische toetsing van regels en modellen vraagt de noodzakelijke aandacht voor de diversiteit en creativiteit van mensen die ontwikkeling in eigen hand willen houden in de marges van de globale wereld.
    Seas of Change: A report on scaling inclusive agri-food markets
    Woodhill, A.J. ; Guijt, W.J. ; Wegner, L. ; Blomne Sopov, M. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Centre for Development Innovation - ISBN 9789461736024 - 64
    ontwikkeling - innovaties - landbouw - voedselproductie - goederenmarkten - ontwikkelingslanden - landbouwindustrie - armoede - development - innovations - agriculture - food production - commodity markets - developing countries - agribusiness - poverty
    Can agri-food companies do it all? Develop new markets, secure supply, protect reputations, ensure profits and reduce poverty, create jobs and guarantee food supplies? Company strategies now commonly refer to ‘creating shared value’ and ‘inclusive business’. But with growing pressure on resources, a billion hungry people and some four billion people at the base of the economic pyramid by 2050, are we making progress fast enough? What options are there with real promise? And, how can all stakeholders collaborate better to bring change at scale? This report gives the outcomes of the ‘From Islands of Success to Seas of Change’ initiative on scaling inclusive agri-food markets. It combines background research, interviews and case studies with the insights of 100 leaders from business, government, NGOs, research, and farmer organizations who attended the Seas of Change workshop in April 2012. The case for scaling inclusive agrifood markets is explained and ten key challenges are explored. This leads to lessons for key stakeholders and a follow-up agenda for improved targeting of inclusive investments.
    Essays on microfinance in Latin America
    Servin Juarez, R. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Robert Lensink, co-promotor(en): Marrit van den Berg. - [S.l.] : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734082 - 196
    microfinanciering - ontwikkelingseconomie - instellingen - banken - rurale welzijnszorg - armoede - huishoudens - latijns-amerika - microfinance - development economics - institutions - banks - rural welfare - poverty - households - latin america

    In the early 1970s, microfinance came to public attention as a promising tool to reduce poverty. However, some people began to claim that microcredit is unsuitable for sustainable development. Nevertheless, the lack of scientific support for both viewpoints has created a need for empirical studies to disentangle whether microfinance interventions should be implemented, and if so, how. The objective of this thesis is to provide evidence on the role of microfinance in Latin America, with a particular emphasis on Mexico. The main innovation of this study is the focus on four topics that have thus far received relatively little attention. Firstly, the relationship between efficiency and the ownership structure of microfinance institutions (MFIs) in Latin America is investigated. Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and Cooperative/Credit Unions are found to be less technically efficient and have an inferior technology relative to Banks and Non-Banks Financial Intermediaries (NBFIs). Secondly, this study assesses five different microfinance programs on household welfare in Mexico. The findings reveal that savings-oriented microfinance programs outperform programs that primarily offer microcredit, in reducing poverty. Thirdly, the impact of microfinance on vulnerability to poverty is analyzed. The results of this analysis show that membership in a savings and credit society in Mexico improves the well-being of households and reduces their vulnerability. Finally, the impact of the loan officer’s characteristics on determining repayment rates in microfinance is examined. The main outcome suggests that the gender of the loan officer and his/her professional experience are important determinants of repayment rates. Further conclusions are that loan officers who work longer in Pro Mujer have higher default probabilities and that peer monitoring of group members is not a significant determinant of loan default.

    Poor people and poor fields? : integrating legumes for smallholder soil fertility management in Chisepo, central Malawi
    Kamanga, B. - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ken Giller, co-promotor(en): Conny Almekinders; S.R. Waddington. - [s.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461730046 - 168
    gewassen - bodemvruchtbaarheidsbeheer - maïs - peulgewassen - kunstmeststoffen - zelfvoorzieningslandbouw - kleine landbouwbedrijven - voedselzekerheid - landbouwhuishoudens - malawi - armoede - crops - soil fertility management - maize - legumes - fertilizers - subsistence farming - small farms - food security - agricultural households - malawi - poverty

    Soil infertility undermines the agriculture-based livelihoods in Malawi, where it is blamed for poor crop yields and the creation of cycles of poverty. Although technologies and management strategies have been developed to reverse the decline in soil fertility, they are under-used by smallholder farmers. This study was conducted to assess with farmers the performance of a range of maize-legume technologies and their benefits on soil fertility management in central Malawi. Farmer participatory experimentation was a focus of the study. The aim was to facilitate learning and the interpretation of experiences, improve the communication of information about the concepts and technologies to farmers, and provide insights for researchers.

    Using a combination of survey and participatory methods, 136 smallholder farmers from Chisepo were grouped into four resource groups, comprising of better-resourced (RG 1 with 6 farmers), medium resourced (RG 2, 14 farmers), less well-resourced (RG 3, 64 farmers) and least-resourced groups (RG 4, 52 farmers). Analysing their livelihoods for their effects on soil fertility revealed that soil fertility management is a complex activity which is influenced by ownership of assets. Farmers from RG 1 and RG 2 owned more resources including cattle, had larger fields, hired-in labour for timely farm operations, earned more income and invested far more in soil fertility improvement. Farmers from RG 3 and 4 (who are in the large majority) were resource constrained and did not invest adequately in improving soil fertility. They had large food deficits due to poor crop yields. Ganyu labour (casual work done for other farmers for food or cash) was their main strategy to reduce food deficits. Farmers from all the four RGs were interested in working with research to explore strategies to improve soil fertility. They tested various grain- and green-manure-legumes, and mineral N and P fertiliser on maize and the legumes for effects on crop productivity and soil fertility. Associated production risk and interest in technology adoption were assessed.

    On-farm evaluation was done on maize (cv. MH18) in rotation with pigeonpea cv. ICP 9145,intercropped with groundnut (cv. CG 7), (Mz/Pp+Gn); intercropped with tephrosia (Mz+Tv); intercropped with pigeonpea (Mz+Pp) and in rotation with mucuna (Mz/Mp). These technologies were compared with sole crop maize without fertiliser (Mz−Ft) or with 35 kg N ha-1(Mz+Ft) in experiments with 32 farmers from the four RGs over four years. Economic and risk assessments were made. Maize grain yields (accumulated over the four years) were greater for farmers from RG 1 and 2 than RGs 3 and 4. Mz+Pp and Mz+Tv gave greater cumulative yields than Mz/Pp+Gn and Mz/Mp. The legumes improved maize grain yields by between 0.2 and 4 t ha-1(P < 0.001) over Mz-Ft and additionally they gave legume grain to the household.Mz+Pp was less risky to all RGs, and applying 35 kg N ha-1to the legumes resulted in Mz+Tv, Mz/Pp+Gn and Mz/Mp being least risky to RG 1, RG2 and RG 3. Farmers in RG 1 had the highest returns to labour (USconv2.info.8 day-1with Mz-Ft and US.1 day-1with Mz+Pp) and these increased to 1.9 and 1.7 respectively with 35 kg N ha-1. Mz+Pp intercrop gave consistent positive returns across the RGs and was the only technology to provide positive returns to labour in RG 4. Use of pigeonpea was overall the least risky option, and was especially suited to least-resourced farmers.

    Application of phosphorus fertiliser (0, 20 kg P ha-1) to legumes significantly (P = 0.05) increased grain and biomass yields for mucuna, groundnut, soyabean, Bambara groundnut and cowpea by 1.0, 0.8, 0.5, 1.0 and 0.3 t ha-1compared with unfertilised plots. Cowpea and fertilised groundnut had larger yields in the home fields than middle fields, but other legumes performed better (P = 0.05) in the middle fields.

    Maize responses to small amounts of fertiliser (0, 15, and 30 kg N ha-1and 0, 20 kg P ha-1) in two weeding regimes showed that weeding twice significantly (P < 0.001) raised maize yields by 0.4 t ha-1over weeding once (0.9 t ha-1). Stover yields (significant at P < 0.001) were 2.3 and 1.6 t ha-1respectively. Mean grain N kg ha-1was 17.1 and 9.8 for plots weeded twice and once respectively while that of stover were 10.1 and 5.6 kg N ha-1. Applying N at 15 kg N ha-1increased maize yields, but the 30 kg N ha-1increased yield only on more clay soils due to the effects of mid-season dry spells on sandy soils. Except for the physiological efficiency of N (PEN), all agronomic indices of N use showed significant differences due to weeding (agronomic efficiency of applied fertiliser N (AEN) at P < 0.001, recovery efficiency of applied N (REN) and partial factor productivity for N (PFPN) at P < 0.01). The average PENof 40.7and PFPNof 78.8 in plots weeded twice were within the ranges of 40–60 kg grain kg-1N and 40–80 kg grain kg-1N applied respectively. AENand REN values of 38.7 and 0.9 respectively were above the common range of 10-30 kg grain kg-1 N applied and 0.3-0.5 or 0.5–0.8 kg N kg-1. Mean indices from plots weeded just once were all within the ranges stated above but lower than indices from plots weeded twice; suggesting the unsustainability of the use of fertiliser without means to raise its efficiency through better management or combination with organic resources. Weeding twice gave higher returns to labour (USconv2.info.30 day-1) than weeding once (USconv2.info.05 day-1) and gross margins of US5.00 and US.00 with labour taken into account respectively.Farmers need to ensure timely weeding to get decent efficiencies and returns from the fertiliser, especially in drier cropping seasons.

    Using surveys, focus group discussions and the analytical hierarchy process (AHP), adoption of the ten legumes introduced to farmers in Chisepo was assessed among 136 farmers in 2004 and 84 farmers in 2007. Thirty-five percent of the farmers in 2004 and 22% in 2007 had adopted at least one of the legumes, with food grain legumes predominantly soyabean, groundnut, pigeonpea and to a lesser extent Bambara groundnut and cowpea being most adopted. Mucuna and tephrosia were adopted by few farmers while sunnhemp and grahamiana were not adopted at all. Farmers from RGs 1 and 2 adopted more of the legumes than those from RG 3 and 4. Lack of consistent markets, a lack of seed for planting, as well as land and labour shortages were cited for weak adoption.

    Soil fertility management by smallholder farmers is influenced by ownership of assets and the majority poorer farmers fail to invest adequately in improving soil fertility. In the absence of such resources, grain legumes will play an important role as a source of both food and organic matter to improve soil fertility. The participatory methods used in the study helped farmers better understand some of the soil fertility concepts and options, including the legumes. There is need to focus on how to assist farmers with practical knowledge to help them best combine organic and mineral fertiliser resources for improving soil fertility, and to develop and promote new dual-purpose legume options that feed humans and the soil.

    Key words: Adoption, analytical hierarchy process, crop yield, financial returns, food security, household assets, legume integration, livelihoods, NP fertiliser, nitrogen use efficiency, production risk, resource groups, smallholder, soil fertility, weeding.

    Fairly efficient or efficiently fair: success factors and constraints of payment and reward schemes for environmental services in Asia
    Beria, L. - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rik Leemans, co-promotor(en): Dolf de Groot. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461730404 - 163
    ecosysteemdiensten - betaling - stroomgebieden - beheer van waterbekkens - armoede - milieubeleid - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - watervoorraden - azië - indonesië - ecosystem services - payment - watersheds - watershed management - poverty - environmental policy - natural resources - water resources - asia - indonesia

    Payment for environmental service (PES) is strictly defined as a market-based environmental policy instrument to achieve environmental protection in the most efficient way. However, an increasing body of literature shows that the prescriptive conceptualization of PES cannot be easily generalized and implemented in practice and the commodification of ecosystem services is problematic. To investigate the underlying causes, this PhD study combines a quantitative and qualitative research approach using case studies in Indonesia, the Philippines and Nepal. The empirical observations on emerging PES-mechanisms in the Asian case studies show that interdependency of fairness and efficiency should be the main consideration in designing and implementing a PES scheme in developing countries. Neither fairness nor efficiency alone should be the primary aim but an intermediate PES that is “fairly efficient and efficiently fair” may bridge the gap between PES theory and the practical implementation of PES to increase ES provision and improve livelihoods.

    Poverty dynamics, income inequality and vulnerability to shocks in rural Kenya
    Radeny, M.A.O. - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte, co-promotor(en): Rob Schipper; Marrit van den Berg. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085859369 - 213
    ontwikkelingseconomie - armoede - inkomen - platteland - middelen van bestaan - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - participatie - landbouwhuishoudens - rurale welzijnszorg - economische verandering - ontwikkelingslanden - kenya - oost-afrika - development economics - poverty - income - rural areas - livelihoods - sustainability - participation - agricultural households - rural welfare - economic change - developing countries - kenya - east africa

    Persistent poverty remains a huge challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Kenya, official statistics indicate that the incidence of rural poverty was 49% in 2005/2006. This study uses different approaches and data sources to explore temporal and spatial dimensions of rural welfare in Kenya. The objective is to identify and understand the linkages between welfare, livelihood assets, livelihood strategies, local-level institutions, and exposure to shocks. First, we compared participatory and income approaches to studying poverty and poverty dynamics. We found a significant positive correlation between the results obtained using the two approaches, with both approaches showing evidence of geographical clusters of poverty. Nevertheless, discrepancies in poverty rates and dynamics were found as well. Second, we used asset-based approaches to explore the nature of rural poverty dynamics over multiple periods. We found that majority of households that were poor in two consecutive survey years were structurally poor. Of the households escaping poverty, a large proportion was characterized by stochastic transitions. Few households successfully escaped poverty through asset accumulation, while a large proportion of households declining into poverty experienced structural movements. A combination of livelihood strategies, shocks, and other factors interact to influence household structural transition. Third, we characterized shocks facing rural households. Health expenses, ill-health, funeral expenses, livestock losses, land sub-division, and death of major income earner were the most frequently reported shocks. We also found limited evidence that welfare level affects exposure to specific shocks, but a significant geographical effect. Finally, we revisited the geography versus institutions debate at the micro-level suing local data to explain within-country income differences. We found that certain geographical variables appear more important drivers of per capita income levels than local institutions. Our community-level measures of institutions did not explain within-Kenya income differences. Altogether, the findings underscore the importance of geographical targeting of poverty reduction interventions. Moreover, the coexistence of high rural poverty rates and limited asset accumulation, and strong macroeconomic growth highlight the fact that causes of poverty are complex. Macroeconomic growth policies need to be complimented with policies that enhance escapes from poverty (“cargo net” policies) and those that prevent descents into poverty (“cargo net” policies).

    A green revolution from below? : science and technology for global food security and poverty alleviation
    Richards, P. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789085858850 - 21
    wetenschap - technologie - ontwikkeling - landbouwontwikkeling - armoede - honger - voedselzekerheid - landbouw bedrijven - plattelandsontwikkeling - ontwikkelingslanden - science - technology - development - agricultural development - poverty - hunger - food security - farming - rural development - developing countries
    Tourism for development: Environmental sustainability, poverty reduction and empowering communities; Thematic proceedings of ATLAS Africa Conferences Volume 6, Gaborone, Botswana, 1-3 July, 2009
    Zellmer, K. ; Duim, R. van der; Saarinen, J. - \ 2010
    Arnhem, The Netherlands : ATLAS Association for Tourism and Leisure Education (Thematic proceedings of ATLAS Africa Conferences 6) - ISBN 9789075775433 - 138
    toerisme - ontwikkeling van toerisme - toeristenindustrie - regionale ontwikkeling - armoede - basisbehoeften - milieubescherming - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - afrika - duurzame ontwikkeling - tourism - tourism development - tourist industry - regional development - poverty - basic needs - environmental protection - community development - africa - sustainable development
    Tourism is a global scale industry with increasing impacts on the environment, regional and local development. In many African countries tourism provides increasingly new opportunities, jobs and economic benefits to local communities, and currently many countries in the continent see tourism promotion as a good and relatively inexpensive strategy that can be used to attract foreign direct investment through showing natural areas and local indigenous cultures. As a result of growing tourism activities many places and rural areas in the region are increasingly tied to the industry and related cultural, social, economic and political networks. At the same time tourism in the region is deeply influenced by its changing physical and social environments and larger processes such as global climate change. Tourism has become an important policy tool for community and regional development in Africa, including Southern Africa. Tourism has also a significant potential to influence and change the use of natural and cultural resources in the continent and region. This has highlighted the role of sustainability, management and governance in tourism development and turned tourism not only into an economic but also social and political activity that influences the wider environment in various ways. At policy level, tourism is increasingly viewed as an essential sector of regional and national reconstruction and development in the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC), for example. In this sense the rationale for tourism development has evolved towards the idea of tourism as a tool for regional and sustainable developlment and recently to a relatively new kind of ideas of tourism as an instrument of social and economic empowerment and poverty reduction. In this respect there are many regional and local development programmes that are highlighting the role of tourism in regional and sustainable development and empowerment.
    Food, diversity, vulnerability and social change : research findings from insular Southeast Asia
    Niehof, A. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (Mansholt publication series vol. 9) - ISBN 9789086861392 - 141
    huishoudens - voedselzekerheid - gezinsinkomen - huishouduitgaven - sociale verandering - armoede - zuidoost-azië - indonesië - filippijnen - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - households - food security - household income - household expenditure - social change - poverty - south east asia - indonesia - philippines - livelihood strategies
    Food is a universal basic need. The diverse ways in which people and households try to meet this need, the constraints they are up against in doing so, and the strategies they develop to reduce their vulnerability to food insecurity form the core of this book. A large range of findings on these subjects is reviewed and analysed, based on recent research carried out in Southeast Asia, with a focus on Indonesia and the Philippines. Household food provision and the nutritional status of household members reflect processes and outcomes that reach far beyond agricultural parameters of food production and biological indicators of nutrient intake. They evolve in a dynamic and gendered context shaped by ecological, socio-cultural, economic and political factors. Hence, research in the field provides a meeting ground for researchers with various disciplinary backgrounds, like agronomists, nutrition scientists, anthropologists, sociologists, and economists. The methodological implications of this are discussed in the book as well.
    Targeting married women in microfinance programmes: transforming or reinforcing gender inequalities? : evidence from Ethiopia
    Bekele, H. - \ 2010
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Henk Folmer, co-promotor(en): Bettina Bock. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085855309 - 234
    vrouwen - laag inkomen - armoede - financiën - krediet - man-vrouwrelaties - empowerment - marginale gebieden - ontwikkelingslanden - efficiëntie - ethiopië - microfinanciering - getrouwde personen - geslacht (gender) - gelijke behandeling van de vrouw - women - low income - poverty - finance - credit - gender relations - empowerment - less favoured areas - developing countries - efficiency - ethiopia - microfinance - married persons - gender - female equality
    With the expansion of microfinance programmes in the low-income countries, millions of poor women in these countries have been able to access microfinancial services, particularly microcredit and savings. The provision of microfinance services to women has been largely premised on the assumption that credit facilitates or expands women’s selfemployment opportunities, and consequently leads to their empowerment. In recent years, however, this proposition is under scrutiny and debate, as the available studies provide
    conflicting evidence. This study explores whether and how microfinance granted to married women affects the intra-household division of labour and decision-making power. It also investigates the effect of an HIV/AIDS infection on microfinancing results. The study compared the effects across two regions in Ethiopia in order to understand the role of local socio-cultural practices and economic structures. Simultaneously, the effects across two (regional) microfinancing institutions were compared, which differed in institutional regulations and strategies. The study took as its point of departure the bargaining theory approach of the household and the differentiation between cooperative and non-cooperative models, in order to examine how women’s access to microfinance services affected women’s bargaining power within the household. The study employed a (comparative) case study research strategy in order to understand the complexity of (structural, cultural and individual) factors shaping the outcomes of microfinance programmes with regard to gender relations. A mix of research methods and data collection techniques, including key informant interviews, in-depth interviews, a small-scale household survey, and focus group discussions were used to understand the resource allocation and bargaining dynamics within the household. The study focused on the Amhara Credit and Saving Institution (ACSI) and the Omo Microfinance Institution (OMFI), which were operational in the Amhara and Southern Nations and Nationalities People’s (SNNPR) regions during 2004, respectively. Both of them worked with female clients in the rural areas and had five or more years of experience in microfinancing. In the Amhara region, the study was conducted in the Mangudo Kebele, located in the Moretena Juru district, of the North Shoa zone, while in the SNNPR, the study was conducted in the Dirama, Wita and Wolenshu Kebeles, located in the Meskan district of the Gurage zone. The case study’s locations were selected because of their distinctiveness in socio-cultural practices and economic structures, and because of accessibility. The study aimed to answer the following research questions.
    Essays on Impact evaluation: new empirical evidence from Vietnam
    Nguyen Viet Cuong, N. - \ 2009
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): D. Bigman; Robert Lensink, co-promotor(en): Marrit van den Berg. - Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789085854302 - 198
    armoede - overheidsbeleid - migratie - sociale zekerheid - inkomen - dispariteit - economische evaluatie - vietnam - azië - microfinanciering - welzijn - poverty - government policy - migration - social security - income - disparity - economic evaluation - vietnam - asia - microfinance - well-being
    Keywords: Credit, cash transfers, remittances, migration, poverty, inequality, impact evaluation, Vietnam, Asia

    This study estimates the impact of various economic flows including government-subsidized micro-credit, informal credit, public and private transfers, international remittances, and migration on poverty and inequality for Vietnam using Vietnam Household Living Standard Surveys in 2004 and 2006. Impact evaluation methods employed in the study include fixedeffects regression and difference-in-differences with propensity score matching. Poverty is measured by three Foster-Greer-Thorbecke poverty indexes, while inequality is measured by the Gini coefficient, Theil’s L and Theil’s T indexes. It is found that the impact of the governmental micro-credit, public transfers and international remittances on poverty reduction is very limited. On the contrary, informal credit, domestic (internal) private transfers and migration have positive and statistically significant impacts on poverty reduction. The domestic private transfers have the largest effect on the total poverty of the population due to a high impact on expenditure and a large coverage of the poor. Regarding inequality, both government-subsidized micro-credit and informal credit do not affect inequality significantly. Public transfers and international remittances increase inequality slightly, while domestic private transfers and migration lead to a decrease in inequality.



    Climate change versus development: trade-offs and synergies
    Swart, R.J. - \ 2009
    London, United Kingdom : Policy Network - 12
    klimaatverandering - opwarming van de aarde - ontwikkeling - armoede - honger - climatic change - global warming - development - poverty - hunger
    Econometric analyses of microfinance credit group formation, contractual risks and welfare impacts in Northern Ethiopia
    Berhane Tesfay, G. - \ 2009
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arie Oskam, co-promotor(en): Koos Gardebroek; Tassew Woldehanna. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085854258 - 146
    krediet - landbouwhuishoudens - financiële instellingen - econometrie - risico - dynamische modellen - groepen - contracten - armoede - plattelandsbevolking - ethiopië - microfinanciering - panelgegevens - credit - agricultural households - financial institutions - econometrics - risk - dynamic models - groups - contracts - poverty - rural population - ethiopia - microfinance - panel data

    Key words
    Microfinance, joint liability, contractual risk, group formation, risk-matching, impact evaluation, Panel data econometrics, dynamic panel probit, trend models, fixed-effects, composite counterfactuals, propensity score matching, farm households, Ethiopia.

    Lack of access to credit is a key obstacle for economic development in poor countries. The underlying problem is related to information asymmetry combined with the poor’s lack of collateral to pledge. New mechanisms in microfinance offer ways to deal with this problem without resorting to collateral requirements. The objective of this thesis is to examine the mechanisms of providing credit through microfinance and assess the long-run borrowing effects on household welfare in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian environment provides a suitable setting to examine these issues. To meet this objective, two unique data sets - a five-wave panel data on 400 and a cross-sectional data on 201 households - from northern Ethiopia are used.
    Borrowing decision is first conceptualized using a dynamic stochastic theoretical framework. Two types of risks involved in joint liability lending are incorporated, i.e., risk of partner failure and risk of losing future access to credit. Empirical analysis using recent dynamic panel data probit techniques show that these contractual risks indeed impede participation in borrowing. The impediment is higher for the poorer, and for new than repeat participants. Second, group formation is analyzed within the framework of alternative microeconomic theories of joint liability where the commonly held hypothesis that groups formed are homogeneous in risk profiles is tested. Empirical results reject this hypothesis indicating that the formation of heterogeneous risk profiles is an inherent feature in group formation and repayment. In fact, there is evidence that borrowers take advantage of established informal credit and saving, and other social networks, which also suggests that group formation outcomes vary depending on underlying socioeconomic contexts.
    Third, the impact of long-term borrowing on household welfare is assessed from the dimension of intensity and timing of participation in borrowing. Panel data covering relatively long period enabled to account for duration and timing concerns in program evaluation. Recent parametric and semi-parametric panel data techniques are innovatively employed to mitigate participation selection biases. Results from both approaches indicate that borrowing has increased household welfare significantly: the earlier and more frequent the participation the higher the impact partly due to lasting effects of credit. This also suggests that impact studies that are based on a single-shot observation of outcomes and that do not account for the timing and duration of participation may underestimate microfinance credit impacts.



    In fear of abandonment : slum life, community leaders and politics in Recife, Brazil
    Koster, M. - \ 2009
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Th. Blom Hansen, co-promotor(en): Monique Nuijten; Pieter de Vries. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085852971 - 356
    sociologie - sociale antropologie - steden - stedelijke gebieden - armoede - economisch achtergestelden - buurten - sociale structuur - stedelijke samenleving - stedelijke bevolking - gemeenschappen - leiderschap - politiek - stadsontwikkeling - brazilië - latijns-amerika - sociology - social anthropology - towns - urban areas - poverty - economically disadvantaged - neighbourhoods - social structure - urban society - urban population - communities - leadership - politics - urban development - brazil - latin america
    This book sets out to contribute to the pursuit of ‘making nonpersons full human beings’
    (Boff & Boff:1987:8). It provides insights in the lives of residents of the slum of “Chão de
    Estrelas” in Recife, Brazil. I argue that slum dwellers should not be mystified and
    misrecognised as “the other”, as different from “normal” citizens, because of their
    marginalised position. I show that the slum is, in fact, an eminently knowable world.
    This book presents how slum dwellers, directed by local lideres comunitarios, community
    leaders, strive for material and intangible resources and engage in utopian projects. I
    argue that the needs and aspirations of these people, who are at constant risk of being
    ignored, disconnected, and abandoned, emerge from their yearnings for recognition and
    connectivity, and a fear of abandonment. To understand this life in the slum, I focus on
    the ways slum dwellers attempt to realise their needs and aspirations, modes of
    operating which I call “slum politics”.
    Chapter 1 defines slum politics as grounded in the needs and aspirations of those
    who live in the margins. Drawing on the work of Oscar Lewis (1959, 1965), it analyses
    how life in the slum, through stigmatisation and a long history of marginalisation, is
    reproduced in ways that are fundamentally different from middle- and upper-class
    people. This difference, expressed in particular needs and aspirations, is not generated
    because slum dwellers are a different kind of people, but because have they been
    structurally segregated in the dominant political and economic order. This chapter
    documents how these particular needs and aspirations, although not solely held by
    slum dwellers, are more emphatically and urgently present in their lives in the margins
    of the political and economic order, and have material, intangible and utopian
    dimensions. Material needs exist, for instance, for money, food, and employment.
    Intangible, or social, needs can be viewed in attempts to establish connections to all
    kinds of people and to gain prestige. Utopian aspirations find their expression in slum
    dwellers’ cravings for solidarity, a better environment, and a desire to be connected to
    the world instead of being ignored by it.
    This chapter coins the concept of slum politics as the ongoing and never finished
    endeavour of slum dwellers of creating connections and possibilities which break off all
    the time. Slum politics, driven by attempts to be connected to the political and economic
    order, centres on the notion of connectivity, the intricate face-to-face relations between
    persons which need to be constantly maintained, and a fear abandonment, which means
    being forsaken and excluded by everybody. It includes practices in the realms of family
    life, making a living, and dreaming about the future.
    Chapter 2 provides a portrait of community leadership. It shows how community
    leaders are the main facilitators of slum politics, as they articulate and consolidate needs
    and aspirations of their fellow slum dwellers, which they, being slum dwellers
    340
    themselves, know well. Community leaders distinguish themselves from other slum
    dwellers by their talent to establish and maintain myriad connections, both to other
    slum dwellers and people outside the slum. Through these connections they attempt to
    create access to resources, to gain prestige, and arrive at recognition of their needs and
    those of their fellow slum dwellers.
    Community leaders also need their connections in order to make a living. They
    engage in the realm of electoral politics, looking for resources and prestige. Yet, their
    practices inevitably implicate them in particular tensions between opposing dimensions.
    They are confronted with the diverging expectations of fellow slum dwellers. This
    results in tensions of love for the community versus self-interest, and between the
    expectation that community leaders derive prestige and resources through electoral
    politics and the accusation that they are contaminated by electoral political interests.
    Slum dwellers are attracted by electoral politics’ image of opulence and possibilities
    beyond compare. Meanwhile, they distrust involvement in it, as it seemingly
    marginalises community issues in favour of assuming and maintaining public positions
    and making money.
    Chapter 3 introduces the community leaders Ovídio, Creuza, and Zezinho, their
    personalities, their projects, their operational styles, and their competition. It pays
    attention to how they articulate and consolidate needs and aspirations of their fellow
    slum dwellers, and operate between the tensions introduced in chapter 2. Each leader’s
    trajectory towards becoming a leader is presented, including their historical record of
    achievements and their thematic interests, comprising issues in which they specialise,
    which allow them to establish connections with people around specific topics. Three
    case studies are presented, one on each community leader, closely examining how they
    give shape to slum politics in their projects.
    Chapter 4 discusses how ordinary life in the slum is lived, through narrating
    histories of how four families in the slum organise their lives. These stories shed light on
    the way the economy is lived in a site where unemployment is high, self-employment
    often the only way to make a living, and allowances form a great part of the money
    coming in. I show a particular economic dynamic, where much of the money remains
    circulating within the slum, with a specific gendered labour division, an emphasis on
    connections, gift-giving, and a social use of money.
    In Chapter 5, I analyse how slum politics is intertwined with, but different from,
    electoral and themselves, know well. Community leaders distinguish themselves from other slum
    dwellers by their talent to establish and maintain myriad connections, both to other
    slum dwellers and people outside the slum. Through these connections they attempt to
    create access to resources, to gain prestige, and arrive at recognition of their needs and
    those of their fellow slum dwellers.
    Community leaders also need their connections in order to make a living. They
    engage in the realm of electoral politics, looking for resources and prestige. Yet, their
    practices inevitably implicate them in particular tensions between opposing dimensions.
    They are confronted with the diverging expectations of fellow slum dwellers. This
    results in tensions of love for the community versus self-interest, and between the
    expectation that community leaders derive prestige and resources through electoral
    politics and the accusation that they are contaminated by electoral political interests.
    Slum dwellers are attracted by electoral politics’ image of opulence and possibilities
    beyond compare. Meanwhile, they distrust involvement in it, as it seemingly
    marginalises community issues in favour of assuming and maintaining public positions
    and making money.
    Chapter 3 introduces the community leaders Ovídio, Creuza, and Zezinho, their
    personalities, their projects, their operational styles, and their competition. It pays
    attention to how they articulate and consolidate needs and aspirations of their fellow
    slum dwellers, and operate between the tensions introduced in chapter 2. Each leader’s
    trajectory towards becoming a leader is presented, including their historical record of
    achievements and their thematic interests, comprising issues in which they specialise,
    which allow them to establish connections with people around specific topics. Three
    case studies are presented, one on each community leader, closely examining how they
    give shape to slum politics in their projects.
    Chapter 4 discusses how ordinary life in the slum is lived, through narrating
    histories of how four families in the slum organise their lives. These stories shed light on
    the way the economy is lived in a site where unemployment is high, self-employment
    often the only way to make a living, and allowances form a great part of the money
    coming in. I show a particular economic dynamic, where much of the money remains
    circulating within the slum, with a specific gendered labour division, an emphasis on
    connections, gift-giving, and a social use of money.
    In Chapter 5, I analyse how slum politics is intertwined with, but different from,
    electoral and governmental politics. I follow Partha Chatterjee’s theorising on popular
    politics, conceptualised as those ‘contrary mobilisations’ that may have ‘transformative
    effects … among the supposedly unenlightened sections of the population’ (2004:49).
    Chatterjee distinguishes the politics of marginalised people from the politics of the state
    apparatus and the government, and argues that the former should not be understood as
    “pre-political” and backward, but as a politics with its own parameters and logics,
    ‘different from that of the elite’ (idem:39). My reservation to Chatterjee’s theorisations is that he presents popular politics as a residual category, derived from governmental
    politics. I argue instead that slum politics is not primarily reactive to or derived from
    governmental politics, but co-exists with it as it is constituted in the needs and
    aspirations of slum dwellers.
    Chapter 6, zeroing in on the 2004 municipal elections, shows the overlap between
    slum politics and electoral politics. It documents how electoral politics penetrates into
    the slum and contaminates slum politics. Community leaders employ the moment of the
    elections to negotiate with candidates to garner resources for the community and
    themselves. However, electoral politics entails the possible risk of steering away from
    community interests into issues of self-interested yearnings for power and money. Two
    case studies show attempts of community leaders, as political canvassers, to manoeuvre
    in the realm of electoral politics in such ways as to also make money, cater to needs and
    aspirations of fellow slum dwellers, and steer clear of accusations of being selfinterested.
    Chapter 7 presents a case study of encounters between slum politics and
    governmental politics. Parts of Chão de Estrelas were planned to be regenerated by a
    large World Bank funded slum upgrading programme. I analyse the preamble of the
    programme, how it affected the population of the slum, and how community leaders
    dealt with it. With reference to Bruno Latour’s work, I argue that the ambiguity which
    existed around the programme actually called it into existence. I contend that a project
    creates a context in which it becomes real, through rumours and ‘little solidities’ (Latour
    1996:45), like meetings, surveys, maps, aerial photographs, offices, brochures, registers,
    maps, surveyors and their reports, and census stickers.
    I also argue that the programme affected slum dwellers in their most vulnerable
    places: their homes, neighbourhoods, and possibilities for work. As a consequence,
    feelings of despair, evoking fears of being ignored as a person with specific needs and
    aspirations, hit hard in the lives of slum dwellers.
    Chapter 8 analyses how life in the slum is framed by violence. Next to the symbolic
    and structural violence of discrimination, slum dwellers face acts of violence on a daily
    basis, like fights, assaults and shoot-outs, often related to drug trade. Community
    leaders and drug traders maintain a tacit balance by which they steer clear of contact
    with each other. Slum dwellers, I show, perceive of violence as extraordinary through
    acts of mentioning it, reflecting upon it, avoiding it, and expressing aspirations for a life
    without it. In contrast, they also see violence as normal, as it is an everyday life
    experience.
    Furthermore, this chapter argues that, whereas actual violence occurs at random,
    potential violence is structured and structuring. Dealing with potential violence, slum
    dwellers ban violence discursively from their personal lives by depicting it as related to
    ‘the other’ and ‘elsewhere’. In addition, they adhere to moral categories which define
    those who die from violence as evil, as such seeing their death as a good thing which rids the community of wrong-doers.
    Turning again to the intersection between slum politics and governmental politics,
    the chapter argues that the concept of citizenship does not resonate with the lives of
    slum dwellers who reside in sites where citizenship rights per definition do not hold.
    Part of the violence slum dwellers face is related to the intrusive workings of the statedesigned
    project of registered citizenship, which centres on the compulsory carrying of
    identity cards. Slum dwellers, instead of being recognised as citizens through their
    identity cards, are discriminated and approached in violent ways by the police who
    consider them as criminals.
    Chapter 9, as a conclusion, argues once more against the mystification and
    “othering” of slum dwellers, and distances them from the philosopher Giorgio
    Agamben’s notion of homo sacer (1998, 2005). Slum dwellers do not coincide with homo
    sacer, as they are not officially abandoned by law and maintain personal connections
    with people outside the slum. Further, the dominant image of the slum dweller as a
    dangerous criminal separates him from homo sacer, who is harmless. Moreover, slum
    politics assigns a political quality to life in the slum, which makes it a politically
    qualified life (bios) instead of the bare life (zoē) of homo sacer. Slum dwellers’ position in
    the political and economic order, although marginalised, is different from the position of
    homo sacer, who exists outside of the order. Finally, in contrast to homo sacer, slum
    dwellers are not a minority, but a fast growing social class which will soon exist of more
    than half of the world’s population. I incite anthropologists to study not only the general
    exclusionary workings of political systems, but also the mundane practices and utopian
    aspirations of people living in the margins, as an analysis of these may help to imagine
    novel political possibilities.
    Migration, Poverty, and Inequality: Evidence from Burkina Faso
    Wouterse, F.S. - \ 2008
    Washington D.C. : IFPRI (IPPRI discussion paper / International Food Policy Research Institute 00786) - 24
    migratie - armoede - sociaal welzijn - landbouwhuishoudens - burkina faso - afrika - vermogensverdeling - migration - poverty - social welfare - agricultural households - burkina faso - africa - wealth distribution
    New Avenues for tourism and wealth creation in Africa. Thematic proceedings of Atlas Africa Conferences Volume 5 (Kampala, Uganda, 27-29 October 2007)
    Duim, V.R. van der; Kloek, M.E. - \ 2008
    Arnhem : ATLAS - ISBN 9789075775372 - 118
    toerisme - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - armoede - plattelandsgemeenschappen - afrika - tourism - sustainability - poverty - rural communities - africa
    Tourism, nature conservation and wealth creation in Africa. Thematic proceedings of Atlas Africa Conferences Volume 4 (Kampala, Uganda, 27-29 October 2007)
    Duim, V.R. van der; Kloek, M.E. - \ 2008
    Arhnem : ATLAS - ISBN 9789075775365 - 74
    toerisme - natuurbescherming - armoede - afrika - ecotoerisme - plattelandsgemeenschappen - tourism - nature conservation - poverty - africa - ecotourism - rural communities
    EU-India free trade agreement : a quantitative assessment
    Achterbosch, T.J. ; Kuiper, M.H. ; Roza, P. - \ 2008
    The Hague : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI : Area 2, Development issues ) - ISBN 9789086152667 - 68
    handel - vrijhandel - internationale handel - handelspolitiek - liberalisering van de handel - handelsrelaties - voedselgranen - armoede - toegang - handelsonderhandelingen - wereldmarkten - handelsprotectie - india - europese unie - trade - free trade - international trade - trade policy - trade liberalization - trade relations - food grains - poverty - access - trade negotiations - world markets - trade protection - india - european union
    This report analyses the effects of a regional trade agreement (FTA) between the EU and India, for which negotiations are underway. The study starts with abrief overview of the key insights from the existing literature on FTAs and their relationship with multilateral negotiations. The remainder of the study is devoted to analysing the impact of tariff slashes under an FTA on merchandise trade between the EU and India. Of particular interest are the implications for agricultural markets, given the tension between agricultural liberalisation and India's policy goals relating to self-sufficiency in food grains and poverty reduction. The analysis employs GTAP, a global general equilibrium model using a recent database which has 2004 as its reference year. The results suggest that India's interests in a regional trade agreement with the EU are downplayed by the fact that India's economy is not well integrated in global markets. Impacts on the EU are minor and further reduced if a Doha agreement is in place when the FTA is implemented. Results indicate the rationale for a strongly asymmetric arrangement: it would be in the interest of both partners if the EU provides large concessions to India for market access, while India maintains the bulk of current border protection. An EU - India FTA delivers little scope for achieving efficiency gains via adjustments to the pattern of international specialisation. An EU - India agreement on merchandise trade is unlikely to embody substantial preferential treatment with regard to market access. Probably, India can find more suitable FTA partners. Agriculture is a key sector for India in the consideration of equity and growth purposes of a FTA with EU.
    Fragmented lives: reconstructing rural livelihoods in post-genocide Rwanda
    Koster, M. - \ 2008
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Anke Niehof, co-promotor(en): Georg Frerks; Lisa Price. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049678 - 468
    plattelandsontwikkeling - huishoudens - gezinsinkomen - oorlog - conflict - sociologie - sociale economie - platteland - plattelandsbevolking - huishoudelijke consumptie - zelfvoorzieningslandbouw - landbouw - armoede - plattelandsvrouwen - positie van de vrouw - etnische groepen - rwanda - middelen van bestaan - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - sociaal kapitaal - geslacht (gender) - rural development - households - household income - war - conflict - sociology - socioeconomics - rural areas - rural population - household consumption - subsistence farming - agriculture - poverty - rural women - woman's status - ethnic groups - rwanda - livelihoods - livelihood strategies - social capital - gender
    During the genocide in Rwanda (1994) nearly a million Tutsi and moderate Hutu were killed and millions of people were displaced. Since 2002, social scientist Marian Koster has regularly visited the country for her PhD-research at Wageningen University. Her study centred on the strategies that households in the northeast of Rwanda use to secure their livelihoods. During her visits to Rwanda, Koster was told that the poorest and most vulnerable households consist of those headed by women, and specifically those headed by widows. However, her research clearly indicates that this is not the case and that widowed heads of households perform much better than is generally assumed. This has important consequences for development interventions which, in an attempt to reach the poorest of the poor, continue to target widows. Koster’s research also shows that many new laws and policies, meant to increase land tenure security and agricultural production, are counterproductive and directly undermine poor people’s livelihood strategies.
    Long-term global availability of food: continued abundance or new scarcity?
    Koning, N.B.J. ; Ittersum, M.K. van; Becx, G.A. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van; Brandenburg, W.A. ; Broek, J.A. van den; Goudriaan, J. ; Hofwegen, G. van; Jongeneel, R.A. ; Schiere, J.B. ; Smies, M. - \ 2008
    NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 55 (2008)3. - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 229 - 292.
    voedselzekerheid - voedselprijzen - productiemogelijkheden - voedselvoorziening - honger - armoede - populatiegroei - biobrandstoffen - food security - food prices - production possibilities - food supply - hunger - poverty - population growth - biofuels - precision agriculture - use efficiency - climate-change - bioenergy production - developing-countries - economic-development - production systems - specialized dairy - green-revolution - soil degradation
    During the 20th century hunger has become a problem of poverty amidst plenty rather than absolute food scarcity. The question is whether this will remain so or whether the hunger of the poor will once more be exacerbated by rising food prices. In this paper we discuss biophysical conditions, social forces and non-linear interactions that may critically influence the global availability of food in the long term. Until 2050, the global demand for primary phytomass for food will more than double, while competing claims to natural resources for other purposes (including biobased non-foods) will increase. A sober assessment of the earth¿s biophysical potential for biomass production, which recognizes competing claims and unavoidable losses, suggests that this is in itself still large enough for accommodating this rising demand. However, the exploitation of this biophysical potential proceeds through technical paradigms that set a relative maximum to food production. In addition, socio-economic mechanisms make the food economy run up against a ceiling even before this maximum is reached. As a consequence, current developments may well entail a new trend change in international markets. These developments include the depletion of land and water reserves, the stagnation of the potential yields of major crops, the rise in energy prices, and the way in which systemic socio-economic factors lead to a strong underutilization of production possibilities in the developing world. Given these conditions, the avoidance of steep rises in food prices may depend on the timely relaxation of socio-economic constraints in developing countries and on timely breakthroughs in sustainable yield increases, biorefinement and non-farm production systems. Myopic expectations make it doubtful whether spontaneous market forces will provide the necessary incentives for this, which may be reason for societal actors to consider the need for more active policies
    Waarom zijn de huidige wereldvoedselprijzen zo hoog?
    Banse, M.A.H. ; Nowicki, P.L. ; Meijl, H. van - \ 2008
    Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Werkveld 1, Internationaal beleid ) - ISBN 9789086152384 - 33
    agrarische economie - voedselprijzen - wereldmarkten - markten - basisproducten - internationale handel - wereld - globalisering - landbouwprijzen - armoede - wereldbevolking - aanbod - vraag - prijsbeleid - biobrandstoffen - biobased economy - agricultural economics - food prices - world markets - markets - commodities - international trade - world - globalization - agricultural prices - poverty - world population - supply - demand - price policy - biofuels - biobased economy
    De gestage stijging van de voedselprijzen in de afgelopen twee jaar treft de gehele wereldbevolking, met name de allerarmsten. Het duidelijk in kaart brengen van de diverse oorzaken die ten grondslag liggen aan deze prijsverhoging is cruciaal om beleidsmaatregelen te vermijden die mogelijk averechts zouden werken. Dit overzicht van de factoren die momenteel van invloed zijn op de voedselprijzen helpt om de passende beleidsmix te ontwikkelen en in de komende tijd ten uitvoer te leggen.
    War veterans in Zimbabwe's land occupations: complexities of a liberation movement in an African post-colonial settler society
    Sadomba, W. - \ 2008
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Paul Richards, co-promotor(en): S. Moyo; Kees Jansen. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049173 - 257
    veteranen - belangengroepen - politiek - landbouwhervorming - landbouwgrond - grondbeleid - overheidsbeleid - kolonialisme - imperialisme - conflict - boeren - armoede - sociale verandering - platteland - zimbabwe - geschiedenis - bezetting - westerse wereld - verhoudingen tussen bevolking en staat - politieke conflicten - sociaal conflict - nationale politiek - veterans - interest groups - politics - agrarian reform - agricultural land - land policy - government policy - colonialism - imperialism - conflict - farmers - poverty - social change - rural areas - zimbabwe - history - occupation - western world - relations between people and state - political conflicts - social conflict - national politics
    In 2000, Zimbabwe’s century old land movement took a swift turn, rupturing into
    nationwide occupation of mainly White owned commercial farms. The speed with
    which occupations spread, their organisation, the political and economic context, the
    historical origins and interaction of the forces, shaped an unprecedented and
    complex land movement impacting on the region, the continent and beyond.
    Zimbabwe’s land occupations were unique in two ways. First, the leading role of
    War Veterans of the 1970s anti-colonial guerrilla war in the land occupations was
    exceptional. Second, the simultaneous challenge to racial, settler economic
    dominance and neo-colonialism by marginalised peasants, farm workers, war
    veterans, urban youth and the unemployed, was a new experience in post-colonial
    history of Africa’s liberation movements. Zimbabwe’s land occupations were a long
    continuum of land struggles to resolve the colonial legacy of racial resource
    distribution but as they occurred, the role played by the state, the contested terrain of
    the civil society, formidable political opposition and imperialist interventions of
    western powers clouded the identity of the land movement thereby making it
    difficult to distinguish the moving current and the identity of forces from the wider
    political conflicts swirling around it. Who exactly initiated the occupations and for
    what reasons? This thesis attempts to unpack these intricately locked forces in a bid
    to understand their origins, interests, strategies, tactics and above all, the alliances
    between and amongst them, for clearer understanding of the core of the movement.
    This thesis traces the history of Zimbabwe’s liberation movement as foundation to
    understanding political reconfigurations that shaped post independence social
    movements and assesses agrarian technology responses to such a dramatic social
    change of Africa’s post-colonial settler society. The thesis provokes prognostic
    thoughts about the role played by social capital of liberation struggles in future
    economic and cultural emancipation from shackles of neo-colonialism and racial,
    settler capitalism.
    Check title to add to marked list
    << previous | next >>

    Show 20 50 100 records per page

     
    Please log in to use this service. Login as Wageningen University & Research user or guest user in upper right hand corner of this page.