Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Europe: the paradox of landscape change : A case-study based contribution to the understanding of landscape transitions
    Sluis, Theo van der - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): B.J.M. Arts, co-promotor(en): G.B.M. Pedroli. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463438094 - 227
    europe - case studies - landscape - change - landscape conservation - land use dynamics - cultural landscape - regions - urbanization - rural areas - policy - ecosystem services - agri-environment schemes - europa - gevalsanalyse - landschap - verandering - landschapsbescherming - dynamiek van het ruimtegebruik - cultuurlandschap - regio's - urbanisatie - platteland - beleid - ecosysteemdiensten - agrarisch natuurbeheer

    This thesis explores the processes of change in European rural landscapes. Landscapes have evolved over millennia as a result of human influence on the physical environment. Europe has a wide variety of landscapes that can alter within a relatively short distance, and which often form part of the national cultural identity of a European country. Central to this thesis, however, are insights into the processes of landscape change.

    In this context, the overall objective of this thesis is: To assess the dynamics of landscape change and increase the scientific understanding of the underlying processes and policies that have shaped the rural landscapes of Europe after establishment of the EU.

    The focus is on the period following the establishment of the European Economic Community in 1965, which is hypothesised as the main driver of landscape change. European policies have an important direct impact on national and regional policies. The way that European policy transposition took place, existing governance structures and policy cultures also defined how ‘European policy’ influenced countries and regions. The object of this study is in particular the changing rural landscape, including the role of European agricultural policies, such as the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and conservation policies (for example Natura2000) in these changes.

    The thesis uses an integrated approach to assess the various processes of landscape change: land use transitions, urbanisation of the countryside, land use intensification, extensification or abandonment. These processes are linked to drivers of landscape changes, the role of policies, and how these affect the landscape processes.

    Research questions

    The research objective requires unravelling the correlations between land-related policies and landscape change in the EU, the drivers of landscape change and in particular how policies affect the European landscape. To operationalise this objective, the following research questions are addressed:

    What are the major landscape change processes occurring in different regions of Europe?

    What are the drivers of landscape change in different regions of Europe, and what is the role of EU-policies in particular?

    How do landscape changes affect the provision of landscape services?

    How does the implementation of conservation policies affect processes of landscape change?

    Which effective strategies and future pathways can be followed to conserve valuable cultural landscapes?

    The thesis consists of an introductory chapter, five chapters each addressing one of the research questions, and a concluding synthesis: putting the findings together and indicating their potential significance for research and policy. The first chapter introduces the theoretical framework, which focusses on the benefits (goods and services) that landscapes provide, satisfying human demands directly or indirectly. The framework recognises the institutions, the policies (indirect drivers), as well as natural and anthropogenic drivers of landscape change. The five central chapters have each been submitted to international peer reviewed scientific journals, three of which have been accepted, and one has been revised and resubmitted.

    Research question Q1, ‘What are major landscape changes occurring in different regions of Europe?’ is addressed by interviewing 437 farmers in six selected study areas in Denmark, the Netherlands, Austria, Greece and Romania (Chapter 2). The aim of this survey was to acquire a better understanding of farmer’s decision making, the environmental conditions and the landscape change processes taking place. The focus is on intensification and extensification processes in the case-study areas and regional similarities and differences. A statistical analysis of land use intensity was carried out on the basis of the interviews.

    Research question Q2, ‘What are the drivers of landscape change in different regions of Europe, and what particularly are the role of EU-policies?’, discusses the factors and drivers of change in a meta-study of six countries (Chapter 3). This study is based on stakeholder’s interpretations of change processes, using Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping. Groups of landscape experts participated in five workshops to jointly construct a cognitive map of landscape change processes over the past 25 years. The study examines in particular the storylines of the processes of landscape change. Two cases of Mediterranean and Boreal landscapes, are detailed.

    Question Q3, ‘How do landscape changes affect the provision of landscape services?’ is addressed in Chapter 4, and discusses five European case studies with regard to changes in landscape services. The analysis is based on observed landscape changes by comparing maps for periods of up to 25 years. The changes were interpreted in terms of the consequences for landscape services, and related to European policies of landscape change.

    Question Q4: ‘How does the implementation of conservation policies affect processes of landscape change?’ is discussed in Chapter 5 through focus on landscape governance. The transposition of European policy is assessed using the case of the Habitats Directive in four countries: Denmark, Greece, The Netherlands and Romania. It is assessed how legislation is locally translated and how this ‘fits’ the national governance system.

    The last Question, Q5: ‘Which effective strategies and future pathways can be followed to conserve valuable cultural landscapes?’ is addressed in Chapter 6 on Mediterranean landscape change. Two ‘iconic’ Greek and Italian cultural olive yard landscapes were compared. Both landscapes have a centuries-old farming system. Long-term data sets on landscape change (exceeding 100 years) were combined with map data, interviews and literature, to discuss the characteristics of cultural landscape management, opportunities and potential risks for the future of these cultural landscapes.

    The final chapter, Chapter 7, reflects on the results and presents the conclusions of the previous chapters, and on the scientific and societal significance of the thesis as a whole. It is concluded that the landscape in Europe is permanently changing as a result of complex interacting drivers. Policy has been one of the important drivers, but the landscape changes that have taken place are the outcome of various economic drivers and policies. The paradox is that the intentions of different European and regional spatial policies have been ambitious with regard to rural development, environmental quality, conservation of natural habitats and cultural heritage. In the end however, the complex interactions among direct and indirect drivers led to unintentional changes negatively affecting landscape value, resulting in land degradation, loss of cultural values and biodiversity. In other words, dominant drivers of landscape change (global economy, European policies) resulted in an outcome of landscapes that are preferred by the majority of the agricultural and forest sector, but otherwise no specific stakeholders were targeted, an outcome which was not envisaged by the policies.

    Without efficient allocation of land resources and failing to regulate sustainable use, the landscape services are declining One approach to meet the diverse demands for landscape services is to focus on the provision of multiple benefits, using a multifunctional land use approach. The assumption thereby is that a multifunctional landscape has all aspects of a sustainable, liveable and biodiverse landscape.

    The case studies landscapes in this thesis are characterised by different approaches that differ in multifunctionality: the marginal areas in southern Europe are less embedded in the global economy, and demonstrate high multifunctionality. Denmark and The Netherlands show typical ‘lowland agriculture’, that are weakly multifunctional. The Eastern European landscape cases in Romania and Estonia have higher multifunctionality, but the opportunities for change towards multifunctionality are less than in Western Europe. The opportunities are mostly dictated by environmental conditions, in particular the marginality of land, and the economy. Farming in these regions may have been profitable in the past, but abandonment is looming if no measures are taken to counteract economic driving forces.

    The cultural landscapes such as in Lesvos and Portofino are particularly highly multifunctional. These old social systems are in decline: landscapes have deteriorated and changed since they have not been well maintained. The discontinuance of traditional management has occurred due to ageing populations, a lack of labour, skills and high costs. If iconic cultural landscapes are to be preserved for the future, deterioration must be halted. Traditional knowledge, skills and techniques are key for maintaining valuable cultural landscapes, such as in Italy and Greece, but also cultural landscapes in Western Europe like England or France, or traditional landscapes in Hungary or Poland. Solutions must be found to preserve the knowledge and traditions of landscape management, but also funds and labour are required to maintain these landscapes.

    European landscapes have been permanently changing as a result of complex interacting drivers. Policy is one of the important drivers, but the landscape changes that take place are not the outcome of ‘a’ policy which steers the landscape development, but as the outcome of globalisation, economic drivers and policies; mostly the CAP, Rural Development Plan (RDP) and national forest policies which affect to a large measure the landscapes. There is no European policy for landscapes: landscape is not a prerogative of the EU.

    Therefore, a tailor-made approach is essential for European policies implemented in each member state, taking into account the structure and functioning of existing national institutions, without losing sight of the overall aims of the policy. This requires input from the recipient countries in designing regulations, adapting them to existent institutions and modifying historical and current practices.

    Holmes’ framework for changing modes of occupancy (use of rural space) has been used, whereby landscape transitions are considered the result of a changing balance between societal consumption, conservation and production. Landscapes where (agricultural or forestry) production is less dominant, may allow for more multifunctional policies that counterbalance the dominant position of production. Most countries do not have policies that fill the ‘gap’ of multifunctional landscape management. Gaps exist for landscapes not subject to Natura 2000, high nature value farming areas, outside urban zones, locations not affected by the Water Framework Directive or national forest policies, or those insufficiently covered at present by effective planning for multifunctional land use.

    Existing (sectoral) schemes need to be re-examined with respect to multifunctionality. Potential multifunctional impacts should be considered in policymaking, e.g. payment schemes in the CAP or in Natura 2000, and about appropriate target areas for measures. Making more funds from CAP and RDP available for multifunctional land use could lead to more land sharing.

    Landscapes, particularly iconic cultural landscapes, can benefit from mechanisms that allow the costs incurred by lower agricultural production to be covered. Payments for regulating and cultural services could be integrated in funding programs, e.g. through better targeting of Agri-Environment Schemes (AES) at smaller farmers in these valuable landscapes. Funding schemes should ensure that small, multifunctional farmers particularly in need support benefit. Better use must also be made of the added value potential of multifunctional effects. Increased multifunctionality would benefit the attractiveness of the countryside for residence, recreation and tourism.

    Countries implement policies differently, but key success factors for multifunctional landscapes are the existence of locally- appropriate institutions that implement multifunctional policies. Building of new institutions can be time consuming and requires staff development.

    Policy instruments on their own may be insufficient to harmonise the different aims of multifunctionality. Despite the AES, biodiversity and landscape quality is declining. The domination of some functions requires interventions and choices about trade-offs to be made (Arts et al. 2017). Given the dominant power of globalisation and European markets, payment for landscape services alone is ineffective, requiring additional incentives for the valorisation of these services, and to stimulate multifunctionality. Regional integrative approaches could be supported, with positive examples provided in the cases of alternative funding schemes, and how obstructions for such experiments can be tackled.

    Finally, stakeholder involvement in landscape governance appears promising as a way to better meet the socio-ecological context within a landscape, provided that stakeholders address different scale levels. This requires a dynamic process to mobilise stakeholders, and flexibility of the government towards negotiations and conflict management at the landscape level. In particular, these last issues can be decisive for successful landscape governance. Different landscape governance arrangements are currently being tested in Europe which demonstrate new avenues. Notwithstanding some successful stakeholder involvement in landscape management, there are also challenges: in all such processes, there is a risk that collaboration results in power inequalities that affect the outcome, or may give certain groups more benefits than others, which may make the process unsustainable. It remains, therefore, important that the concept of multifunctional landscapes is integrated in existing legislation and regulations, and further integrated into land-related policies.

    Methodology for the case studies
    Smits, M.J.W. ; Woltjer, G.B. - \ 2017
    EU (Circular impacts ) - 19
    economics - cycling - projects - renewable energy - recycling - sustainability - durability - politics - policy - environment - economie - kringlopen - projecten - hernieuwbare energie - recycling - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzaamheid (durability) - politiek - beleid - milieu
    This document is about the methodology and selection of the case studies. It is meant as a guideline for the case studies, and together with the other reports in this work package can be a source of inform ation for policy officers, interest groups and researchers evaluating or performing impact assessments of circular economy policies or specific circular economy projects. The methodology was developed to ensure that the case studies focus on the overall im pacts of the circular economy. The frame of the methodology is a s tep - by - step approach, which will be described in section s 3 and 4 of this document. In section 2 we describe the selection of the case studies.
    Framing nature : searching for (implicit) religious elements in the communication about nature
    Jansen, Peter - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): H. Jochemsen, co-promotor(en): F.W.J. Keulartz; J. van der Stoep. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431323 - 200
    nature - policy - netherlands - communication - religion - case studies - frames - perception - public authorities - landscape experience - identity - natuur - beleid - nederland - communicatie - religie - gevalsanalyse - geraamten - perceptie - overheid - landschapsbeleving - identiteit

    This PhD thesis is about communication concerning nature in the Netherlands. The purpose of this exploratory study is to take both a theoretical and an empirical look at whether (implicit) religious elements play a role in this communication about nature in the Netherlands.

    In this PhD thesis it is argued that the role of communication practitioners is to signal, articulate, and interpret normative elements in the discourse. In other words, to make (non-) congruent frames explicit and clarifying the associated world views in the discourse, including that of the government itself. The government has to be impartial as possible in its communications, but the communications about nature shows that there are questions to be asked about this neutrality. Although not explicit, but through the communications of NGOs, who operate as delegated executors of the Dutch nature policy in the context of this PhD thesis, certain images, i.e., frames regarding nature are communicated. However, the question is raised to what extent the government, based on its alleged neutrality, should condition the communication of NGOs. Here, tension can be observed. If nature conservation NGOs (explicitly) communicate a specific vision about nature, using ‘religious subtexts’, the government appears to support these ‘subtexts’. For nature conservation NGOs, it is appropriate to put forth a certain opinion to raise support for their actions among the public. However, in this PhD thesis it is argued that it is not the responsibility of the government to promote a specific religiously phrased view of nature and nature policy. Hence, this PhD thesis reveals a necessity for reflection on the relationship between government and NGOs regarding their communication, i.e., awareness of distinction and a need for mutual adjustment in the case of close cooperation.

    The results of this PhD thesis are placed in a broader cultural context with respect to nature development. A paradox is highlighted: creating nature ‘according to our view of nature’ and, simultaneously, wanting to experience wilderness-nature, preferably without too much human influence. This paradox appears to form a cultural basis for many new nature development projects. In other words, nature development is no longer just driven by ecological interests. In today’s ‘wilderness desire’, a certain form of anthropocentric thinking also manifests, because it focuses on the human experience of nature. In addition, because (new) nature projects can be places to have meaningful experiences, in this PhD thesis it is concluded that (new) nature projects, such as Tiengemeten, not only have ecological value, but societal value as well. It is also argued that in a secular society, we should not lose sight of the mediating role of creating and maintaining nature parks. Designing or maintaining natural areas in a certain way can create conditions for certain meaningful experiences. With our designing vision and communication, we can reap ‘benefits’ from nature. With this conclusion, this PhD thesis shines a different light on the concept of nature development and, indirectly, on the Dutch nature policy.

    Finally, this PhD thesis shows that religious elements play a role in the communication about nature. These are linked to meaningful experiences that people can have in nature. A religious depth dimension can be discovered in meaningful experiences. This religious depth dimension is the reason that there are ‘religious subtexts’ in the communication about nature. However, the word ‘subtext’ is crucial. The communication about nature is ‘religionised’ to some extent, but there is no mentioning of a personal God or other reference to a supernatural reality. This PhD thesis also shows that the religious depth dimension does not explicitly come to the fore in what visitors are saying. This means that this PhD thesis, in addition to questioning the appropriateness of ‘religious subtexts’ in the communication about nature, also doubts whether those ‘subtexts’ are convincing from visitors’ perspective.

    Assessing biodiversity change in scenario studies : introducing a decision support tool for analysing the impact of nature policy
    Pouwels, Rogier ; Bilt, Willem van der; Hinsberg, Arjen van; Knegt, Bart de; Reijnen, Rien ; Verboom, Jana ; Jones-Walters, Lawrence - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-paper 39) - 16
    biodiversity - policy - decision support systems - habitats - ecosystems - biodiversiteit - beleid - beslissingsondersteunende systemen - habitats - ecosystemen
    Biodiversity conservation is firmly established on the
    political agenda. Nested goals and targets for biodiversity
    have therefore been formulated and agreed at global,
    regional, national and sub-national levels in order to halt
    and reverse its decline. In order to measure progress in
    relation to the delivery of such targets, policymakers have
    a range of tools and indicators that allow them to monitor
    and evaluate the effect of their policies, instruments and
    associated actions. In terms of the policy cycle, evaluation
    should result in the further modification and refinement of
    policy instruments towards improved delivery in the
    future.
    Environmental governance of pesticides in Ethiopian vegetable and cut flower production
    Mengistie, Belay - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol, co-promotor(en): Peter Oosterveer. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579491 - 254
    pesticides - policy - ethiopia - private sector - supply chain management - agriculture - vegetables - cut flowers - environmental protection - pesticiden - beleid - ethiopië - particuliere sector - ketenmanagement - landbouw - groenten - snijbloemen - milieubescherming

    Pesticides are intensively used in agriculture across the globe to prevent or control pests, diseases, and weeds. In this process, improper pesticide registration, distribution and use has become more serious, which has resulted in heavy environmental and human health risks in many parts of the world. This holds especially true for developing countries, including Ethiopia where good agricultural practices are often poorly implemented. To safeguard human health and the environment, a strict regulatory policy is essential. In line with this, Ethiopia has developed pesticide registration and control procedures, which are regulations and directives in which the country also included different international agreements related to agropesticides. Therefore, the overall policy with respect to pesticide plays a key role in improving the environment, the health of growers and the surrounding community and stimulates the economic performance of the Ethiopian agricultural sector. However, there was no clear answer to the question whether the policy on pesticide registration, distribution and use was implemented in an effective and sustainable way. Arguably, governance failures are the origin of many environmental and human health problems regarding pesticides in developing countries. This paper argues that the influence of state and non-state actors and the relative importance of their interactions are the major structural characteristics of pesticide governance. However, it is still important to ask what governing mechanisms and actors are available and what can be developed further to promote sustainable pesticide governance. Therefore, the aim of this thesis is to investigate the pesticide policy-and-practice nexus, which includes the roles of governmental actors, private actors(traders) and farmers, and to review the actual and potential contribution from various governance actors in changing the existing (unsafe) pesticide practices in vegetables and cut flowers sector in which pesticides are used intensively.I have to conclude that both state and private actors hardly contribute to significant improvements in achieving sound pesticide management in Ethiopia. The state regulatory system has revealed an inability in controlling proper registration, distribution and safe use. Pesticide registration systems are not well established. A major challenge in pesticide registration is the double/ triple registration of pesticides with the same active ingredient (ai) but under different commercial names. Importing unregistered pesticides (only with import permits) by most flower growers allowed them to use extremely harmful/chemicals toxic to the environment and workers for higher risks. The government’s political commitment in this regard has never been observed in the floriculture industries, where there is no supervision or monitoring at all. In addition, commercial pesticide traders prove unable/unwilling to comply with regulations prescribed by the government proclamation. Among other problems, importation of pesticides with the wrong labels, conflicts of interest between importers (registrants) and double/triple registration of pesticides with the same (ai) under different commercial names cause confusion for retailers and farmers. Moreover, importation without obtaining a prior import permit and requests to import unregistered pesticides have grown over time. At the same time, the responsibility for controlling the pesticide market (inspection) failed in terms of quality control in distribution and use. The retailing of pesticides has been handled by unqualified and unlicensed retailers in shops and open markets with other commodities. Finally, this challenge is particularly critical at farm (local) level. There is substantial overuse, misuse and abuse of pesticides by end users, especially by smallholder farmers, due to lack of knowledge, technical support and training on hazards and risks associated with pesticides. Challenges to pesticide governance throughout the pesticide supply chain has resulted in negative policy outcomes for the environment and human health, particularly with the failure of state authorities to actively engage non-state actors in the complex pesticide registration, distribution and use system. Following the findings in this thesis, these situations call for the reshaping of the pesticide governance system throughout the country. To effectively address the human health and environmental impacts of pesticides requires a pesticide governance system that facilitates agricultural and environmental sustainability.

    Is sustainable development of semi-subsistence mixed crop-livestock systems possible? : an integrated assessment of Machakos, Kenya
    Valdivia, R.O. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tammo Bult, co-promotor(en): J. Antle; Jetse Stoorvogel. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578272 - 233
    sustainable development - development economics - livestock - cash crops - agriculture - mixed farming - development policy - policy - rural areas - poverty - farming - kenya - east africa - duurzame ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingseconomie - vee - marktgewassen - landbouw - gemengde landbouw - ontwikkelingsbeleid - beleid - platteland - armoede - landbouw bedrijven - kenya - oost-afrika

    Sub-Saharan Africa countries face the challenge of reducing rural poverty and reversing the declining trends of agricultural productivity and the high levels of soil nutrient depletion. Despite of numerous efforts and investments, high levels of poverty and resource degradation persist in African agriculture. The Millennium Development Goals Report (MDGR) states that the majority of people living below the poverty line of $1.25 a day belong to Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and South Asia. About two thirds of the global rural population lives in mixed crop-livestock systems (CLS), typical of SSA, where interactions between crops and livestock activities are important for the subsistence of smallholders. CLS are characterized by high degree of biophysical and economic heterogeneity, complex and diversified production system that frequently involves a combination of several subsistence and cash crops and livestock. Increasing crop productivity is clearly a key element to improve living standards and to take these people out of poverty. However, agricultural productivity in most of SSA has been stagnant or increased slowly. In addition, the likely negative impacts of climate change on agriculture have accentuated the vulnerability of smallholders.

    The international research community has once more the eyes on SSA with the recently proposed post-2015 MDGs, the Sustainable Development Goals that emphasize the need to achieve sustainable development globally by 2030 by promoting economic development, environmental sustainability, good governance and social inclusion. Governments and scientists are making considerable efforts to develop strategies that include structural transformations of the different sectors of the economy in search of the recipe to achieve the SDGs. Most of these strategies are based on policy and technology interventions that seek to achieve the “win-win” outcomes and move from the usual “tradeoffs” between poverty-productivity-sustainability to synergies. A key message of this thesis is that achieving the goal of sustainable development in semi-subsistence African agriculture will require better understanding of the poverty-productivity-sustainability puzzle: why high poverty and resource degradation levels persist in African agriculture. I hypothesize that the answer to this puzzle lies, at least in part, in understanding and appropriately analyzing key features of semi-subsistence crop-livestock systems (CLS) typical of Sub-Saharan Africa. The complexity and diversity of CLS often constrain the ability of policy or technology interventions to achieve a “win-win” outcome of simultaneously reducing poverty while increasing productivity sustainably (i.e., avoiding soil nutrient losses).

    This thesis focuses on the Machakos Region in Kenya. Machakos has been the center of many studies looking at soil fertility issues and its implications for poverty and food security, including the well-known study by Tiffen et al. (1994). Recently, the Government of Kenya developed the Kenya Vision 2030, a long-term development strategy designed to guide the country to meet the 2015 MDGs and beyond. The agricultural sector is recognized as one of the economic actors that can lead to reduce poverty if appropriate policies are in place. For the Vision 2030, the key is to improve smallholder productivity and promote non-farm opportunities. The Vision 2030 was used to assess if the implementation of some of the proposed plans and policies can lead to a sustainable agriculture for smallholders in the Machakos region.

    This thesis describes and uses the Tradeoff Analysis Model (TOA), an integrated modeling approach designed to deal with the complexities associated to production systems such as the CLS and at the same time, quantify economic and sustainability indicators for policy tradeoff analysis (e.g., poverty indexes and measures of sustainability). The TOA was linked to Representative Agricultural Pathways and Scenarios to represent different future socio-economic scenarios (based on the Vision 2030) to assess the impacts of policy interventions aimed to move agricultural systems towards meeting sustainable development goals.

    One important finding is that the complex behavior of CLS has important implications for the effectiveness of policy interventions. The Machakos analysis provides important findings regarding the implementation and effectiveness of policy interventions addressing poverty and sustainability in Africa and other parts of the developing world. The analysis shows that policy interventions tend to result in much larger benefits for better-endowed farms, implying that farm heterogeneity results in differential policy impacts and that resilience of agricultural systems is likely to be highly variable and strongly associated with heterogeneity in bio-physical and economic conditions. The results shows that a combination of these interventions and strategies, based on the GoK Vision 2030 and the Machakos County plans, could solve the poverty-productivity-sustainability puzzle in this region. The pathway from tradeoffs to synergies (win-win) seems to be feasible if these interventions and strategies are well implemented, however the analysis also shows that some villages may respond better to these strategies than others. The analysis suggests that these interventions may actually benefit most the areas with better initial endowments of soils and climate.

    The analysis also suggested that prices (e.g., maize price) play a key role in the assessment of policy interventions. There is an increasing recognition that analysis of economic and environmental outcomes of agricultural production systems requires a bottom-up linkage from the farm to market, as well as top-down linkage from market to farm. Hence, a two-way linkage between the TOA model and a partial equilibrium market model (ME) was developed. The TOA model links site-specific bio-physical process models and economic decision models, and aggregate economic and environmental outcomes to a regional scale, but treats prices as exogenous. The resulting TOA-ME allows the effects of site-specific interactions at the farm scale to be aggregated and used to determine market equilibrium. This in turn, can be linked back to the underlying spatial distribution of economic and environmental outcomes at market equilibrium quantities and prices. The results suggest that market equilibrium is likely to be important in the analysis of agricultural systems in developing countries where product and input markets are not well integrated, and therefore, local supply determines local prices (e.g., high transport costs may cause farm-gate prices be set locally) or where market supply schedules are driven not only by prices but also by changes in farm characteristics in response to policy changes, environmental conditions or socio-economic conditions. The results suggest that the market equilibrium price associated to a policy intervention could be substantially different than the prices observed without the market equilibrium analysis, and consequently could play an important role in evaluating the impacts of policy or technology interventions.

    As mentioned above, climate change poses a long-term threat for rural households in vulnerable regions like Sub-Saharan Africa. Policy and technology interventions can have different impacts under climate change conditions. In this thesis the likely economic and environmental impacts of climate change and adaptations on the agricultural production systems of Machakos are analyzed.

    Climate change impact assessment studies have moved towards the use of more integrated approaches and the use of scenarios to deal with the uncertainty of future condition. However, several studies fall short of adequately incorporating adaptation in the analysis, they also fall short of adequately assessing distributional economic and environmental impacts. Similarly, climate change is likely to change patterns of supply and demand of commodities with a consequent change in prices that could play an important role in designing policies at regional, national and international levels. Therefore, a market equilibrium model should also be incorporated in the analysis to assess how markets react to changing prices due to shifts in supply and demand of commodities. The TOA-ME was used to incorporate the elements mentioned above to assess the impacts of climate change. Using data from 5 Global Circulation Models (GCMs) with three emission scenarios (SRES, 2000) to estimate the climate change projections, these projections were used to perturb weather data used by a crop simulation model to estimate the productivity effects of climate change. Land use change and impacts on poverty and nutrient depletion at the market equilibrium were then assessed using the TOA-ME model.

    The simulation was carried out for three scenarios, which are a combination of socio-economic and climate change scenarios: a baseline scenario that represents current socio-economic conditions and climate conditions, a climate change and current socio-economic scenarios (i.e., future climate change with no policy or technology intervention), and a climate change and future socio economic conditions which are a consequence of rural development policies.

    Our findings show that in this particular case, the changes on precipitation, temperature and solar radiation do not show a significant difference among the selected emission scenarios. However, the variability is significant across GCMs. The effects of climate change on crop productivity are negative on average. These results show that policy and technology interventions are needed to reduce this region’s vulnerability. Furthermore, the socio-economic scenarios based on policy and technology interventions presented in the case study would be effective to offset the negative effect of climate change on the sustainability (economical and environmental) of the system across a range of possible climate outcomes represented by different GCMs. Finally, the results show that ignoring market equilibrium analysis can lead to biased results and incorrect information for policy making, in particular for the scenario based on policy and technology interventions.

    One of the major conclusions of the thesis are that policy interventions aimed to deal with poverty and sustainability can have unintended consequences if they are not accompanied by a set of policy strategies and investments. For example, increasing the maize price can result in substitution from subsistence crops to maize, without much increase in nutrient inputs, thus increasing soil nutrient losses. The analysis shows that improving soil nutrient balances by increasing fertilizer and manure use is critically important, but is not enough to move the system to a sustainable path.

    There is no one factor that can reverse the negative nutrient balances and move the system towards sustainability. Rather, a broad-based strategy is required that stimulates rural development, increases farm size to a sustainable level, and also reduces distortions and inefficiencies in input and output markets that tend to discourage the use of sustainable practices. The Machakos case shows that a combination of these interventions and strategies, based on the GoK Vision 2030 and the Machakos County plans, could solve the poverty-productivity-sustainability puzzle in this region.

    The tree under which you sit : district-level management and leadership in maternal and newborn health policy implementation in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana
    Kwamie, A. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Han van Dijk; I.A. Agyepong. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576742 - 158
    health policy - birth - pregnancy - policy - management - administration - ghana - west africa - gezondheidsbeleid - geboorte - zwangerschap - beleid - bedrijfsvoering - bestuur - ghana - west-afrika

    Health system governance has to do with decision-making – who makes decisions, when, where, how and why. At the district level – the level of care which operationalises health policies – governance is critical, yet remains little understood. Governance has the ability to influence health system performance, and this is essential in maternal and newborn health, where timely decisions are required to support policy implementation. In this regard, district managers are particularly important. They are the link in the middle of the health system, connecting top-end policy formulation to bottom-end implementation. Their abilities to interpret, translate, support and challenge policy will have an effect on what gets operationalised. However, capacity weaknesses in district management and leadership are often cited as a factor in poor health system performance.

    This thesis seeks to deepen understandings of district-level management, leadership and decision-making for policy and programme management and implementation for maternal and newborn health. Within this, the thesis also seeks to understand the scope for change that an intervention to strengthen management and leadership capacities can bring.

    This thesis contributes to the applied field of health policy and systems research by drawing on policy implementation theory, organisational management theory and complexity theory as its theoretical basis. A realist approach methodology was undertaken to understand the contexts in which district managers are embedded, how this influences their decision-making, and what the effects of a managerial intervention are, given these contexts. The thesis followed an embedded case study flexible design. The first case study was an exploratory qualitative case study to understand how and why district managers make decisions in maternal and newborn health policy implementation. The second case study was an historical case study of district manager decision-space over time. The third case study was an explanatory qualitative case study of the management and leadership intervention. The final validation of our theorising throughout the cases was achieved through the administration of a questionnaire across all district health management teams of the Great Accra Region.

    This thesis demonstrates that district managers find themselves in contexts of strong hierarchical authority and resource uncertainty – in particular, lacking financial transparency. This promotes a management and leadership typology which attunes managers towards serving the health system bureaucracy, resulting in reduced district-level responsiveness to maternal and newborn health challenges. The outcome is that district manager decision-space is narrow surrounding resource allocation decisions, and this in turn affects local planning programming and management.

    The thesis further demonstrates that broader patterns of centralised governmental decision-making have affected the development of the district health system over time. Particularly, the sequencing of decentralisation processes has ensured that national-level decision-making has remained empowered in contrast to district-level decision-making. System fragmentation – through reduced Government of Ghana funds and increasingly verticalised donor funds – has also been a contributor. This accounts for the observed hierarchical authority and resource uncertainty which affects district managers. As a result of these contexts, this thesis also showed that an intervention to strengthen management and leadership capacities was limited in its sustainability.

    This thesis raises the issues of health system organisation as critical to the potential of district management and leadership effectiveness. It provides evidence that weaknesses in district management and leadership arise out of the organisational governance mismatches in autonomy and responsibility. It suggests that in strengthening management and leadership, approaches which seek to address organisational capacities, not only individual capacities, are needed to convey sustainable change. Advancements in this regard have the scope to improve district manager decision-making for maternal and newborn health policy and programme implementation in the future.

    Blauwe groei: duurzame bedrijvigheid opde Noordzee : perspectieven uit een scenarioanalyse
    Burg, S.W.K. van den; Bolman, B.C. ; Borgstein, M.H. ; Valk, O.M.C. van der; Vos, B.I. de; Selnes, T. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Nota / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-017) - 25
    energievoorraden - duurzame energie - aquacultuur - noordzee - toerisme - natuurbescherming - milieubeleid - beleid - regelingen - energy resources - sustainable energy - aquaculture - north sea - tourism - nature conservation - environmental policy - policy - regulations
    Door een groeiend belang van nieuwe maritieme sectoren neemt de bestuurlijke drukte op zee toe. In dit project is een kwalitatieve scenarioanalyse uitgevoerd om te beschrijven hoe de gebeurtenissen zich in de toekomst kunnen ontvouwen, om risico’s te identificeren en om zo beslissers in staat te stellen over verschillende ontwikkelrichtingen te oordelen. De ontwikkelingen in de sectoren energie, aquacultuur en toerisme zijn ook van invloed op de (on)mogelijkheden voor natuurbeleid op zee. De mariene natuur zal zich moeten schikken naar deze ontwikkelingen. De trend van wet- en regelgeving voor individuele sectoren naar een meer geïntegreerde aanpak van alle sectoren, inclusief natuurbescherming, zet zich door.
    Putting food on the table : the European Union governance of the wicked problem of food security
    Candel, J.J.L. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Katrien Termeer, co-promotor(en): Gerard Breeman; Robbert Biesbroek. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576841 - 280
    food security - european union - governance - agricultural policy - agricultural development - food policy - policy - policy evaluation - voedselzekerheid - europese unie - governance - landbouwbeleid - landbouwontwikkeling - beleid inzake voedsel - beleid - beleidsevaluatie
    Groene daken in Tilburg : operationele handvatten voor ontwikkeling van gemeentelijk beleid
    Hendriks, C.M.A. ; Snep, R.P.H. ; Vries, E.A. de; Brolsma, R. - \ 2016
    Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2692) - 61
    groene daken - gemeenten - beleid - plaatselijk bestuur - wateropslag - waterbergend vermogen - klimaatverandering - biodiversiteit - noord-brabant - green roofs - municipalities - policy - local government - water storage - water holding capacity - climatic change - biodiversity - noord-brabant
    In opdracht van Rijkswaterstaat is voor de gemeente Tilburg nagegaan welke meerwaarde groene daken kunnen leveren aan het gemeentelijk beleid. De omgevingsvisie 2040 van Tilburg is doorgenomen op relevante ambities waaraan groene daken kunnen worden gekoppeld. Belangrijke aanknopingspunten zijn beleving, duurzaamheid en leefbaarheid. Het rapport geeft een aantal praktische handvatten waarmee de gemeente beleid kan formuleren en kan bepalen of zij groene daken wil stimuleren, welke doelen zij daarmee zou willen nastreven en welke locaties in de stad potentieel in aanmerking komen. Inzet voor klimaatadaptatie lijkt daarbij een perspectiefvolle benadering voor Tilburg. Door in een vervolgstap de handvatten te combineren met specifieke lokale informatie kunnen gericht maatregelen en locaties worden gekozen. In dit rapport worden daarvoor enkele suggesties gedaan.
    Making government more reflexive : the role of regulatory impact assessment
    Hertin, J. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Peter Feindt. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576384 - 160
    administrative law - administration - european union - sustainability - policy - sustainable development - eu regulations - regulations - bestuursrecht - bestuur - europese unie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - beleid - duurzame ontwikkeling - eu regelingen - regelingen

    The thesis explores whether and how analytical activities during the policy formulation process - typically referred to as Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) - contribute to a reorientation of policy-making towards the goals of sustainable development. During the 1990s and the 2000s, many OECD countries introduced, extended or formalised proce-dures for RIA. Many of these reforms also stated to aim at giving more regard to sus-tainability issues. In the political science literature on environmental policy integration, such appraisal procedures have been considered as an important instrument to ensure that environmental effects of new measures play a more prominent role in decision-making processes.

    Based on extensive empirical analysis involving a review of all RIA procedures in the EU as well as 59 case studies of individual assessments, the research aims to establish to what extent and under what conditions these procedures contribute to sustainable de-velopment in practice.

    The research finds that RIA offers opportunities to give more prominence to ecological concerns in sectoral policy-making practice, but also contains a considerable risk that narrow assessment practices contribute to sidelining sustainable development. The re-search observes not only a large implementation gap, but reveals that even in cases where a substantial RIA is undertaken, the process functions very differently from what has been envisioned both in guidance documents and in the environmental policy inte-gration literature. After analysing the actual roles of assessment knowledge in policy processes, the study concludes that the positivist perspective underlying both theory and practice of policy appraisal is inadequate to account for its political and practical uses.

    The thesis then moves on to adopt the more post-positivist perspective of reflexive gov-ernance which implies a fundamentally different set of expectations about the uses and effects of policy appraisal. By reinterpreting the empirical material from this theoretical lens, the study finds considerable potential for RIA to serve as a reflexive governance arrangement, but also identifies a number of structural limitations. Five approaches for making RIA more reflexive are identified: focusing on the function of opening up rather than closing down decision-making; increasing participation; defining process rather than material standards; extending the appraisal towards frame reflexivity; and understanding RIA as boundary work. The thesis concludes with the argument that the reflexive gov-ernance literature should not only develop and study new government arrangements outside the core institutions of representative democracies, but undertake more efforts to identify opportunities to reshape the working of the classical-modernist institutions in more reflexive ways to foster more integrative and sustainable policy-making/to improve environmental governance.

    Quality of models for policy support
    Houweling, H. ; Voorn, G.A.K. van; Giessen, A. van der; Wiertz, J. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOT Natuur & Milieu) (WOt-paper 38) - 4
    quality management - policy - quality standards - models - kwaliteitszorg - beleid - kwaliteitsnormen - modellen
    The Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOT N&M) at Wageningen UR uses models, geodatabases and indicators in its policyoriented research for PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (see Bouwma et al., 2014) and the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs. This research is undertaken for a variety of purposes, for example for the Nature Outlook reports, the review of the National Ecological Network and the evaluation of the policy on fertilisers and crop protection products. WOT N&M operates a quality system to improve and maintain the quality of these models and databases. This WOt-Paper describes this quality system.
    Exploring feedbacks between air pollution and climate policy
    Chuwah, C.D. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Wilco Hazeleger; D. van Vuuren, co-promotor(en): T.P.C. van Noije. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575547 - 122
    luchtverontreiniging - klimaat - beleid - ozon - klimaatverandering - modellen - emissie - air pollution - climate - policy - ozone - climatic change - models - emission

    The climate of the Earth is changing in response to natural and anthropogenic forcing agents. Emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants have led to significant changes in the Earth’s climate systems and projections indicate that further extensive changes are likely. Increased scientific understanding into the processes responsible for climate change and the possible consequences of assumptions regarding future climate and air pollution policy is important to formulate effective response strategies based on mitigation and adaptation. Earth System Models (ESMs) can be used to make climate projections based on emissions or concentrations projections for greenhouse gasses and aerosols derived from socio-economic scenarios. Such scenarios are produced by Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs), based on detailed descriptions of population growth, energy demand and land use.

    There has been increasing interest in coupling different disciplines involved in climate research. The current cooperation efforts among scientists from different disciplines have led to an improved representation of climate forcings in ESMs, and of climate responses impacts in IAMs. In this thesis, we contribute to this cooperation by exploring the consequences of emission scenarios under different assumptions regarding air pollution and climate policy.

    To do so, we utilize a set of scenarios similar to the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), developed using the IAM IMAGE. These scenarios combine scenarios with radiative forcing targets in 2100 of 2.6 W/m2 and 6.0 W/m2 with different assumptions for air pollution policies (low/high). These scenarios are subsequently used in the global atmospheric chemistry and transport model TM5. Results reveal that both climate and air pollution control policies have large-scale impacts on pollutant concentrations, often of comparable magnitude. We also find that air pollution control measures could, on a global scale, significantly reduce the warming induced by tropospheric ozone and black carbon and the cooling resulting from sulphate in the coming decades. These effects tend to cancel each other on a global scale.

    Next, we evaluate the equilibrium climate response to aerosol reductions in different parts of the world in 2050, using the global climate model EC-Earth. Reductions in aerosol concentrations increase downward surface solar radiation and surface temperature concomitantly in various parts of the world. The increase in surface temperature is dominated by the reduced cooling effect of sulphate which in some areas is partially compensated by the decreased warming effect of black carbon. Also, we find that aerosol reductions can significantly affect climate at high latitudes especially in the winter, mostly as a result of teleconnections between the low and high latitudes.

    Due to the inhomogeneous spatial distributions of air pollutants, changes in their emissions can have strong regional climate impacts. Using EC-Earth, we assess in Chapter 4 the effectiveness of different aerosol forcing agents in causing climate change in 2050. Our results show that different anthropogenic aerosol components may have a broad range ofefficacies. The results also reveal that there are large interhemispheric differences in aerosol forcings, which result in changes in circulation patterns.

    By using surface ozone concentrations simulated by TM5 as input to IMAGE, we estimate ozone impacts on crop production, and subsequent impacts on land use and carbon fluxes in 2005 and 2050. In the absence of new climate and air pollution policies, higher ozone concentrations could lead to an increase in crop damage in 2050 compared to present day. This may lead to a global increase in crop area notably in Asia. Implementation of air pollution policies and climate policies (co-benefits of reducing ozone precursor emissions) could limit future crop yield losses due to ozone in the most affected regions. At the local scale, the changes can be substantial.

    Navigating frames : a study of the interplay between meaning and power in policy deliberations over adaptation to climate change
    Vink, M.J. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Katrien Termeer, co-promotor(en): Art Dewulf. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574694 - 230
    klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - waterbeleid - governance - beleid - climatic change - climate adaptation - water policy - governance - policy

    Introduction

    The PhD thesis is inspired by the rapid rise in political attention on climate change from 2005 onwards, followed by the media hype known as ‘climategate’ and the subsequent fall in attention afterwards. The polarisation in the public debate between so-called activists and deniers shows that climate change is a classroom example of what scholars in policy and planning define as a wicked or unstructured problem. This type of problem is characterised by a wide variety of societal understandings or frames through which new knowledge is interpreted. Governing wicked problems is a tricky process and has a history of policy conflict and controversy. In this thesis, I aim to elucidate the process and outcomes of governing adaptation to climate change. I do so by focusing on the social interactions of public and private players in governance and how they develop meanings and related policy outcomes through their frame interactions.

    The thesis starts with the notion that adapting to the long-term and uncertain character of climate change results in a special type of governing, especially in the context of the little institutionalised policy domain and the wide variety of societal frames involved. Governing adaptation to climate change involves careful monitoring of policy direction, speed, and societal current in relation to scientific projections and societal sensemaking of what climate impacts might be ahead. Navigating climate change therefore metaphorically boils down to a form of dead reckoning, a systemised method of monitoring course, speed, and current through which sailors in the 15th century used to navigate their ships into the unknown.

    Navigating hierarchically organised ships, however, is different from steering plural democratically organised societies. In policy sciences, this process of governing long-term policy issues in plural societies is traditionally defined as a dynamic process of both puzzling over what the issue means to society and powering to get things done. Puzzling and powering are broadly defined as interrelated; new meanings might alter actors’ positions and corresponding policy outcomes, and changing power positions might alter societal understandings of what is at stake. Processes of puzzling and powering are considered to vary across traditions of state organisation and related institutional arrangements.

    In the climate adaptation governance literature however, the governance process is differently defined. Scholars define governance of adaptation to climate change as a matter of getting the knowledge system right to design the right policies, and getting the institutional system right to enforce the policies. This static approach does not show an interrelated or dynamic understanding of actor-centred processes based on sensemaking and positioning. Other scholars define climate adaptation as a matter of developing the right knowledge, creating legitimacy, or enhancing justness through deliberative or participatory approaches to governing, but seem to neglect the need for power organisation to get things done.

    To be able to contribute to both the policy sciences and the climate adaptation governance literature, the thesis opens up the black box of climate adaptation governance by zooming in on the actual policy deliberations in four concrete governance cases in different institutional arrangements and traditions of state organisation. To do so, I propose frame interactions as a means for better understanding the traditionally defined interplay between processes of puzzling over meaning and powering over positions in different institutional contexts. This results in the following central research question:

    In what way do frame interactions construct interplaying processes of puzzling over meaning and powering over positions in different institutional arrangements occupied with governing societal adaptation to climate change?

    Research design

    To investigate and compare the frame interaction processes in different institutional arrangements and state traditions, I started with a distant view towards frame developments in official water policy proposals over time. Using longitudinal frame analysis, I discussed these developments against the backdrop of a rise and fall in societal attention to climate change. Subsequently, I systematically assessed the scholarly approaches in making sense of climate adaptation governance. Inspired by both the developments in official policy framing over time and the different theoretical approaches to governance of adaptation to climate change, I opened the black box of frame developments and frame interactions in concrete governance practices. I adopted explorative case study research to get an in-depth understanding of the governance processes. By participatory observation, semi-structured interviews, and longitudinal frame analysis of policy deliberations in four different case studies, I was able to get in-depth understanding of governance processes in different institutional contexts. Because my research was embedded in the Dutch research programme Knowledge for Climate, which centres on climate adaptation governance challenges in the Dutch context, I took this Dutch context as my point of departure. The lowland delta nature of most of the Dutch territory makes the country potentially vulnerable to climate- related issues. Climate change poses governance challenges to delta regions in general, for which the Dutch delta might be an interesting illustration and an interesting case for academic inspiration and cross-national comparison.

    In terms of institutional arrangements, Dutch adaptation to climate change empirically shows continuities as well as discontinuities with the traditional Dutch cornerstone of dealing with collective action problems through poldering. In two selected case studies, climate adaptation is mainstreamed in existing poldering approaches and follows what is traditionally defined as a neo-corporatist state tradition. In neo-corporatism, a limited number of traditionally defined organised interests negotiate with the state in an institutionalised fashion. One selected case study shows signs of discontinuity with this traditional approach, allowing for more ad hoc deliberation with a much wider and less organised array of stakeholders and societal actors, known as deliberative governance. This approach follows the pleas in the contemporary climate adaptation governance literature for more participation. To understand the implications of state traditions for framing processes, I compare the selected case studies with a fourth selected case study of a similar deliberative governance initiative in the pluralist state tradition of the UK. Pluralism entails less state involvement in policymaking, but more central coordination of societally initiated policy actions through national legislation.

    Findings

    From a distant view, I show how policy frames evolve over time as an ongoing long-term conversation between policy proposals. Zooming in on four case studies reveals a wide array of frames in governance processes, which can be classified according to the scales addressed in the frames, and the nature of the issues framed. In relation to framing the nature of the issue, two archetypical frames can be defined: technical frames and political frames. Frame interactions shape learning processes, but due to the inclusion and exclusion effect of frames they can never be viewed without more conflict-based notions on policymaking. Counterintuitively, technical frames appear to change power positions, but, in the same counterintuitive way, political frames allow for puzzling over roles and responsibilities as well. Therefore, the thesis shows how meaning alters power positions and frame interactions affect substantial and relational outcomes. I show how these insights complicate what I define as the system assessment approach, which is dominant in the climate adaptation governance literature. Frames appear to do things in climate adaptation governance processes, from which I conclude that frames navigate climate adaptation.

    In addition to frame interactions as a puzzling and powering interplay, I show how a second interplay might be defined between institutions and frame interactions. Different institutional arrangements yield different frame interactions and outcomes. Institutional arrangements determine the rules of what can be defined as a framing game over wicked problems. Institutions also determine who is playing what framing game and therefore determine player dependencies. Institutions interplay with frame interactions, and may create the preconditions for effectively navigating the wide array of frames in climate adaptation governance. Without institutional demarcation of roles and responsibilities, the framing game might allow for new players and knowledge, but risks becoming gratuitous. In little institutionalised deliberative governance contexts without central coordination, frame interactions are likely to yield a dominant self-referential technical framing which empowers experts and promises technical efficiency solutions to a wicked problem. These contexts might yield the preconditions for what I define as a political bystander effect in deliberative governance. In addition, I show how state traditions play a role in what institutional arrangements yield what type of frame interactions. Therefore, I conclude that institutional arrangements in combination with state traditions play a role in how the variety of climate adaptation frames can be navigated.

    These findings point towards my most important recommendations. For future research, I would suggest further investigation of: (1) the possible emergence of a dominant technical framing in deliberative governance; (2) the extent to which this framing might point towards what other scholars have labelled self-reinforcing frames; (3) related political bystander effects in specific combinations of governance arrangements, policy issues, and state traditions. In relation to that, my most important recommendations to policymakers are: (1) be aware of the variety of frames in governance, (2) be aware of state traditions, (3) choose the right institutional arrangement, and (4) be modest in depoliticising wicked problems. In general, my recommendation would be to frame climate adaptation as an ongoing process of dead reckoning, which allows for explaining uncertain events, anticipating changing societal currents, and learning-by-doing.

    Hoe maken gemeenten stadslandbouw mogelijk?
    Rijn, E. van; Hassink, J. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR (PRI rapport 625) - 17
    gemeenten - beleid - stadslandbouw - stedelijke gebieden - voedselproductie - bewonersparticipatie - sociale factoren - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - motivatie - onderzoek - municipalities - policy - urban agriculture - urban areas - food production - community participation - social factors - sustainability - motivation - research
    Elke pionierende gemeenteambtenaar, ondernemer, burger die zich bezighoudt met stadslandbouw moet als het ware zelf het wiel weer uitvinden: welke regels zijn voor mijn initiatief van toepassing, waar kan ik ontwikkelen, wie heeft kennis van zaken en hoe kan ik initiatieven faciliteren. Het Stedennetwerk Stadslandbouw is een landelijk netwerk van gemeentelijke ambtenaren in de stadslandbouw. Het biedt de deelnemers de ruimte om gezamenlijk blokkades aan te pakken, elkaar te inspireren, richting te geven aan beleid en kansen te grijpen. Het netwerk brengt pioniers bij elkaar en stimuleert met hen de ontwikkeling van stadslandbouw in Nederland. In 2014 was er bij deelnemers behoefte om een beter zicht te krijgen op de manieren waarop gemeenten met stadslandbouw initiatieven omgaan en stadslandbouw faciliteren en ondersteunen. Besloten werd om interviews te houden met beleidsmedewerkers van gemeenten die bij het stedennetwerk zijn aangesloten. Dit rapport beschrijft het onderzoek naar hoe gemeenten stadslandbouw mogelijk maken en waarom zij stadslandbouw belangrijk vinden. De belangrijkste motieven voor stadslandbouw zijn voedsel, gevolgd door participatie, sociale aspecten, duurzaamheid en ‘overige thema’s’. De motieven die slechts door één gemeente genoemd werden, worden hier niet nader vermeld. De volgorde wordt bepaald door het aantal keren dat het motief genoemd is.
    Africa Agribusiness Academy (AAA) Year Report 2014
    Nijhoff, G.H. ; Vugt, S.M. van - \ 2015
    Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR - 48
    agribusiness - agricultural development - agriculture - policy - agricultural policy - farms - farming - east africa - africa - landbouwindustrie - landbouwontwikkeling - landbouw - beleid - landbouwbeleid - landbouwbedrijven - landbouw bedrijven - oost-afrika - afrika
    The Africa Agribusiness Academy (AAA) supports African SME agrifood companies in growing their business. An AAA member companies can enhance knowledge, skills and expertise, and get support in accessing finance and markets. By the end of 2014, AAA had 200 members in five countries: Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia and Rwanda. These members are in the business of sourcing from or supplying to farmers. AAA’s goal is that by stimulating business growth of the SMEs it indirectly supports business growth of the farmers that are linked to these companies.
    Sectorplatform Bloembollen zet in op sectorbrede aanpak
    Ooms, M. ; Pinxterhuis, E.K. - \ 2015
    BloembollenVisie 2015 (2015)316. - ISSN 1571-5558 - p. 20 - 21.
    bloembollen - belangengroepen - organisaties - samenwerking - beleid - doelstellingen - akkerbouw- en tuinbouwbedrijven - ornamental bulbs - interest groups - organizations - cooperation - policy - objectives - crop enterprises
    Er komt nogal wat op de bollensector af: denk aan virussen, de problematiek rond gewasbeschermingsmiddelen, markttoegang, het imago,....de problemen zijn alleen maar groter en complexer geworden. Daar kom je als individuele ondernemer niet zomaar uit, zelfs niet als individuele onderzoeks-, handels,- keurings- of belangenorganisatie. Vanuit de gedachte dat je meer bereikt door niet tegen, maar mét elkaar te werken, kwam het Sectorplatform Bloembollen tot stand.
    Strategische communicatie. Principes en toepassingen
    Aarts, N. ; Steuten, C.D.M. ; Woerkum, C.M.J. van - \ 2014
    Assen : Van Gorcum (3e geheel herziene druk ) - ISBN 9789023253013 - 320
    communicatietheorie - communicatie - informatieverspreiding - communicatievaardigheden - verandering - innovaties - gedragsveranderingen - beleid - planning - conflict - probleemoplossing - besluitvorming - organisaties - kennis - bedrijfsvoering - communication theory - communication - diffusion of information - communication skills - change - innovations - behavioural changes - policy - problem solving - decision making - organizations - knowledge - management
    De hele dag door worden we bestookt met informatie en suggesties, bedoeld om ons ergens toe aan te zetten of juist van af te brengen, in het belang van onszelf of van de wereld om ons heen. Ook bij het bedenken van oplossingen voor de meest uiteenlopende problemen roepen we al gauw om meer of betere communicatie. Kortom, strategische communicatie is aan de orde van de dag. Dit boek gaat over principes en toepassingen van strategische communicatie. Het betreft een derde, sterk gewijzigde druk waaraan nieuwe, actuele thema's zijn toegevoegd zoals onbewuste beïnvloeding, social media en de rol van communicatie bij innovatieprocessen. Het uitgangspunt van het boek is dat een goed begrip van de wijze waarop mensen met elkaar communiceren en een gedegen inzicht in de mechanismen die daarbij een rol spelen, noodzakelijk zijn voor een effectieve toepassing van communicatie, ook in professionele settings. De schrijvers richten zich op studenten die communicatie studeren aan de universiteit of het HBO. Tegelijkertijd is het boek van nut voor communicatiespecialisten bij overheden, bedrijven en maatschappelijke organisaties, die verantwoordelijk zijn voor een optimale positionering in een voortdurende veranderende omgeving. Ook voor beleidsmakers, artsen en andere professionals, voor wie strategische communicatie een belangrijk aspect vormt van het dagelijkse werk is dit boek van grote waarde. Een belangrijk deel van hun functioneren hangt af van hun inzicht in de principes van communicatie en de vaardigheid daarmee om te gaan.
    Governing Congo Basin forests in a changing climate: actors, discourses and institutions for adaptation and mitigation
    Somorin, O.A. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Bas Arts, co-promotor(en): Ingrid Visseren-Hamakers; D.J. Sonwa. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571280 - 250
    bossen - klimaatverandering - adaptatie - mitigatie - beleid - bosbouw - bosbeleid - congo - forests - climatic change - adaptation - mitigation - policy - forestry - forest policy - congo

    Governing Congo Basin Forests in a Changing Climate: Actors, Discourses and Institutions for Adaptation and Mitigation

    OA Somorin

    Abstract

    The thesis deals with the central question of the governance processes of making tropical forests deliver climate change adaptation and mitigation outcomes of sustainable livelihoods, biodiversity conservation and enhanced carbon stocks. Using the case of the Congo Basin forests, it analyzes the nexus between forest and climate change, particularly on the governance processes of using the forests to respond to climate change. The thesis questions the dominant frames and discourses shaping the policymaking processes of adaptation and mitigation strategies in the Congo Basin. The research is informed by past (and still current) debates among different actors on the forms of institutional and policy frameworks required for policy making on adaptation and mitigation in the Congo, given the region’s context of weak human and governance capacities.

    Drawing from the theoretical perspective of discursive institutionalism which takes into account the institutional context in which discourses emerge and the way in which they are institutionalized in social practices. Conceptually, the thesis employs the analytical elements of discursive institutionalism: discourses, actors and institutions in terms of their consequences for governance process analysis. The focus is to understand the types of actors involved along with their capacity and competence to contribute to the policy processes; the overarching global to local discourses on the issues; and the institutional structures considered relevant for adaptation and mitigation in the Congo Basin.

    Despite the framing of adaptation as a priority for the Congo Basin region due to the high vulnerability (and low adaptive capacity) of the population to climate risks, the thesis finds more significant policy attention is rather given to mitigation. The dominance of the mitigation discourses is largely due to elements of financial resources, knowledge and influence employed by their actor coalitions to advance the policymaking process. While mitigation policy debates among state and non-state actors on institutional and governance frameworks exist at the national level, adaptation strategies including sustaining food security, income generation and livelihood diversification, are already in practice at the local levels. Ultimately, policy actors’ interest to match the multiple opportunities that mitigation offers with the priorities of adaptation underlines the deliberate actions towards fostering synergy. The thesis concludes that the future of the Congo Basin forests under a changing climate lies in how the actors are able to develop policy frameworks and governance arrangements to foster mitigative adaptation and adaptive mitigation.

    Dignity for the Voiceless; Willem Assies's Anthropological Work in Context
    Salman, T. ; Martí i Puig, S. ; Haar, G. van der - \ 2014
    New York/Oxford : Berghahn (Cedla Latin America studies vol. 103) - ISBN 9781782382928
    politieke bewegingen - sociale structuur - sociale antropologie - etnische groepen - etniciteit - politiek - overheidsbeleid - regering - beleid - andes - landbouw - inheemse volkeren - bolivia - peru - latijns-amerika - political movements - social structure - social anthropology - ethnic groups - ethnicity - politics - government policy - government - policy - andes - agriculture - indigenous people - bolivia - peru - latin america
    In 2010, Willem Assies, an astute and prolific Latin Americanist and political anthropologist, died unexpectedly, at the age of 55. This book brings together some of his writings. Assies would always gave central stage to the collective and multi-layered actor and not the system — but he would constantly do so within the context of restrictions, pressures, conditioning factors and contradictions, to provide the actor with a real setting of operation.
    Effective stakeholder involvement in agri-food governance and policy development
    Wentholt, M.T.A. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Lynn Frewer, co-promotor(en): Arnout Fischer; G. Rowe. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461731234 - 196
    beleid inzake voedsel - landbouwbeleid - voedsel - governance - beleid - risico - stakeholders - deskundigen - landbouw - delphimethode - food policy - agricultural policy - food - governance - policy - risk - stakeholders - experts - agriculture - delphi method
    The aim of this thesis is to develop insight into optimal expert involvement practice within the agri-food governance and policy making domain. Following a systematic review of the published literature, it was determined that Delphi methodology appeared to be appropriate to elicit expert opinion and gather evidence in the complex policy domain associated with risk, food and agriculture. To this end, three Delphi studies in agri-food policy development were conducted.
    Information Needs for Water Management
    Timmerman, J.G. - \ 2014
    Boca Raton, Florida : Taylor & Francis - ISBN 9781466594746 - 234
    waterbeheer - watervoorraden - beleid - besluitvorming - informatiebehoeften - informatie - water management - water resources - policy - decision making - information needs - information
    This book provides the necessary elements to determine exactly what information should be collected to make the collected information relevant for policy makers. It highlights the dissatisfaction of information users about the information they get and the reasons for this dissatisfaction. It also discusses general issues around the role and use of information in policy making. The text then describes the how to develop a full understanding of the policy makers’ information needs and will describe how policy makers can be included in the process. Finally, the book describes how the results from this process are input for the information production process.
    Governance of global organic agro-food networks from Africa
    Glin, L.C. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol, co-promotor(en): Peter Oosterveer. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570245 - 200
    biologische landbouw - basisproducten - netwerken - samenwerking - milieubeleid - goederenmarkten - beleid - afrika - organic farming - commodities - networks - cooperation - environmental policy - commodity markets - policy - africa

    The increasing global concerns with regard to agro-food risks and the subsequent consumerist turn in the global food economy challenges the conventional chemical-intensive agricultural production. In fact, the post-war dominant agro-industrial development fostered the intensive use of chemical inputs, corporate concentration, and standardization of products for mass consumption (Goodman et al. 1987; Raynolds et al. 2007). This prompted a rapid agricultural development, which contributed to overall growth, reducing poverty and food insecurity (Koning and Mol, 2009). Despite the success so far achieved, this Fordist regime generated several externalities on natural ecosystems and human and animal health. In addition, the further modernization of production techniques (for instance the genetically modified organisms) combined with globalization processes extended the scope and character of agro-food risks, which became global and cross-border. The global organization of the food system crystallized the ‘globalization’ of food related risks through the growing time and distance compression and the subsequent intensification of commodity flows and exchanges globally. Thus, to be effectively handled, these risks must be addressed from a global perspective; hence within supra nation-state institutions. In parallel, the concerns about the impacts of chemical use in agriculture also expanded over time to include others, such as animal welfare, food safety, energy use, landscape, biodiversity and climate change (Oosterveer and Sonnenfeld, 2012). However, state-led international regimes (WTO and environmental regimes) failed to adequately address modern agro-food related risks, particularly sustainability issues (including environmental, social, ethical, and animal welfare). However, globalization processes also facilitated networking processes and alliance and coalition buildings between various stakeholders within and across regions, aiming for sustainable food provision; hence the double phenomenon of ‘globalization of agro-food risks’ and the ‘reflexive globalization of alternative agro-food’. Thus, several non-state regimes, i.e. market- and civil society-led mechanisms emerged around standards and labeling schemes to respond to these issues while restructuring agro-food production and trade towards more sustainability and rebuilding consumer trust in food. Organic agro-food production and trade is of particular importance among these non-state regimes as this constitutes a major innovation towards the greening of the (global) agro-food economy and the fastest growing food sector worldwide with around 170% increase from 2002 to 2011 (Sahota, 2013).

    In Africa, organic agriculture emerged as response to the environmental and health burden of conventional farming techniques and the growing demand for organic products from the North as a result of the emergence of new consumption patterns. Owing to globalization, agricultural products flows and exchanges between Africa and the other regions of the globe, particularly the Europe Union, have been intensified. The Europe Union is a major destination of most agricultural product exports from Africa. Thus, more demand in sustainable agro-foods in global and EU markets affects agricultural production systems in Africa towards more sustainability. In all, given the particular importance of agricultural exports for national and household economies, the fragility of natural resources and the vulnerability of livelihoods Africa is witnessing the double phenomenon of ‘globalization of agro-food risks’ and the ‘reflexive globalization of alternative agro-food’. In this respect, it may be expected

    that the introduction of organic agriculture in Africa could help address the pressing challenges of income generation for smallholder farmers, poverty alleviation, and resilience of production systems and natural resources (land, water, forests, etc.).

    Broadly, this thesis aims to contribute to the understanding of the governance arrangements of transnational organic commodity networks from Africa to inform policy makers, development organizations, civil society and business actors as well as scientists and academia about the underlying rationalities and processes, the challenges and prospects of organic agriculture in the continent. More specifically, this research aims to understand the governing (f)actors, i.e. rationalities and processes that steered the development of organic commodity networks from Africa and to highlight whether and how these processes transform civil society-business-state relationships. In this respect, the following research questions are addressed: (1) how did different rationalities and stakeholders initiate and co-structure the development and further transformation of organic commodity networks from Africa across time and space? (2) how is trust (re)created to establish and mediate relationships between the different stakeholders and material substances involved in the production, processing and marketing nodes across the organic commodity networks? (3) how and to what extent have governance arrangements within the organic commodity networks subsequently reshaped civil society-business-state relationships?

    For this purpose we adopted a qualitative and holistic methodology by employing the (global) commodity network perspective (See Chapter 2). The commodity network approach is rooted in the (global) commodity chain tradition of investigation and analysis of the links between production, processing, and distribution of commodities. The commodity network perspective aims to provide a more holistic analysis of actors, institutions, and their interrelations. Governance in this lens refers to how social and political as well as economic actors ideologically and materially construct, maintain, transform, and sustain commodity networks (Raynolds, 2004). Purposively, three cases are selected and investigated in this thesis: the organic cotton from Benin, the organic cocoa from Ghana, and the organic sesame from Burkina-Faso.

    Prior to these case studies, Chapter 3 provides an overview of organic agriculture in Africa. The trends in certified organic production as well as the history and development of organic agriculture in the continent are presented. The organic sector in Africa is relatively young and dynamic with some nuances and differentiations across sub-regions in terms of orientation, driving forces and leading stakeholders. Overall, the organic sector in Africa relies mainly on NGO networks, private stakeholders and development funds while government support is lacking. However, there are some recent experiences of engagement from state agencies, mostly through public-private partnerships and other hybrid arrangements. Chapter 3 also presents some features of trade and regulation of organic commodities in Africa and highlights the major challenges that face the development of organic agriculture on the continent.

    Chapter 4 addresses the case of the organic cotton network from Benin by responding specifically to the question how the organic cotton production–consumption network is governed locally and internationally. The findings reveal that beyond the traditional producer versus buyer dualism, intermediate stakeholders, namely transnational and local environmental NGO networks, are instrumental in the construction, maintenance and transformation of the organic cotton network. It is also apparent that farmers’ leaders play an important role in mediating and (re)building trust among organic farmers, though they exert insufficient vertical power in the organic cotton network to control it. International conferences and events provided important occasions for establishing linkages between organic cotton promoters and businesses, and they strengthened the organic movement. The findings favour widening the concept of Global Value Chain beyond economics by acknowledging and including environmental rationalities and the representatives of their interests, not as external elements, but rather as co-governing or co-structuring factors (or actors) of sustainable value chains.

    Chapter 5 presents the case study on the organic cocoa network from Ghana and addresses particularly the question how the state responded to and engaged with civil society actors in the evolving organic cocoa network and to what extent state involvement reshaped state-business-civil society relationships. While most of the literature argues that globalization and liberalization processes weakened the state’s position as key player in the development and management of agro-food networks, the case of the (organic) cocoa sector in Ghana is often depicted as an exception because of the strong position the state still occupies in it. The chapter demonstrates that although the state is still a major player in the contemporary (organic) cocoa network some hybrid governance arrangements, involving state, transnational and national NGO-networks, and businesses, are emerging. It came out that the tendency toward sustainability in the global cocoa industry with its increased attention for transversal critical matters (eradication of child labor, health safety, good farming practices) offers a fertile ground for newcomers (civil society and business actors) and the hybridization of the governance arrangements of the organic cocoa network. The organic cocoa network also prompted a double process of ‘dis- and re-embedding’ at the local level that helped shape and strengthen the organic cocoa network.

    Chapter 6 addresses the case study on the organic sesame network from Burkina Faso. Specifically, this chapter examines the structure and development of this network to explain the declining trend in organic sesame export and addresses the question whether the organic sesame network is structurally (re)shaped as a conventional mainstream market or whether it still presents a real alternative to conventional sesame production and trade. For this purpose, the chapter elaborates on the concept of conventionalization of ‘alternative’ food economies from governance perspective. It is found that over the last decade organic sesame is increasingly incorporated into mainstream market channels. But contrary to the well-known case of conventionalization in California, where organic agriculture grew into mainstream agro-food arrangements, this study illustrates a case where organic sesame agriculture shrank into mainstream agro-food arrangements. In fact, the organic sesame trading system is strongly affected by fierce price competition and volatility in the conventional sesame sector and the free market behavior of conventional sesame traders. This makes the organic sesame network vulnerable and permeable to the international commercial pressure from the mainstream conventional sesame market. The weak coherence in the organic sesame chain resulted in failures to vertically mediate information, balance power relationships in and across sesame chains, build trust, and limit price volatility and speculation, resulting in a shrinking organic sesame market. For developing a viable alternative to conventional sesame trading, relations between production and trading nodes in the organic networks need to be strengthened through public-private partnerships, combined with other public and legal reinforcement.

    Chapter 7 elaborates on the major findings from the case studies to draw conclusions on the governing (f)actors, i.e. the rationalities and processes that steer the initiation, development and further transformation of the organic commodity networks from Africa. By doing so, this chapter also responds to the research questions of the thesis. From the empirical findings, it came out that various rationalities, stakeholders, processes, values and practices from different spheres (political, environmental, social, and economic) interfere to co-structure and shape the development and life of the commodity network. Several networking processes, different in their scope and importance, are instrumental in the construction, (re)shaping, and (re)configuration of the organic commodity networks. These networking processes include: (1) mobilization of personal social networks and interpersonal social ties; (2) mediation of material and natural resources; (3) market networking and relations and (4) transnational events and gatherings. However, this does not suggest that the governance arrangements and dynamics are linear or similar across the three cases. In fact, it stands out that the degree and relative engagement of each category of stakeholders and rationality evolved over time and differs from one case to another. As Coe et al. (2008: 271) argue unraveling the complexities of the global economy, with its fundamental geographical unevenness and huge inequalities, poses immense conceptual and empirical difficulties. The commodity network perspective applied in this thesis helped to conceptualize and capture the diverse, fluid, and dynamic processes involved in the governance of organic commodities from Africa. The research methodology based on a multi-case study and a qualitative approach unraveled the multifaceted factors, rationalities, processes, and realities of the governance arrangements and dynamics of the organic commodity networks from Africa.

    Trust appears to be a major determinant of connectivity and networking among individuals, organizations, places, and material objects involved in the organic commodity networks from local to global level and vice versa. Three trust building mechanisms are identified including trust in persons, trust in organizations/institutions, and trust in things. In organic commodity networks practices these forms of trust often intermingle. However, this trust is sometimes challenged because of opportunism, information and power asymmetry, and suspicion between producer groups and traders, potentially resulting in severe consequences for the success of organic commodity networks. In this case, a mediation process (often led by farmer leaders or a third-party, in general a development organization) may be necessary to rebuild trust and reconnect the ties between these categories. Otherwise, this situation may ultimately lead to mistrust and distrust in, and put at risk the viability of the organic commodity network.

    It also appears that the governance of organic commodity networks opened up the way for (further) collaboration and partnerships between civil society organizations, private enterprises and public agencies. In fact, throughout the processes of initiation, development and further transformation of the organic commodity networks the relationships between the three key players (State, Businesses, and CSOs) have been reshaped as result of ongoing across sesame chains, build trust, and limit price volatility and speculation, resulting in a shrinking organic sesame market. For developing a viable alternative to conventional sesame trading, relations between production and trading nodes in the organic networks need to be strengthened through public-private partnerships, combined with other public and legal reinforcement.

    Chapter 7 elaborates on the major findings from the case studies to draw conclusions on the governing (f)actors, i.e. the rationalities and processes that steer the initiation, development and further transformation of the organic commodity networks from Africa. By doing so, this chapter also responds to the research questions of the thesis. From the empirical findings, it came out that various rationalities, stakeholders, processes, values and practices from different spheres (political, environmental, social, and economic) interfere to co-structure and shape the development and life of the commodity network. Several networking processes, different in their scope and importance, are instrumental in the construction, (re)shaping, and (re)configuration of the organic commodity networks. These networking processes include: (1) mobilization of personal social networks and interpersonal social ties; (2) mediation of material and natural resources; (3) market networking and relations and (4) transnational events and gatherings. However, this does not suggest that the governance arrangements and dynamics are linear or similar across the three cases. In fact, it stands out that the degree and relative engagement of each category of stakeholders and rationality evolved over time and differs from one case to another. As Coe et al. (2008: 271) argue unraveling the complexities of the global economy, with its fundamental geographical unevenness and huge inequalities, poses immense conceptual and empirical difficulties. The commodity network perspective applied in this thesis helped to conceptualize and capture the diverse, fluid, and dynamic processes involved in the governance of organic commodities from Africa. The research methodology based on a multi-case study and a qualitative approach unraveled the multifaceted factors, rationalities, processes, and realities of the governance arrangements and dynamics of the organic commodity networks from Africa.

    Trust appears to be a major determinant of connectivity and networking among individuals, organizations, places, and material objects involved in the organic commodity networks from local to global level and vice versa. Three trust building mechanisms are identified including trust in persons, trust in organizations/institutions, and trust in things. In organic commodity networks practices these forms of trust often intermingle. However, this trust is sometimes challenged because of opportunism, information and power asymmetry, and suspicion between producer groups and traders, potentially resulting in severe consequences for the success of organic commodity networks. In this case, a mediation process (often led by farmer leaders or a third-party, in general a development organization) may be necessary to rebuild trust and reconnect the ties between these categories. Otherwise, this situation may ultimately lead to mistrust and distrust in, and put at risk the viability of the organic commodity network.

    It also appears that the governance of organic commodity networks opened up the way for (further) collaboration and partnerships between civil society organizations, private enterprises and public agencies. In fact, throughout the processes of initiation, development and further transformation of the organic commodity networks the relationships between the three key players (State, Businesses, and CSOs) have been reshaped as result of ongoing .

    Protocol monitoring materiaalstromen biobased economie
    Meesters, K.P.H. ; Dam, J.E.G. van; Bos, H.L. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Products (Rapport / Food & Biobased Research FBR 1433) - ISBN 9789461737021 - 52
    biobased economy - economische ontwikkeling - monitoring - agro-industriële ketens - agro-industriële sector - bio-energie - beleid - biobased economy - economic development - monitoring - agro-industrial chains - agroindustrial sector - bioenergy - policy
    De biobased economy staat aan het begin van haar ontwikkeling. Het is noodzakelijk en uitdagend om juist in deze fase de ontwikkelingen in kaart te brengen. Dat kan alleen als er een goede afstemming is over de definities, uitgangspunten en methode van monitoring. Voor u ligt het eerste monitoringsprotocol voor de biobased economy. Dit protocol bouwt voort op de vele monitoringsactiviteiten die de afgelopen jaren hebben plaatsgevonden. Dit protocol zet een stap in het ontwikkelen van een eenduidige manier van volgen van deze nieuwe sector.
    Urban Waste and Sanitation Services for Sustainable Development: Harnessing social and technical diversity in East Africa
    Vliet, B.J.M. van; Buuren, J.C.L. van; Mgana, S. - \ 2014
    London and New York : Routledge (Routledge studies in sustainable development ) - ISBN 9780415833776 - 176
    volksgezondheidsbevordering - rioolwater - afval - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzame ontwikkeling - technologie - beleid - afvalbeheer - stedelijke gebieden - oost-afrika - sanitation - sewage - wastes - sustainability - sustainable development - technology - policy - waste management - urban areas - east africa
    Urban sanitation and solid waste sectors are under significant pressure in East Africa due to the lack of competent institutional capacity and the growth of the region’s urban population. This book presents and applies an original analytical approach to assess the existing socio-technical mixtures of waste and sanitation systems and to ensure wider access, increase flexibility and ecological sustainability. It shows how the problem is not the current diversity in waste and sanitation infrastructures and services and variety of types and scales of technology, of formal and informal sector involvement, and of management and ownership modes. The book focuses instead on the lack of an integrative approach to managing and upgrading of the various waste and sanitation configurations and services so as to ensure wider access, flexibility and sustainability for the low income populations who happen to be the main stakeholders. This approach, coined "Modernized Mixtures", serves as a nexus throughout the book. The empirical core addresses the waste and sanitation challenges and debates at each scale - from the micro-level (households) to the macro-level (international support) - and is based on the results of a five-year-long interdisciplinary, empirical research program. It assesses the socio-technical diversity in waste and sanitation and provides viable solutions to sanitation and waste management in East Africa. This book provides students, researchers and professional in environmental technology, sociology, management and urban planning with an integrated analytical perspective on centralized and decentralized waste and sanitation configurations and tools for improvement in the technology, policy and management of sanitation and solid waste sectors.
    De energieke overheid : visies op netwerkend samenwerken voor een groene en veerkrachtige economie
    Overbeek, M.M.M. ; Salverda, I.E. - \ 2013
    Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI Wageningen UR 13-084) - 112
    rijksoverheid - beleid - economisch beleid - innovaties - economie - burgers - milieu - milieueconomie - central government - policy - economic policy - innovations - economics - citizens - environment - environmental economics
    Voor u ligt een verzameling van ervaringen, kennis en ideeën over een nieuwe rol van de overheid bij het verduurzamen van de economie. Dat het verduurzamen van de economie noodzakelijk is, wordt breed gedeeld, maar hoe deze verduurzaming te realiseren is gaat niet zonder slag of stoot. In de verschillende bijdragen wordt de overheid gevraagd meer verantwoordelijkheid te nemen, meer visie te ontwikkelen, meer te stimuleren, meer samen te werken en meer te experimenteren. Hoe kunnen we alles meer doen als de overheid tegelijkertijd moet krimpen? De zoektocht naar een nieuwe rol als ‘energieke overheid’ is volop gaande is. In de zoektocht is behoefte aan enerzijds verdieping en anderzijds aan praktijkvoorbeelden. Met deze bundel wordt een bijdrage aan dit zoekproces geleverd op beide aspecten. In acht bijdragen geven tien deskundigen uit de wetenschap, het bedrijfsleven en de rijksoverheid hun visie op netwerkend werken en de nieuwe rol van de overheid bij de transitie naar een groene en veerkrachtige economie.
    Biomass for biodiesel production on family farms in Brazil: promise or failure? : integrated assessment of biodiesel crops, farms, policies and producer organisations
    Belo Leite, J.G. Dal - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Martin van Ittersum, co-promotor(en): Maja Slingerland; Jos Bijman. - Wageningen : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461737601 - 224
    biodiesel - biomassa - familiebedrijven, landbouw - gewassen - gewasproductie - beleid - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - helianthus annuus - brazilië - biobrandstoffen - biobased economy - biodiesel - biomass - family farms - crops - crop production - policy - sustainability - helianthus annuus - brazil - biofuels - biobased economy
    In Brazil, a biodiesel policy was implemented as a way of reducing poverty among family farms. The objective of this thesis is to perform an integrated assessment of biodiesel crops, farm types, biodiesel policies and producer organisations that reveals opportunities and limitations of family farmers’ engagement in the biodiesel supply chain.
    An institutional perspective on farmers’ water management and rice production practices in Benin
    Totin, G.G.E. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leo Stroosnijder; R. Mongbo, co-promotor(en): Barbara van Mierlo; E. Agbossou. - Wageningen : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461738103 - 136
    oryza - rijst - gewasproductie - waterbeheer - beleid - benin - oryza - rice - crop production - water management - policy - benin

    This thesis is part of the wider debate about the role of institutions in agricultural innovation processes. It

    investigates how institutions shape rice production in inland valleys in Benin. It starts from a scoping study

    (prior to this research) on smallholder irrigation in Benin, which indicated irrigation water stress as one of

    the main problems in the rice production chain. The authors explain the water scarcity as the consequence

    of poor maintenance of the irrigation canals, whereas others think that is a direct manifestation of climate

    change. It appears that a mono‐technical explanation cannot give a deep enough understanding of the

    existing water problem, which has various dimensions. The thesis therefore assumes that an institutional

    perspective would provide a better insight into the barriers that hinder the efficient use of irrigation water

    in the rice production chain.

    Chapter 1 introduces the main problems teased out in the book. Between 1976 and 1990, the Benin

    government initiated numerous interventions to increase local rice production. These different

    interventions were ineffective because of the many innovation barriers that existed in the rice chain.

    Therefore, the first research question addressed in this research is: what are the constraints in the local rice

    value chain and the opportunities for innovation in the research areas?

    After the 2007 rice crisis, the government introduced a new generation of interventions which

    prioritised the institutional facilities (e.g., subsidies for seeds and loans for fertiliser, market facilities and so

    forth) to support the intensification of local rice production. There have been successful outcomes in terms

    of increased rice yield, rice production and farmers’ income. So, this research is interested in studying the

    effectiveness of the two generations of interventions in the rice value chain. The following research

    question is also addressed: how and to what extent does the new generation of interventions create space

    for rice production in the research areas and overcome the shortcomings of previous interventions?

    Which factors hinder the effective use of irrigation water and the development of the local rice value

    chain in the three research areas are further explored in a diagnostic study and described in Chapter 2. The

    diagnosis indicates that it is not only technical constraints that hinder the local rice production chain;

    rather, a combination of technical and institutional factors affect the development of rice production.

    Moreover, both local and higher level institutional barriers influence negatively the local rice value chain.

    The barriers to innovation include: unclear division of responsibilities for canal maintenance between local

    farmer groups and the government, lack of effective local rules for the distribution of the available water

    and maintenance of the irrigation infrastructures, distrust among farmers and the constraining formal and

    informal credit systems and uncertain market outlets. These constraints reduce rice output and farmers’

    incomes.

    After identifying the main economic, institutional and technical constraints that limited the

    development of the local rice production chain, the study also describes the potential opportunities that

    exist for innovation in the chain. Chapter 2 shows that, from a bio‐technical perspective, in the three

    irrigation schemes, the actual rice output remains far below the estimated potential of the command areas,

    given the water and land available in the inland valleys. It establishes that there is room for a considerable

    increase in rice production and associated incomes. For instance, in Koussin‐Léléand Bamè, farmers have

    lands in the uplands as well as the lowlands. Less than 10% of the potential land is used for rice production.

    Chapter 4 shows an option to improve soil moisture in the uplands and extend rice production in this part

    of the valleys.

    In the research areas, there are differences in the extent to which the rules for collective activities

    are set and followed. The farmers cooperate, for instance, to collectively purchase inputs, make collective

    credit requests or sell collectively the harvested rice. At the start of the study however, not all the farmers

    contributed to the collective cleaning of the canals to increase the water discharge that serves all of them.

    among the farmers, a comparative analysis of the three research areas was conducted, using a framework

    to highlight key contextual differences such as the nature of the resource, the characteristics of the user

    group and farmer‐based institutional arrangements in the geographical areas. The findings of the case

    studies, reported in Chapter 3, draw attention to the balance between water demand and availability, the

    existence of inequities and privileged positions within the groups and the strength of farmers’ group

    organisation and the ability to sanction uncooperative behaviour. The existence of alternative sources of

    livelihood also influenced cooperation. Contrary to our expectations, the analysis shows that the largest

    and most diverse group of farmers appeared best organised and equipped to engage in cooperation. Large,

    diverse farmer groups allow the emergence of institutional arrangements that can overcome social

    dilemma situations and demotivation emanating from customary privileges and exemptions.

    A collaborative action research approach was used to explore the opportunity to expand rice

    production in the upland areas. In Chapter 2, it was already established that rice production could be

    improved for the uplands if there was a better supply of irrigation water. This analysis inspired the action

    research conducted in collaboration with the rice farmers (from the three production research areas), an

    extension agent and a researcher to examine the application of mulch (three doses) and the use of a highyield

    lowland rice variety to replace an upland rice variety (Chapter 4). Multiple methods suggested by both

    the researcher and farmers themselves were used to evaluate the trial results: quantitative evidence was

    combined with qualitative evaluation, using indicators agreed upon by the collaborating group. The results

    show that the lowland rice variety IR‐841 with 10 t ha‐1 ‘rice‐straw’mulch allows farmers to better use

    available water in the upland areas and increase rice yields. Although opting for IR‐841 over the specially

    bred upland variety Nerica‐4 is risky because of its high water demand and the uncertainty in rainfall

    distribution, farmers use IR‐841 for profit maximisation. Beyond its technical output, the joint

    experimentation facilitated the exchange of knowledge, experiences and practices among the involved

    stakeholders.

    Since the rice crisis of 2007, the government of Benin has initiated a variety of short‐and long‐term

    programmes aimed at providing access for farmers to agricultural inputs for local rice intensification.

    Chapter 5 explores the interplay between the external interventions of the government programmes and

    the local actions of farmers, in the three research areas. Using an actor‐oriented perspective combined

    with the timelines of the chronological events, the study concludes that farmers’ local actions interact at

    diverse junctures with the external interventions. The study shows that it is not only external interventions

    that trigger changes; rather, the interaction between external interventions and farmers’ local actions

    makes room for changes to happen. Moreover, the investigations show that, although the same

    institutional conditions (through the different government interventions) were provided to rice farmers in

    the three study areas, located close to one another, there are similar, but also divergent, hence unexpected

    outcomes regarding farmers’ social practices. The most obvious unexpected outcomes of the programme

    interventions are the change from limited collective canal cleaning to individual effective canal cleaning in

    Koussin‐Lélé, the use of pumps in upland areas in Bamèand farmers who changed from growing vegetables

    or maize alone to growing rice in combination with these in Zonmon. The wish to satisfy subsistence

    livelihood needs, the different production options available and natural biophysical conditions (e.g., floods)

    are the main factors that contribute to shaping farmers’ local actions and explain the diversity of practices

    in the three research areas, although they all received the same interventions.

    Chapter 6 provides answers to the research questions formulated in Chapter 1 and reflects on how

    the different results from the thesis contribute to the policy debate about how to improve rice production

    in Benin. Reflection on the sustainability of the current rice intensification policy established that the

    government interventions constitute a “protected space”. However, there is no guarantee that the

    intensification of local rice production will still continue when the supports provided by the government

    projects end. Another limitation of the rice intensification policy is that it relies on the use of the irrigation

    schemes designed for one cropping season in a context where farmers are now producing up to three

    cropping seasons a year. The inadequacy of the irrigation design concept for the intensification of rice

    production might contribute to explaining why some of the farmers are suffering from the lack of irrigation

    water. Moreover, although the inland valleys in Benin are a potential area for rice production, they are also

    complex ecosystems with irregular water supply wherein smallholder farmers must carefully allocate

    available resources.

    The thesis shows the importance of institutions in agricultural production. Many institutional studies

    are about social issues. One of the main contributions of this thesis relates to the points it established by

    linking institutional issues with technical dimensions. Chapters 3 and 4 explain the interrelations between

    institutions and water management practices. The experimental procedure described in Chapter 4 was

    grounded in the institutional context but also has a technical purpose that is, identifying water use options

    that allow the expansion of rice production in the uplands. By exploring a technical issue like water

    management from an institutional perspective, the thesis provides clear understanding of the reasons

    behind farmers’ seemingly illogical or irrational water management practices.

    Separation ages for primates in new Dutch legislation = Scheidingsleeftijden van apen in nieuwe Nederlandse wetgeving
    Bracke, M.B.M. ; Hopster, H. - \ 2013
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Report / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 728) - 102
    primaten - spenen - leeftijd - diergedrag - dierenwelzijn - wetgeving - beleid - Nederland - primates - weaning - age - animal behaviour - animal welfare - legislation - policy - Netherlands
    An expert consultation was conducted on separation ages for several primate species mentioned in Dutch legislation (chimpanzees, rhesus, stump-tailed and long-tailed macaques, marmosets, douroucoulis and squirrel monkeys). In total 25 senior experts from 7 different countries participated. ‘Median’ (middle value) separation ages as suggested by the experts were 6 years for chimpanzees; 12 months for macaques used in research and 4 years for macaques used for breeding or kept in zoos or shelters; 12-16 months for marmosets; 18-24 months for douroucoulis; and 10-18 months for squirrel monkeys. The main arguments related to natural conditions (e.g. at what ages the animals can survive without milk or group support). The paper provides a structured, transparent approach for decision support, leading to the general recommendation to the Dutch government to upgrade existing separation ages in accordance with ages previously specified for separation (‘weaning’) of young primates into individual housing.
    RED versus REDD: Biofuel Policy versus Forest Conservation
    Dixon, P. ; Meijl, H. van; Rimmer, M. ; Shutes, L.J. ; Tabeau, A.A. - \ 2013
    Brussel : CEPS (Factor markets working papers / Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS) no. 41) - ISBN 9789461383082 - 22
    biobrandstoffen - bosbescherming - europese unie - richtlijnen (directives) - beleid - agrarische economie - biobased economy - biofuels - protection of forests - european union - directives - policy - agricultural economics - biobased economy
    This paper assesses the complex interplay between global Renewable Energy Directives (RED) and the United Nations programme to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD). The interaction of the two policies is examined using a scenario approach with a recursive-dynamic global Computable General Equilibrium model. The consequences of a global biofuel directive on worldwide land use, agricultural production, international trade flows, food prices and food security out to 2030 are evaluated with and without a strict global REDD policy.
    Integrated modelling for land use planning and policy recommendation in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam
    Bui, T.Y. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leo Stroosnijder, co-promotor(en): Saskia Visser. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461736406 - 102
    landgebruiksplanning - landgebruik - modelleren - beleid - hulpbronnenbeheer - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - erosie - landbouwproductie - vietnam - land use planning - land use - modeling - policy - resource management - natural resources - erosion - agricultural production - vietnam

    The study focuses on analyses of major development problems related to livelihood and natural resource management in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam (NUV). The study was conducted in Suoi Con, a small agro-forestry watershed with the total area is about 1760 ha. The watershed is characterized by a high poverty rate and low agricultural production and household income. Livelihood of the households is dependent upon self-sufficient agricultural production, which accounts for nearly 80% of the total production value. Traditional agricultural activities have led to various land degradation problems.

    The main objective of the study is to integrate modeling of (i) erosion assessment, (ii) land use optimization and (iii) land use decision making in order to improve the effectiveness and adoption of recommendations that contribute to the improved livelihood of farmers and sustainable natural resource management. This will be achieved through: (1) increasing understanding of the interactions between agro-ecological and socio-economic dynamics at watershed scale; (2) facilitating emergence of a common agreement on ecological sustainability, social equity and economically sound solutions; and (3) stimulating dialogues among various stakeholders to achieve a shared responsibility of the common resources.

    The biophysical and socioeconomic characteristics of the study area were explored through surveys, FAO’s land evaluation, literature review and stakeholder meetings. The Predict and Localize Erosion and Runoff (PLER) model and the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) were used to examine influences of land use on soil erosion at the watershed scale.Although agricultural land in the watershed has several limitations such as steep slopes, low soil fertility, high acidity and serious soil erosion, different soil types and the large variation topography and crop suitability create flexibility in farmers’ land use decisions. The Land Use Planning and Analysis System (LUPAS) was then applied to analyze feasibilities of alternative land use options. Based on land use scenarios, 4 main land use constraints in the regions were analyzed. Results of the analysis were finally discussed with stakeholders though Role Playing Game sections to find feasible land use solution and to develop policy recommendations.

    Results of the study showed that different actors in the watershed have different views on land use targets, objectives, constraints and decisions. The integrated modeling approach used in this study identified that traditional technology level appears to be a largest constraint that significantly holds back agricultural production of the region. Land area, capital and labour are also constraints but they only appear if agricultural technology is improved. Land fragmentation should be considered as an important factor because without any new agricultural technique, crop variety or external capital, land consolidation can significantly improve food production and income.

    Integration of individual tools described in this study represents a participatory approach for land use planning, in which problems in land use are explicitly defined and land use plans are developed and revised by stakeholders under their own social and economic conditions. Imperfections in given land use plans and possible solutions proposed by stakeholders provide policy makers with ideas to improve land use planning and to bridge the gaps between land use objectives of the government and of farmers.

    The integrated modelling approach developed and presented in this thesis can make use of individual research tools for describing agro-ecological and socio-economic dynamics and for developing land use policy. It has the potential to serve planners and policy makers to increase the likelihood of developing plans that will effectively increase farmer livelihood and improve resource conservation. This integrated modelling approach can incorporate different aspects of land use into land use planning and test hypotheses regarding the contributions of intended plans to general development targets. Furthermore, it can support bottom-up land use planning as it allows incorporation of different stakeholders in analysing existing problems, proposing solutions and developing land use plans. Therefore, it can increase the likelihood of adoption. This in turn will create the chances for achievement of targets of the government, researchers and farmers through effective implementation of the plans.

    'Gaat de onderzoekskraan dicht, dan staat sector over enkele jaren droog'(interview met Sjaak Bakker)
    Staalduinen, J. van; Bakker, J.C. - \ 2013
    Onder Glas 10 (2013)9. - p. 30 - 31.
    glastuinbouw - landbouwkundig onderzoek - financieren - toegepast onderzoek - innovaties - beleid - verspreiding van onderzoek - technologieoverdracht - greenhouse horticulture - agricultural research - financing - applied research - innovations - policy - diffusion of research - technology transfer
    Nu het Productschap Tuinbouw is weggesaneerd, is het ook gedaan met de collectieve financiering van onderzoek. Volgens Sjaak Bakker, business unit manager van Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw, dient de sector haar eigen bijdrage aan strategisch toegepast onderzoek snel op de rit te krijgen. Lukt dat niet, dan zullen ook de subsidiestromen vanuit Den Haag en Brussel opdrogen. Dat kan onherstelbare schade aanrichten. Vooralsnog blijft hij optimistisch.
    Tussenrapportage Monitoring Biobased Economy
    Meesters, K.P.H. ; Verhoog, A.D. ; Leeuwen, M.G.A. van; Bos, H.L. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : FBR (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1398) - ISBN 9789461736918 - 27
    biobased economy - economische ontwikkeling - monitoring - statistische gegevens - nederland - beleid - biobased economy - economic development - monitoring - statistical data - netherlands - policy
    De monitoring van de biobased economy zal antwoord moeten geven op twee vragen: 1. Hoe groot zijn de stromen die omgaan in de biobased economy? 2. Hoe ontwikkelen deze stromen zich in de loop van de tijd? In deze studie wordt onderzocht in hoeverre de biobased economy gevolgd kan worden op basis van statistische gegevens van CBS, WUR-LEI en andere bronnen.
    Economische aspecten rondom 'ingrepen bij Pluimvee'
    Horne, P.L.M. van - \ 2013
    LEI
    dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - diergezondheid - beleid - diergedrag - pluimvee - animal welfare - animal production - animal health - policy - animal behaviour - poultry
    Op basis van de concept nota 'uitfasering ingrepen bij Pluimvee' heeft het LEI een eerste inschatting gemaakt van de mogelijke economische gevolgen. Het betreft niet meer dan een schatting omdat er op veel onderdelen onzekerheden zijn. Dit betreft de mogelijke reactie van pluimveehouders, de positie van Nederland op de exportmarkten en (technische) gevolgen op pluimveebedrijven bij het achterwege laten van ingrepen. Deze notitie geeft bouwstenen voor de beleidsmedewerkers van het Ministerie EZ en is dus niet geschreven als een op zichzelf staande nota met een duidelijk omschreven vraagstelling, methode en discussie van de resultaten. Het betreft een 'quick scan' met een klein budget en een zeer korte doorlooptijd.
    Combining bioenergy production and food security
    Achterbosch, T.J. ; Meijerink, G.W. ; Slingerland, M.A. ; Smeets, E.M.W. - \ 2013
    Utrecht : NL Agency - 74
    voedselzekerheid - voedsel versus brandstof - biomassa productie - voedselproductie - bio-energie - biobased economy - beleid - food security - food vs fuel - biomass production - food production - bioenergy - biobased economy - policy
    This report analyses whether and how bioenergy can be produced within the context of food insecurity. With this study, the NL Agency aims to contribute to Dutch Development Cooperation policy on food security by showing in which way producing and using biomass for energy does not compete with food security, but contributes to it.
    Van Recht naar Krom : onderzoek naar de doeltreffendheid en doelmatigheid van het beleid voor de (her)inrichting van watersystemen bij waterschap Regge en Dinkel
    Hattum, T. van; Maas, G.J. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 2432) - 74
    waterlopen - ecologisch herstel - herstel - waterbeheer - kaderrichtlijn water - beleid - twente - nederland - waterbeleid - streams - ecological restoration - rehabilitation - water management - water framework directive - policy - twente - netherlands - water policy
    http://edepot.wur.nl/259243
    Intellectual property rights, international trade and plant breeding
    Eaton, D.J.F. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte, co-promotor(en): J.E. Ligthart. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734693 - 186
    vermeerderingsmateriaal - plantenveredeling - kwekersrecht - intellectuele eigendomsrechten - internationale handel - innovaties - beleid - landbouwsector - landbouwbedrijven - productie - wereld - ontwikkelingslanden - propagation materials - plant breeding - breeders' rights - intellectual property rights - international trade - innovations - policy - agricultural sector - farms - production - world - developing countries
    Seed is the physical embodiment of the invention of the plant breeder. Plant varieties thus constitute a special form of innovation, and an assessment of intellectual property right (IPR) systems needs to take this into account. This thesis concentrates on IPRs but breeders do have a number of means by which they can capture part of the benefits from the cultivation of their new variety, rather than these falling into to public domain.
    Energiemonitor van de ederlandse Paddenstoelensector 2011
    Wildschut, J. ; Promes, E.J.O. - \ 2012
    Lisse : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving B.V. - 33
    transport - dierlijke productie - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - beleid - controle - kwaliteitsnormen - transport - animal production - animal welfare - animal health - policy - control - quality standards
    QLL (Quality system Livestock Logistics), is een privaat kwaliteitsysteem dat relevante naleving van wet- en regelgeving wil bevorderen binnen de verzamel- en transportsector van landbouwhuisdieren. QLL is voor veetransporteurs, waaghouders en exporteurs van toepassing. Het kwaliteitssysteem omvat diverse modules waar deelnemers aan QLL na certificering aan kunnen deelnemen. De NVWA (Nederlandse Voedsel en Waren Autoriteit) maakt in haar toezicht gebruik van bepaalde modules. In de eerste helft van 2012 heeft het auditteam NVWA een audit gedaan op het kwaliteitssysteem QLL. Deze audit heeft een aanvulling gehad in augustus 2012 omdat de uitvoering van de onaangekondigde controles door de CI (certificerende instanties) op de deelnemers aan QLL eerder niet beoordeeld kon worden. De staatssecretaris van het ministerie van EZ (Economische Zaken) heeft QLL opgedragen een plan van aanpak naar aanleiding van de resultaten van de audit te maken. De staatsecretaris heeft de NVWA opgedragen in december 2012 een vervolgaudit op het kwaliteitssysteem QLL te doen om na te gaan hoe de geconstateerde tekortkomingen opgelost zijn. Het auditteam NVWA heeft in opdracht van de hoofdinspecteur Divisie V&I (Veterinair en Import) van de NVWA de audit in december 2012 uitgevoerd.
    Chances for biomass : connecting food and non-food - a roadmap for integrated valorisation. Factsheet research
    Bos-Brouwers, H.E.J. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR
    ketenmanagement - agro-industriële ketens - biomassa cascadering - beleid - biobased economy - supply chain management - agro-industrial chains - biomass cascading - policy - biobased economy
    Poster met onderzoeksinformatie.
    Origin labelling; Cost analysis for producers and consumers
    Terluin, I.J. ; Benninga, J. ; Berkhout, P. ; Immink, V.M. ; Janssens, S.R.M. ; Jongeneel, R.A. ; Rau, M.L. ; Tacken, G.M.L. - \ 2012
    The Hague : LEI, part of Wageningen UR (LEI report : Research area International policy ) - ISBN 9789086156139 - 43
    gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - etiketteren van voedingsmiddelen - consumenteninformatie - oorsprong - kwaliteitszorg - kostenanalyse - europese unie - beleid - landbouwproducten - etiketteren - cap - nutrition labeling - consumer information - origin - quality management - cost analysis - european union - policy - agricultural products - labelling
    By stating the origin of a foodstuff, producers can provide consumers with information about where the food comes from. Country of origin labelling is the subject of debate from two different policy areas. One debate takes place in the framework of EU quality policy for agricultural products, the other in the framework of EU consumer policy. In one debate, origin labelling is regarded as a trade norm, while the other considers it part of food information which allows consumers to make well-founded choices between foodstuffs.
    Herkomstetikettering : Kostenverkenning voor producenten en consumenten
    Terluin, I.J. ; Benninga, J. ; Berkhout, P. ; Immink, V.M. ; Janssens, S.R.M. ; Jongeneel, R.A. ; Rau, M.L. ; Tacken, G.M.L. - \ 2012
    The Hague : LEI, part of Wageningen UR (LEI rapport : Onderzoeksveld Internationaal beleid ) - ISBN 9789086156115 - 46
    gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - etiketteren van voedingsmiddelen - consumenteninformatie - landbouwproducten - voedselproducten - oorsprong - kwaliteitszorg - kostenanalyse - etiketteren - beleid - consumentenvoorkeuren - europese unie - cap - nutrition labeling - consumer information - agricultural products - food products - origin - quality management - cost analysis - labelling - policy - consumer preferences - european union
    Met het vermelden van de herkomst op een levensmiddel kunnen producenten informatie geven aan consumenten over de plaats waar het voedsel vandaan komt. Herkomstetikettering staat vanuit twee verschillende beleidsterreinen ter discussie. De ene discussie vindt plaats in het kader van het EU-kwaliteitsbeleid voor landbouwproducten; de andere in het kader van het EU-consumentenbeleid. In de ene discussie wordt herkomstetikettering als handelsnorm gezien; in de andere als onderdeel van voedselinformatie waardoor consumenten doordachte keuzes tussen levensmiddelen kunnen maken.
    Bijlagen bij rapport Herkomstetikettering; Kostenverkenning voor producenten en consumenten
    Benninga, J. ; Immink, V.M. ; Janssens, S.R.M. ; Jongeneel, R.A. ; Rau, M.L. ; Tacken, G.M.L. - \ 2012
    Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (LEI-nota / onderzoeksveld Internationaal Beleid 12-123) - 41
    gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - etiketteren van voedingsmiddelen - consumenteninformatie - landbouwproducten - voedselproducten - oorsprong - kwaliteitszorg - kostenanalyse - etiketteren - beleid - consumentenvoorkeuren - europese unie - cap - nutrition labeling - consumer information - agricultural products - food products - origin - quality management - cost analysis - labelling - policy - consumer preferences - european union
    De vermelding van het land van herkomst is in de Europese Unie verplicht voor enkele agrarische producten, te weten: rundvlees, honing, verse groenten en fruit en olijfolie. In Nederland wordt het land van herkomst buiten de verplichte etikettering van deze productgroepen nog nauwelijks vermeld. Binnen het Europees Parlement wordt gedacht over uitbreiding van de verplichte herkomstetikettering naar andere productgroepen. Aanleiding voor het ministerie van Economische Zaken, Landbouw en Innovatie (EL&I) om onderzoek te laten doen naar de waarde van de land-van-herkomstaanduiding op het etiket van voedselproducten vanuit consumentenperspectief. Daarbij is ook gekeken naar de rol die herkomstetikettering bij de aanschaf van een voedselproduct speelt.
    Clean sea
    Imares, - \ 2012
    [S.l.] : YouTube
    zeetransport - kennisoverdracht - milieueffect - marien milieu - milieubeleid - beleid - sea transport - knowledge transfer - environmental impact - marine environment - environmental policy - policy
    The 'Clean Seas' thematic network aims to promote knowledge exchange between industry and universities/research institutes and to coordinate and combine initiatives. In this way, the various parties can work in line with European Maritime Policy to reduce the environmental impact of ocean shipping.
    Biobeschikbaarheid: sturende factor bij besluitvorming rond bodemsanering en duurzaam bodemgebruik?
    Harmsen, J. ; Brand, E. - \ 2012
    Bodem 3 (2012). - ISSN 0925-1650 - p. 26 - 28.
    biologische beschikbaarheid - bodemverontreiniging - bodemkwaliteit - beleid - bioavailability - soil pollution - soil quality - policy
    Bij de beoordeling van de bodemkwaliteit komt de term biobeschikbaarheid regelmatig aan de orde. De term wordt vooral gebruikt om effecten van bodemverontreinigingen op receptoren te verklaren. Internationaal wordt er gediscussieerd over de invloed van biobeschikbaarheid op risico's van verontreinigingen. Ook in Nederland is dit een punt van aandacht. Kan Nederland iets leren van de internationale kennis?
    Global and local governance of shrimp farming in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam
    Tran Thi Thu, H. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol; Han van Dijk, co-promotor(en): Simon Bush. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461733764 - 181
    garnalen - garnalenteelt - governance - beleid - aquacultuur en milieu - markten - biologische landbouw - mangroves - vietnam - shrimps - shrimp culture - governance - policy - aquaculture and environment - markets - organic farming - mangroves - vietnam

    The Mekong Delta is one of seven ecological regions in Vietnam where aquaculture and shrimp products are internationally traded and the shrimp farmers are firmly embedded in a global system of production and trade. The growth of shrimp aquaculture, in addition to population growth and higher levels of investment, has left coastal resources in the Mekong Delta increasingly vulnerable to rapid changes in land and resource use. The shrimp industry, made up of multiple stakeholders and fragmented market chains, is also now subject to a range of attempts to govern sustainable and/or responsible shrimp aquaculture. While striving for improved environmental performance to reduce bio-physical variability in production these governance systems have also brought stringent requirements for producers that determine their ability to access international markets. The general objective of the research is to investigate the interactions between existing state and non-state actors and institutions to develop a more informed understanding of how state, market and community-based governance arrangements at different levels influence decision-making in shrimp aquaculture in coastal areas of the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. The general research question explores how different material conditions and social relations affect the effectiveness and responsiveness of governance arrangements aimed at achieving multiple goals of maintaining rural livelihoods, environmental sustainability and improved food quality.

    The first empirical chapter highlights two key transformations of Vietnamese shrimp aquaculture policy in Ca Mau province. The first transformation is an internal policy shift from quantitative to qualitative state-led production goals. The secondtransformation is in response to market demands, but is directed to the emergent ‘quality’ concerns about the environmental and social impacts of tropical shrimp farming. Together these two transformations present a complex balancing act between externally-led global market demands and consumer concerns for the improved environmental and social performance of tropical shrimp production, and the government’s interests in maintaining sovereign control over the shrimp industry. The results also show that the Vietnamese government should continue to position itself as a facilitator of global private governance arrangements, especially as farmers and global market actors are engaged in transnational regulatory networks operationalised at local scales. Moreover, the state needs to give far more attention to market incentives for fostering the participation and compliance of farmers in these transnational regulatory networks.

    The second chapter analyses the case of Naturland organic certification and its implementation in meeting the government’s plan to create an organic coast scaling up the organic farming along southern part of Ca Mau by 2015. Our results support the claim that organic certification can provide a means of linking farm-level management to the sustainability of landscapes dominated by the shrimp-forest integrated farming system in Ca Mau. But this is only achievable if certain challenges are overcome. The first challenge is the tension between farmer practices and externally defined and regulated quality standards.The secondchallenge is to ensure that economic benefit are shared between actors in the organic certified value chain. Finally, the level of legitimacy given to private sector led auditing systems needs to be addressed.

    The thesis then explores the development of shrimp farmer cooperatives and clusters by the government based on a policy to explicitly to increase the competitiveness of the sector in the international market and to improve economic condition for small producers. The results shows that vertical contractualisation under the form of contract farming between farmer cluster with up and downstream chain actors demonstrate economic benefits to small-holder producers engaged in intensive production.The improved extensive system, however, gives further impetus to determining how cooperative forms of production might assist small holders to complying with production-oriented quality standards, which in turn may also improving market performance. The cases therefore supports the claim that the development of shrimp farmer clusters should not solely focus on increasing production efficiency but also successful integration into the value chain; producing high-quality and safe products, and engaging in sustainable on-farm management practices.

    The final case study looks at shrimp farming in the broader context of promoting ecological function in forested shrimp-mangrove farming systems. Attention is given to how incentives are generated for shrimp farmers to plant and protect mangroves by analysing farmer’s decision-making and their perspective on mangroves in relation with state-based governance arrangements, the forest allocation and benefit sharing policies. The results show that farmer’s perception on the role and value of mangroves are positive and they are willing to plant and to protect mangroves both for economic and environmental reasons. Moreover, they want to have control over mangroves although forests are still under the state regulation. However, farmer’s decision-making is very much influenced by the way in which the forest benefit sharing policy is implemented by the state-led forest management boards and forestry companies. The results show that the perception of shrimp farming as the main cause of deforestation and degradation should be reevaluated in the context of integrated shrimp mangrove model because farmers income is improved if mangroves are a part of the production system. Instead the evidence shows that shrimp farmers are potentially the best stakeholders to plant, protect and manage mangroves if they have full rights and responsibilities over forests. Seen as such, shrimp farming is a mangrove-friendly source of revenue which also promotes the planting and protection of mangroves.

    Safeguarding the sustainability of bioenergy in Europe. The implementation and impact of the EC Renewable Energy Directive and Fuel Quality Directive
    Rau, M.L. ; Smeets, E.M.W. ; Georgiev, E.S. ; Leeuwen, M.G.A. van - \ 2012
    The Hague : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR : Research area International policy ) - ISBN 9789086155958 - 115
    bio-energie - biobrandstoffen - biobased economy - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzaamheidscriteria - duurzaamheidsindicatoren - europese unie - energiebeleid - beleid - duurzame energie - certificering - economische modellen - bioenergy - biofuels - biobased economy - sustainability - sustainability criteria - sustainability indicators - european union - energy policy - policy - sustainable energy - certification - economic models
    In this study, the sustainability criteria in the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) and the Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) are investigated and reviewed. First, an overview is given of the current and future use of bioenergy, and bioenergy policies in the EU are discussed. Next, it is discussed how the RED-FQD sustainability criteria are operationalised into practically indicators, including a critical evaluation of the scientific robustness, completeness and accuracy of the approaches and indicators used in the RED-FQD. Finally, various options are formulated and a discussion is presented on how the sustainability of biofuels can be investigated using economic models such as the global computable general equilibrium model MAGNET (Modular Applied GeNeral Equilibrium Tool). Such an analysis is needed to ascertain the impact of biofuel policies and will help to provide useful insights and advice for policy-makers.
    Participatory policy development for integrated watershed management in Uganda's highlands
    Mutekanga, F.P. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leo Stroosnijder; Arthur Mol, co-promotor(en): Kris van Koppen; Saskia Visser. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461733450 - 112
    beheer van waterbekkens - integraal waterbeheer - hooglanden - beleid - participatie - uganda - leren - watershed management - integrated water management - highlands - policy - participation - uganda - learning

    Soil erosion is a serious problem in the densely populated Uganda highlands and previous interventions were ineffective. This study, on the Ngenge watershed, Mount Elgon, was aimed at developing policy for the implementation of a new strategy for solving the problem, Integrated Watershed Management (IWM). For policy development, a user-friendly method for assessing erosion risk - using rainfall, slope and NDVI - enabled identifying priority areas for interventions, and a stakeholder analysis enabled identifying key stakeholders who participated in multilevel workshops for deliberating on appropriate interventions. In these workshops social learning was stimulated through constructing scenarios and developing action and work plans which are to inform policy. There was general satisfaction with the workshop processes and the participation of the stakeholders. However, considering IWM as a policy strategy, it was realized that it cannot be ‘rolled out’ but needs to be geared to specific biophysical and social context factors.

    EU animal welfare policy: Developing a comprehensive policy framework
    Ingenbleek, P.T.M. ; Immink, V.M. ; Spoolder, H.A.M. ; Bokma-Bakker, M.H. ; Keeling, L.J. - \ 2012
    Food Policy 37 (2012)2012. - ISSN 0306-9192 - p. 690 - 699.
    dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - politiek - consumenten - europese unie - beleid - animal welfare - animal production - politics - consumers - european union - policy - livestock production - attitudes - meat
    Many EU citizens are concerned about animal welfare. The policy literature has responded to these concerns by suggesting a variety of policy instruments to policy makers. However, a gap in knowledge exists regarding which instrument should be applied under which conditions in the policy environment. This article presents the results of multiple inductive case studies of eight European countries to better understand the contingencies to animal welfare policy instruments and to further complement the framework of policy instruments available to policy makers. The qualitative evidence from this study is presented in the form of a policy decision tree indicating instruments likely to be effective under given conditions. The findings suggest that a “one size fits all” solution for animal welfare in the EU is unlikely to be effective and that although a market-based policy within the current EU context is in many cases inevitable, the barriers are numerous and require policy instruments tailored to the specific context.
    Barriers and bottlenecks : a case study of the implementation of extension policy for enabling sustainable natural resource management in Queensland, Australia
    Leach, G.J. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Leeuwis; F. Vanclay. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789461732293 - 432
    voorlichting - beleid - invloeden - hulpbronnenbeheer - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - queensland - australië - extension - policy - influences - resource management - sustainability - queensland - australia
    Internationally, extension has been a support instrument used by governments and commercial interests for improving agricultural production for hundreds, if not thousands of years. The application of extension theory and practice for natural resource management (NRM) is a more recent undertaking. However, over the last 20+ years, agencies sponsoring extension services appear to have lost confidence in extension’s ability to achieve desired outcomes. In Australia, Greg Leach’s PhD research has sought to understand the barriers and bottlenecks which have prevented the implementation of extension policy by the Queensland State Government. His research enquired into the institutionalisation of extension in Queensland, as well as approaches and mechanisms for negotiating extension policy at the national scale from 2000 to 2010. Learnings from the author’s involvement in operationalising a network of extension leaders from across Australia, underpin broader recommendations on institutionalising extension policy, and advice for extension policy to aid achievement of NRM outcomes.
    Denken over dieren : dier en ding, zegen en zorg
    Cock Buning, T. de; Pompe, V.M.M. ; Hopster, H. - \ 2012
    Amsterdam : Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam - 67
    dierenwelzijn - mens-dier relaties - dierethiek - beleid - diergezondheid - animal welfare - human-animal relationships - animal ethics - policy - animal health
    Dit rapport, dat in opdracht van het ministerie van Economische zaken, Landbouw en Innovatie is opgesteld, beschrijft een eerste trendanalyse (nulmeting) van (verwachte) morele opvattingen in Nederland over de omgang met dieren, nu en in de toekomst ten behoeve van het dierbeleid. In dit onderzoek is gestreefd naar de volgende inzichten: 1) de hedendaagse publieke opvattingen over de omgang met dieren; 2) de thema's die in de verschillende dierpraktijken spelen; 3) de verwachte ontwikkeling van deze thema's in de komende 20 jaar.
    Evaluatie van de nota Duurzame gewasbescherming
    Eerdt, M. van; Dam, J.E.G. van; Tiktak, A. ; Vonk, M. ; Wortelboer, F.G. ; Zeijts, H. van; Cleij, P. ; Janssens, S.R.M. ; Schepers, H.T.A.M. ; Schoorlemmer, H.B. - \ 2012
    Den Haag : Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (PBL-publicatie / Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving nr.: 500158001) - ISBN 9789078645900 - 122
    pesticiden - waterkwaliteit - emissie - gewasbescherming - milieubescherming - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - economische aspecten - voedselveiligheid - veiligheid op het werk - beleid - pesticides - water quality - emission - plant protection - environmental protection - sustainability - economic aspects - food safety - safety at work - policy
    Dankzij wetgeving voor gewasbescherming is de waterkwaliteit vooruit gegaan, al zijn de beleidsdoelen voor de ecologische kwaliteit van het oppervlaktewater en voor de drinkwaterwinning niet bereikt. Ook bevat het oppervlaktewater op de helft van de meetlocaties nog te veel gewasbeschermingsmiddel. Wel zijn de beleidsdoelen voor voedselveiligheid en economie gehaald. De meeste zorg zit bij arbeidsveiligheid, vooral in de tuinbouw.
    Nederland investeert in innovatief duurzaam terreinbeheer!
    Kempenaar, C. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Plant Research International
    onkruidbestrijding - bestrating - innovaties - methodologie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - beleid - waterkwaliteit - nederland - weed control - pavements - innovations - methodology - sustainability - policy - water quality - netherlands
    Informatie over het project ‘Duurzaam terreinbeheer en waterkwaliteit’ dat als doel heeft de ecologische en chemische waterkwaliteit in Nederland te verbeteren.
    Wageningen UR : the centre for the Biobased Economy
    Gennip, E. van; Toussaint, H.A.J.M. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - 45
    biobased economy - economische ontwikkeling - onderwijs - onderzoek - onderzoeksinstituten - beleid - nederland - biobased economy - economic development - education - research - research institutes - policy - netherlands
    With its research and education, Wageningen UR has a central position in the Biobased Economy. Wageningen UR develops applications and solutions that combine technical innovation and social-economic value. Wageningen UR does this together with partners in the private sector, the public sector and other knowledge institutes, both national and international. Wageningen UR conducts research and provides education in the production and processing of biomass and upgrading it into raw materials, semi-manufactures and products. In this booklet Wageningen UR presents research and education in the field of the Biobased Economy.
    Scoren op het nieuwe speelveld. Kansen en bedreigingen van de topsectoren (interview met F. Govers)
    Nijland, R. ; Tielens, J. ; Govers, F. - \ 2011
    Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 6 (2011)8. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 20 - 23.
    wetenschap - overheidsbeleid - onderzoeksbeleid - onderzoeksondersteuning - biobased economy - beleid - science - government policy - research policy - research support - biobased economy - policy
    De negen topsectoren staan volop in de steigers. Binnen Wageningen UR wordt er zowel gejuicht als getreurd om de nieuwe verdeling van het onderzoeksgeld. 'Dit gaat op de middellange termijn de kwaliteit van de Nederlandse wetenschap aantasten.'
    Kastanjebloedingsziekte : het vervolg : samenwerking is het credo uit de mond van betrokkenen
    Raats, K. ; Kuik, A.J. van - \ 2011
    Boomzorg 4 (2011)6. - p. 14 - 17.
    aesculus - hippocastanaceae - houtachtige planten als sierplanten - plantenziekteverwekkende bacteriën - stadsomgeving - boomverzorging - beleid - samenwerking - aesculus - hippocastanaceae - ornamental woody plants - plant pathogenic bacteria - urban environment - tree care - policy - cooperation
    Afgelopen maand sprak Boomzorg bezorgde boombeheerders uit Utrecht en Ridderkerk. In de laatste gemeente werd in een jaar tijd 30 procent van de kastanjes gekapt, ondanks dat het breed werd aangenomen dat de ziekte minder agressief was of zich niet meer uitbreidde. Is er een vergelijkend ziektebeeld in de twee grootste steden van Nederland? En zo ja, hoe worden ze beheerd?
    Wageningen UR : hét centrum voor de Biobased Economy
    Gennip, E. van; Toussaint, H.A.J.M. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - 45
    biobased economy - economische ontwikkeling - onderwijs - onderzoek - onderzoeksinstituten - beleid - nederland - biobased economy - economic development - education - research - research institutes - policy - netherlands
    In dit boek vertellen Wageningse experts over uiteenlopend onderzoek om de economie op duurzame en economische wijze te vervaardigen uit groene grondstoffen, door slim gebruik te maken van plantaardig materiaal. Transitie naar een Biobased Economy is een belangrijk onderdeel van een duurzame maatschappij. De overstap van een economie van fossiele grondstoffen naar hernieuwbare bronnen vereist ontwikkeling van nieuwe vormen van samenwerking, maatschappelijke daadkracht en toepasbare wetenschappelijke innovaties. In het boek ‘Wageningen UR: hét centrum voor de Biobased Economy’ vertellen Wageningse experts over uiteenlopend onderzoek om de economie op duurzame en economische wijze te vervaardigen uit groene grondstoffen, door slim gebruik te maken van plantaardig materiaal. ‘Als het boek één ding duidelijk maakt, dan is het wel dat er binnen Wageningen UR op vele fronten wordt gewerkt aan het zo efficiënt mogelijk gebruikmaken van gewassen en de bouwstenen uit gewassen om daar bruikbare grondstoffen van te maken voor voeding, veevoer, materialen, chemicaliën, energie en brandstof.’ Biobased onderzoek en onderwijs Onderzoekers werken aan gewassen die de gewenste grondstoffen leveren voor een Biobased Economy en aan het verhogen van de opbrengst van deze hoogwaardige gewassen. Ook worden scheidingstechnieken verbeterd waardoor nog meer bruikbare stoffen uit het plantaardig materiaal gehaald kunnen worden. Bovendien wordt er onderzoek gedaan naar slimme inrichting van logistiek en raffinaderijketens. Daarnaast wordt er aan de eindproducten gewerkt: hoe kun je kunststoffen precies die eigenschappen meegeven die nodig zijn in de omstandigheden waarin het product gebruikt wordt? Natuurlijk heeft Wageningen UR bij het biobased onderzoek ook oog voor het behoud en de inzet van biodiversiteit, net als voor slim gebruik van afvalstromen, water, meststoffen en landbouwgrond. Het boek laat zien dat dat Wageningen UR belang hecht aan goed onderwijs voor de Biobased Economy.
    Seed Systems and Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture
    Louwaars, N.P. ; Coent, P. le; Osborn, T. - \ 2011
    Rome, Italy : FAO - 24
    zaadproductie - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - plantenveredeling - kwekersrecht - beleid - wetgeving - Nederland - seed production - plant genetic resources - plant breeding - breeders' rights - policy - legislation - Netherlands
    This report examines the role of seed and seed systems in the conservation and the use of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture. It focuses on developments since the publication of the first report on the State of the World’s Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture.
    De biobased economy in Zuid-Holland : vijf stappen voor versnelde groei
    Broens, D.F. ; Wal, S. van der; Noordman, T. ; Bakker, T. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - 22
    biobased economy - economische ontwikkeling - beleid - zuid-holland - systeeminnovatie - biobased economy - economic development - policy - zuid-holland - system innovation
    Door de bestaande infrastructuur en samenstelling van aanwezige bedrijvigheid is Zuid-Holland als geen andere regio in staat om de vruchten van de biobased economy te plukken. Meerdere, onderling samenhangende, deelsectoren zoals de grondstoffenhandel, biobrandstofproductie, white biotech, oleochemie en green biotech, hebben elk een eigen groeipad en vragen om maatwerk in beleid. Er is echter ook een aantal belemmeringen: onder meer een gebrek aan goed sub-academisch onderwijs, aan experimenteerfaciliteiten en aan samenhang in acquisitie en funding, en een overdaad aan marktverstorende regulering. Dit hindert de innovatie: er is te weinig focus op de markt, een gebrek aan faciliteiten en geen samenhangende visie. Uit het onderzoek komen vijf aanbevelingen voort die, als ze opgevolgd worden met concrete acties, ervoor zorgen dat we de door beleidsmakers beoogde economische groei realiseren. Als de regio daarnaast inzet op organiserend vermogen, kunnen de groeistrategieën zodanig op elkaar afgestemd worden dat de biobased economy in een versnelling komt
    Dierenwelzijnsbeleid: hoe blijf je bij de tijd?
    Hopster, H. - \ 2011
    Lectoraat Dierenwelzijn
    dierenwelzijn - beleid - gemeenten - dierethiek - verantwoordelijkheid - opvoeding - dieren - animal welfare - policy - municipalities - animal ethics - responsibility - child rearing practices - animals
    Presentatie gemeentelijk dierenwelzijnsbeleid
    Positieflijst voor gezelschapsdieren : dier & welzijn
    Koene, P. ; Ipema, A.H. - \ 2011
    V-focus 8 (2011)5A. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 35 - 37.
    gezelschapsdieren - dierenwelzijn - wetgeving - hobbydieren - beleid - wilde dieren - diergedrag - Nederland - pets - animal welfare - legislation - hobby animals - policy - wild animals - animal behaviour - Netherlands
    Welke dieren kunnen we als gezelschapsdier houden? In Amerika worden servals vaak als gezelschapsdier gehouden. In Nederland kan dat ook. Met de nieuwe Wet Dieren zal dat waarschijnlijk veranderen. Volgens het 'nee, tenzij'-beginsel mag dan een diersoort niet gehouden worden, tenzij aan bepaalde criteria is voldaan. Gezelschapsdieren zullen gehouden kunnen worden wanneer ze op een positieflijst staan. Of daar de serval op komt, is dan de vraag. Hieronder een beschrijving van de systematiek die door Wageningen UR Livestock Research is ontwikkeld, voor het opstellen van een positieflijst.
    Hair 2010 Documentation: Calculating risk indicators related to agricultural use of pesticides within the European Union
    Kruijne, R. ; Deneer, J.W. ; Lahr, J. ; Vlaming, J. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-report 2113.1) - 205
    pesticiden - risicofactoren - berekening - databanken - modellen - waterorganismen - bodem - grondwater - vogels - zoogdieren - beleid - gewassen - europese unie - pesticides - risk factors - calculation - databases - models - aquatic organisms - soil - groundwater - birds - mammals - policy - crops - european union
    The HAIR instrument calculates risk indicators related to the agricultural use of pesticides in EU Member States. HAIR combines databases and models for calculating potential environmental environmental effects expressed by the exposure toxicity ratio.
    HAIR2010 software manual
    Vlaming, J. ; Kruijne, R. ; Groenwold, J.G. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-report 2113.2) - 66
    pesticiden - risicofactoren - berekening - computer software - beleid - europese unie - pesticides - risk factors - calculation - computer software - policy - european union
    EU policy for agriculture, food and rural areas, 2nd rev. ed.
    Oskam, A.J. ; Meester, G. ; Silvis, H.J. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086861804 - 453
    gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - landbouwbeleid - beleid - landbouw - agrarische handel - wereldhandelsorganisatie - voedsel - beleid inzake voedsel - marketingbeleid - diergezondheid - dierenwelzijn - gezondheidsbeleid - plattelandsbeleid - natuurbescherming - milieubeheer - instellingen - besluitvorming - platteland - europese unie - cap - agricultural policy - policy - agriculture - agricultural trade - world trade organization - food - food policy - marketing policy - animal health - animal welfare - health policy - rural policy - nature conservation - environmental management - institutions - decision making - rural areas - european union
    The European Union varies widely within its boundaries. Still, there are common policies for agriculture, food and rural areas, although with many differences in relation to specific conditions in Member States. Starting with the Mac Sharry reform in 1992, the EU is on a long-term path to freer and more open markets. Traditional EU market and price measures are now largely replaced by 'decoupled' direct income support, and further steps are being prepared. There is increased attention at both EU and Member-State levels to food quality, food safety and animal welfare, as there is also to the environment and the development of rural areas. The Union is thus becoming a leader in food and rural policies.
    Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges and Decisions
    Richardson, K. ; Steffen, W. ; Liverman, D. ; Barker, T. ; Jotzo, F. ; Kammen, D.M. ; Leemans, R. ; Lenton, T.M. ; Munasinghe, M. ; Osman-Elasha, B. ; Schellnhuber, H.J. ; Stern, N. ; Vogel, C. ; Waever, O. - \ 2011
    Cambridge : Cambridge University Press - ISBN 9780521198363 - 524
    klimaatverandering - koolstofcyclus - beleid - mitigatie - risico - klimaat - biofysica - economie - ethiek - climatic change - carbon cycle - policy - mitigation - risk - climate - biophysics - economics - ethics
    Providing an up-to-date synthesis of knowledge relevant to the climate change issue, this book ranges from the basic science documenting the need for policy action to the technologies, economic instruments and political strategies that can be employed in response to climate change. Ethical and cultural issues constraining the societal response to climate change are also discussed. This book covers a very wide range of disciplines – core biophysical sciences involved with climate change (geosciences, atmospheric sciences, ocean sciences, ecology/biology) as well as economics, political science, health sciences, institutions and governance, sociology, ethics and philosophy, and engineering.
    Witte vlekken in het bereik van NME? : raamwerk voor het meten van gebruik en de effecten van NME in het primair onderwijs
    Vreke, J. ; Langers, F. ; Berg, A.E. van den - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 2118) - 76
    natuur- en milieueducatie - basisonderwijs - evaluatie - jeugd - kinderen - landschapsbeleving - attitudes - beleid - nederland - nature and environmental education - elementary education - evaluation - youth - children - landscape experience - attitudes - policy - netherlands
    In het NME-beleid wordt het geven van NME ingezet als instrument om bij te dragen aan het reduceren van de achteruitgang, in omvang en kwaliteit, van natuur en milieu. Het bereik van NME moet aangeven in hoeverre NME de bevolking heeft bereikt en aan dit doel heeft bijgedragen. Het identificeren van witte vlekken, gebieden waar niet of nauwe¬lijks sprake is van bereik van NME, is daarbij een belangrijk item. In het onderzoek is een werkwijze geformuleerd voor de bepaling van het bereik van op de basisschool gegeven NME. De omvang van gegeven NME wordt bepaald via vragenlijsten aan alle basisscholen in Nederland, de omvang van relevante effecten wordt benaderd via modelberekeningen. Omdat in de literatuur geen causale relaties zijn gespecificeerd, moeten ze worden geschat.
    Economie van het landschap
    Heijman, W.J.M. ; Heide, M. van der - \ 2011
    ESB Economisch Statistische Berichten 96 (2011)4611. - ISSN 0013-0583 - p. 342 - 345.
    landschap - landgebruik - economische analyse - landschapsplanning - beleid - landscape - land use - economic analysis - landscape planning - policy
    De belangstelling voor landschap als schaars goed neemt toe. Economische analyse is nuttig bij het vergelijken en onderbouwen van verschillende vormen van landgebruik, maar ook lastig. Een conjunctanalyse waarbij mensen gevraagd wordt naar hun voorkeuren voor verschillende inrichtingsalternatieven biedt het meeste perspectief op een goede landschapswaardering
    Duurzaam bodembeheer is onbetaalbaar
    Hootegem, A. - \ 2011
    Syscope Magazine 2011 (2011)29. - p. 20 - 21.
    bodembeheer - duurzaam bodemgebruik - bodemvruchtbaarheid - bodemstructuur - akkerbouw - beleid - onderzoek - soil management - sustainable land use - soil fertility - soil structure - arable farming - policy - research
    Een boer die zijn bodem duurzaam beheert, zorgt ervoor dat het organische stofgehalte, de bodemvruchtbaarheid en -structuur goed blijven en dat er voldoende bodemleven is. Dat is de voorwaarde om over honderd jaar nog een goede productie van de grond te halen. Zijn boeren al bezig met duurzaam bodembeheer of kost het ze te veel geld om de benodigde maatregelen te nemen?
    Naar Fytopia; Heroverweging van het fytosanitair beleid met behulp van een bestuurskundig kader
    Bremmer, J. ; Slobbe, R.B. - \ 2011
    Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (LEI-rapport : Onderzoeksveld Markt & ketens ) - ISBN 9789086154999 - 83
    fytosanitair beleid - plantenziekten - plagenbestrijding - markten - risicoschatting - risico-baten analyse - beleid - phytosanitary policies - plant diseases - pest control - markets - risk assessment - risk-benefit analysis - policy
    Het fytosanitair beleid kan hervormd worden door te toetsen of ondernemers invasieve plantenziekten en -plagen willen én kunnen beheersen. Besmetting van plantaardige producten met invasieve plantenziekten leidt tot welvaartverlies door marktfalen. Marktfalen komt door het optreden van externe effecten en informatie-asymmetrie in de markt voor plantaardige producten. De overheid is verantwoordelijk voor het corrigeren van dit marktfalen als publieke belangen in het geding zijn. Zij kan daarbij meer dan nu gebeurt gebruik maken van ondernemers. Of dit mogelijk is, hangt af van drie factoren die getoetst worden in een bestuurskundig kader: 1. Zijn de ondernemers op de hoogte van de risico's die gepaard gaan met de handel in plantaardige producten?; 2. Hebben zij belang bij het verminderen van het risico?; 3. Zijn zij in staat het risico te verminderen? Wanneer deze drie vragen met ja beantwoord worden, kan de overheid meer verantwoordelijkheid bij het bedrijfsleven leggen.
    De Kaderrichtlijn Water & de boomkwekerijsector
    Gent, H. van; Reuler, H. van - \ 2011
    Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving [etc.]
    boomkwekerijen - plantenkwekerijen - waterkwaliteit - oppervlaktewater - kwaliteitscontroles - kaderrichtlijn water - beleid - boomteelt - forest nurseries - nurseries - water quality - surface water - quality controls - water framework directive - policy - arboriculture
    Brochure van Productschap Tuinbouw over de gevolgen van de Kaderrichtlijn Water. Hierin sstaat voor de boomkwekerijsector beschreven welke maatregelen nu al genomen kunnen worden. De Kaderrichtlijn Water is bedoeld om te zorgen dat de kwaliteit van oppervlakte- en grondwater in Europa in 2015 op orde is.
    Denken, doen en duurzame voeding: Verschillen tussen consumentengroepen
    Onwezen, M.C. ; Bartels, J. ; Meeusen, M.J.G. ; Fischer, A.R.H. ; Ronteltap, A. - \ 2011
    Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI : Onderzoeksveld Consument & gedrag ) - ISBN 9789086154852 - 68
    consumenten - voedsel - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - consumentengedrag - houding van consumenten - individuele kenmerken - voedingsmiddelen - voedselconsumptie - voedselinkoop - voedselkwaliteit - beleid - nederland - consumers - food - sustainability - consumer behaviour - consumer attitudes - individual characteristics - foods - food consumption - food purchasing - food quality - policy - netherlands
    The six consumer groups in this report were defined with the ultimate aim of identifying openings for the development and implementation of policy strategies to promote the consumption of sustainable food. The report describes the personal characteristics, attitudes and behaviour of each group.
    Integraal duurzaam bodembeheer - visievorming, Thema: duurzame bodem BO-12.03-001-001
    Berge, H.F.M. ten - \ 2011
    S.n.
    bodembeheer - duurzaam bodemgebruik - beleid - soil management - sustainable land use - policy
    Poster met onderzoeksinformatie.
    De status en toekomst van iLUC in de wetenschap : van kwantificering naar preventie
    Faaij, A. ; Meijl, H. van; Broens, D.F. - \ 2011
    [Den Haag] : LEI Wageningen UR
    biobased economy - indirecte veranderingen van landgebruik - voorspellingen - beleid - schattingen - biobased economy - indirect land use change - forecasts - policy - estimates
    Biobrandstoffen worden als een duurzame oplossing gezien voor het opraken van fossiele brandstof. Toch is er veel debat over de omvang van indirect land use change (iLUC) door het stimuleren van bio-brandstoffen. In de wetenschap is sprake van voortschrijdend inzicht. De eerste hoge schattingen zijn door betere studies naar beneden bijgesteld. En er zijn nog steeds veel verbeteringen in gegevens en modellen mogelijk. Bovendien lijkt het iLUC-effect goeddeels voorkomen te kunnen worden met de juiste aanpassingen in landbouw en veeteelt.
    Does international sustainability certification support regional biodiversity conservation objectives? : the case of rooibos production and Fynbos conservation in South-Africa
    Waarts, Y.R. ; Kuit, M. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR (Market, chains and sustainable development strategy & policy paper 21) - ISBN 9789461734747 - 14
    biodiversiteit - certificering - natuurbescherming - conservering - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - fijnbos (zuid afrika) - zuid-afrika - afrika - ontwikkelingsbeleid - beleid - milieu - biodiversity - certification - nature conservation - conservation - sustainability - fynbos - south africa - africa - development policy - policy - environment
    Afstemming van sectoraal beleid en integrale gebiedsprocessen
    Kuindersma, W. ; Boonstra, F.G. ; Brunt, D. ; Bommel, S. van - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Alterra (Reeks ILG en gebiedsprocessen nr. 8) - 109
    regionaal beleid - regionale planning - regionale ontwikkeling - overheidsbeleid - beleid - natuurbeleid - natura 2000 - overheidssector - particuliere sector - gelderse vallei - de peel - noordwest-overijssel - gelderland - noord-brabant - overijssel - nederland - europa - regional policy - regional planning - regional development - government policy - policy - nature conservation policy - natura 2000 - public sector - private sector - gelderse vallei - de peel - noordwest-overijssel - gelderland - noord-brabant - overijssel - netherlands - europe
    Integrale gebiedsprocessen zijn populair in het landelijk gebied. Ondertussen gaat de sectorale beleidsontwikkeling op nationaal en Europees niveau gewoon door. Dit zorgt voor (nieuwe) afstemmingsproblemen. Dit rapport laat drie praktijkvoorbeelden zien van afstemming tussen bestaande gebiedsprocessen en Natura 2000 en nieuw nationaal natuurbeleid. Dit vraagt om meer onderlinge communicatie en reflectie en communicatie: gebiedspartijen die hun integrale gebiedsplan ter discussie durven te stellen en overheden met oog voor de implementatiepraktijk van sectoraal beleid.
    Bio based procurement : ontwikkelingen in NL, EU en VS
    Bolck, C.H. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Food and Biobased Research nr. 1169) - ISBN 9789085857549 - 24
    biobased economy - economisch beleid - overheidsbeleid - beleid - marketing - nederland - europa - vs - biobased economy - economic policy - government policy - policy - marketing - netherlands - europe - usa
    In dit rapport wordt een overzicht gegeven van verschillende overheidsinstrumenten voor de stimulering van de markt voor biobased producten. Dit gebeurt aan de hand van een analyse van initiatieven in Nederland, Europa en de Verenigde Staten van Amerika. Traditioneel is er veel aandacht voor aanbodgericht beleid, waarin de overheid het aanbieders gemakkelijker maakt hun producten op de markt te zetten. Echter, tegenwoordig komt er ook steeds meer aandacht voor vraaggericht beleid waarin de overheid naar aanleiding van bepaalde beleidsdoelstellingen de vraag naar bepaalde producten op gang probeert te brengen..
    Hoe lossen we dit op? Van Grubbenvorst tot Kopenhagen
    Breeman, G.E. ; Sikkema, A. - \ 2010
    Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 4 (2010)11. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 10 - 12.
    sociale kwesties - governance - beleid - natuurbeheer - bosbeleid - social issues - governance - policy - nature management - forest policy
    Beleidswetenschappers van de universiteit gaan hun onderzoek bundelen in het Wageningen Centre of Governance. Het onderzoek gaat over de sturing van complexe maatschappelijke vraagstukken, van internationale problemen tot kwesties in onze achtertuin.
    Jongerenparticipatie bij ruimtelijke ontwikkelingen : stand van zaken bij provincies en kansen voor DLG
    Boer, T.A. de; Heutinck, L.B.M. ; Bosch, F.J.P. van den - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR - 31
    jeugd - adolescenten - jeugdprogramma's - maatschappelijke betrokkenheid - natuur - voedsel - gezondheid - beleid - youth - adolescents - youth programmes - community involvement - nature - food - health - policy
    Het Ministerie van Landbouw, Natuur en Voedselkwaliteit ( LNV) wil dat jongeren tussen de 0-20 jaar in 2015 een positieve associatie hebben met gezonde en verantwoord geproduceerde voeding en meer betrokkenheid met groen en natuur. Daarom heeft LNV het programma 'Lekker Groen!' opgericht. Verschillende ministeries, provincies, gemeenten en maatschappelijke organisaties organiseren activiteiten binnen dit kader (zie voor een overzicht de notitie van N. Dessing, 2010). Ook de Dienst Landelijk Gebied (DLG) wil graag jongeren betrekken bij het inrichten van groene gebieden voor recreatie en natuur. Bij sommige provincies (momenteel de grootste opdrachtgever van DLG) wordt jongerenparticipatie al toegepast in ruimtelijke projecten. Om hierbij aan te kunnen sluiten, wil DLG graag weten hoe provincies jongeren betrekken bij ruimtelijke ontwikkelingen in het landelijk gebied. Daarnaast is het ook voor LNV interessant om te weten hoe de provincies hier mee omgaan. Alterra heeft daarom een quick scan uitgevoerd naar deze vraag. Het is een eerste verkenning om een antwoord te geven op dit probleem.
    The macro-environment for liquid biofuels in the German science, mass, media and government
    Talamini, E. ; Wubben, E.F.M. ; Dewes, H. - \ 2010
    duitsland - beleid - overheidsbeleid - economische ontwikkeling - gegevensanalyse - biobased economy - biobrandstoffen - nieuws - wetenschap - bioethanol - biodiesel - germany - policy - government policy - economic development - data analysis - biobased economy - biofuels - news - science - bioethanol - biodiesel
    The purpose of this study is to investigate under which dimensions the macro-environment for liquid biofuels has been structured during time, respectively by science, mass media, and government in Germany, and how these three social expressions related to each other. Research was carried out on German official government documents, mass media news, and scientific papers on the topic 'liquid biofuels'. Text Mining was used to extract knowledge from their content. The results indicate that in configurating the macro-environment for liquid biofuels there is some degree of proximity between media and government, less between media and science, and the least between government and science.
    Country Report The Netherlands 2010 : IEA Bioenergy Task 42
    Ree, R. van; Annevelink, E. - \ 2010
    [s.l.] : S.n. - 17
    bio-energie - beleid - economie - nederland - biobased economy - biobrandstoffen - bioraffinage - bioenergy - policy - economics - netherlands - biobased economy - biofuels - biorefinery
    Rapport van het International Energy Agency (IEA) over de productie van bio-energie, het gebruik van biomassa en de toepassing van bioraffinage in Nederland.
    'Grote bedrijven zijn de lachende derde in de discussie food or fuel'
    Sanders, J.P.M. - \ 2010
    Kennis Online 7 (2010)dec. - p. 12 - 12.
    voedselzekerheid - wereldvoedselproblemen - opinies - landgebruik - beleid - biobrandstoffen - voedsel versus brandstof - biobased economy - food security - world food problems - opinions - land use - policy - biofuels - food vs fuel - biobased economy
    Biobrandstoffen van de eerste generatie zijn ten onrechte aangevallen als veroorzakers van honger in de wereld. Want het is niet een gebrek aan landbouwgrond die leidt tot honger, zegt Johan Sanders. Er zit veel meer achter.
    Duurzaamheid biomassa moet onomstreden zijn : Roel Bol, programmadirectie Bio Based Economy
    Anonymous, - \ 2010
    Kennis Online 7 (2010)dec. - p. 6 - 6.
    beleid - interviews - ontwikkeling - verandering - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - biobased economy - policy - interviews - development - change - sustainability - biobased economy
    De interdepartementale overheidsvisie op de biobased economy is inmiddels drie jaar oud. De belangstelling van het bedrijfsleven voor vergroening van de economie is in die tijd gegroeid. Mede dankzij het missiewerk van programmadirecteur Roel Bol, die veel het land in is geweest om uit te leggen waar een biobased economy over gaat, en van onderzoekers van Wageningen UR.
    Policy Recommendations from the 13th ICABR Conference on the Emerging Bioeconomy
    Smyth, S.J. ; Falck-Zepeda, J.B. ; Gray, R.S. ; Nassem, A. ; Paarlberg, R. ; Phillips, P.W.B. ; Pray, C.E. ; Savastano, S. ; Scandizzo, P. ; Scatasta, S. ; Wesseler, J.H.H. ; Zilberman, D. - \ 2010
    AgBioForum 13 (2010)2. - ISSN 1522-936X - p. 98 - 103.
    voedselzekerheid - voedselprijzen - voedselveiligheid - beleid - biobased economy - voedsel versus brandstof - biobrandstoffen - consultancy - food security - food prices - food safety - policy - biobased economy - food vs fuel - biofuels - consultancy
    The International Consortium on Agricultural Biotechnology Research held its 13th annual conference in Ravello, Italy in June 2009. The theme of the conference was the bioeconomy, and this topic was addressed through research presentations from academia, government, and industry. Numerous presentations from developing countries highlighted the benefits of agricultural biotechnology in these nations. The broad range of presentations provided a wealth of insights, resulting in three policy recommendations regarding future funding, international regulation, and technology transfer.
    Development of Policies and Strategies to Strengthen (Self) Sustainability of European Local Cattle Breeds
    Hiemstra, S.J. ; Diaz, C. ; Duclos, D. ; Haas, Y. de; Mäki-Tanila, A. ; Martin, D. ; Pizzi, F. ; Soini, K. ; Gandini, G. - \ 2010
    duurzaamheid (sustainability) - rundveerassen - beleid - europa - inheems vee - cultureel erfgoed - in-situ conservering - ex-situ conservering - sustainability - cattle breeds - policy - europe - native livestock - cultural heritage - in situ conservation - ex situ conservation
    In Europe, about 45% of local cattle breeds are categorized “at risk”. In Europe, member states may provide incentive payments to support ‘local breeds in danger of being lost to farming’. However, there is a general aim that incentive payments should not be permanent and making local breeds (self) sustainable should be promoted. The aim of the EC co-funded project EURECA was to get a better understanding of the breed (self) sustainability and the factors affecting it in Europe, which may help in defining policies and strategies.
    Cultural heritage discourses and Europeanisation : discursive embedding of cultural herigate in Europe of the regions
    During, R. - \ 2010
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): A.N. van der Zande; Kristof van Assche; Arnold van der Valk. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085856894 - 232
    cultureel erfgoed - erfgoed - tradities - oude monumenten - cultuurbeleid - beleid - europa - regionaal beleid - cultural heritage - heritage areas - traditions - ancient monuments - cultural policy - policy - europe - regional policy
    In dit onderzoek wordt erfgoed gezien als objecten waar een zekere betekenis aan wordt toegekend. Die betekenissen staan hier centraal en niet de objecten zelf. Sommige objecten krijgen die Europese relevantie, omdat ze vaak als Europees erfgoed worden bestempeld, voor andere objecten is dat bijvoorbeeld minder duidelijk en hebben de betekenis van nationaal of regionaal erfgoed. Dit proces van betekenisgeving staat centraal in dit proefschrift. Een drietal INTERREG projecten is geselecteerd als case studies (uit Litouwen, Griekenland en Nederland)
    Training en onderzoek gaan hand in hand
    Hijweege, W.L. - \ 2010
    Kennis Online 7 (2010)sept. - p. 11 - 11.
    ontwikkelingslanden - opleiding - praktijkonderwijs - landbouwkundig onderzoek - landbouw - beleid - klimaatfactoren - internationale samenwerking - developing countries - training - practical education - agricultural research - agriculture - policy - climatic factors - international cooperation
    Onderzoek doen en mensen opleiden in ontwikkelingslanden werd vroeger gezien als twee verschillende dingen. Tegenwoordig gaat het steeds meer hand in hand. Dat laat bijvoorbeeld het lerende onderzoek zien in Oost-Afrika naar aanpassing aan klimaatverandering.
    The Cultural Landscape & Heritage Paradox; Protection and Development of the Dutch Archeological-Historical Landscape and its European Dimension
    Valk, A.J.J. van der; Bloemers, J.H.F. ; Kars, H. ; Wijnen, M. - \ 2010
    Amsterdam : Amsterdam University Press (Landscape & Heritage Studies (LHS) ) - ISBN 9789089641557 - 744
    cultuurlandschap - archeologie - landschapsbescherming - cultureel erfgoed - beleid - nederland - europa - cultural landscape - archaeology - landscape conservation - cultural heritage - policy - netherlands - europe
    To what extent can we know past and mainly invisible landscapes, and how we can use this still hidden knowledge for actual sustainable management of landscape’s cultural and historical values. It has also been acknowledged that heritage management is increasingly about ‘the management of future change rather than simply protection’. This presents us with a paradox: to preserve our historic environment, we have to collaborate with those who wish to transform it and, in order to apply our expert knowledge, we have to make it suitable for policy and society. The answer presented by the Protection and Development of the Dutch Archaeological-Historical Landscape programme (pdl/bbo) is an integrative landscape approach which applies inter- and transdisciplinarity, establishing links between archaeological-historical heritage and planning, and between research and policy. This is supported by two unifying concepts: ‘biography of landscape’ and ‘action research’. This approach focuses upon the interaction between knowledge, policy and an imagination centered on the public. The European perspective makes us aware of the resourcefulness of the diversity of landscapes, of social and institutional structures, of various sorts of problems, approaches and ways forward. In addition, two related issues stand out: the management of knowledge creation for landscape research and management, and the prospects for the near future. Underlying them is the imperative that we learn from the past ‘through landscape’.
    Building knowledge systems for sustainable agriculture: supporting private advisors to adequately address sustainable farm management in regular service contacts
    Klerkx, L.W.A. ; Jansen, J. - \ 2010
    International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 8 (2010)3. - ISSN 1473-5903 - p. 148 - 163.
    milieubescherming - voedselveiligheid - mastitis - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - beleid - nutrientenbeheer - environmental protection - food safety - mastitis - sustainability - policy - nutrient management - dairy farmers - health management - soil-management - udder health - england - communication - prevention - challenge - context
    Advisory service provisioning on sustainability issues such as environmental care and food safety is considered suboptimal in privatized extension systems, which comprise a diverse set of private advisors. Apart from funding dedicated ‘public good’ projects, government also relies on these advisors to address sustainability issues in their regular service contacts with farmers. Policy measures have hence been proposed to stimulate farmer demand for such sustainable farm management (SFM) advice (pull measures) and to build capacity among advisors (push measures). This paper assesses two interventions, in nutrient management and mastitis prevention, that integrate pull measures (awareness building and economic incentives) and push measures (promoting facilitative advisory styles and optimizing knowledge system linkages) to stimulate advisory service provisioning on SFM. Results indicate that effectiveness appears to depend on an adequate mix of, and balance between, push and pull measures. Awareness building is a prerequisite to creating demand for such services and appears more important than economic incentives. However, awareness is not built by the interventions alone; indeed, a lack of awareness may not be the main problem: the broader institutional context may not be conducive to a proactive approach to addressing SFM if regulatory frameworks are unclear and inconsistent. The main conclusion is that, despite interventions having an impact, it is uncertain whether the demand for, and supply of, SFM advice will be sustained after interventions are withdrawn
    Jaarrapportage beleidsondersteunend onderzoek 2009
    Hopster, H. ; Baltussen, W.H.M. ; Jong, I.C. de; Wijngaard, S.M. van den - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research - 50
    dierenwelzijn - landbouwbeleid - beleid - dierhouderij - jaarverslagen - animal welfare - agricultural policy - policy - animal husbandry - annual reports
    Jaarrapportage van het beleidsondersteunend onderzoek dierenwelzijn. Aan de hand van korte teksten en interviews, geïllustreerd met foto's wordt het beleid in dit beleidsondersteunende programma uiteen gezet. Diverse aspecten (voedsel, veetransporten) worden toegelicht.
    Drought network integrated in the European Drought Centre
    Lanen, H.A.J. van; Tallaksen, L. ; Morawietz, L.M. ; Wanders, N. - \ 2010
    Wageningen, The Netherlands : Wageningen University (EU-FP7 Xerochore Report ) - 19
    droogte - hydrologie - beleid - europa - netwerken - drought - hydrology - policy - europe - networks
    WOT-05 Visserijonderzoek Voortgangsrapportage over 2009
    Beek, F.A. van - \ 2010
    IJmuiden : IMARES (Rapport / Centrum voor Visserijonderzoek (CVO) 10.002) - 96
    visserij - aquacultuur - visserijbeleid - wetgeving - beleid - Nederland - fisheries - aquaculture - fishery policy - legislation - policy - Netherlands
    WOT programma gericht op het uitvoeren van Wettelijke Onderzoek Taken voor de Nederlandse Overheid die betrekking hebben op de visserij. Het programma omvat een aantal uiteenlopende onderzoek onderwerpen, met als gezamenlijk element een vereist zijn op grond van enigerlei wettelijke regeling en een daaruit voortvloeiende langjarige looptijd
    State of the Animal: monitoring animal welfare and health in The Netherlands (0-measurement) : summary, full report is available in Dutch (report 323)
    Leenstra, F.R. ; Bergevoet, R.H.M. ; Neijenhuis, F. ; Hanekamp, W.J.A. ; Vermeij, I. ; Ipema, A.H. ; Jong, A.R. ; Verstappen-Boerekamp, J.A.M. - \ 2010
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Report / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 325) - 5
    dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - landbouwbeleid - beleid - animal welfare - animal health - agricultural policy - policy
    25 measuring points summarise the results of policy measures for animal welfare and health in The Netherlands
    Staat van het dier : monitoring van dierenwelzijn en diergezondheid in Nederland (0-meting) = Monitoring animal welfare and animal health in The Netherlands
    Leenstra, F.R. ; Bergevoet, R.H.M. ; Neijenhuis, F. ; Hanekamp, W.J.A. ; Vermeij, I. ; Ipema, A.H. ; Jong, A.R. ; Verstappen-Boerekamp, J.A.M. - \ 2010
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 323) - 60
    dierhouderij - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - landbouwbeleid - beleid - monitoring - animal husbandry - animal welfare - animal health - agricultural policy - policy - monitoring
    25 measuring points summarize the results of policy measures for animal welfare and animal health in The Netherlands
    Met kennis beter doen : verslag miniconferentie gemeentelijk dierenwelzijnsbeleid, kasteel Groeneveld, Barn, 14 oktober 2009
    Smits, R. ; Hopster, H. - \ 2009
    Baarn : DWW
    dierenwelzijn - beleid - gemeenten - animal welfare - policy - municipalities
    Verslag van de tweede miniconferentie gemeentelijk dierenwelzijnsbeleid. Deze keer staan concrete beleidskwesties centraal: wat moeten we ermee, waar vinden we goede voorbeelden, wat werkt, en waar schieten we nog tekort?
    Energie uit biomassa en landschap : ontwikkelingsplanologie 2007-2008
    Hall Larenstein, Van - \ 2009
    Velp : Hogeschool van Hall Larenstein - 83
    biomassa - biobased economy - bio-energie - drenthe - beleid - innovaties - ruimtelijke ordening - landschapsbeheer - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzaamheidscriteria - biomass - biobased economy - bioenergy - drenthe - policy - innovations - physical planning - landscape management - sustainability - sustainability criteria
    Zorgen rond de klimaatproblematiek hebben onder andere geleid tot een zoektocht naar nieuwe schone CO2 neutrale energiebronnen. Één van deze bronnen is biomassa, een snel hernieuwbare veelal plantaardige grondstof geschikt voor energie en warmteproductie. Dit onderzoek heeft zich in opdracht van de Raad voor het Landelijk Gebied (RLG) gericht op de ruimtelijk effecten die deze schone energiebron op het landschap zullen hebben. Het onderzoek is uitgegaan van de hoofdvraag “Wat zijn de randvoorwaarden en succesfactoren van biomassaverwerking in het landelijke gebied van Drenthe?” Rond deze vraag zijn een aantal deelvragen geformuleerd met de thema’s; beleid, technische innovatie, ruimtelijke planning, landschappelijke inpassing en duurzaamheid.
    Assessment of BIOrefinery concepts and the implications for agricultural and forestry POLicy : Deliverable 7.6 : BIOPOL Final report
    Annevelink, E. ; Kamm, B. ; Schönicke, P. ; Menrad, K. ; Kurka, S. ; Klein, A. ; Rogulska, M. ; Karbowski, A. ; Peck, P. ; McCormick, K. ; Lenhart, J. ; Capros, P. ; Agathokles, D.E. ; Reith, J.H. ; Mozaffarian, H. ; Meesters, K.P.H. ; Ree, R. van; Bennett, S. ; Bauen, A.W. - \ 2009
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR [et al.] - 68
    biobased economy - bioraffinage - chemische industrie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - beleid - scenario-analyse - biobased economy - biorefinery - chemical industry - sustainability - policy - scenario analysis
    BIOPOL is a two-year research project funded by the European Commission since 2007 through the Sixth Framework Programme. The overall goal of BIOPOL is to assess the status (technical, social, environmental, political, and implementation) of innovative BIOrefinery concepts and the implications for agricultural and forestry POLicy. Biorefinery concepts are aimed at relevant market-competitive and environmental-friendly synthesis of bio-products (chemicals and/or materials) together with the production of secondary energy carriers (transportation fuels, power and/or CHP). BIOPOL was conceived to address the fact that the wider expectations for biorefineries have not yet yielded clear definitions for biorefinery concepts, or an understanding of the current status and prospective benefits of biorefining in Europe. Therefore the BIOPOL project was designed to assess the current status of biorefinery activities in Europe and explore future scenarios for development. By systematically accounting for potential technical, political, social and industrial impacts of such scenarios their outputs will be utilised to inform policy formulation in this area. By drawing from several complimentary research disciplines the insights gained will be able to inform EU policy-making and help frame future research directions both in Europe and elsewhere.
    BioScore: A tool to assess the impacts of European Community policies on Europe's biodiversity
    Delbaere, B. ; Nieto Serradilla, A. ; Snethlage, M. ; Alkemade, R. ; Boitani, L. ; Eggers, J. ; Falcucci, A. ; Framstad, E. ; Heer, M. de; Hennekens, S.M. ; Kemitzoglou, D. ; Knegt, B. de; Knijf, G. de; Louette, G. ; Maes, D. ; Maiorano, L. ; Nagy, S. ; Ozinga, W.A. ; Schaminée, J.H.J. ; Tol, S. van; Tröltzsch, K. - \ 2009
    Tilburg : ECNC - ISBN 9789076762289 - 92
    biodiversiteit - flora - fauna - impact - beleid - beoordeling - europa - menselijke invloed - ecologische beoordeling - biodiversity - flora - fauna - impact - policy - assessment - european union countries - human impact - ecological assessment
    BioScore offers a European biodiversity impact assessment tool. The tool contains indicator values on the ecological preferences of more than 1000 species of birds, mammals, amphibians, reptiles, fish, butterflies, dragonflies, aquatic macro-invertebrates and vascular plants. These values are linked to policy-related pressures and environmental variables.
    De rol van fosfaat in de bodem
    Reuler, H. van - \ 2009
    De Boomkwekerij 22 (2009)51. - ISSN 0923-2443 - p. 10 - 11.
    boomkwekerijen - mest - beleid - normen - stikstofmeststoffen - fosformeststoffen - mestbeleid - bemesting - forest nurseries - manures - policy - standards - nitrogen fertilizers - phosphorus fertilizers - manure policy - fertilizer application
    In 2010 wordt een aantal wijzigingen in het mestbeleid van kracht. Zo is volgend jaar de hoeveelheid fosfaat die u mag aanvoeren afhankelijk van de fosfaattoestand van uw bodem. Bij het opstellen van uw bemestingsplan is het belangrijk dat u rekening houd met de wijzigingen
    Implementation of ecological networks in different socio-economic contexts : guiding principles based on experiences in Central and Eastern Europe
    Simeonova, V. ; Bos, E.J. ; Jongman, R.H.G. ; Zingstra, H.L. - \ 2009
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1896) - 117
    projectimplementatie - landgebruiksplanning - sociale economie - taxatie - integratie - beleid - besluitvorming - centraal-europa - kroatië - ecologische hoofdstructuur - project implementation - land use planning - socioeconomics - valuation - integration - policy - decision making - central europe - croatia - ecological network
    Governance in de groen-blauwe ruimte. Handelingsperspectieven voor landbouw, landschap en water
    Breeman, G.E. ; Goverde, H.J.M. ; Termeer, C.J.A.M. - \ 2009
    Assen : Van Gorcum - ISBN 9789023245216 - 318
    waterbeheer - plattelandsplanning - agrarische planning - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - plattelandsontwikkeling - milieubeheer - netwerken (activiteit) - beleid - nederland - governance - landschapsbeheer - publiek-private samenwerking - water management - rural planning - agricultural planning - sustainability - rural development - environmental management - networking - policy - netherlands - governance - landscape management - public-private cooperation
    Duurzame landbouw, vitaal landelijk gebied, biodiversiteit en integraal waterbeheer staan hoog op de politieke agenda. Governance in de groen-blauwe ruimte analyseert de wijze waarop overheden, burgers, bedrijven en maatschappelijke organisaties werken aan deze actuele vraagstukken in complexe beleidsnetwerken. Dit boek bespreekt een groot aantal vormen van de wisselwerking tussen de handelingen van overheden en die van andere partijen. Aan de orde komen bijvoorbeeld gebiedsprocessen, maatschappelijke zelfsturing, overheidscontrole op afstand, publiek-private samenwerking en ronde tafels en maatschappelijke dialogen. De verschillende praktijkverhalen geven inzicht in de vele mogelijkheden van governance, maar ook in de weerbarstigheden daarvan. Alle auteurs van het boek zijn verbonden aan Wageningen Universiteit en Research Center en doen zelf onderzoek naar de praktijken van governance in de groene en blauwe ruimte
    Provinciaal beleid en dierenwelzijn: analyse gericht op landbouwhuisdieren in Noord- Holland = Provincial policy and animal welfare: analysis for farm animals in the province of North Holland
    Leenstra, F.R. - \ 2009
    Lelystad : Animal Sciences Group, Wageningen UR (Rapport / Animal Sciences Group 241) - 15
    dierenwelzijn - beleid - veehouderij - provincies - noord-holland - animal welfare - policy - livestock farming - provinces - noord-holland
    Provincial States of North Holland wants to consider the options to stimulate proctices for better welfare among farm animals. This report describes these options for the major farm animal species in North Holland: sheep, dairy cattle, farmed fish and horses
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