Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Effective stakeholder involvement in agri-food governance and policy development
    Wentholt, M.T.A. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Lynn Frewer, co-promotor(en): Arnout Fischer; G. Rowe. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461731234 - 196
    beleid inzake voedsel - landbouwbeleid - voedsel - governance - beleid - risico - stakeholders - deskundigen - landbouw - delphimethode - food policy - agricultural policy - food - governance - policy - risk - stakeholders - experts - agriculture - delphi method
    The aim of this thesis is to develop insight into optimal expert involvement practice within the agri-food governance and policy making domain. Following a systematic review of the published literature, it was determined that Delphi methodology appeared to be appropriate to elicit expert opinion and gather evidence in the complex policy domain associated with risk, food and agriculture. To this end, three Delphi studies in agri-food policy development were conducted.
    Information Needs for Water Management
    Timmerman, J.G. - \ 2014
    Boca Raton, Florida : Taylor & Francis - ISBN 9781466594746 - 234
    waterbeheer - watervoorraden - beleid - besluitvorming - informatiebehoeften - informatie - water management - water resources - policy - decision making - information needs - information
    This book provides the necessary elements to determine exactly what information should be collected to make the collected information relevant for policy makers. It highlights the dissatisfaction of information users about the information they get and the reasons for this dissatisfaction. It also discusses general issues around the role and use of information in policy making. The text then describes the how to develop a full understanding of the policy makers’ information needs and will describe how policy makers can be included in the process. Finally, the book describes how the results from this process are input for the information production process.
    Governance of global organic agro-food networks from Africa
    Glin, L.C. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol, co-promotor(en): Peter Oosterveer. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570245 - 200
    biologische landbouw - basisproducten - netwerken - samenwerking - milieubeleid - goederenmarkten - beleid - afrika - organic farming - commodities - networks - cooperation - environmental policy - commodity markets - policy - africa

    The increasing global concerns with regard to agro-food risks and the subsequent consumerist turn in the global food economy challenges the conventional chemical-intensive agricultural production. In fact, the post-war dominant agro-industrial development fostered the intensive use of chemical inputs, corporate concentration, and standardization of products for mass consumption (Goodman et al. 1987; Raynolds et al. 2007). This prompted a rapid agricultural development, which contributed to overall growth, reducing poverty and food insecurity (Koning and Mol, 2009). Despite the success so far achieved, this Fordist regime generated several externalities on natural ecosystems and human and animal health. In addition, the further modernization of production techniques (for instance the genetically modified organisms) combined with globalization processes extended the scope and character of agro-food risks, which became global and cross-border. The global organization of the food system crystallized the ‘globalization’ of food related risks through the growing time and distance compression and the subsequent intensification of commodity flows and exchanges globally. Thus, to be effectively handled, these risks must be addressed from a global perspective; hence within supra nation-state institutions. In parallel, the concerns about the impacts of chemical use in agriculture also expanded over time to include others, such as animal welfare, food safety, energy use, landscape, biodiversity and climate change (Oosterveer and Sonnenfeld, 2012). However, state-led international regimes (WTO and environmental regimes) failed to adequately address modern agro-food related risks, particularly sustainability issues (including environmental, social, ethical, and animal welfare). However, globalization processes also facilitated networking processes and alliance and coalition buildings between various stakeholders within and across regions, aiming for sustainable food provision; hence the double phenomenon of ‘globalization of agro-food risks’ and the ‘reflexive globalization of alternative agro-food’. Thus, several non-state regimes, i.e. market- and civil society-led mechanisms emerged around standards and labeling schemes to respond to these issues while restructuring agro-food production and trade towards more sustainability and rebuilding consumer trust in food. Organic agro-food production and trade is of particular importance among these non-state regimes as this constitutes a major innovation towards the greening of the (global) agro-food economy and the fastest growing food sector worldwide with around 170% increase from 2002 to 2011 (Sahota, 2013).

    In Africa, organic agriculture emerged as response to the environmental and health burden of conventional farming techniques and the growing demand for organic products from the North as a result of the emergence of new consumption patterns. Owing to globalization, agricultural products flows and exchanges between Africa and the other regions of the globe, particularly the Europe Union, have been intensified. The Europe Union is a major destination of most agricultural product exports from Africa. Thus, more demand in sustainable agro-foods in global and EU markets affects agricultural production systems in Africa towards more sustainability. In all, given the particular importance of agricultural exports for national and household economies, the fragility of natural resources and the vulnerability of livelihoods Africa is witnessing the double phenomenon of ‘globalization of agro-food risks’ and the ‘reflexive globalization of alternative agro-food’. In this respect, it may be expected

    that the introduction of organic agriculture in Africa could help address the pressing challenges of income generation for smallholder farmers, poverty alleviation, and resilience of production systems and natural resources (land, water, forests, etc.).

    Broadly, this thesis aims to contribute to the understanding of the governance arrangements of transnational organic commodity networks from Africa to inform policy makers, development organizations, civil society and business actors as well as scientists and academia about the underlying rationalities and processes, the challenges and prospects of organic agriculture in the continent. More specifically, this research aims to understand the governing (f)actors, i.e. rationalities and processes that steered the development of organic commodity networks from Africa and to highlight whether and how these processes transform civil society-business-state relationships. In this respect, the following research questions are addressed: (1) how did different rationalities and stakeholders initiate and co-structure the development and further transformation of organic commodity networks from Africa across time and space? (2) how is trust (re)created to establish and mediate relationships between the different stakeholders and material substances involved in the production, processing and marketing nodes across the organic commodity networks? (3) how and to what extent have governance arrangements within the organic commodity networks subsequently reshaped civil society-business-state relationships?

    For this purpose we adopted a qualitative and holistic methodology by employing the (global) commodity network perspective (See Chapter 2). The commodity network approach is rooted in the (global) commodity chain tradition of investigation and analysis of the links between production, processing, and distribution of commodities. The commodity network perspective aims to provide a more holistic analysis of actors, institutions, and their interrelations. Governance in this lens refers to how social and political as well as economic actors ideologically and materially construct, maintain, transform, and sustain commodity networks (Raynolds, 2004). Purposively, three cases are selected and investigated in this thesis: the organic cotton from Benin, the organic cocoa from Ghana, and the organic sesame from Burkina-Faso.

    Prior to these case studies, Chapter 3 provides an overview of organic agriculture in Africa. The trends in certified organic production as well as the history and development of organic agriculture in the continent are presented. The organic sector in Africa is relatively young and dynamic with some nuances and differentiations across sub-regions in terms of orientation, driving forces and leading stakeholders. Overall, the organic sector in Africa relies mainly on NGO networks, private stakeholders and development funds while government support is lacking. However, there are some recent experiences of engagement from state agencies, mostly through public-private partnerships and other hybrid arrangements. Chapter 3 also presents some features of trade and regulation of organic commodities in Africa and highlights the major challenges that face the development of organic agriculture on the continent.

    Chapter 4 addresses the case of the organic cotton network from Benin by responding specifically to the question how the organic cotton production–consumption network is governed locally and internationally. The findings reveal that beyond the traditional producer versus buyer dualism, intermediate stakeholders, namely transnational and local environmental NGO networks, are instrumental in the construction, maintenance and transformation of the organic cotton network. It is also apparent that farmers’ leaders play an important role in mediating and (re)building trust among organic farmers, though they exert insufficient vertical power in the organic cotton network to control it. International conferences and events provided important occasions for establishing linkages between organic cotton promoters and businesses, and they strengthened the organic movement. The findings favour widening the concept of Global Value Chain beyond economics by acknowledging and including environmental rationalities and the representatives of their interests, not as external elements, but rather as co-governing or co-structuring factors (or actors) of sustainable value chains.

    Chapter 5 presents the case study on the organic cocoa network from Ghana and addresses particularly the question how the state responded to and engaged with civil society actors in the evolving organic cocoa network and to what extent state involvement reshaped state-business-civil society relationships. While most of the literature argues that globalization and liberalization processes weakened the state’s position as key player in the development and management of agro-food networks, the case of the (organic) cocoa sector in Ghana is often depicted as an exception because of the strong position the state still occupies in it. The chapter demonstrates that although the state is still a major player in the contemporary (organic) cocoa network some hybrid governance arrangements, involving state, transnational and national NGO-networks, and businesses, are emerging. It came out that the tendency toward sustainability in the global cocoa industry with its increased attention for transversal critical matters (eradication of child labor, health safety, good farming practices) offers a fertile ground for newcomers (civil society and business actors) and the hybridization of the governance arrangements of the organic cocoa network. The organic cocoa network also prompted a double process of ‘dis- and re-embedding’ at the local level that helped shape and strengthen the organic cocoa network.

    Chapter 6 addresses the case study on the organic sesame network from Burkina Faso. Specifically, this chapter examines the structure and development of this network to explain the declining trend in organic sesame export and addresses the question whether the organic sesame network is structurally (re)shaped as a conventional mainstream market or whether it still presents a real alternative to conventional sesame production and trade. For this purpose, the chapter elaborates on the concept of conventionalization of ‘alternative’ food economies from governance perspective. It is found that over the last decade organic sesame is increasingly incorporated into mainstream market channels. But contrary to the well-known case of conventionalization in California, where organic agriculture grew into mainstream agro-food arrangements, this study illustrates a case where organic sesame agriculture shrank into mainstream agro-food arrangements. In fact, the organic sesame trading system is strongly affected by fierce price competition and volatility in the conventional sesame sector and the free market behavior of conventional sesame traders. This makes the organic sesame network vulnerable and permeable to the international commercial pressure from the mainstream conventional sesame market. The weak coherence in the organic sesame chain resulted in failures to vertically mediate information, balance power relationships in and across sesame chains, build trust, and limit price volatility and speculation, resulting in a shrinking organic sesame market. For developing a viable alternative to conventional sesame trading, relations between production and trading nodes in the organic networks need to be strengthened through public-private partnerships, combined with other public and legal reinforcement.

    Chapter 7 elaborates on the major findings from the case studies to draw conclusions on the governing (f)actors, i.e. the rationalities and processes that steer the initiation, development and further transformation of the organic commodity networks from Africa. By doing so, this chapter also responds to the research questions of the thesis. From the empirical findings, it came out that various rationalities, stakeholders, processes, values and practices from different spheres (political, environmental, social, and economic) interfere to co-structure and shape the development and life of the commodity network. Several networking processes, different in their scope and importance, are instrumental in the construction, (re)shaping, and (re)configuration of the organic commodity networks. These networking processes include: (1) mobilization of personal social networks and interpersonal social ties; (2) mediation of material and natural resources; (3) market networking and relations and (4) transnational events and gatherings. However, this does not suggest that the governance arrangements and dynamics are linear or similar across the three cases. In fact, it stands out that the degree and relative engagement of each category of stakeholders and rationality evolved over time and differs from one case to another. As Coe et al. (2008: 271) argue unraveling the complexities of the global economy, with its fundamental geographical unevenness and huge inequalities, poses immense conceptual and empirical difficulties. The commodity network perspective applied in this thesis helped to conceptualize and capture the diverse, fluid, and dynamic processes involved in the governance of organic commodities from Africa. The research methodology based on a multi-case study and a qualitative approach unraveled the multifaceted factors, rationalities, processes, and realities of the governance arrangements and dynamics of the organic commodity networks from Africa.

    Trust appears to be a major determinant of connectivity and networking among individuals, organizations, places, and material objects involved in the organic commodity networks from local to global level and vice versa. Three trust building mechanisms are identified including trust in persons, trust in organizations/institutions, and trust in things. In organic commodity networks practices these forms of trust often intermingle. However, this trust is sometimes challenged because of opportunism, information and power asymmetry, and suspicion between producer groups and traders, potentially resulting in severe consequences for the success of organic commodity networks. In this case, a mediation process (often led by farmer leaders or a third-party, in general a development organization) may be necessary to rebuild trust and reconnect the ties between these categories. Otherwise, this situation may ultimately lead to mistrust and distrust in, and put at risk the viability of the organic commodity network.

    It also appears that the governance of organic commodity networks opened up the way for (further) collaboration and partnerships between civil society organizations, private enterprises and public agencies. In fact, throughout the processes of initiation, development and further transformation of the organic commodity networks the relationships between the three key players (State, Businesses, and CSOs) have been reshaped as result of ongoing across sesame chains, build trust, and limit price volatility and speculation, resulting in a shrinking organic sesame market. For developing a viable alternative to conventional sesame trading, relations between production and trading nodes in the organic networks need to be strengthened through public-private partnerships, combined with other public and legal reinforcement.

    Chapter 7 elaborates on the major findings from the case studies to draw conclusions on the governing (f)actors, i.e. the rationalities and processes that steer the initiation, development and further transformation of the organic commodity networks from Africa. By doing so, this chapter also responds to the research questions of the thesis. From the empirical findings, it came out that various rationalities, stakeholders, processes, values and practices from different spheres (political, environmental, social, and economic) interfere to co-structure and shape the development and life of the commodity network. Several networking processes, different in their scope and importance, are instrumental in the construction, (re)shaping, and (re)configuration of the organic commodity networks. These networking processes include: (1) mobilization of personal social networks and interpersonal social ties; (2) mediation of material and natural resources; (3) market networking and relations and (4) transnational events and gatherings. However, this does not suggest that the governance arrangements and dynamics are linear or similar across the three cases. In fact, it stands out that the degree and relative engagement of each category of stakeholders and rationality evolved over time and differs from one case to another. As Coe et al. (2008: 271) argue unraveling the complexities of the global economy, with its fundamental geographical unevenness and huge inequalities, poses immense conceptual and empirical difficulties. The commodity network perspective applied in this thesis helped to conceptualize and capture the diverse, fluid, and dynamic processes involved in the governance of organic commodities from Africa. The research methodology based on a multi-case study and a qualitative approach unraveled the multifaceted factors, rationalities, processes, and realities of the governance arrangements and dynamics of the organic commodity networks from Africa.

    Trust appears to be a major determinant of connectivity and networking among individuals, organizations, places, and material objects involved in the organic commodity networks from local to global level and vice versa. Three trust building mechanisms are identified including trust in persons, trust in organizations/institutions, and trust in things. In organic commodity networks practices these forms of trust often intermingle. However, this trust is sometimes challenged because of opportunism, information and power asymmetry, and suspicion between producer groups and traders, potentially resulting in severe consequences for the success of organic commodity networks. In this case, a mediation process (often led by farmer leaders or a third-party, in general a development organization) may be necessary to rebuild trust and reconnect the ties between these categories. Otherwise, this situation may ultimately lead to mistrust and distrust in, and put at risk the viability of the organic commodity network.

    It also appears that the governance of organic commodity networks opened up the way for (further) collaboration and partnerships between civil society organizations, private enterprises and public agencies. In fact, throughout the processes of initiation, development and further transformation of the organic commodity networks the relationships between the three key players (State, Businesses, and CSOs) have been reshaped as result of ongoing .

    Protocol monitoring materiaalstromen biobased economie
    Meesters, K.P.H. ; Dam, J.E.G. van; Bos, H.L. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Products (Rapport / Food & Biobased Research FBR 1433) - ISBN 9789461737021 - 52
    biobased economy - economische ontwikkeling - monitoring - agro-industriële ketens - agro-industriële sector - bio-energie - beleid - biobased economy - economic development - monitoring - agro-industrial chains - agroindustrial sector - bioenergy - policy
    De biobased economy staat aan het begin van haar ontwikkeling. Het is noodzakelijk en uitdagend om juist in deze fase de ontwikkelingen in kaart te brengen. Dat kan alleen als er een goede afstemming is over de definities, uitgangspunten en methode van monitoring. Voor u ligt het eerste monitoringsprotocol voor de biobased economy. Dit protocol bouwt voort op de vele monitoringsactiviteiten die de afgelopen jaren hebben plaatsgevonden. Dit protocol zet een stap in het ontwikkelen van een eenduidige manier van volgen van deze nieuwe sector.
    Urban Waste and Sanitation Services for Sustainable Development: Harnessing social and technical diversity in East Africa
    Vliet, B.J.M. van; Buuren, J.C.L. van; Mgana, S. - \ 2014
    London and New York : Routledge (Routledge studies in sustainable development ) - ISBN 9780415833776 - 176
    volksgezondheidsbevordering - rioolwater - afval - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzame ontwikkeling - technologie - beleid - afvalbeheer - stedelijke gebieden - oost-afrika - sanitation - sewage - wastes - sustainability - sustainable development - technology - policy - waste management - urban areas - east africa
    Urban sanitation and solid waste sectors are under significant pressure in East Africa due to the lack of competent institutional capacity and the growth of the region’s urban population. This book presents and applies an original analytical approach to assess the existing socio-technical mixtures of waste and sanitation systems and to ensure wider access, increase flexibility and ecological sustainability. It shows how the problem is not the current diversity in waste and sanitation infrastructures and services and variety of types and scales of technology, of formal and informal sector involvement, and of management and ownership modes. The book focuses instead on the lack of an integrative approach to managing and upgrading of the various waste and sanitation configurations and services so as to ensure wider access, flexibility and sustainability for the low income populations who happen to be the main stakeholders. This approach, coined "Modernized Mixtures", serves as a nexus throughout the book. The empirical core addresses the waste and sanitation challenges and debates at each scale - from the micro-level (households) to the macro-level (international support) - and is based on the results of a five-year-long interdisciplinary, empirical research program. It assesses the socio-technical diversity in waste and sanitation and provides viable solutions to sanitation and waste management in East Africa. This book provides students, researchers and professional in environmental technology, sociology, management and urban planning with an integrated analytical perspective on centralized and decentralized waste and sanitation configurations and tools for improvement in the technology, policy and management of sanitation and solid waste sectors.
    De energieke overheid : visies op netwerkend samenwerken voor een groene en veerkrachtige economie
    Overbeek, M.M.M. ; Salverda, I.E. - \ 2013
    Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI Wageningen UR 13-084) - 112
    rijksoverheid - beleid - economisch beleid - innovaties - economie - burgers - milieu - milieueconomie - central government - policy - economic policy - innovations - economics - citizens - environment - environmental economics
    Voor u ligt een verzameling van ervaringen, kennis en ideeën over een nieuwe rol van de overheid bij het verduurzamen van de economie. Dat het verduurzamen van de economie noodzakelijk is, wordt breed gedeeld, maar hoe deze verduurzaming te realiseren is gaat niet zonder slag of stoot. In de verschillende bijdragen wordt de overheid gevraagd meer verantwoordelijkheid te nemen, meer visie te ontwikkelen, meer te stimuleren, meer samen te werken en meer te experimenteren. Hoe kunnen we alles meer doen als de overheid tegelijkertijd moet krimpen? De zoektocht naar een nieuwe rol als ‘energieke overheid’ is volop gaande is. In de zoektocht is behoefte aan enerzijds verdieping en anderzijds aan praktijkvoorbeelden. Met deze bundel wordt een bijdrage aan dit zoekproces geleverd op beide aspecten. In acht bijdragen geven tien deskundigen uit de wetenschap, het bedrijfsleven en de rijksoverheid hun visie op netwerkend werken en de nieuwe rol van de overheid bij de transitie naar een groene en veerkrachtige economie.
    Biomass for biodiesel production on family farms in Brazil: promise or failure? : integrated assessment of biodiesel crops, farms, policies and producer organisations
    Belo Leite, J.G. Dal - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Martin van Ittersum, co-promotor(en): Maja Slingerland; Jos Bijman. - Wageningen : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461737601 - 224
    biodiesel - biomassa - familiebedrijven, landbouw - gewassen - gewasproductie - beleid - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - helianthus annuus - brazilië - biobrandstoffen - biobased economy - biodiesel - biomass - family farms - crops - crop production - policy - sustainability - helianthus annuus - brazil - biofuels - biobased economy
    In Brazil, a biodiesel policy was implemented as a way of reducing poverty among family farms. The objective of this thesis is to perform an integrated assessment of biodiesel crops, farm types, biodiesel policies and producer organisations that reveals opportunities and limitations of family farmers’ engagement in the biodiesel supply chain.
    An institutional perspective on farmers’ water management and rice production practices in Benin
    Totin, G.G.E. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leo Stroosnijder; R. Mongbo, co-promotor(en): Barbara van Mierlo; E. Agbossou. - Wageningen : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461738103 - 136
    oryza - rijst - gewasproductie - waterbeheer - beleid - benin - oryza - rice - crop production - water management - policy - benin

    This thesis is part of the wider debate about the role of institutions in agricultural innovation processes. It

    investigates how institutions shape rice production in inland valleys in Benin. It starts from a scoping study

    (prior to this research) on smallholder irrigation in Benin, which indicated irrigation water stress as one of

    the main problems in the rice production chain. The authors explain the water scarcity as the consequence

    of poor maintenance of the irrigation canals, whereas others think that is a direct manifestation of climate

    change. It appears that a mono‐technical explanation cannot give a deep enough understanding of the

    existing water problem, which has various dimensions. The thesis therefore assumes that an institutional

    perspective would provide a better insight into the barriers that hinder the efficient use of irrigation water

    in the rice production chain.

    Chapter 1 introduces the main problems teased out in the book. Between 1976 and 1990, the Benin

    government initiated numerous interventions to increase local rice production. These different

    interventions were ineffective because of the many innovation barriers that existed in the rice chain.

    Therefore, the first research question addressed in this research is: what are the constraints in the local rice

    value chain and the opportunities for innovation in the research areas?

    After the 2007 rice crisis, the government introduced a new generation of interventions which

    prioritised the institutional facilities (e.g., subsidies for seeds and loans for fertiliser, market facilities and so

    forth) to support the intensification of local rice production. There have been successful outcomes in terms

    of increased rice yield, rice production and farmers’ income. So, this research is interested in studying the

    effectiveness of the two generations of interventions in the rice value chain. The following research

    question is also addressed: how and to what extent does the new generation of interventions create space

    for rice production in the research areas and overcome the shortcomings of previous interventions?

    Which factors hinder the effective use of irrigation water and the development of the local rice value

    chain in the three research areas are further explored in a diagnostic study and described in Chapter 2. The

    diagnosis indicates that it is not only technical constraints that hinder the local rice production chain;

    rather, a combination of technical and institutional factors affect the development of rice production.

    Moreover, both local and higher level institutional barriers influence negatively the local rice value chain.

    The barriers to innovation include: unclear division of responsibilities for canal maintenance between local

    farmer groups and the government, lack of effective local rules for the distribution of the available water

    and maintenance of the irrigation infrastructures, distrust among farmers and the constraining formal and

    informal credit systems and uncertain market outlets. These constraints reduce rice output and farmers’

    incomes.

    After identifying the main economic, institutional and technical constraints that limited the

    development of the local rice production chain, the study also describes the potential opportunities that

    exist for innovation in the chain. Chapter 2 shows that, from a bio‐technical perspective, in the three

    irrigation schemes, the actual rice output remains far below the estimated potential of the command areas,

    given the water and land available in the inland valleys. It establishes that there is room for a considerable

    increase in rice production and associated incomes. For instance, in Koussin‐Léléand Bamè, farmers have

    lands in the uplands as well as the lowlands. Less than 10% of the potential land is used for rice production.

    Chapter 4 shows an option to improve soil moisture in the uplands and extend rice production in this part

    of the valleys.

    In the research areas, there are differences in the extent to which the rules for collective activities

    are set and followed. The farmers cooperate, for instance, to collectively purchase inputs, make collective

    credit requests or sell collectively the harvested rice. At the start of the study however, not all the farmers

    contributed to the collective cleaning of the canals to increase the water discharge that serves all of them.

    among the farmers, a comparative analysis of the three research areas was conducted, using a framework

    to highlight key contextual differences such as the nature of the resource, the characteristics of the user

    group and farmer‐based institutional arrangements in the geographical areas. The findings of the case

    studies, reported in Chapter 3, draw attention to the balance between water demand and availability, the

    existence of inequities and privileged positions within the groups and the strength of farmers’ group

    organisation and the ability to sanction uncooperative behaviour. The existence of alternative sources of

    livelihood also influenced cooperation. Contrary to our expectations, the analysis shows that the largest

    and most diverse group of farmers appeared best organised and equipped to engage in cooperation. Large,

    diverse farmer groups allow the emergence of institutional arrangements that can overcome social

    dilemma situations and demotivation emanating from customary privileges and exemptions.

    A collaborative action research approach was used to explore the opportunity to expand rice

    production in the upland areas. In Chapter 2, it was already established that rice production could be

    improved for the uplands if there was a better supply of irrigation water. This analysis inspired the action

    research conducted in collaboration with the rice farmers (from the three production research areas), an

    extension agent and a researcher to examine the application of mulch (three doses) and the use of a highyield

    lowland rice variety to replace an upland rice variety (Chapter 4). Multiple methods suggested by both

    the researcher and farmers themselves were used to evaluate the trial results: quantitative evidence was

    combined with qualitative evaluation, using indicators agreed upon by the collaborating group. The results

    show that the lowland rice variety IR‐841 with 10 t ha‐1 ‘rice‐straw’mulch allows farmers to better use

    available water in the upland areas and increase rice yields. Although opting for IR‐841 over the specially

    bred upland variety Nerica‐4 is risky because of its high water demand and the uncertainty in rainfall

    distribution, farmers use IR‐841 for profit maximisation. Beyond its technical output, the joint

    experimentation facilitated the exchange of knowledge, experiences and practices among the involved

    stakeholders.

    Since the rice crisis of 2007, the government of Benin has initiated a variety of short‐and long‐term

    programmes aimed at providing access for farmers to agricultural inputs for local rice intensification.

    Chapter 5 explores the interplay between the external interventions of the government programmes and

    the local actions of farmers, in the three research areas. Using an actor‐oriented perspective combined

    with the timelines of the chronological events, the study concludes that farmers’ local actions interact at

    diverse junctures with the external interventions. The study shows that it is not only external interventions

    that trigger changes; rather, the interaction between external interventions and farmers’ local actions

    makes room for changes to happen. Moreover, the investigations show that, although the same

    institutional conditions (through the different government interventions) were provided to rice farmers in

    the three study areas, located close to one another, there are similar, but also divergent, hence unexpected

    outcomes regarding farmers’ social practices. The most obvious unexpected outcomes of the programme

    interventions are the change from limited collective canal cleaning to individual effective canal cleaning in

    Koussin‐Lélé, the use of pumps in upland areas in Bamèand farmers who changed from growing vegetables

    or maize alone to growing rice in combination with these in Zonmon. The wish to satisfy subsistence

    livelihood needs, the different production options available and natural biophysical conditions (e.g., floods)

    are the main factors that contribute to shaping farmers’ local actions and explain the diversity of practices

    in the three research areas, although they all received the same interventions.

    Chapter 6 provides answers to the research questions formulated in Chapter 1 and reflects on how

    the different results from the thesis contribute to the policy debate about how to improve rice production

    in Benin. Reflection on the sustainability of the current rice intensification policy established that the

    government interventions constitute a “protected space”. However, there is no guarantee that the

    intensification of local rice production will still continue when the supports provided by the government

    projects end. Another limitation of the rice intensification policy is that it relies on the use of the irrigation

    schemes designed for one cropping season in a context where farmers are now producing up to three

    cropping seasons a year. The inadequacy of the irrigation design concept for the intensification of rice

    production might contribute to explaining why some of the farmers are suffering from the lack of irrigation

    water. Moreover, although the inland valleys in Benin are a potential area for rice production, they are also

    complex ecosystems with irregular water supply wherein smallholder farmers must carefully allocate

    available resources.

    The thesis shows the importance of institutions in agricultural production. Many institutional studies

    are about social issues. One of the main contributions of this thesis relates to the points it established by

    linking institutional issues with technical dimensions. Chapters 3 and 4 explain the interrelations between

    institutions and water management practices. The experimental procedure described in Chapter 4 was

    grounded in the institutional context but also has a technical purpose that is, identifying water use options

    that allow the expansion of rice production in the uplands. By exploring a technical issue like water

    management from an institutional perspective, the thesis provides clear understanding of the reasons

    behind farmers’ seemingly illogical or irrational water management practices.

    Separation ages for primates in new Dutch legislation = Scheidingsleeftijden van apen in nieuwe Nederlandse wetgeving
    Bracke, M.B.M. ; Hopster, H. - \ 2013
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Report / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 728) - 102
    primaten - spenen - leeftijd - diergedrag - dierenwelzijn - wetgeving - beleid - Nederland - primates - weaning - age - animal behaviour - animal welfare - legislation - policy - Netherlands
    An expert consultation was conducted on separation ages for several primate species mentioned in Dutch legislation (chimpanzees, rhesus, stump-tailed and long-tailed macaques, marmosets, douroucoulis and squirrel monkeys). In total 25 senior experts from 7 different countries participated. ‘Median’ (middle value) separation ages as suggested by the experts were 6 years for chimpanzees; 12 months for macaques used in research and 4 years for macaques used for breeding or kept in zoos or shelters; 12-16 months for marmosets; 18-24 months for douroucoulis; and 10-18 months for squirrel monkeys. The main arguments related to natural conditions (e.g. at what ages the animals can survive without milk or group support). The paper provides a structured, transparent approach for decision support, leading to the general recommendation to the Dutch government to upgrade existing separation ages in accordance with ages previously specified for separation (‘weaning’) of young primates into individual housing.
    RED versus REDD: Biofuel Policy versus Forest Conservation
    Dixon, P. ; Meijl, H. van; Rimmer, M. ; Shutes, L.J. ; Tabeau, A.A. - \ 2013
    Brussel : CEPS (Factor markets working papers / Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS) no. 41) - ISBN 9789461383082 - 22
    biobrandstoffen - bosbescherming - europese unie - richtlijnen (directives) - beleid - agrarische economie - biobased economy - biofuels - protection of forests - european union - directives - policy - agricultural economics - biobased economy
    This paper assesses the complex interplay between global Renewable Energy Directives (RED) and the United Nations programme to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD). The interaction of the two policies is examined using a scenario approach with a recursive-dynamic global Computable General Equilibrium model. The consequences of a global biofuel directive on worldwide land use, agricultural production, international trade flows, food prices and food security out to 2030 are evaluated with and without a strict global REDD policy.
    Integrated modelling for land use planning and policy recommendation in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam
    Bui, T.Y. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leo Stroosnijder, co-promotor(en): Saskia Visser. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461736406 - 102
    landgebruiksplanning - landgebruik - modelleren - beleid - hulpbronnenbeheer - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - erosie - landbouwproductie - vietnam - land use planning - land use - modeling - policy - resource management - natural resources - erosion - agricultural production - vietnam

    The study focuses on analyses of major development problems related to livelihood and natural resource management in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam (NUV). The study was conducted in Suoi Con, a small agro-forestry watershed with the total area is about 1760 ha. The watershed is characterized by a high poverty rate and low agricultural production and household income. Livelihood of the households is dependent upon self-sufficient agricultural production, which accounts for nearly 80% of the total production value. Traditional agricultural activities have led to various land degradation problems.

    The main objective of the study is to integrate modeling of (i) erosion assessment, (ii) land use optimization and (iii) land use decision making in order to improve the effectiveness and adoption of recommendations that contribute to the improved livelihood of farmers and sustainable natural resource management. This will be achieved through: (1) increasing understanding of the interactions between agro-ecological and socio-economic dynamics at watershed scale; (2) facilitating emergence of a common agreement on ecological sustainability, social equity and economically sound solutions; and (3) stimulating dialogues among various stakeholders to achieve a shared responsibility of the common resources.

    The biophysical and socioeconomic characteristics of the study area were explored through surveys, FAO’s land evaluation, literature review and stakeholder meetings. The Predict and Localize Erosion and Runoff (PLER) model and the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) were used to examine influences of land use on soil erosion at the watershed scale.Although agricultural land in the watershed has several limitations such as steep slopes, low soil fertility, high acidity and serious soil erosion, different soil types and the large variation topography and crop suitability create flexibility in farmers’ land use decisions. The Land Use Planning and Analysis System (LUPAS) was then applied to analyze feasibilities of alternative land use options. Based on land use scenarios, 4 main land use constraints in the regions were analyzed. Results of the analysis were finally discussed with stakeholders though Role Playing Game sections to find feasible land use solution and to develop policy recommendations.

    Results of the study showed that different actors in the watershed have different views on land use targets, objectives, constraints and decisions. The integrated modeling approach used in this study identified that traditional technology level appears to be a largest constraint that significantly holds back agricultural production of the region. Land area, capital and labour are also constraints but they only appear if agricultural technology is improved. Land fragmentation should be considered as an important factor because without any new agricultural technique, crop variety or external capital, land consolidation can significantly improve food production and income.

    Integration of individual tools described in this study represents a participatory approach for land use planning, in which problems in land use are explicitly defined and land use plans are developed and revised by stakeholders under their own social and economic conditions. Imperfections in given land use plans and possible solutions proposed by stakeholders provide policy makers with ideas to improve land use planning and to bridge the gaps between land use objectives of the government and of farmers.

    The integrated modelling approach developed and presented in this thesis can make use of individual research tools for describing agro-ecological and socio-economic dynamics and for developing land use policy. It has the potential to serve planners and policy makers to increase the likelihood of developing plans that will effectively increase farmer livelihood and improve resource conservation. This integrated modelling approach can incorporate different aspects of land use into land use planning and test hypotheses regarding the contributions of intended plans to general development targets. Furthermore, it can support bottom-up land use planning as it allows incorporation of different stakeholders in analysing existing problems, proposing solutions and developing land use plans. Therefore, it can increase the likelihood of adoption. This in turn will create the chances for achievement of targets of the government, researchers and farmers through effective implementation of the plans.

    'Gaat de onderzoekskraan dicht, dan staat sector over enkele jaren droog'(interview met Sjaak Bakker)
    Staalduinen, J. van; Bakker, J.C. - \ 2013
    Onder Glas 10 (2013)9. - p. 30 - 31.
    glastuinbouw - landbouwkundig onderzoek - financieren - toegepast onderzoek - innovaties - beleid - verspreiding van onderzoek - technologieoverdracht - greenhouse horticulture - agricultural research - financing - applied research - innovations - policy - diffusion of research - technology transfer
    Nu het Productschap Tuinbouw is weggesaneerd, is het ook gedaan met de collectieve financiering van onderzoek. Volgens Sjaak Bakker, business unit manager van Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw, dient de sector haar eigen bijdrage aan strategisch toegepast onderzoek snel op de rit te krijgen. Lukt dat niet, dan zullen ook de subsidiestromen vanuit Den Haag en Brussel opdrogen. Dat kan onherstelbare schade aanrichten. Vooralsnog blijft hij optimistisch.
    Tussenrapportage Monitoring Biobased Economy
    Meesters, K.P.H. ; Verhoog, A.D. ; Leeuwen, M.G.A. van; Bos, H.L. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : FBR (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1398) - ISBN 9789461736918 - 27
    biobased economy - economische ontwikkeling - monitoring - statistische gegevens - nederland - beleid - biobased economy - economic development - monitoring - statistical data - netherlands - policy
    De monitoring van de biobased economy zal antwoord moeten geven op twee vragen: 1. Hoe groot zijn de stromen die omgaan in de biobased economy? 2. Hoe ontwikkelen deze stromen zich in de loop van de tijd? In deze studie wordt onderzocht in hoeverre de biobased economy gevolgd kan worden op basis van statistische gegevens van CBS, WUR-LEI en andere bronnen.
    Economische aspecten rondom 'ingrepen bij Pluimvee'
    Horne, P.L.M. van - \ 2013
    LEI
    dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - diergezondheid - beleid - diergedrag - pluimvee - animal welfare - animal production - animal health - policy - animal behaviour - poultry
    Op basis van de concept nota 'uitfasering ingrepen bij Pluimvee' heeft het LEI een eerste inschatting gemaakt van de mogelijke economische gevolgen. Het betreft niet meer dan een schatting omdat er op veel onderdelen onzekerheden zijn. Dit betreft de mogelijke reactie van pluimveehouders, de positie van Nederland op de exportmarkten en (technische) gevolgen op pluimveebedrijven bij het achterwege laten van ingrepen. Deze notitie geeft bouwstenen voor de beleidsmedewerkers van het Ministerie EZ en is dus niet geschreven als een op zichzelf staande nota met een duidelijk omschreven vraagstelling, methode en discussie van de resultaten. Het betreft een 'quick scan' met een klein budget en een zeer korte doorlooptijd.
    Combining bioenergy production and food security
    Achterbosch, T.J. ; Meijerink, G.W. ; Slingerland, M.A. ; Smeets, E.M.W. - \ 2013
    Utrecht : NL Agency - 74
    voedselzekerheid - voedsel versus brandstof - biomassa productie - voedselproductie - bio-energie - biobased economy - beleid - food security - food vs fuel - biomass production - food production - bioenergy - biobased economy - policy
    This report analyses whether and how bioenergy can be produced within the context of food insecurity. With this study, the NL Agency aims to contribute to Dutch Development Cooperation policy on food security by showing in which way producing and using biomass for energy does not compete with food security, but contributes to it.
    Van Recht naar Krom : onderzoek naar de doeltreffendheid en doelmatigheid van het beleid voor de (her)inrichting van watersystemen bij waterschap Regge en Dinkel
    Hattum, T. van; Maas, G.J. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 2432) - 74
    waterlopen - ecologisch herstel - herstel - waterbeheer - kaderrichtlijn water - beleid - twente - nederland - waterbeleid - streams - ecological restoration - rehabilitation - water management - water framework directive - policy - twente - netherlands - water policy
    http://edepot.wur.nl/259243
    Intellectual property rights, international trade and plant breeding
    Eaton, D.J.F. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte, co-promotor(en): J.E. Ligthart. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734693 - 186
    vermeerderingsmateriaal - plantenveredeling - kwekersrecht - intellectuele eigendomsrechten - internationale handel - innovaties - beleid - landbouwsector - landbouwbedrijven - productie - wereld - ontwikkelingslanden - propagation materials - plant breeding - breeders' rights - intellectual property rights - international trade - innovations - policy - agricultural sector - farms - production - world - developing countries
    Seed is the physical embodiment of the invention of the plant breeder. Plant varieties thus constitute a special form of innovation, and an assessment of intellectual property right (IPR) systems needs to take this into account. This thesis concentrates on IPRs but breeders do have a number of means by which they can capture part of the benefits from the cultivation of their new variety, rather than these falling into to public domain.
    Energiemonitor van de ederlandse Paddenstoelensector 2011
    Wildschut, J. ; Promes, E.J.O. - \ 2012
    Lisse : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving B.V. - 33
    transport - dierlijke productie - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - beleid - controle - kwaliteitsnormen - transport - animal production - animal welfare - animal health - policy - control - quality standards
    QLL (Quality system Livestock Logistics), is een privaat kwaliteitsysteem dat relevante naleving van wet- en regelgeving wil bevorderen binnen de verzamel- en transportsector van landbouwhuisdieren. QLL is voor veetransporteurs, waaghouders en exporteurs van toepassing. Het kwaliteitssysteem omvat diverse modules waar deelnemers aan QLL na certificering aan kunnen deelnemen. De NVWA (Nederlandse Voedsel en Waren Autoriteit) maakt in haar toezicht gebruik van bepaalde modules. In de eerste helft van 2012 heeft het auditteam NVWA een audit gedaan op het kwaliteitssysteem QLL. Deze audit heeft een aanvulling gehad in augustus 2012 omdat de uitvoering van de onaangekondigde controles door de CI (certificerende instanties) op de deelnemers aan QLL eerder niet beoordeeld kon worden. De staatssecretaris van het ministerie van EZ (Economische Zaken) heeft QLL opgedragen een plan van aanpak naar aanleiding van de resultaten van de audit te maken. De staatsecretaris heeft de NVWA opgedragen in december 2012 een vervolgaudit op het kwaliteitssysteem QLL te doen om na te gaan hoe de geconstateerde tekortkomingen opgelost zijn. Het auditteam NVWA heeft in opdracht van de hoofdinspecteur Divisie V&I (Veterinair en Import) van de NVWA de audit in december 2012 uitgevoerd.
    Chances for biomass : connecting food and non-food - a roadmap for integrated valorisation. Factsheet research
    Bos-Brouwers, H.E.J. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR
    ketenmanagement - agro-industriële ketens - biomassa cascadering - beleid - biobased economy - supply chain management - agro-industrial chains - biomass cascading - policy - biobased economy
    Poster met onderzoeksinformatie.
    Origin labelling; Cost analysis for producers and consumers
    Terluin, I.J. ; Benninga, J. ; Berkhout, P. ; Immink, V.M. ; Janssens, S.R.M. ; Jongeneel, R.A. ; Rau, M.L. ; Tacken, G.M.L. - \ 2012
    The Hague : LEI, part of Wageningen UR (LEI report : Research area International policy ) - ISBN 9789086156139 - 43
    gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - etiketteren van voedingsmiddelen - consumenteninformatie - oorsprong - kwaliteitszorg - kostenanalyse - europese unie - beleid - landbouwproducten - etiketteren - cap - nutrition labeling - consumer information - origin - quality management - cost analysis - european union - policy - agricultural products - labelling
    By stating the origin of a foodstuff, producers can provide consumers with information about where the food comes from. Country of origin labelling is the subject of debate from two different policy areas. One debate takes place in the framework of EU quality policy for agricultural products, the other in the framework of EU consumer policy. In one debate, origin labelling is regarded as a trade norm, while the other considers it part of food information which allows consumers to make well-founded choices between foodstuffs.
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