Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    De toekomst van hout in de biobased economy
    Annevelink, E. ; Harmsen, P.F.H. ; Spijker, J.H. - \ 2018
    Vakblad Natuur Bos Landschap 15 (2018)141. - ISSN 1572-7610 - p. 7 - 11.
    biobased economy - hout - biobrandstoffen - biomassa - hernieuwbare energie - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - cellulose - lignine - vezels - biobased economy - wood - biofuels - biomass - renewable energy - biobased materials - cellulose - lignin - fibres
    De laatste jaren is de biobased economy sterk gegroeid door allerlei activiteiten, variërend van fundamenteel onderzoek naar nieuwe biobased toepassingen, tot het op commerciële schaal vervaardigen van biobased producten. Welke kansen biedt dit voor hout en houtige biomassa en wat zijn de verwachte effecten op de houtmarkt?
    Overheidsmaatregelen biokerosine : mogelijkheden om de vraag naar biokerosine te stimuleren en de effecten op de luchtvaart en de economie
    Faber, Jasper ; Smeets, E.M.W. - \ 2017
    Delft : CE Delft - 112
    biobrandstoffen - biobased economy - kerosine - overheidsbeleid - stimulatie - subsidies - emissiereductie - luchttransport - biofuels - biobased economy - kerosene - government policy - stimulation - subsidies - emission reduction - air transport
    De maatregel met het grootste potentieel om CO2-emissies van de luchtvaart te verminderen is het gebruik van brandstoffen met lage emissies over de levenscyclus, zoals bijvoorbeeld geavanceerde biobrandstoffen gemaakt van residuen uit de bos- en landbouw. Om de luchtvaart te laten bijdragen aan de afname van de wereldwijde emissies is het dus wenselijk een groter aandeel alternatieve duurzame brandstoffen in de luchtvaart in te zetten. Vanwege het prijsverschil tussen fossiele kerosine en biokerosine is hier overheidsbeleid voor nodig. Het doel van deze studie is het beantwoorden van de volgende twee centrale onderzoeksvragen: 1. Met welke beleidsmaatregelen kan de Nederlandse Rijksoverheid de vraag naar en productie van biokerosine laten toenemen? 2. Wat zijn de directe en indirecte effecten van de beleidsmaatregelen?
    Socio-economic assessment of Algae-based PUFA production
    Voort, Marcel van der; Spruijt, Joanneke ; Potters, Jorieke ; Wolf, Pieter de; Elissen, Hellen - \ 2017
    Göttingen : PUFAChain - 84
    bioenergy - biobased economy - biofuels - biomass - algae - fatty acids - bio-energie - biobased economy - biobrandstoffen - biomassa - algen - vetzuren
    Biobased materialen, circulaire economie en natuurlijk kapitaal
    Overbeek, M.M.M. ; Smeets, E.M.W. ; Verhoog, A.D. - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 109) - 37
    biomassa - biobased economy - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - bioplastics - hernieuwbare energie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - biobrandstoffen - recycling - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - biomass - biobased economy - biobased materials - bioplastics - renewable energy - sustainability - biofuels - recycling - biobased chemistry
    This preliminary study investigates the amount of biomass that would be needed in the Netherlands to replace the fossil raw materials used in the manufacture of plastics and how this transition to biobased plastics can be achieved. It is based on desk research and calculations of the area of agricultural land that would be needed to produce sufficient biobased material to meet Dutch demand for biobased plastics. In addition, interviews were held with experts on the institutional obstacles to such a transition. Far too little agricultural land is available in the Netherlands to produce the required amount of biomass needed to replace fossil plastics. Research with the aim of increasing the contribution made by biobased materials to the circular economy should focus on assessing the options for producing sustainable raw materials and on a comprehensive assessment of the sustainable use of biomass in various applications.
    Circular food chains and cascading of biomass in metropolitan regions : Vision on metropolitan biorefinery concepts in relation to resource-efficient cities
    Annevelink, E. ; Gogh, J.B. ; Groot, J.J. - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (Wageningen Food & Biobased Research report 1790) - ISBN 9789463437424 - 18
    biomass - bioenergy - residual streams - refining - biofuels - biobased economy - biogas - biomassa - bio-energie - reststromen - raffineren - biobrandstoffen - biobased economy - biogas
    Expectations are that 80 percent of the global population will reside in urban areas by the year 2050. As urbanisation levels increase so do ecological footprint sizes in these areas, as it is in the cities that income levels are higher, and where higher levels of disposable incomes exist. Whereas the circular economy is gaining ground as a concept for increasing sustainability by the efficient use of available materials and resources, urban areas are often recognised as attractive starting points for making the transition towards a circular economy. The paper “Circular food chains and cascading of biomass in metropolitan regions” contains the description of a vision on how biorefinery concepts in current and future metropoles may contribute to the increased efficiency in the use of resources for biomass production. As such this vision forms the interpretation of the principles of the circular economy within the context of biomass value chains and within the geographic boundaries of a metropolitan region. This is also referred to as the circular metropolitan system. With this paper researchers from Wageningen Food & Biobased Research intend to contribute to a scientific basis for increasing resource use efficiency in metropolitan regions through developing appropriate and sustainable biorefinery concepts.
    Innovatieve technologie in beheer en oogst van houtige biomassa : eindrapportage
    Raa, Rik te; Pfau, S. ; Clerkx, A.P.P.M. ; Massop, Hans ; Hissink, H.J. - \ 2017
    BTG Biomass Technology Group - 57
    bio-energie - biobased economy - biobrandstoffen - hout - biomassa productie - bosbeheer - bioenergy - biobased economy - biofuels - wood - biomass production - forest administration
    Opiniestuk sustainable development goals : transities realiseren met duurzaam bodem - en landgebruik
    Mol, G. ; Cleen, M. de; Molenaar, Co ; Keesstra, S. ; Visser, S. ; Okx, J. - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen University and Research - 7
    duurzame energie - biobased economy - biobrandstoffen - biogas - overheidsbeleid - klimaat - bio-energie - reststromen - hernieuwbare energie - energiebeleid - sustainable energy - biobased economy - biofuels - biogas - government policy - climate - bioenergy - residual streams - renewable energy - energy policy
    In 2015 hebben de Verenigde Naties de Duurzame Ontwikkelingsdoelen – beter bekend als de Sustainable Development Goals of kortweg SDGs – aangenomen als de weg waarlangs ze de meest urgente problemen op het gebied van armoede, honger, maar ook onderwijs, economie, en milieu en klimaat wil aanpakken. De ambities, geformuleerd in de 17 SDGs, zijn verstrekkend en hoog. In verschillende Nederlandse beleidsdocumenten1234567 wordt daarom aangegeven dat hiervoor serieuze maatschappelijke transities nodig zijn zoals op het gebied van energie en klimaat, voedselvoorziening en circulaire economie, mobiliteit en leefbare steden. Voor veel van deze transities is duurzaam gebruik en beheer van bodem, water en land een essentieel onderdeel. Dit opiniestuk heeft als doel de rol van duurzaam bodem- en landgebruik te benadrukken en de urgentie ervan agenderen voor de maatschappelijke transities waar Nederland voor staat. En laten zien dat de maatschappelijke opgaven te complex zijn voor een sectorale aanpak. Integrale benadering en goede samenwerking tussen alle stakeholders zijn nodig om te komen tot duurzame oplossingen. Het is raadzaam hier voortvarend werk van te maken; de bodem is een traag systeem, dus 2030 – het jaar waarin de SDGs moeten zijn gerealiseerd – is al morgen.
    Biodigestion at the Neighbourhood Level : from community participation to waste separation
    Hiemstra, J. ; Lie, R. ; Rietveld, M. - \ 2017
    Urban Agriculture Magazine (2017)32. - ISSN 1571-6244 - p. 49 - 51.
    bio-energie - biobrandstoffen - biobased economy - reststromen - projecten - co-vergisting - digestaat - hernieuwbare energie - energiebronnen - organisch afval - recycling - bioenergy - biofuels - residual streams - projects - co-fermentation - digestate - renewable energy - energy sources - organic wastes
    Urban Agriculture magazine • number 32 • September 2017 49 www.ruaf.org High energy bills and litter on the streets caused a group of residents of the Wildeman neighbourhood in the district of Osdorp in Amsterdam to act. Expecting no solution from the municipality, they decided to take care of it themselves and tackled these two problems with one solution: using the technology of biodigestion to produce energy from municipal food waste - a perfect example of the urban food-waste-energy nexus.
    Groene Cirkels : Resultaatrapportage
    Steingröver, E.G. ; Vos, C.C. - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Groene Cirkels - 15
    bio-energie - biobrandstoffen - biobased economy - duurzame energie - indicatoren - biomassa - bioenergy - biofuels - biobased economy - sustainable energy - indicators - biomass
    Met de resultaatmeting wil Groene Cirkels inzichtelijk maken wat er bereikt is ten aanzien van het bereiken van onze doelen en ambities. Met deze informatie wil Groene Cirkels effectief sturen op het behalen van de ambities en inzicht geven in de bijdragen en resultaten van de diverse thema-activiteiten en Groene Cirkels
    The SEEA EEA carbon account for the Netherlands
    Lof, Marjolein ; Schenau, Sjoerd ; Jong, Rixt de; Remme, Roy ; Graveland, Cor ; Hein, Lars - \ 2017
    The Hague : Statistics Netherlands - 64
    carbon dioxide - netherlands - carbon - economics - environment - biofuels - bioenergy - biogas - emission - kooldioxide - nederland - koolstof - economie - milieu - biobrandstoffen - bio-energie - biogas - emissie
    The carbon account provides a comprehensive overview of all relevant carbon stocks and flows. The carbon account for the Netherlands was developed within the scope of the ‘System of Environmental Economic Accounts – Experimen tal Ecosystem Accounting’ (SEEA EEA) project for the Netherlands (Natuurlijk Kapitaalrekeningen Nederland: NKR_NL), which is currently c arried out jointly by Statistics Netherlands and Wageningen University. Funding and support was provided by the Ministries of Economic Affairs and Infrastructure and the Environment. Within the NKR_NL project, a number of accounts are currently under devel opment. The carbon account is described in detail in this report.
    Sustainable woodfuel for food security : A smart choice: green, renewable and affordable
    Sooyeon, Laura Jln ; Schure, J.M. ; Ingram, V.J. ; Yoo, Byoung Il ; Reeb, Dominique ; Xia, Zuzhang ; Perlis, Andrea ; Nordberg, Mats ; Campbell, Jeffrey ; Muller, Eva - \ 2017
    FAO - ISBN 9789251099629 - 35
    biobased economy - biofuels - bioenergy - wood - biomass - heat - biobased economy - biobrandstoffen - bio-energie - hout - biomassa - warmte
    With food insecurity, climate change and deforestation and forest degradation remaining key global issues, this paper highlights the role of sustainable woodfuel in improving food security. Food insecurity and a high dependence on woodfuel as a primary cooking fuel are characteristics common to vulnerable groups of people in developing regions of the world.With adequate policy and legal frameworks in place, woodfuel production and harvesting can be sustainable and a main source of green energy. Moreover, the widespread availability of woodfuel, and the enormous market for it, presents opportunities for employment and for sustainable value chains, providing further rationale for promoting this source of energy. This paper explains how sustainable woodfuel is closely linked to food security and provides insights in how the linkages could be strengthened at all stages of woodfuel production, trade and use.
    Measurements of transcripts, proteome and metabolite profiles
    Peters, Sander - \ 2017
    Fuel4Me - 7
    biobased economy - biobrandstoffen - algen - algenteelt - oliën - biobased economy - biofuels - algae - algae culture - oils
    The work described for this deliverable was carried out by DLO-PRI, in collaboration with WU, and aim ed to understanding lipid production in Phaeodactylum tricornutum . By means of transcriptome, proteome and metabolome analyses we aimed to provide insight into the one step lipid production performed by partner WU. Cultivation conditions were chosen to steer lipid profile towards most suitable composition for biofuel production.
    Photosynthetic efficiency in microalgal lipid production
    Remmers, Ilse M. - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): R.H. Wijffels, co-promotor(en): P.P. Lamers. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463434607 - 200
    algae - biofuels - light - triacylglycerols - lipids - metabolism - algae culture - cultural methods - algen - biobrandstoffen - licht - triacylglycerolen - lipiden - metabolisme - algenteelt - cultuurmethoden

    Microalgae can contain large amounts of lipids which make them a promising feedstock for sustainable production of food, feed, fuels and chemicals. Various studies, including pilot-scale, have been performed and the knowledge on microalgal processes has advanced quickly. Unfortunately, current production costs for cultivation are still too high for bulk lipid production from microalgae.

    One of the major causes for the high costs of bulk lipid production is the reduced solar-to-lipid conversion efficiency. Current research, however, does not provide sufficient insight to identify optimization targets. Therefore, in this thesis we have studied the lipid production in microalgae in depth.

    Different TAG-accumulation strategies were investigated from a process engineering and metabolic point of view. The combination of all findings were used in the general discussion to thoroughly evaluate the microalgal lipid accumulation strategies. Current phototrophic microalgal lipid yields are still 10 times lower than the theoretical maximum. There is, however, still an enormous potential for further improvements. Future research should focus on (genetically) improved strains and advanced cultivation strategies, including adaptation to fluctuating outdoor weather conditions.

    This thesis was performed within the EU FP7 FUEL4ME project under grand agreement No 308938. Objective of this program is to develop a sustainable and scalable process for biofuels from microalgae and to valorize the by-products.

    Exploring opportunities for rural livelihoods and food security in Central Mozambique
    Leonardo, Wilson José - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): K.E. Giller, co-promotor(en): G.W.J. van de Ven; H.M.J. Udo. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431651 - 183
    agricultural production systems - food security - crop production - livelihoods - small farms - biofuels - farming systems - models - intensification - mozambique - agrarische productiesystemen - voedselzekerheid - gewasproductie - middelen van bestaan - kleine landbouwbedrijven - biobrandstoffen - bedrijfssystemen - modellen - intensivering - mozambique

    Growing awareness of widespread hunger and poverty in many countries in the SSA is spurring a focus on productivity increase in smallholder farming systems. The rationale is that with current production systems many SSA countries are not keeping pace with population growth and changing of peoples’ lifestyles. To respond to this challenge the Government of Mozambique developed its Strategic Plan for Agricultural Development (PEDSA) aiming to improve agricultural productivity of the majority of smallholder farmers who depend on agriculture for their livelihoods. Smallholder farmers are diverse in terms of resources and aspirations. The main objectives of this study are first to understand the diversity among maize-based smallholder farms and their current constraints in improving agricultural productivity in the Manica Plateau, Central Mozambique, and second, building on that understanding to explore options for biomass production either for food, cash or biofuel at farm level and contributions to maize availability in the region. The study was conducted in the Dombe and Zembe Administrative Posts. Farmers in the two posts cultivate both food and cash crops using the same resources, however, distances to the urban market differ, with Zembe close and Dombe far away from the markets. In addition, the agroecological conditions for crop production are more favourable in Dombe compared with Zembe. Using farm surveys, direct observations and on-farm measurements, followed by Principal Components Analysis (PCA) I identified land and labour as the variables that can best explain the variability found among smallholder farms (Chapter 2). Based on these variables I categorised farms into four Farm Types (FT): FT1. Large farms (4.4 ha in Dombe and 2.2 ha in Zembe), hiring in labour; FT2. Intermediate sized farms (1.9-1.2 ha), hiring in and out labour; FT3a. Small farms (1.1-0.9 ha), sharing labour; and FT3b. Small farms (1.0-0.7 ha), hiring out labour. The maize yield and maize labour productivities were higher on large farms (2.3 t ha-1 in Dombe and 2.0 t ha-1 in Zembe; 2.5×10-3 t h-1 in Dombe and 2.6 ×10-3 t h-1 in Zembe) compared with small farms (1.5 t ha-1 in Dombe and 1.1 t ha-1 in Zembe; 1.4×10-3 t h-1 in Dombe and 0.9×10-3 t h-1 in Zembe). The hiring in labour from small farms allowed large farms to timely weed their fields. Small farms were resource constrained and hired out labour (mutrakita) for cash or food to the detriment of weeding their own fields, resulting in poor crop yields. Excessive alcohol consumption by small farms also raised concerns on labour quality. Chapter 3 explored options aiming at addressing farmers’ objectives of being maize self-sufficient and increased gross margin and the contribution to national objective of producing food. A bio-economic farm model was used to investigate two pathways to increase agricultural production: (i) extensification, expanding the current cultivated area; and (ii) intensification, increasing input use and output per unit of land.

    In the extensification pathway I considered the use of animal traction, herbicides and cultivators to save labour, whereas in the intensification pathway I explored the use improved varieties of maize, sesame, sunflower, pigeonpea and fertilizers. I focused on the large farms and the small farms hiring out labour as they represent both sides of the spectrum. The simulated results showed that combining labour and labour saving technologies substantially increased both gross margin and maize yields of large and small farms in both posts. Minor trade-offs is observed on large farms between the two goals whereas for small farms we see synergies between the goals. We concluded that prospects for increasing gross margin and food production are much better for large farms in Dombe compared with other farms. In Dombe, the maximum gross margin of large farms was 7530 $ y-1 per farm and maximum maize sales of 30.4 t y-1 per farm. In Zembe, the maximum gross margin of large farms (2410 $ y-1 per farm) and maximum maize sales (9.5 t y-1 per farm) were comparable to small farms in Dombe. I further assessed the impact of two biofuel investments (jatropha plantation and sunflower outgrower schemes) on farm level food security (food availability, access to food, stability of food, utilization of food). The results showed positive impact on small farms from employment on a jatropha plantation by increasing access to food and no impacts on intermediate and large farms. Impacts on food security from the sunflower outgrower scheme were minor which may be explained by the poor yields.

    The need to link smallholder farmers to markets has been increasingly recognized as important strategy to promote rural development and poverty reduction. I developed an analytical framework, the Windmill Approach that looked at decision making at farm level to grow certain crops and at transaction strategies (Chapter 5). Through this framework I showed that a farmer decision to participate in a particular (new) value chain is determined by (a) the suitability of the new crop in the farm system (including the adaptability of the current farm system), and (b) the farmer’s experience with selling in various value chains. This has major policy implications as it highlights that to support smallholder farmers access to markets a holistic approach is needed that combines farming systems analysis and transaction cost theory.

    In order to explore the opportunities for smallholder development there is need to understand the diversity of farms and farmers’ social and economic context. For large farms, in Central Mozambique farms with on average 2-4 ha of land, opportunities to improve their livelihoods through crop production can follow two pathways: intensification and extensification. Smallholders continue to produce staple food crops even when working on a plantation or participating in outgrower schemes. For small farms, off-farm opportunities such as those in a biofuel plantation are the best options to improve their livelihoods.

    Assessing the case for sequential cropping to produce low ILUC risk biomethane : final report
    Peters, Daan ; Zabeti, Masoud ; Kühner, Ann-Kathri ; Spöttle, Matthias ; Werf, Wopke van der; Stomph, Jan - \ 2016
    Utrecht : ECOFYS Netherlands - 39
    methane - biofuels - sequential cropping - farmers' associations - biogas - ancillary enterprises - farm management - agricultural energy production - transport - biobased economy - fuel crops - biomass production - methaan - biobrandstoffen - estafetteteelt - boerenorganisaties - biogas - nevenactiviteiten - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - energieproductie in de landbouw - transport - biobased economy - brandstofgewassen - biomassa productie
    In recent years and especially since the COP - 21 climate agreement reached in Paris last year, efforts to mitigate climate change accelerate. All sectors need to contribute in order to achieve the well below 2 degree climate target. The agricultural sector is relevant for climate change in various ways. Like the agricultural sector, the transport sector is also responsible for significant greenhouse gas emissions. Advanced biofuels and biogas produced from wastes and residues can play an increasingly important role in the transport mix. In Italy, 600 Italian farmers are organised in the Italian Biogas Council (Consorzio Italiano Biogas e Gassificazione, CIB). Some years ago, CIB members developed a concept that they coined Biogasdoneright. In collaboration with various research institutes they seeked for a way to combine biogas feedstock production with crop production for food and feed as a way to generate additional income in a sustainable manner. The core of the Biogasdoneright concept is that farmers apply sequential cropping by growing a winter cover crop on land that was previously fallow during winter time, while maintaining the main crop production during summer time as previously. Multiple claims can be made about Biogasdoneright, for example related to the large potential role for biogas in our future energy system. This project focussed on the most relevant claims related to the use of biomethane in transport, with a focus on sustainability aspects.
    Methodologies identification and certification of Low ILUC risk biofuels : final report
    Peters, Daan ; Spöttle, ; Hähl, Thomas ; Kühner, Ann-Kathrin ; Cuijpers, Maarten ; Stomph, Tjeerd Jan ; Werf, Wopke van der; Grass, Martin - \ 2016
    Utrecht : ECOFYS Netherlands - 58
    biofuels - greenhouse gases - land use - biomass - biomass production - biobased economy - indirect land use change - biobrandstoffen - broeikasgassen - landgebruik - biomassa - biomassa productie - biobased economy - indirecte veranderingen van landgebruik
    Biofuels can be an important instrument to decarbonise the transport sector. However, the greenhouse gas performance of biofuels can be negatively impacted by Indirect land use change (ILUC) effects. In this report, Ecofys proposes two methodologies to identify and demonstrate low ILUC risk biofuel feedstock production through the application of yield increase (see Chapter 3) or unused land (see ILUC mitigation methodology for unused land).
    Microbial electrosynthesis of biochemicals : innovations on biocatalysts, electrodes and ion-exchange for CO2 supply, chemicals production and separation
    Bajracharya, S. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Buisman; David Strik; Deepak Pant. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578531 - 181
    carbon dioxide - biofuels - chemicals - biocatalysis - ion exchange - electrodes - kooldioxide - biobrandstoffen - chemicaliën - biokatalyse - ionenuitwisseling - elektrodes

    Microbial electrosynthesis (MES) is an electricity-driven production of chemicals from low-value waste using microorganisms as biocatalysts. MES from CO2 comprises conversion of CO2 to multi-carbon compounds employing microbes at the cathode which use electricity as an energy source. This thesis presents innovations on MES from CO2 using anaerobic mixed-cultures, circumventing the methane generation. Acetate was the primary product but other products including ethanol, butyrate were also produced. Establishment of active biocathode at the graphite felt cathode was achieved under long-term operation which led to the acetate accumulation up to 7-10 g L-1 at -1 V/Ag/AgCl cathode potential. CO2 reduction in MES requires continuous availability of CO2 and low cathode potential to ensure the supply of reducing equivalents/hydrogen. Use of gas diffusion biocathode doubled the CO2 mass-transfer rate which enhanced the production rates, reaching. Furthermore, a sustainable technology for manufacturing biochemicals/biofuels was demonstrated in this thesis by integrating the product separation in MES. The electricity-driven production of chemicals/biofuels from CO2/waste products and subsequent product recovery studies prospect an integration of microbial electrosynthesis with biorefineries for the up-scaling of both technologies.

    Targets and tools for optimizing lignocellulosic biomass quality of miscanthus
    Weijde, R.T. van der - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Richard Visser, co-promotor(en): Luisa Trindade; Oene Dolstra. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578388 - 231
    miscanthus - bioethanol - biomass - biofuels - lignocellulose - fuel crops - plant breeding - cell walls - cell wall components - genetic diversity - genetic variation - biomass conversion - biobased economy - miscanthus - bioethanol - biomassa - biobrandstoffen - lignocellulose - brandstofgewassen - plantenveredeling - celwanden - celwandstoffen - genetische diversiteit - genetische variatie - biomassaconversie - biobased economy

    Miscanthus is a perennial energy grass characterized by a high productivity and resource-use efficiency, making it an ideal biomass feedstock for the production of cellulosic biofuels and a wide range of other biobased value-chains. However, the large-scale commercialization of converting biomass into cellulosic biofuel is hindered by our inability to efficiently deconstruct the plant cell wall. The plant cell wall is a complex and dynamic structure and its components are extensively cross-linked into an unyielding matrix. The production of biofuel depends on the extraction, hydrolysis and fermentation of cell wall polysaccharides, which currently requires energetically and chemically intensive processing operations that negatively affect the economic viability and sustainability of the industry. To address this challenge it is envisioned that the bioenergy feedstocks can be compositionally tailored to increase the accessibility and extractability of cell wall polysaccharides, which would allow a more efficient conversion of biomass into biofuel under milder processing conditions.

    Extensive phenotypic and genetic diversity in cell wall composition and conversion efficiency was observed in different miscanthus species, including M. sinensis, M. sacchariflorus and interspecific hybrids between these two species. In multiple experiments a twofold increase in the release of fermentable sugars was observed in ‘high quality’ accessions compared to ‘low quality’ accessions. The exhaustive characterization of eight highly diverse M. sinensis genotypes revealed novel and distinct breeding targets for different bioenergy conversion routes. The key traits that contributed favourably to the conversion efficiency of biomass into biofuel were a high content of hemicellulosic polysaccharides, extensive cross-linking of hemicellulosic polysaccharides (revealed by a high content of trans-ferulic acids and a high ratio of arabinose-to-xylose), a low lignin content and extensive incorporation of para-coumaric acid into the lignin polymer.

    Lignin is widely recognized as one of the key factors conveying recalcitrance against enzymatic deconstruction of the cell wall. The incorporation of para-coumaric acid into the lignin polymer is hypothesized to make lignin more easily degradable during alkaline pretreatment, one of the most widely applied processing methods that is used to pretreat biomass prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. Previous studies have shown that reducing lignin content is often implicated in reduced resistance of plants to lodging. We hypothesize that extensively cross-linked hemicellulosic polysaccharides may fulfil a similar function in supporting cell wall structural rigidity and increasing the content of hemicellulosic polysaccharides may be a way to reduce lignin content without adversely affecting cell wall rigidity. This strategy can be used to improve biomass quality for biobased applications, as hemicellulosic polysaccharides are more easily degradable during industrial processing than lignin. Furthermore, hemicellulosic polysaccharides adhere to cellulose, which negatively affects the level of cellulose crystallinity. Crystalline cellulose is harder to degrade than its more amorphous form. Therefore the reduction of cellulose crystallinity is another mechanism through which increasing the content of hemicellulosic polysaccharides positively contributes to cell wall degradability. These results provided new insights into the traits that may be targeted to improve the quality of lignocellulose feedstocks.

    However, evaluation of complex biochemical traits for selection purposes is hindered by the fact that their accurate quantification is a costly, lengthy and laborious procedure. To overcome these limitations an accurate and high-throughput method was developed based on near-infrared spectroscopy. Through extensive calibration we developed accurate prediction models for a wide range of biomass quality characteristics, which may be readily implemented as a phenotyping tool for selection purposes.

    Additionally, progress through breeding may substantially be improved by marker-assisted selection, which will reduce the need for the evaluation of genotype performance in multi-year field trials. To this end, a biparental M. sinensis mapping population of 186 individuals was developed and genotyped using a genotyping-by-sequencing approach. A total of 564 short-sequence markers were used to construct a new M. sinensis genetic map. Cell wall composition and conversion efficiency were observed to be highly heritable and quantitatively inherited properties. This is the first genetic study in miscanthus to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for biomass quality properties and is a first step towards the application of marker-assisted selection for biomass quality properties.

    Through the evaluation of a diverse set of miscanthus genotypes in multiple locations we demonstrated that in addition to genotypic variation, growing conditions may have a substantial influence on cell wall composition and conversion efficiency. While further research is needed to identify which specific environmental parameters are responsible for the observed effects, these results clearly indicate that the environmental influence on biomass quality needs to be taken into account in order to match genotype, location and end-use of miscanthus as a lignocellulose feedstock. Moreover, significant genotype-by-environment interaction effects were observed for cell wall composition and conversion efficiency, indicating variation in environmental sensitivity across genotypes. Although the magnitude of the genotypic differences was small in comparison to genotype and environmental main effects, this affected the ranking of accession across environments. Stability analysis indicated some stable accessions performed relatively across diverse locations.

    In addition to trialing miscanthus in diverse locations, we also evaluated miscanthus biomass quality under drought conditions for a number of reasons: 1) drought stress is linked to a differential expression of cell wall biosynthesis genes, 2) incidence of drought events is increasing due to climate change, 3) irrigation is likely to be uneconomical during the cultivation of miscanthus and 4) miscanthus has many characteristics that make it a crop with a good potential for cultivation on marginal soils, where abiotic stresses such as drought may prevail. Drought stress was shown to result in a large reduction in cell wall and cellulose content and a substantial increase in hemicellulosic polysaccharides and cellulose conversion rates. We hypothesized that the reduction in cellulose content was due to an increase in the production of osmolytes, which are well-known for their role in plant protection against drought. The results indicated that drought stress had a positive effect on the cell wall degradability of miscanthus biomass.

    Overall the compendium of knowledge generated within the framework of this thesis provided insights into the variation in biomass quality properties in miscanthus, increased our understanding of the molecular, genetic and environmental factors influencing its conversion efficiency into biofuel and provided tools to exploit these factors to expand the use of miscanthus as a lignocellulose feedstock.

    Biofuel production in Vietnam : Greenhouse gas emissions and socioeconomic impacts
    Thanh, L. le - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ekko van Ierland; Xueqin Zhu. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576186 - 197
    biofuels - greenhouse gases - environmental economics - emission - socioeconomics - fuels - natural resources - vietnam - biobrandstoffen - broeikasgassen - milieueconomie - emissie - sociale economie - brandstoffen - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - vietnam
    The overall objective of this thesis is to study the energy efficiency, GHG emission savings, and the economic viability of biofuels as energy for transportation and to examine the impacts of biofuel policies on food production, welfare, and emission in Vietnam.
    An economic model for offshore cultivation of macroalgae
    Dijk, Wim van; Schoot, Jan Rinze van der; Edwards, Maeve ; Queguineur, Benoit ; Champenois, Jennifer ; Mooney, Karen ; Barrento, Sara - \ 2015
    Swansea : Swansea University - 21
    biobased economy - biomass - biofuels - algae - algae culture - oils - seaweeds - seaweed culture - biobased economy - biomassa - biobrandstoffen - algen - algenteelt - oliën - zeewieren - zeewierenteelt
    Algae biomass is considered as a potential non-fossil source of raw materials to produce fuel, feed, chemicals and materials. For this purpose microalgae as well as macroalgae can be used, and in this report we focus on the latter. More than 99% of the world production of aquatic plants is produced in Asia (FAO 2012, Table 1). From the remaining 1% about 4% is cultivated in Europe. Important European countries with commercial seaweed cultivation are Denmark, Ireland and France. Depending on their pigmentation seaweed species are commonly grouped in brown, red and green seaweeds.
    Biorefinery : recovery of valuable biomolecules
    Eppink, M.H.M. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573789 - 28
    biorefinery - recovery - biomass - biofuels - separation technology - biomass conversion - biomass cascading - biobased economy - bioraffinage - terugwinning - biomassa - biobrandstoffen - scheidingstechnologie - biomassaconversie - biomassa cascadering - biobased economy
    Inaugural speech Wageningen University, 23 April 2015
    The feasibility of direct processing of sugar beets in Slovenia: a quick scan
    Jongeneel, R.A. ; Smit, A.L. ; Bakker, Tom ; Jager, J.H. - \ 2015
    LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2015-149) - ISBN 9789086157280 - 25
    sugarbeet - processing - arable farming - ethanol production - biofuels - economic viability - slovenia - cap - european union - biobased economy - suikerbieten - verwerking - akkerbouw - ethanolproductie - biobrandstoffen - economische haalbaarheid - slovenië - gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - europese unie - biobased economy
    This study presents a quick scan of the economic feasibility of direct processing of sugar beet for ethanol production in Slovenia, using the Betaprocess technology. The outcome is that given the prices for sugar, sugar beets, ethanol and other relevant arable crops that are expected to prevail after the liberalisation of the EU’s sugar policy in 2017, direct processing of sugar beets is a profitable activity. This result is conditional on a number of requirements.
    Duurzaamheid, communicatie en veiligheid : verslag van de landelijke bijeenkomst 'Kenniskringen Visserij en duurzaamheid'
    Zaalmink, W. ; Smith, S.R. ; Steenbergen, J. ; Trapman, B.K. ; Valk, O.M.C. van der - \ 2015
    LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI Wageningen UR 2015-160) - 25
    visserij - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - biobrandstoffen - communicatie - familiebedrijven, landbouw - veiligheid - coöperaties - nederland - fisheries - sustainability - biofuels - communication - family farms - safety - cooperatives - netherlands
    Op 6 juni 2015 vond op Fort IJmuiden een landelijke bijeenkomst plaats van het project Kenniskringen Visserij. Het doel van deze dag was te komen tot een uitwisseling van kennisvragen over verschillende visserij gerelateerde thema’s. Het programma bestond uit een plenaire bijeenkomst en uit een aantal zogenoemde cafébijeenkomsten. Bij elke cafébijeenkomst was een relevante expert aanwezig, die de bijeenkomst inleidde. Hierna konden de aanwezigen vragen aan de expert en aan elkaar stellen. Dit verslag is een samenvatting van de uitspraken die door de deelnemers en experts op deze dag gedaan zijn rond de thema’s: 1. Duurzaamheid en de visser als onderzoeker (expert: Bas Haring, volksfilosoof) 2. Communicatie (expert: Marissa Tanis, GoMaris) 3. Fuel of the future (expert: Dirk Kronemeijer) 4. Veiligheid aan boord (expert: Cor Blonk) 5. Coöperaties (expert: Thomas Højrup)
    Illusions, hunger and vices: smallholders, environmentalism and the green agrarian question in Chiapas' biofuel rush
    Castellanos-Navarrete, A. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Leeuwis. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576094 - 221
    biofuels - fuel crops - food vs fuel - mexico - peasant farming - oil palms - biobased economy - biobrandstoffen - brandstofgewassen - voedsel versus brandstof - mexico - landbouw bedrijven in het klein - oliepalmen - biobased economy
    Isolation, characterization and engineering of Bacillus smithii : a novel thermophilic platform organism for green chemical production
    Bosma, E.F. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Willem de Vos; John van der Oost, co-promotor(en): Richard van Kranenburg. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575073 - 220
    bacillus smithii - bacillus (bacteria) - biobrandstoffen - chemicaliën uit biologische grondstoffen - thermofielen - metabolische profilering - genoomanalyse - mutaties - isolatie - bioengineering - karakterisering - bacillus smithii - bacillus (bacteria) - biofuels - biobased chemicals - thermophiles - metabolic profiling - genome analysis - mutations - isolation - bioengineering - characterization

    Due to the globally increasing demand for chemicals and fuels and the high environmental impact and limited amount of fossil resources, there is a growing interest in green chemicals and fuels derived from renewable resources. As described in Chapter 1, one of the most feasible alternatives on the short term is microbial conversion of the sugars in biomass to fuels and chemicals in a biorefinery. To be economically and ethically feasible, non-food biomass should be used as a resource, which is often difficult with currently used production organisms. Also, to be economically feasible, the costs of green chemicals and fuels need to be further reduced to be below the costs of products based on fossil resources. To do so, other organisms than the currently most-used platform organisms such as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae should be used. Ideally, this alternative organism is genetically accessible, has high productivity, titre and yield, is flexible in carbon source, robust, moderately thermophilic, acidophilic, facultatively anaerobic and has little nutritional requirements. The organisms that come closest to these criteria are thermophilic bacilli, which form a diverse class of organisms in the family of Bacillaceae. This thesis describes the isolation, characterization and metabolic engineering of Bacillus smithii, a novel potential thermophilic platform organism.

    Chapter 2 provides more detail on the use of thermophilic microorganisms as platform organisms for green chemical production in a biorefinery concept. As commercially available enzyme mixtures used in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of biomass have their optimum temperature around 50-60°C, using a moderately thermophilic organism would reduce the costs of the SSF process compared to when using mesophiles by reducing the amount of required enzyme. Also, thermophilic processes are less prone to contaminations, and substrate and product solubility are increased. Several successful examples of the application of facultatively anaerobic thermophiles for green chemical production from lignocellulose in an SSF setting are for example Bacillus coagulans for lactic acid production and Bacillus licheniformis for 2,3-butanediol production. However, whereas strongly developed genetic toolboxes are available for current mesophilic production organisms, these tools are still in their infancy for thermophilic organisms. Such tools are required to optimize production and to study metabolism. Thermophilic organisms show a wide variety in metabolism and in many cases the metabolism of these organisms is still poorly understood, hampering full optimization. Chapter 2 furthermore provides an overview of transformation, integration and counter-selection methods currently used for thermophiles. Although several deletion mutants have been constructed using these methods, not all of them are entirely markerless and most are not suited as high-throughput engineering tools, stressing the need for further research in this area.

    Despite several facultatively anaerobic thermophiles being described as genetically accessible, this feature is still one the major bottlenecks in developing these organisms into platform organisms. Therefore, in Chapter 3, we set out to isolate a facultatively anaerobic, moderately thermophilic bacterium that was genetically accessible and produced high titers of organic acids. A total of 267 strains of different thermophilic bacilli species were isolated from compost and screened for C5 and C6 sugar utilization and acid production. The 44 best strains were screened for genetic accessibility via electroporation. Only 3 strains tested positive for this, namely Geobacillus thermodenitrificans strains ET 144-2 and ET 251 and B. smithii strain ET 138. In subsequent evaluations in lab-scale bioreactors at 55°C and pH 6.5 on glucose, the two G. thermodenitrificans strains performed poorly whereas B. smithii performed well with high titers, yields and productivity of mainly lactate. In similar lab-scale reactors, this strain also performed well on xylose and at pH 5.5 and was still able to perform for 48 at pH 4.5. The electroporation protocol for this strain was optimized, resulting in a maximum efficiency of 5x103 colonies per µg plasmid pNW33n. Two other B. smithii strains, among which the type strain DSM 4216T, were also shown to be transformable with pNW33n. This is the first time that genetic accessibility is described for B. smithii and it is the first step towards developing it into a platform organism, for which it appears to be suitable based on its efficient C5 and C6 sugar utilization and acid production profile.

    In order to become a platform organism and to study its atypical metabolism, a genetic toolbox needs to be established for B. smithii. Chapter 5 describes the development of a markerless gene deletion method for B. smithii. For strains ET 138 and DSM 4216T, the ldhL gene was markerlessly removed via double homologous recombination using plasmid pNW33n. Despite the replicative nature of this plasmid at 55°C, mixtures of single and double crossovers were readily obtained. A pure double crossover deletion mutant was obtained after several transfers on a more defined medium containing acetate or lactate and PCR-based screenings. To eliminate the possibility of mixed genotypes, we subsequently developed a lacZ-counter-selection system, which is based on the toxicity of high X-gal concentrations in the presence of the plasmid-encoded lacZ gene. Using this method, the sporulation-specific sigma factor sigF and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E1-α pdhA were consecutively removed from the B. smithii ET 138 genome in a markerless way. An initial evaluation of the growth and production profiles of the mutant strains in tubes showed that removal of the ldhL gene eliminates l-lactate production and causes a severe decrease in anaerobic growth and production capacities. B. smithii mutants lacking the sigF gene were unable to sporulate and removal of the pdhA gene eliminated acetate production and rendered the strains auxotrophic for acetate.

    Biobrandstof met het gemak van benzine
    Klein Lankhorst, R.M. - \ 2015
    Akker magazine 11 (2015)6. - ISSN 1875-9688 - p. 34 - 34.
    brandstoffen - biobrandstoffen - waterstof - zonne-energie - fotosynthese - energiebronnen - projecten - biobased economy - fuels - biofuels - hydrogen - solar energy - photosynthesis - energy sources - projects - biobased economy
    Onderzoekers in Wageningen werken aan brandstoffen voor voertuigen die hernieuwbaar zijn en tegelijk hetzelfde gemak kennen als benzine en diesel. In het BioSolar Cellsconsortium werken ze met technieken die geïnspireerd zijn op fotosynthese in planten. Van water wordt met zonlicht waterstof gemaakt. Met koolzuurgas en enzymen wordt dit gas omgezet in een vloeibare brandstof. Dat is makkelijker te transporteren dan waterstofgas. In plaats van benzine kan de automobilist dan straks klimaatneutrale zonnebrandstof tanken.
    Macro-economics of algae products : Output WP2A7.02
    Voort, M.P.J. van der; Vulsteke, E. ; Visser, C.L.M. de - \ 2015
    EnAlgae Swansea University - 47
    marktonderzoek - algen - macro-economische analyse - markten - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - biobrandstoffen - market research - algae - macroeconomic analysis - markets - biobased materials - biobased chemistry - biobased economy - biofuels
    This report is part of the EnAlgae Workpackage 2, Action 7, directed at the economics of algae production. The goal of this report is to highlight potential markets for algae. Per type of algae market the market size, product alternatives, constraints and prices are highlighted. Based on these market characteristics a conclusion is drawn on the market potential for algae products. Per market desk research is done and literature is consulted to create a reliable market outlook.
    AlgaeEconomics: bio-economic production models of micro-algae and downstream processing to produce bio energy carriers
    Spruijt, J. ; Schipperus, R. ; Kootstra, A.M.J. ; Visser, C.L.M. de - \ 2015
    EnAlgae Swansea University - 67
    algenteelt - teeltsystemen - productiekosten - biomassa productie - economische modellen - groeimodellen - biobrandstoffen - biobased economy - bioraffinage - algae culture - cropping systems - production costs - biomass production - economic models - growth models - biofuels - biobased economy - biorefinery
    This report describes results of work carried out within the EnAlgae project to describe production costs and identify the variables that have most effect in determining future cost prices so that R&D can be focussed on these issues. This has been done by making use of pilots within the EnAlgae consortium and by describing the process in Excel models that have been spread among and discussed with stakeholders active in the field of commercial algae production. The expectation is that this transparency and interaction will lead to an increase of the learning curve to make algae production cheaper and thus supplying more markets.
    Inventory of North-West European algae initiatives
    Spruijt, J. - \ 2015
    EnAlgae Swansea University (Report WP2A7.01 )
    projecten - algen - algenteelt - biobrandstoffen - biobased economy - europa - projects - algae - algae culture - biofuels - biobased economy - europe
    In 2012 an inventory of North-West European (NWE) algae initiatives was carried out to get an impression of the market and research activities on algae production and refinery, especially for bioenergy purposes. A questionnaire was developed that would provide the EnAlgae project with information on the value chains in which algae production was positioned within these initiatives. The questionnaire was used by EnAlgae project partners to collect information in Great Britain, Ireland, Germany, Belgium, France, Switzerland, Luxemburg and the Netherlands. Information about algae initiatives originated from networks and from internet searches. Additional information was collected by bilateral contact with contact persons of several initiatives. The analysis of the results is reported here.
    Nut en risico’s van covergisting : syntheserapport
    Oenema, O. ; Velthof, G.L. ; Commissie Deskundigen Meststoffenwet, - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 32) - 144
    co-vergisting - mest - biogas - biobrandstoffen - dierlijke meststoffen - duurzame energie - overheidsbeleid - broeikasgassen - gezondheid - emissiereductie - bio-energie - veiligheid - biobased economy - co-fermentation - manures - biogas - biofuels - animal manures - sustainable energy - government policy - greenhouse gases - health - emission reduction - bioenergy - safety - biobased economy
    Op verzoek van de ministeries van Economische Zaken en van Infrastructuur & Milieu heeft de Commissie Deskundigen Meststoffenwet (CDM) samen met het Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM), de Omgevingsdienst Zuidoost-Brabant, de Technische commissie bodem (TCB) en diverse instellingen van de ministeries van Economische Zaken en Infrastructuur & Milieu een studie uitgevoerd naar het nut en de risico’s van covergisting van mest in Nederland. Deze studie levert de bouwstenen om het overheidsbeleid voor covergisting door het kabinet en de Tweede Kamer te evalueren. De studie is in het bijzonder gericht op de volgende aspecten: • de meerwaarde van covergisting voor duurzame energie, het gebruik van reststoffen, de reductie broeikasgassen en het verminderen van het mestoverschot; • de risico’s van covergisting voor de gezondheid en veiligheid van mens, dier en het milieu; • de maatregelen waarmee deze risico’s zouden kunnen worden beperkt; en • de handhaafbaarheid van regels, en maatregelen om de handhaafbaarheid te verbeteren. De ministeries hebben in totaal 48 vragen gesteld. Deze 48 vragen zijn in dit rapport beantwoord mede op basis van rapportages van betrokken instellingen. Het rapport bevat ten slotte de synthese, conclusies en aanbevelingen.
    The Economics of Biofuel Policies. Impacts on Price Volatility in Grain and Oilseed Markets
    Gorter, H. de; Drabik, D. - \ 2015
    New York (USA) : Palgrave Macmillan (Palgrave studies in agricultural economics and food policy ) - ISBN 9781137414847
    agrarische economie - milieubeleid - biobrandstoffen - bio-energie - biomassa - energie - voedselprijzen - basisproducten - ethanolproductie - suikerriet - vluchtigheid - landbouwprijzen - agricultural economics - environmental policy - biofuels - bioenergy - biomass - energy - food prices - commodities - ethanol production - sugarcane - volatility - agricultural prices
    The global food crises of 2008 and 2010 and the increased price volatility revolve around biofuels policies and their interaction with each other, farm policies and between countries. The Economics of Biofuel Policies focuses on the role of biofuel policies in creating turmoil in the world grains and oilseed markets since 2006. This book puts together theory and empirical evidence of how biofuel policies created a link between crop (food grains and oilseeds) and biofuel (ethanol and biodiesel) prices. This combined with biofuel policies role in affecting the link between biofuels and energy (gasoline, diesel and crude oil) prices will form the basis to show how alternative US, EU, and Brazilian biofuel policies have immense impacts on the level and volatility of food grain and oilseed prices.
    De waarheid over biomassa
    Rabbinge, R. - \ 2015
    Milieu : opinieblad van de Vereniging van Milieuprofessionals 21 (2015)2. - ISSN 1873-5436 - p. 8 - 9.
    milieubeleid - biobrandstoffen - biobased economy - bio-energie - overheidsbeleid - subsidies - voedsel versus brandstof - duurzame energie - environmental policy - biofuels - biobased economy - bioenergy - government policy - subsidies - food vs fuel - sustainable energy
    Het is twijfelachtig of het klimaat gebaat is bij biobrandstof of bij het meestoken van hout in kolencentrales. Dat blijkt uit het visiedocument ‘Biobrandstof en hout als energiebronnen’ van de Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen (KNAW). Van diverse kanten is kritisch op de bevindingen gereageerd. Ten onrechte. Biomassa inzetten voor energiewinning is alleen zinvol in de allerlaatste fase van hergebruik.
    Valorization of jatropha fruit biomass for energy applications
    Marasabessy, A. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Johan Sanders, co-promotor(en): Ruud Weusthuis; M. Moeis. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572614 - 147
    landbouwbijproducten - jatropha curcas - bio-energie - bioraffinage - biobrandstoffen - economische aspecten - extractie - fractionering - hydrolyse - indonesië - agricultural byproducts - jatropha curcas - bioenergy - biorefinery - biofuels - economic aspects - extraction - fractionation - hydrolysis - indonesia

    Valorization of Jatropha fruit biomass for

    energy applications

    Ahmad Marasabessy

    Thesis Abstract

    Our research objectives were to develop sustainable technologies of Jatropha oil extraction and Jatropha biomass fractionation within a framework of bioconversions (enzymatic and microbial processings). Microbial extraction of oil from Jatropha kernels using whole cells of Bacillus pumilus yields 73% oil, and this is comparable to the known processes such as by using expeller or by enzymatic extraction. The bacterium facilitates oil liberation via degradation of hemicelluloses therefore the majority of Jatropha proteins were preserved in the solid phase of the extraction residues. In investigating the effect of dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment on the enzymatic digestibility of the lignocellulosic components of Jatropha fruit biomass, we found that the seed shell and the seed cake were more recalcitrant to dilute sulfuric acid pretreatments than the fruit hull. A pretreatment of the fruit hull at optimum conditions (10% solid loading, 0.9% sulfuric acid, 30 min, 178 oC) followed by neutralization and a 24-h enzymatic hydrolysis with cellulases (GC220) liberated 100% pentoses (71% yield and 29% degradation to furfural) and 83% hexoses (78% yield and 5% degradation to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural). The fruit hull hydrolyzate can be used as a substrate for Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce ethanol in SSF process. Our economic analysis in the retrospectives showed that valorization of the fruit biomass into variuos products (oil, protein isolate, lignin, biogas, bio-oil, etc.) using the most known techniques (pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, extraction, separation, anaerobic digestion, pyrolysis) could improve the economy value of this biofuel crop significantly.

    JATROPT (Jatropha curcas: Applied and Technological Research on Plant Traits) : Final report EU FP7 Grant 245236 (2010-2013)
    Loo, E.N. van; Jongschaap, R.E.E. - \ 2014
    Plant Research International - 31
    jatropha curcas - fuel crops - plant breeding - new crops - genetic improvement - yield increases - biofuels - biobased economy - jatropha curcas - brandstofgewassen - plantenveredeling - nieuwe cultuurgewassen - genetische verbetering - oogsttoename - biobrandstoffen - biobased economy
    JATROPT aimed to improve jatropha production systems through developing advanced genetics tools for breeding and for development of jatropha agro-systems.
    Agriculture Beyond Food: Experiences from Indonesia
    Loffler, H.J.M. ; Afiff, S. ; Burgers, P.P.M. ; Govers, C. ; Heeres, H.J. ; Karyanto, O. ; Manurung, R. ; Vel, J.A.C. ; Visscher, S. ; Zwaagstra, T. ; Widyarani, R. - \ 2014
    The Hague : NWO/WOTRO - ISBN 9789077875858 - 117
    oliepalmen - biobrandstoffen - biobased economy - biodiesel - reststromen - landdegradatie - jatropha - economische ontwikkeling - projecten - indonesië - oil palms - biofuels - residual streams - land degradation - economic development - projects - indonesia
    The ABF programme addresses one of today’s major societal challenges, how to achieve a sustainable and inclusive biobased economy, with high-level scientific research on the thin lines between food and non-food, commodities and waste products, livelihood opportunities and risks, and local and global economy. This book provides insights into the main issues and key questions relating to the biobased economy, reflects on the objectives of the ABF programme, and offers policy recommendations. It summarises the projects conducted within the three major clusters at the heart of the programme: migration and forest transformation, breakthroughs in biofuel production technology, and the commoditisation of an alternative biofuel crop. The book ends with a number of lessons learned from the ABF programme on interdisciplinary programming.
    Evaluating the macroeconomic impacts of bio-based applications in the EU
    Smeets, E.M.W. ; Vinyes, C. ; Tabeau, A.A. ; Meijl, J.C.M. van; Brink, C. ; Prins, H. - \ 2014
    Luxembourg : Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (JRC scientific and policy reports ) - ISBN 9789279395369 - 40
    macro-economische analyse - biobased economy - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - biobrandstoffen - bio-energie - economische evaluatie - economisch beleid - europese unie - macroeconomic analysis - biobased economy - biobased chemistry - biofuels - bioenergy - economic evaluation - economic policy - european union
    In 2012, the European Commission (EC) launched the Bioeconomy Strategy and Action Plan with the objective of establishing a resource efficient and competitive society that reconciles food security with the sustainable use of renewable resources. This report contributes to the plan by evaluating the macroeconomic impacts of bio-based applications in the EU. Such effects can only be evaluated with a computable general equilibrium model such as MAGNET. Four bio-based applications are considered, namely biofuel (second generation), biochemicals, bioelectricity, and biogas (synthetic natural gas). This is done assuming that 1 EJ lignocellulose biomass is converted into fuel, chemicals, electricity and gas and that the final product replaces an equal amount of conventional (e.g. fossil energy) product (on energy basis). The results show that given the assumed efficiency of conversion technology, costs of conversion, biomass price and oil price, the production of second generation biofuel and biochemicals are the only competitive sectors compare to their conventional counterparts in the year 2030 for the EU. In the case of the fuel sectors, it represents a net GDP effect of 5.1 billion US dollars while biochemicals generates 6 billion US dollars. A substantial part of this impact can be explained by the increase in wages, since the production of biomass is relatively labour intensive. The resulting increase in wages is transmitted to other sectors in the economy and increases production and consumption. Another important contributor is the lower oil and fuel price as a result of the substitution of oil based fuel production by bio-based fuel production, which in turn benefits the entire economy
    IEA Bioenergy Task42 Biorefining : sustainable and synergetic processing of biomass into marketable food & feed ingredients, chemicals, materials and energy (fuels, power, heat)
    Ree, R. van; Zeeland, A.N.T. van - \ 2014
    bioraffinage - secundaire sector - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - biobrandstoffen - voedseltechniek - biomassaconversie - biorefinery - secondary sector - biobased chemistry - biobased economy - biofuels - food engineering - biomass conversion
    Naast een overzicht van de huidige status van bioraffinage, biedt dit rapport inzicht in waardevolle producten van bioraffinaderijen, zoals eiwitten voor voeding en non-foodtoepassingen en biologische chemicaliën. Ook worden er in het rapport dertig praktische voorbeelden van bioraffinagefaciliteiten genoemd in landen die deelnemen aan IEA Task42, met details over de types bioraffinaderijen, grondstoffen en outputs. Het rapport geeft een onafhankelijk overzicht over bioraffinage in het algemeen, en over de specifieke activiteiten binnen IEA Bioenergy Task42 bioraffinage.
    Biofuels and Vertical Price Transmission: The Case of the US Corn, Ethanol, and Food Markets
    Drabik, D. ; Ciaian, P. ; Pokrivcak, J. - \ 2014
    KU Leuven, LICOS
    voedsel versus brandstof - biobrandstoffen - marktprijzen - agrarische economie - economische analyse - maïs - bioethanol - voedselprijzen - vs - biobased economy - food vs fuel - biofuels - market prices - agricultural economics - economic analysis - maize - bioethanol - food prices - usa - biobased economy
    This is the first paper to analyze the impact of biofuels on the price transmission along the food chain. We analyze the U.S. corn sector and its vertical links with food and ethanol (energy) markets. We find that biofuels affect the price transmission elasticity in the food chain compared to a no biofuel production situation but the effect depends on the source of the market shock and the policy regime: the price transmission elasticity declines under a binding blender’s tax credit and a food market shock. Our results also indicate that the response of corn and food prices to shocks in the corn and/or food markets is lower in the presence of biofuels. Finally, the sensitivity analyses indicate that our results are robust to different assumptions about the model parameters.
    (Voor)droging van zuiveringsslib in kassen met en zonder restwarmte
    Meddeler, Barry ; Reitsma, Berend ; Zwart, Feije de - \ 2013
    Amersfoort : Stowa (Stowa rapport 2013-38) - ISBN 9789057736148 - 88
    slib - bio-energie - slibzuivering - warmte - biobrandstoffen - sludges - bioenergy - sludge treatment - heat - biofuels
    In deze STOWA rapportage zijn de kansen van slibdroging in kassen voor de Nederlandse situatie beschreven. Er wordt inzicht gegeven in de potenties van de techniek van kassendroging aan de hand van (voornamelijk Duitse) praktijkervaringen en literatuur. Daarnaast zijn met modelberekeningen vier praktijkcasussen doorgerekend om de haalbaarheid voor Nederland in te schatten.
    Algen voor het leven
    Vianen, Margriet van; Linssen, Guido - \ 2013
    Wageningen UR - 66
    lesmaterialen - algen - fotosynthese - biobrandstoffen - voortgezet onderwijs - biomassa productie - celbiologie - biobased economy - teaching materials - algae - photosynthesis - biofuels - secondary education - biomass production - cellular biology - biobased economy
    De module Algen voor het leven gaat over fotosynthese en hoe alternatieve brandstoffen als biodiesel ingezet kunnen worden.
    Algen: de groene belofte
    Lamers, P.P. ; Buiter, R. ; Hoekstra, W.P.M. - \ 2013
    Den Haag : Stichting Bio-Wetenschappen en Maatschappij (Cahier / Bio-Wetenschappen en Maatschappij 3) - ISBN 9789073196711 - 72
    algen - technologie - aquatische ecologie - zeewierproducten - zeeproducten - biobrandstoffen - algenteelt - genetische modificatie - biobased economy - algae - technology - aquatic ecology - seaweed products - marine products - biofuels - algae culture - genetic engineering - biobased economy
    Algen vervullen niet alleen een essentiële rol in het water, ze staan ook in toenemende belangstelling van de technologie. Vliegtuigen zouden erop kunnen vliegen, kweekvis en andere dieren kunnen ermee worden gevoed. Algen lijken een bron van vele mooie producten en toepassingen, maar de belofte is nog geen praktijk. In dit cahier belichten wetenschappers uit het algenonderzoek wat de rol van algen in de natuur is, wat de potentie is van algen als producenten van biobrandstoffen of andere producten, en vooral wat er nog moet gebeuren voor de belofte realiteit wordt.
    Transportbrandstof uit biogas geeft hoger rendement en verduurzaamt
    Kasper, G.J. - \ 2013
    V-focus 10 (2013)6. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 24 - 26.
    biogas - gasproductie - opwaarderen - warmtekrachtkoppeling - energieproductie in de landbouw - biobrandstoffen - biobased economy - mestvergisting - technieken - economische haalbaarheid - biogas - gas production - upgrading - cogeneration - agricultural energy production - biofuels - biobased economy - manure fermentation - techniques - economic viability
    Bij vergisting van mest ontstaat biogas dat met een WKK kan worden omgezet in elektriciteit en warmte. Probleem is vaak dat de warmte onvoldoende benut wordt. Het opwerken van biogas tot transportbrandstof kan een oplossing hiervoor zijn, waarbij gelet moet worden op schaalgrootte van vergisting, type opwerkingstechniek en afzetmarkt.
    Brandstof kweken biedt zicht op schone toekomst
    Klein Lankhorst, R.M. - \ 2013
    Milieu : opinieblad van de Vereniging van Milieuprofessionals 2013 (2013)sept. - ISSN 1873-5436 - p. 11 - 13.
    zonne-energie - biobrandstoffen - biobased economy - duurzame energie - fotosynthese - stralingsbenuttigingsefficiëntie - cyanobacteriën - solar energy - biofuels - biobased economy - sustainable energy - photosynthesis - radiation use efficiency - cyanobacteria
    De zon is onze perfecte duurzame energiebron die we kunnen aftappen via fotosynthese. Planten doen dit al van nature, maar lang niet efficiënt genoeg. Daarom werkt het bedrijf BioSolar Cells aan de ontwikkeling van Solar Fuels: brandstoffen die rechtstreeks, zonder eerst biomassa te maken, worden gemaakt uit zonlicht, water en CO2. Dit kan met hoge efficiëntie en ondervangt bovendien een aantal knellende problemen met het gebruik van biomassa.
    Biomass for biodiesel production on family farms in Brazil: promise or failure? : integrated assessment of biodiesel crops, farms, policies and producer organisations
    Belo Leite, J.G. Dal - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Martin van Ittersum, co-promotor(en): Maja Slingerland; Jos Bijman. - Wageningen : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461737601 - 224
    biodiesel - biomassa - familiebedrijven, landbouw - gewassen - gewasproductie - beleid - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - helianthus annuus - brazilië - biobrandstoffen - biobased economy - biodiesel - biomass - family farms - crops - crop production - policy - sustainability - helianthus annuus - brazil - biofuels - biobased economy
    In Brazil, a biodiesel policy was implemented as a way of reducing poverty among family farms. The objective of this thesis is to perform an integrated assessment of biodiesel crops, farm types, biodiesel policies and producer organisations that reveals opportunities and limitations of family farmers’ engagement in the biodiesel supply chain.
    RED versus REDD: Biofuel Policy versus Forest Conservation
    Dixon, P. ; Meijl, H. van; Rimmer, M. ; Shutes, L.J. ; Tabeau, A.A. - \ 2013
    Brussel : CEPS (Factor markets working papers / Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS) no. 41) - ISBN 9789461383082 - 22
    biobrandstoffen - bosbescherming - europese unie - richtlijnen (directives) - beleid - agrarische economie - biobased economy - biofuels - protection of forests - european union - directives - policy - agricultural economics - biobased economy
    This paper assesses the complex interplay between global Renewable Energy Directives (RED) and the United Nations programme to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD). The interaction of the two policies is examined using a scenario approach with a recursive-dynamic global Computable General Equilibrium model. The consequences of a global biofuel directive on worldwide land use, agricultural production, international trade flows, food prices and food security out to 2030 are evaluated with and without a strict global REDD policy.
    Op weg naar een cleantech toekomst : beknopt verslag van de lustrumconferentie van ACRRES
    PPO Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroente, - \ 2013
    Lelystad : PPO-agv/ACRRES (PPO 550) - 48
    vervangbare hulpbronnen - biobrandstoffen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzame energie - flevoland - biobased economy - renewable resources - biofuels - sustainability - sustainable energy - flevoland - biobased economy
    Verslag van de lustrumconferentie van het Application Centre for Renewable REScources (ACRRES) op 7 maart 2013 te Lelystad. De afbeeldingen uit presentaties en de foto’s in het verslag vormen een selectie uit de presentaties en foto’s die zijn gepresenteerd resp. gemaakt tijdens het symposium: Naar een duurzame, groen economy (prof. dr ir Rudy Rabbinge); De energiemarkt in beweging (dr Manon Jansen); Een duurzaam rijksbeleid (drs Marieke van der Werf); Flevoland klaar voor de toekomst (Jan-Nico Appelman); Duurzaam EnergieRijk, de resultaten (dr ir Rommie van de Weide en Fred van Rooyen); De ambities en mogelijkheden met duurzame energiewinning van Rijkswaterstaat (ir Annette Augustijn).
    Eindrapportage Energieboerderij : samenvatting
    Kamp, J.A.L.M. ; Visser, C.L.M. de; Meuffels, G.J.H.M. ; Voort, M.P.J. van der; Stilma, E.S.C. ; Hanse, B. ; Huijbregts, A.W.M. - \ 2013
    Kennisakker.nl 2013 (2013)17 april.
    bio-energie - brandstofgewassen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - biobased economy - biobrandstoffen - maïs - duurzaamheidscriteria - suikerbieten - koolzaad - best practices - akkerbouw - bioenergy - fuel crops - sustainability - biobased economy - biofuels - maize - sustainability criteria - sugarbeet - rape - best practices - arable farming
    Energieboerderij is een project dat de duurzaamheid van in Nederland geproduceerde biomassa wil verbeteren. Het kernpunt van het project is meten, registreren en verbeteren onder praktijkomstandigheden. Het project is op 1 juli 2008 van start gegaan met drie biomassaketens waarbij bio-energie geproduceerd wordt: maïs die vergist wordt in een covergistingsinstallatie; suikerbieten die vergist worden in een covergistingsinstallatie; koolzaad waarvan het zaad wordt geperst tot Pure Plantaardige Olie (PPO).
    Stroomschema PPO - Biodiesel
    Voort, M.P.J. van der; Stilma, E.S.C. - \ 2013
    biobrandstoffen - biobased economy - productieprocessen - koolzaad - plantaardige oliën - biofuels - biobased economy - production processes - rape - plant oils
    Poster met stroomschema van de productie van puur plantaardige olie (PPO) en biodiesel uit koolzaad.
    Sustainability aspects of biobased products : comparison of different crops and products from the vegetable oil platform
    Meesters, K.P.H. ; Corré, W.J. ; Conijn, J.G. ; Patel, M.K. ; Bos, H.L. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Report / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1441) - ISBN 9789461739827 - 68
    oil plants - plant oils - palm oils - soyabean oil - rapeseed oil - sustainability - sustainability indicators - renewable energy - greenhouse gases - land use - biobased economy - biofuels - biopolymers - olieleverende planten - plantaardige oliën - palmoliën - sojaolie - raapzaadolie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzaamheidsindicatoren - hernieuwbare energie - broeikasgassen - landgebruik - biobased economy - biobrandstoffen - biopolymeren
    This study focusses on the production of vegetable oil based products. A limited number of aspacts of the sustainability of the full chain (from agriculture to product at the factory gate) was evaluated. Three different vegetable oils were taken into account: palm oil, soy oil and rapeseed oil. Also three different products made from vegetable oil were evaluated: biodiesel, polyol (a raw material for production of PU foams) and resin. In the present study, sustainability of these products was evaluated through the following parameters: Non-Renewable Energy Usage (NREU) (GJ per ton of product); Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions (ton CO2-equivalent per ton of product); Land use (ha/ton vegetable oil) and NREU and GHG emission avoided (GJ or ton CO2-equivalent per hectare of land).
    De Energieboerderij : eindrapportage
    Kamp, J.A.L.M. ; Visser, C.L.M. de; Meuffels, G.J.H.M. ; Voort, M.P.J. van der; Stilma, E.S.C. - \ 2012
    Lelystad : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving Wageningen UR, Business Unit Akkerbouw Groene ruimte en Vollegrondsgroenten - 44
    bio-energie - brandstofgewassen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - biobased economy - biobrandstoffen - maïs - duurzaamheidscriteria - suikerbieten - koolzaad - akkerbouw - best practices - bioenergy - fuel crops - sustainability - biobased economy - biofuels - maize - sustainability criteria - sugarbeet - rape - arable farming - best practices
    De zoektocht naar nieuwe vormen van duurzame energie heeft geleid tot de vraag hoe duurzaam de energie is die uit biomassa, als hernieuwbare grondstof, geproduceerd wordt. Het project Energieboerderij is gestart om de duurzaamheid van in Nederland geproduceerde biomassa, in het bijzonder energieteelten, inzichtelijk te maken, te bepalen en te verbeteren. Er is gewerkt met een drietal in de praktijk functionerende ketens: 1. maïs – vergisting – elektriciteit; 2. suikerbieten – vergisting – elektriciteit; 3. koolzaad – Pure Plantaardige Olie / biodiesel. Het uitgangspunt was om de berekeningen zo weinig mogelijk te baseren op gegevens uit de literatuur, maar vooral gegevens van praktijkbedrijven te verzamelen en te analyseren. De duurzaamheid is bepaald met een speciaal hiervoor ontwikkelde meetlat, waarmee de energie-efficiëntie en broeikasgasemissiereductie kan worden bepaald. Deze meetlat vormt de basis voor het berekenen van duurzaamheidskengetallen en het optimaliseren van energieteelten. De uitkomsten zijn getoetst aan de duurzaamheidscriteria zoals vastgelegd in de EU-RED (Renewable Energy Directive) richtlijn voor energie uit hernieuwbare grondstoffen.
    Liberalisering verwerking categorie 1- en categorie 2-slachtbijproducten : een marktanalyse
    Oosterkamp, E.B. ; Hoste, R. ; Aramyan, L.H. - \ 2012
    Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Nota / LEI : Onderzoeksveld Markt & ketens )
    afvalverwerking - dierlijk afval - kadaverafval - slachthuisafval - markten - aanbod - vraag - bio-energie - biobrandstoffen - biobased economy - dierlijk vet - vleesbeendermeel - waste treatment - animal wastes - carcass waste - slaughterhouse waste - markets - supply - demand - bioenergy - biofuels - biobased economy - animal fat - meat and bone meal
    Aanleiding voor dit onderzoek vormen de beleidsbeslissingen om het destructiebestel te herzien, zoals ze in de memorie van toelichting bij de Wet Dieren verwoord worden uitgelegd. Hier staat dat alleen het op-halen en verwerken van kadavers gereguleerd zal blijven1 en de destructiemarkt voor ander categorie 1- en categorie 2-materiaal zal worden geliberaliseerd. De onderzoeksvragen zijn: 1. Hoeveel nieuwe verwerkers van categorie 1- en categorie 2-slachtbijproducten zullen toetreden? 2. Hoeveel materiaal zullen ze verwerken? Waar betrekken zij hun materiaal vandaan en tegen welke prijzen? De markt van dierlijke vetten en melen is klein maar ondoorzichtig. Opbrengstprijzen van verwerkte cat. 1- en cat. 2-slachtbijproducten zijn niet algemeen bekend, omdat ze onderling worden overeengekomen. Dat geldt ook voor niet-gereguleerde tarieven voor verwerking. De benadering in deze rapportage is daardoor meer kwalitatief gebleven en er zijn geen rentabiliteitsberekeningen uitgevoerd.
    Duurzame Koolzaad¿ Diervoeder¿ Energieketens (DKDE) : een aanzet tot agrarische keteninrichting nieuwe stijl
    Janssens, S.R.M. ; Heetebrij, J.C.G. ; Aberson, H. - \ 2012
    raapzaadolie - koolzaad - projecten - agro-industriële ketens - ketenmanagement - haalbaarheidsstudies - biobrandstoffen - biobased economy - rapeseed oil - rape - projects - agro-industrial chains - supply chain management - feasibility studies - biofuels - biobased economy
    De ontwikkeling van een nieuw ingerichte DKDE zal leiden tot een verhoogd gewassaldo voor telers en tegelijkertijd tot het scheppen van nieuwe, innovatieve, duurzame bedrijvigheid op het platteland. Het primaire doel van een nieuw op te starten project is het verkennen en tot stand brengen van een dergelijke keten. In deze flyer gaat het om het verkennende deel: het haalbaarheidsonderzoek.
    Safeguarding the sustainability of bioenergy in Europe. The implementation and impact of the EC Renewable Energy Directive and Fuel Quality Directive
    Rau, M.L. ; Smeets, E.M.W. ; Georgiev, E.S. ; Leeuwen, M.G.A. van - \ 2012
    The Hague : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR : Research area International policy ) - ISBN 9789086155958 - 115
    bio-energie - biobrandstoffen - biobased economy - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzaamheidscriteria - duurzaamheidsindicatoren - europese unie - energiebeleid - beleid - duurzame energie - certificering - economische modellen - bioenergy - biofuels - biobased economy - sustainability - sustainability criteria - sustainability indicators - european union - energy policy - policy - sustainable energy - certification - economic models
    In this study, the sustainability criteria in the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) and the Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) are investigated and reviewed. First, an overview is given of the current and future use of bioenergy, and bioenergy policies in the EU are discussed. Next, it is discussed how the RED-FQD sustainability criteria are operationalised into practically indicators, including a critical evaluation of the scientific robustness, completeness and accuracy of the approaches and indicators used in the RED-FQD. Finally, various options are formulated and a discussion is presented on how the sustainability of biofuels can be investigated using economic models such as the global computable general equilibrium model MAGNET (Modular Applied GeNeral Equilibrium Tool). Such an analysis is needed to ascertain the impact of biofuel policies and will help to provide useful insights and advice for policy-makers.
    Who cares about research?! : a study on the role of research in policy processes in competing claims contexts
    Schut, M. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Leeuwis, co-promotor(en): Annemarie van Paassen. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461731487 - 280
    natuurlijke hulpbronnen - nuttig gebruik - hulpbronnengebruik - onderzoek - invloeden - beleidsprocessen - waterbeheer - ruimtelijke ordening - polders - biesbosch - nederland - biobrandstoffen - productie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - mozambique - natural resources - utilization - resource utilization - research - influences - policy processes - water management - physical planning - polders - biesbosch - netherlands - biofuels - production - sustainability - mozambique
    A study on the role of research in policy processes in competing claims contexts
    Resource use efficiency and environmental performance of biofuel cropping systems
    Vries, S.C. de - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Martin van Ittersum; Ken Giller, co-promotor(en): Gerrie van de Ven. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461731173 - 211
    biobrandstoffen - gebruiksefficiëntie - hulpbronnenbeheer - bioethanol - biodiesel - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzaamheidsindicatoren - brandstofgewassen - biobased economy - biofuels - use efficiency - resource management - bioethanol - biodiesel - sustainability - sustainability indicators - fuel crops - biobased economy
    Dit proefschrift heeft tot doel om de productie-ecologische duurzaamheid te analyseren van een aantal productieketens voor biobrandstoffen die zoveel mogelijk de wereldwijde verscheidenheid aan gewassen, biofysische en overige omstandigheden weerspiegelen. Productie-ecologische duurzaamheid maakt deel uit van de milieudimensie van duurzaamheid; voor ons specifieke doel hebben we dit deelgebied gedefinieerd middels een set duurzaamheidsindicatoren die betrekking hebben op de efficiëntie waarmee schaarse grondstoffen gebruikt worden, op bodemkwaliteit, netto energieproductie en broeikasgasemissies. Een tweede doel van dit proefschrift is het formuleren van een algemene methodiek die duurzaamheidsanalyses van productieketens voor biobrandstoffen mogelijk maakt, die helpt bij het ontwikkelen van zulke systemen met een minimum aan landgebruiksverandering en mogelijk een basis zou kunnen vormen voor het certificeren van de duurzaamheid ervan.
    Concurrentie voor Braziliaanse ethanol
    Visser, C.L.M. de - \ 2012
    Kennis Online 9 (2012)april. - p. 12 - 12.
    bio-energie - biobrandstoffen - biobased economy - bioethanol - geïntegreerde systemen - biogas - warmte - energieproductie in de landbouw - bioenergy - biofuels - biobased economy - bioethanol - integrated systems - biogas - heat - agricultural energy production
    Een Nederlandse boer kan concurreren met een Braziliaanse bio-ethanolfabriek. Voorwaarde is wel dat hij zoveel mogelijk energie perst uit elke stengel stro of korrel maïs. In Lelystad zoeken onderzoekers naar de meest efficiënte combinatie van algenteelt, mestvergisting en de productie van bio-ethanol.
    Economic and environmental performance of oilseed cropping systems for biodiesel production : existing cultivation practices in the European Union
    Conijn, J.G. ; Corre, W.J. ; Ruijter, F.J. de - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Plant Research International Wageningen UR, Business Unit Agrosystems (Report / Plant Research International 418) - 61
    biobrandstoffen - biobased economy - broeikasgassen - emissie - olieleverende planten - teelt - akkerbouw - europese unie - biodiesel - energiegebruik - biofuels - biobased economy - greenhouse gases - emission - oil plants - cultivation - arable farming - european union - biodiesel - energy consumption
    The Ecodiesel project aims at a drastic improvement of the GHG emission of current biodiesel production in the EU. If the biodiesel is produced from crops, the way the crop is cultivated at the farm is very important because calculations have shown that the emission from crop cultivation have a large effect on the total chein performance. This reports aims at a description of the baseline of oilcrop cultivation, i.e. the existing practices in the EU27 and the associated economic and environmental performance, notably energy use and GHG emission.
    De Energieboerderij : eindrapportage
    Kamp, J.A.L.M. ; Visser, C.L.M. de; Meuffels, G.J.H.M. ; Voort, M.P.J. van der; Stilma, E.S.C. - \ 2011
    Lelystad : PPO AGV - 47
    brandstofgewassen - biobrandstoffen - biobased economy - bio-energie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - maïs - koolzaad - suikerbieten - best practices - akkerbouw - duurzaamheidscriteria - fuel crops - biofuels - biobased economy - bioenergy - sustainability - maize - rape - sugarbeet - best practices - arable farming - sustainability criteria
    projectnummer 3250034800
    Cellulose, een eindeloze bron van mogelijkheden
    Keijsers, E.R.P. ; Dam, J.E.G. van; Yilmaz, G. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Food & Biobased Research nr. 1274) - ISBN 9789461730787 - 35
    chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - cellulose - biobrandstoffen - biobased economy - economische ontwikkeling - industriële grondstoffen - chemische industrie - marktonderzoek - biobased chemistry - cellulose - biofuels - biobased economy - economic development - feedstocks - chemical industry - market research
    Vanwege de grote diversiteit van potentiële cellulose bronnen en de grote verschillen in kwalitatieve eigenschappen en samenstelling van deze cellulose types is het van belang in kaart te brengen voor welke toepassingen de verschillende grondstoffen het meest geschikt zijn. Voor het opstellen van een dergelijke “cellulose matrix” dient aandacht te zijn voor de kwalitatieve aspecten van de grondstof alsook voor de kwantitative beschikbaarheid en praktische verwerkbaarheid van de grondstof in de applicatie. WUR-FBR heeft tijdens deze initiële studie een gedetailleerde matrix opgesteld, waarbij de verschillende componenten van de matrix zijn geïdentificeerd en een eerste invulling van de matrix is opgezet.
    Analysis of growth dynamics of Mediterranean bioenergy crops
    Archontoulis, S.V. - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Paul Struik, co-promotor(en): N.G. Danalatos; Xinyou Yin. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461730091 - 235
    agro-ecologie - ecofysiologie - bio-energie - biobrandstoffen - brandstofgewassen - helianthus annuus - hibiscus cannabinus - cynara cardunculus - gewasproductie - griekenland - middellandse-zeegebied - biobased economy - agroecology - ecophysiology - bioenergy - biofuels - fuel crops - helianthus annuus - hibiscus cannabinus - cynara cardunculus - crop production - greece - mediterranean region - biobased economy

    In spite of the rapidly growing bioenergy production worldwide, there is lack of field experience and experimental data on the cultivation of bioenergy crops. This study aims to advance crop management operations and modelling studies by providing essential information on phenology, agronomy and crop physiology of three Mediterranean bioenergy crops: Helianthus annuus (sunflower), Hibiscus cannabinus (kenaf) and Cynara cardunculus (cynara). These crops cover a wide range of bio-industrial applications and fit into different cropping strategies. For these crops, we identified the most important knowledge gaps and performed a series of field experiments to fill some of those, particularly for cynara.

    Information on phenology and seed yield potential for cynara was missing mainly due to its complex inflorescence structure. This thesis codifies and describes cynara’s phenological growth stages according to the universal BBCH coding system. This scale can be used by everyone involved in the production of this crop under all circumstances. In addition, we present a robust allometric model for estimating seed yield under diverse management and environmental conditions. Inputs to the model are two easily quantifiable inflorescence traits: total weight and number of seed-bearing heads per unit area.

    Additionally, this thesis investigates factors at leaf, canopy and crop level that determine biomass production for all tested crops and provides key parameters for crop growth modelling. Leaf photosynthesis and respiration rates in response to light, temperature and leaf nitrogen were quantified. Based on such data, a biochemical model for C3 leaf photosynthesis and an empirical model for respiration were parameterized and validated. Then, to upscale these rates from the leaf to the canopy level, light- and nitrogen extinction coefficients over time and in response to water availability were determined in detail. It was shown that the light extinction coefficient changes under water stress conditions and time of year, while leaf nitrogen only shows a strong vertical distribution within crop canopy during the mid-season. Relevant agronomic data, such as biomass production over time and leaf area index in response to management practices, are also presented for the three crops.

    This thesis contributes to the general objective of gaining more insight into bioenergy production from crop species. The findings can help farmers, researchers and modellers to better evaluate agricultural land uses and to improve biomass quantity and quality. Among the studied species, the perennial cynara shows the greatest potential for energy production in the Mediterranean region because a significant part of the production is achieved in the winter–spring period relying on natural rainfall.

    Key words: cynara, kenaf, sunflower, phenology, agronomy, crop physiology, modelling, biomass production, crop growth, growth stages, BBCH code, seed yield, oil/seed ratio, leaf area index, leaf nitrogen, light and nitrogen extinction coefficients, photosynthesis, respiration, respiration acclimation, bioenergy, Greece, Mediterranean region.

    Brandstoftekort, hoezo? : Paul Hamm en Rene Wijffels over biobrandstoffen
    Hamm, P. ; Wijffels, R.H. - \ 2011
    Hilversum : Radio 1
    algenteelt - algen - biobrandstoffen - biobased economy - biomassa productie - aquatische biomassa - algae culture - algae - biofuels - biobased economy - biomass production - aquatic biomass
    Radiofragment over nieuwe duurzame technieken. Waarom bang zijn voor brandstoftekort als er algen zijn? Interview over algen en andere biobrandstoffen met Rene Wijffels, hoogleraar Bioprocestechnologie aan de Wageningen Universiteit en Paul Hamm, ingenieur, chemisch technoloog en oud topman van DSM.
    Waterstof uit biomassa
    Claassen, P.A.M. - \ 2011
    Kennis Online 2011 (2011)14 juni. - p. 17 - 17.
    biobased economy - waterstof - biobrandstoffen - biomassaconversie - biobased economy - hydrogen - biofuels - biomass conversion
    De eerste voorzichtige tekenen van een waterstofeconomie zijn al zichtbaar. In België kun je waterstof tanken, Brabantse boeren overwegen hun windmolen in de daluren in te zetten voor de productie van de brandstof en vorig jaar lanceerde autofabrikant Honda een apparaat waar je thuis waterstof mee kunt maken voor de Honda FCX Clarity.
    Price and prejudice: Why are food prices so high?
    Meijerink, G.W. ; Berkum, S. van; Shutes, K. ; Solano, G. - \ 2011
    The Hague : LEI, part of Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR : Research area International policy ) - ISBN 9789086155187 - 105
    agrarische economie - voedselprijzen - landbouwproductie - biobrandstoffen - voedsel versus brandstof - prijsbepalende factoren - markten - biobased economy - agricultural economics - food prices - agricultural production - biofuels - food vs fuel - price determining factors - markets - biobased economy
    Recent high food prices can be explained by tightening world markets. On the one hand, demand for food continues to increase with a growing and richer world population. Demand for biofuels has added to that demand. On the other hand, there have been several weather-induced supply shocks: drought and flooding, in a time when stocks were low. Three additional factors pushed up prices even more: - export bans were imposed by several countries; - the US exchange rate was weak; - oil prices were high.
    Financieel-economische aspecten van Biobrandstofproductie : deskstopstudie naar de invloed van co-productie van bio-based producten op de financiële haalbaarheid van biobrandstoffen
    Bakker, R. ; Uil, H. den; Ree, R. van - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research nr. 1175) - 61
    chemicaliën uit biologische grondstoffen - biobrandstoffen - biobased economy - coproductie - haalbaarheidsstudies - economische haalbaarheid - biobased chemicals - biofuels - biobased economy - coproduction - feasibility studies - economic viability
    Door uitvoering van een deskstop studie heeft WUR, in samenwerking met ECN, onderzocht of co-productie van biobrandstoffen en bio-based producten leidt tot meer marktcompetitieve biobrandstofproductie. De centrale vraagstelling van de studie was of aangetoond kan worden dat “co-productie” resulteert in realisatie van meer marktcompetitieve waardeketens voor grootschalige en duurzame inzet van biomassa in de biobased economy. De studie naar de financiële haalbaarheid van een twaalftal biobrandstofketens laten zien dat co-productie van biobrandstoffen tezamen met bio-based producten een goede methode is om additionele waarde toe te kennen aan de totale biomassa-product-keten. De co-producten die tezamen met biobrandstoffen geproduceerd kunnen worden zijn zeer divers. In het algemeen bestaat er voor deze co-producten een omvangrijke afzetmarkt, en gaat het om producten die op dit moment grotendeels uit aardolie vervaardigd worden. Technologieën voor productie en toepassing van hoogwaardige co-producten die naast biobrandstoffen uit biomassa geproduceerd kunnen worden bevinden zich in verschillende stadia van ontwikkeling.
    Modelling the consequences of increasing bioenergy demand on land and feed use
    Banse, M.A.H. ; Tabeau, A.A. ; Meijl, H. van; Woltjer, G.B. - \ 2010
    - 9
    biobased economy - biobrandstoffen - landgebruik - indirecte veranderingen van landgebruik - bijproducten - voer - modellen - biobased economy - biofuels - land use - indirect land use change - byproducts - feeds - models
    The aim of this paper is to show the consequences of a model extension towards the presentation of by-product in the production of biofuels. By-products can be used as a substitute for feed grain use in livestock production. A boost in biofuel production will also show a strong increase in the availability of by-products. To identify the impact of modelling biofuel production with and without presentation of by-products two different model versions have been applied. The simulation results of both model versions show that the EU mandatory blending mandate has a pronounced impact on the markets for grains, oilseeds and sugar but a rather limited impact on production level of aggregated primary agricultural output. The analysis shows that apart from direct effects of an enhanced demand for bioenergy on production and land use, the indirect effects of the EU Biofuel Directive (BFD) dominates. Additional production of biofuel crops within and outside the EU leads to strong indirect land use changes which are partly compensated for a higher availability of feed byproducts of biofuel production
    Sustainability and certification in the biofuels sector: some critical observations
    Zuurbier, P.J.P. - \ 2010
    biobased economy - biobrandstoffen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzaamheidscriteria - certificering - overheidsbeleid - biobased economy - biofuels - sustainability - sustainability criteria - certification - government policy
    The society at large demand sustainable production of products often defined in terms of the planet, profit and people categories. Many industrial sectors started to internalize sustainability in their company processes. Public policies underscored these initiatives by giving incentives to raise awareness, support initiatives and disseminate the value of sustainability. In the last decade initiatives came to life to connect confidence, trust and sustainability in the agri- fuel- and food industry. One of the more interesting attempts are Round Tables for sustainable production of palm oil, forest exploitation, biofuels, sugar or soybean. However, are the results positive. Some of these initiatives seem more successful than others. The question is why? How can one interpret these initiatives in terms of performance, structure and governance mechanisms? Based on a comparison of several of these initiatives, conclusions are drawn and hypotheses defined. More in particular, the observations focus on network development, weaknesses in the governance structures, ambivalence in the public domain and the resulting societal confusion.
    Nederland in kopgroep duurzame biomassa (interview met J.P.M. Sanders)
    Zoethout, T. ; Sanders, J.P.M. - \ 2010
    Utilities 11 (2010)7. - ISSN 1389-6385 - p. 24 - 27.
    bio-energie - biomassa - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - pyrolyse - innovaties - efficiëntie - voedselzekerheid - biobased economy - biobrandstoffen - torrefactie - bioenergy - biomass - sustainability - pyrolysis - innovations - efficiency - food security - biobased economy - biofuels - torrefaction
    Van alle energie- en klimaatdoelstellingen die het Rijk zich de laatste decennia heeft gesteld, is biomassa het dichtst in de buurt gekomen. Maar ons land kan meer: tien jaar discussie over de duurzaamheid van biomassa heeft erin geresulteerd dat onze criteria ook mondiaal worden aanvaard. Bovendien dienen nieuwe technieken als torrefactie en de tweede generatie biobrandstoffen zich aan. En daarin kan Nederland een grote rol spelen.
    Notitie Innovaties op het gebied van bio-energie
    Meesters, K.P.H. ; Elbersen, H.W. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Food & Biobased Research - 10
    biobased economy - biobrandstoffen - duurzame energie - transport - verkeer - biobased economy - biofuels - sustainable energy - transport - traffic
    De Nederlandse regering wil weten welke innovaties bij kunnen dragen aan het bereiken van 10% duurzame energie in de transportsector. Aan WUR-FBR is gevraagd om een analyse van de (on)mogelijkheden.
    The macro-environment for liquid biofuels in the German science, mass, media and government
    Talamini, E. ; Wubben, E.F.M. ; Dewes, H. - \ 2010
    duitsland - beleid - overheidsbeleid - economische ontwikkeling - gegevensanalyse - biobased economy - biobrandstoffen - nieuws - wetenschap - bioethanol - biodiesel - germany - policy - government policy - economic development - data analysis - biobased economy - biofuels - news - science - bioethanol - biodiesel
    The purpose of this study is to investigate under which dimensions the macro-environment for liquid biofuels has been structured during time, respectively by science, mass media, and government in Germany, and how these three social expressions related to each other. Research was carried out on German official government documents, mass media news, and scientific papers on the topic 'liquid biofuels'. Text Mining was used to extract knowledge from their content. The results indicate that in configurating the macro-environment for liquid biofuels there is some degree of proximity between media and government, less between media and science, and the least between government and science.
    Country Report The Netherlands 2010 : IEA Bioenergy Task 42
    Ree, R. van; Annevelink, E. - \ 2010
    [s.l.] : S.n. - 17
    bio-energie - beleid - economie - nederland - biobased economy - biobrandstoffen - bioraffinage - bioenergy - policy - economics - netherlands - biobased economy - biofuels - biorefinery
    Rapport van het International Energy Agency (IEA) over de productie van bio-energie, het gebruik van biomassa en de toepassing van bioraffinage in Nederland.
    Biomass pre-treatment for hydrogen fermentation
    Lips, S.J.J. ; Bakker, R.R. - \ 2010
    waterstof - ruwe grondstoffen - voorbehandeling - hydrolyse - biobased economy - biobrandstoffen - reststromen - hydrogen - raw materials - pretreatment - hydrolysis - biobased economy - biofuels - residual streams
    Poster met onderzoeksinformatie over het project HYVOLUTION. Als restproducten gebruikt worden voor de productie van biowaterstof, moeten ze voorbehandeld worden.
    'Grote bedrijven zijn de lachende derde in de discussie food or fuel'
    Sanders, J.P.M. - \ 2010
    Kennis Online 7 (2010)dec. - p. 12 - 12.
    voedselzekerheid - wereldvoedselproblemen - opinies - landgebruik - beleid - biobrandstoffen - voedsel versus brandstof - biobased economy - food security - world food problems - opinions - land use - policy - biofuels - food vs fuel - biobased economy
    Biobrandstoffen van de eerste generatie zijn ten onrechte aangevallen als veroorzakers van honger in de wereld. Want het is niet een gebrek aan landbouwgrond die leidt tot honger, zegt Johan Sanders. Er zit veel meer achter.
    Uit elkaar geplukt is stro goud waard
    Harmsen, P.F.H. - \ 2010
    Kennis Online 7 (2010)dec. - p. 9 - 9.
    stro - maïs - lignocellulose - biobrandstoffen - biobased economy - bioethanol - biomassaconversie - straw - maize - lignocellulose - biofuels - biobased economy - bioethanol - biomass conversion
    Het onderzoek van Paulien Harmsen van het instituut Food & Biobased Research laat zien dat er meer mogelijk is met stro.
    Goede papieren voor groene chemie
    Bos, H.L. ; Sanders, J.P.M. - \ 2010
    Kennis Online 7 (2010)dec. - p. 3 - 5.
    vervangbare hulpbronnen - besparingen - chemische industrie - biomassa - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - milieueffect - biobased economy - biobrandstoffen - renewable resources - savings - chemical industry - biomass - sustainability - environmental impact - biobased economy - biofuels
    Het gebruik van groene grondstoffen voor de chemie is niet langer toekomstmuziek. De eerste chemische fabrieken die grondstoffen uit planten gebruiken draaien al. Nederland zou met haar sterke chemie-industrie en hoogontwikkelde landbouw bij uitstek moeten kunnen profiteren van die ontwikkeling. ‘Om bedrijven de stap te laten zetten, moet je ze van geval tot geval laten zien dat het winst oplevert als je bij de productie biologische grondstoffen inzet.’
    Bijproducten biobrandstof : nieuwe risico's veiligheid diervoeding?
    Sterrenburg, P. ; Asselt, E.D. van - \ 2010
    Wageningen : RIKILT, Instituut voor Voedselveiligheid (Rapport / RIKILT 2010.004) - 43
    agro-industriële bijproducten - risicoschatting - voer - biobrandstoffen - agroindustrial byproducts - risk assessment - feeds - biofuels
    Policy Recommendations from the 13th ICABR Conference on the Emerging Bioeconomy
    Smyth, S.J. ; Falck-Zepeda, J.B. ; Gray, R.S. ; Nassem, A. ; Paarlberg, R. ; Phillips, P.W.B. ; Pray, C.E. ; Savastano, S. ; Scandizzo, P. ; Scatasta, S. ; Wesseler, J.H.H. ; Zilberman, D. - \ 2010
    AgBioForum 13 (2010)2. - ISSN 1522-936X - p. 98 - 103.
    voedselzekerheid - voedselprijzen - voedselveiligheid - beleid - biobased economy - voedsel versus brandstof - biobrandstoffen - consultancy - food security - food prices - food safety - policy - biobased economy - food vs fuel - biofuels - consultancy
    The International Consortium on Agricultural Biotechnology Research held its 13th annual conference in Ravello, Italy in June 2009. The theme of the conference was the bioeconomy, and this topic was addressed through research presentations from academia, government, and industry. Numerous presentations from developing countries highlighted the benefits of agricultural biotechnology in these nations. The broad range of presentations provided a wealth of insights, resulting in three policy recommendations regarding future funding, international regulation, and technology transfer.
    Non-thermal production of pure hydrogen from biomass
    HYVOLUTION, - \ 2010
    HYVOLUTION
    waterstof - europese unie - internationale samenwerking - onderzoek - biobased economy - biobrandstoffen - productieprocessen - hydrogen - european union - international cooperation - research - biobased economy - biofuels - production processes
    Flyer met informatie over het project HYVOLUTION.
    Duurzaamheid van biobased producten gemaakt uit suikers
    Bos, H.L. ; Conijn, J.G. ; Corre, W.J. ; Meesters, K.P.H. ; Patel, M.K. - \ 2010
    duurzaamheid (sustainability) - suikers - broeikasgassen - emissie - brandstofgewassen - biomassa productie - biobased economy - bioplastics - biobrandstoffen - bioethanol - sustainability - sugars - greenhouse gases - emission - fuel crops - biomass production - biobased economy - bioplastics - biofuels - bioethanol
    Wageningen UR heeft samen met de Universiteit van Utrecht een duurzaamheidsvergelijking gemaakt van een aantal biobased producten die uit fermenteerbare suikers kunnen worden gemaakt. In de studie is onderzocht hoeveel reductie in energiegebruik en broeikasgasemissies biobased producten kunnen opleveren ten opzichte van vergelijkbare producten uit fossiele bron, en hoeveel land er nodig is om deze producten te maken. Hierbij zijn vijf gewassen met elkaar vergeleken waaruit deze producten kunnen worden gemaakt.
    State of the Art on Alternative Fuels in Aviation. Executive summary
    Blakey, S. ; Novelli, P. ; Costes, P. ; Bringtown, S. ; Christensen, D. ; Sakintuna, B. ; Peineke, C. ; Jongschaap, R.E.E. ; Conijn, J.G. ; Rutgers, B. ; Valot, L. ; Joubert, E. ; Perelgritz, J.F. ; Filogonio, A. ; Roetger, T. ; Prieur, A. ; Starck, L. ; Jeuland, N. ; Bogers, P. ; Midgley, R. ; Bauldreay, J. ; Rollin, G. ; Rye, L. ; Wilson, C. - \ 2010
    Brussel : EC Brussel - 19
    luchttransport - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - brandstoffen - biobased economy - biobrandstoffen - economische aspecten - vliegtuigen - air transport - sustainability - fuels - biobased economy - biofuels - economic aspects - airplanes
    This paper summarises the findings from the SWAFEA preliminary state of the art study. It covers trends in aspects of future air transport, potential candidate fuels and associated feedstock along with sustainability and economical issues relevant for alternative fuels in aviation..
    Biowaste energy potential in Kenya
    Nzila, C. ; DeWulf, J. ; Spanjers, H. ; Kiriamiti, H. ; Langenhove, H. - \ 2010
    Renewable Energy 35 (2010)12. - ISSN 0960-1481 - p. 2698 - 2704.
    plantenresten - kenya - biogas - methaan - biobased economy - biobrandstoffen - plant residues - kenya - biogas - methane - biobased economy - biofuels - tea - waste - adsorption - digestion - zinc
    Energy affects all aspects of national development. Hence the current global energy crisis demands greater attention to new initiatives on alternative energy sources that are renewable, economically feasible and sustainable. The agriculture-dependent developing countries in Africa can mitigate the energy crisis through innovative use of the available but underutilised biowaste such as organic residues from maize, barley, cotton, tea and sugarcane. Biogas technology is assumed to have the capacity to economically and sustainably convert these vast amounts of biowaste into renewable energy, thereby replacing the unsustainable fossil energy sources, and reducing dependency on fossil fuels. However, the total energy potential of biogas production from crop residues available in Kenya has never been evaluated and quantified. To this end, we selected five different types of residues (maize, barley, cotton, tea and sugarcane) from Kenya and evaluated their energy potential through biomethane potential analysis at 30 °C and a test time of 30 days. The specific methane yields for maize, barley, cotton, tea and sugarcane residues obtained under batch conditions were respectively 363, 271, 365, 67 and 177 m3 per tonne volatile solids. In terms of energy potential, maize, cotton and barley residues were found to be better substrates for methane production than tea and sugarcane residues and could be considered as potential substrates or supplements for methane production without compromising food security in the country. The evaluated residues have a combined national annual maximum potential of about 1313 million cubic meters of methane which represent about 3916 Gigawatt hour (GWh) of electricity and 5887 GWh of thermal energy. The combined electrical potential is equivalent to 73% of the country’s annual power production of 5307 GWh. Utilization of the residues that are readily available on a ‘free on site’ basis for energy production could substitute the fossil fuels that account for a third of the country’s total electricity generation. Besides, exploitation of the potential presented by the biowaste residues can spur an energy revolution in the country resulting in a major economic impact in the region.
    Biobutanol : butanol from cellulosic biomass
    Bakker, R.R. ; Lopez Contreras, A.M. ; Claassen, P.A.M. ; Merck, K.B. ; Willemsen, J.H.A. ; Mozaffarian, H. ; Uil, H. den; Pels, J. ; Reith, H. - \ 2010
    bio-energie - cellulose - fermentatie - butanol - clostridium - lignocellulose - biomassa - biobased economy - biobrandstoffen - bioenergy - cellulose - fermentation - butanol - clostridium - lignocellulose - biomass - biobased economy - biofuels
    Poster met onderzoeksinformatie over de vebetering van het ABE (aceton, butanol, ethanol) fermentatieproces. Het doel van dit onderzoek is om de productie van biobutanol uit biomassa dat cellulose bevat, rendabel te maken.
    Platform groene grondstoffen : Speerpunten in 2010
    Sanders, J.P.M. ; Runneboom, T. ; Bol, R. ; Broek, R. van den; Dijk, D. - \ 2010
    Energy Transition; Bio-renewable Resources Platform
    verandering - ontwikkelingsprojecten - bio-energie - biomassa productie - samenwerking - biobased economy - ketenmanagement - agro-industriële ketens - biobrandstoffen - change - development projects - bioenergy - biomass production - cooperation - biobased economy - supply chain management - agro-industrial chains - biofuels
    In deze brochure worden een aantal projecten geschetst. Sommige zijn pril, andere zijn in een verdere fase van concretisering. Gezamenlijk geven ze een goed beeld van de activiteiten van het Platform Groene Grondstoffen, van de context waarin het platform zich beweegt, en van de relatie tot de eerder geformuleerde visie en transitiepaden.
    Op naar een échte bio-industrie (interview met J.P.M. Sanders)
    Ebbers, R. ; Sanders, J.P.M. - \ 2010
    Forum 12 (2010)17/06/2010. - p. 13 - 16.
    bio-energie - biomassa productie - brandstofgewassen - vervangbare hulpbronnen - biobased economy - biomassaconversie - biobrandstoffen - bioenergy - biomass production - fuel crops - renewable resources - biobased economy - biomass conversion - biofuels
    Volgens landbouwminister Gerda Verburg zit het erin: Nederland is over tien jaar wereldleider met biobased technologie. "Wat Duitsland is voor de ontwikkeling van zonne-energie, worden wij voor biobased"
    Duurzaam, duurzamer, duurzaamst (interview met J.P.M. Sanders)
    Didde, R. ; Sanders, J.P.M. - \ 2010
    Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 3 (2010)9 oktober 2008. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 12 - 13.
    biomassa - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - bio-energie - biobrandstoffen - duurzame energie - biobased economy - biomass - sustainability - cap - bioenergy - biofuels - sustainable energy - biobased economy
    Het Europees parlement stelt in het najaar van 2008 criteria op voor biobrandstoffen. Hoe die precies luiden, is nog onduidelijk, maar de verwachting is dat ze strikt zullen zijn. Ze moeten immers voorkomen dat voedsel in benzinetanks verdwijnt, en dat de teelt van de vereiste biomassa energie verslindt. Drie onderzoekers nemen een voorschot.
    Rijden op algen : brug tussen onderzoek en praktijk
    Barbosa, M.J. - \ 2010
    Kien : Nieuwsbrief Kennis en Innovatie 2010 (2010)4. - ISSN 2210-2590 - p. 3 - 3.
    algenteelt - algen - innovaties - biobrandstoffen - biobased economy - algae culture - algae - innovations - biofuels - biobased economy
    Ze groeien razendsnel, leveren veel energie en concurreren niet met andere landbouwgewassen: algen. Alle reden om onderzoek te doen naar de potentie van algen als producent van biobrandstof. "Algen hebben veel mogelijkheden, maar er zijn nog enkele drempels te overwinnen’, weet Maria Barbosa, programmamanager Microalgen bij WUR.
    Can biofuel programs contribute to small farmer development? Drawing lessons from the National Biodiesel Program of Brazil
    Hospes, O. ; Smet, K. de - \ 2010
    Wageningen International
    bio-energie - bedrijfsontwikkeling in de landbouw - brazilië - ontwikkelingslanden - boeren - biobrandstoffen - biobased economy - bioenergy - farm development - brazil - developing countries - farmers - biofuels - biobased economy
    This poster draws lessons are from the National Biodiesel Program of Brazil.
    Stabilisation of the grain market by the flexible use of grain for bioethanol
    Helming, J.F.M. ; Pronk, A. ; Woltjer, I. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI : Research area International policy ) - ISBN 9789086154296 - 62
    internationale handel - landbouwprijzen - basisproducten - voedselgranen - markten - prijsbeleid - landbouwbeleid - bioethanol - biobrandstoffen - graan - biobased economy - international trade - agricultural prices - commodities - food grains - markets - price policy - agricultural policy - bioethanol - biofuels - grain - biobased economy
    This report reviews whether the grain market and grain price can be stabilised by the variation of the use of grain in the EU-27's production of bioethanol. The time horizon of this study is 2020, whereby account is taken of the minimum 10% obligation for biofuel use in the EU-27. An economic computational model was used to develop a baseline scenario and a number of alternative scenarios for 2020. The alternative scenarios assume the use of a larger or smaller quantity of grain than in the base scenario for the EU-27's production of bioethanol. This variation depends on the availability of grain as compared to the baseline scenario. The effect of this variation on the grain price is then examined.
    Stabilisatie graanmarkten door flexibel gebruik van graan voor bio-ethanol
    Helming, J.F.M. ; Pronk, A. ; Woltjer, G.B. - \ 2010
    Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI : Onderzoeksveld 1, Internationaal beleid ) - ISBN 9789086154265 - 63
    internationale handel - landbouwprijzen - basisproducten - voedselgranen - prijsbeleid - markten - landbouwbeleid - biobrandstoffen - bioethanol - graan - biobased economy - international trade - agricultural prices - commodities - food grains - price policy - markets - agricultural policy - biofuels - bioethanol - grain - biobased economy
    Dit rapport gaat in op de vraag of het mogelijk is de graanmarkt en de graan-prijs te stabiliseren door middel van variatie in het gebruik van graan voor de productie van bio-ethanol in de EU-27. De tijdshorizon van dit onderzoek is 2020, waarbij rekening wordt gehouden met de bijmengverplichting van bio-brandstoffen van minimaal 10% in de EU-27. Met behulp van een economisch rekenmodel wordt een basisscenario en een aantal alternatieve scenario's voor 2020 ontwikkeld. In de alternatieve scenario's wordt ten opzichte van het basis-scenario meer of minder graan gebruikt voor de eigen productie van bio-ethanol in de EU-27. Deze variatie hangt af van de omvang van de graanproductie ten opzichte van het basisscenario. Vervolgens wordt gekeken naar het effect van de extra eigen productie van bio-ethanol op de graanprijs.
    Verkenning duurzame energieproductie landbouwbedrijven : een onderzoek naar de mogelijkheden voor energieproductie op het agrarische bedrijf (open teelten, melkveehouderij en intensieve veehouderij)
    Terbijhe, A. ; Voort, M.P.J. van der; Reeuwijk, P. van; Veltman, R. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : ACRRES - Wageningen UR - 87
    landbouwsector - biomassa - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - kostenbeheersing - innovaties - duurzame energie - co-vergisting - biobrandstoffen - energieproductie in de landbouw - biobased economy - agricultural sector - biomass - sustainability - cost control - innovations - sustainable energy - co-fermentation - biofuels - agricultural energy production - biobased economy
    De agrarische sector speelt een belangrijke rol bij het realiseren van duurzame energie in Nederland. De overheid kan dit verder ondersteunen door opwekking en gebruik van duurzame energie binnen landbouw-bedrijven te stimuleren, gebruikmaking van eigen grondstoffen mogelijk te maken en ruimte te bieden aan innovaties. Duurzame energie op basis van biomassa biedt daarbij de meeste kansen. Dit zijn de belangrijkste conclusies uit dit rapport, dat is samengesteld door het Application Centre for Renewable Resources (ACRRES in Lelystad, onderdeel Wageningen UR) en Energieonderzoek Centrum Nederland (ECN). Het geeft inzicht in de perspectieven voor duurzame energie op agrarische bedrijven en de mogelijkheden voor kostenreductie.
    Assessing the potential of bio-energy production in smallholder farming systems: The case of Nhambita community
    Bos, S. ; Leonardo, W.J. ; Lerner, A. ; Schut, M. - \ 2010
    Maputo, Mozambique : GTZ-PROBEC/Wageningen UR - 47
    bio-energie - bedrijfssystemen - jatropha - biomassa productie - mozambique - biobrandstoffen - bioenergy - farming systems - jatropha - biomass production - mozambique - biofuels
    Perspectief van HTU voor mestverwerking (HTU= Hydro Thermal Upgrading) = Feasability of HTU for manure processing (HTU= Hydro Thermal Uopgrading)
    Buisonjé, F.E. de; Bergsma, E.J. ; Zeevalkink, J.A. ; Melse, R.W. - \ 2010
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 320) - 19
    biomassa - haalbaarheidsstudies - economische haalbaarheid - proeven - biobased economy - mestverwerking - biobrandstoffen - biomass - feasibility studies - economic viability - trials - biobased economy - manure treatment - biofuels
    wet biomass into a raw fuel. Technical and economical aspects of manure as input for the HTU process were investigated. It was found that the required investments and costs do not balance the energy yield of the process. Therefore it is concluded HTU treatment of liquid manure is not cost-effective.
    Liquid biofuel production from volatile fatty acids
    Steinbusch, K.J.J. - \ 2010
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Buisman, co-promotor(en): Bert Hamelers. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085855583 - 139
    bio-energie - vetzuren - recycling - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - biobrandstoffen - bioenergy - fatty acids - recycling - sustainability - biofuels
    The production of renewable fuels and chemicals reduces the dependency on fossil fuels and limits the increase of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere only if a sustainable feedstock and an energy efficient process are used. The thesis assesses the possibility to use municipal and industrial waste as biomass feedstock to have little of no competition with food production, and to save greenhouse gasses emissions. Waste is a complex substrate with a diverse composition and high water content. It can be homogenized without losing its initial energy value by anaerobic conversion to volatile fatty acids. Using VFA gives the opportunity to process cheap and abundantly present biomass residues to a fuel and chemical instead of sugar containing crops or vegetable oil. This thesis describes the feasibility to convert VFA to compounds with a higher energy content using mixed culture fermentations by eliminating of oxygen and/or increasing the carbon and hydrogen content. At high hydrogen pressure, protons and electrons release via the reduction of organic products such as VFA becomes thermodynamically more attractive. Three VFA reduction reactions were studied: hydrogenation to an alcohol with 1) hydrogen and 2) an electrode as electron donor, and 3) by chain elongation with hydrogen and ethanol.

    Based on concentration, production rate and efficiency, elongation of acetate with hydrogen and/or ethanol was the best technique to convert VFA into a fuel. In a continuous flow CSTR, 10.5 g L-1 caproic acid and 0.48 g L-1 caprylic acid were produced with ethanol and/or hydrogen at a specific MCFA production activity of 2.9 g caproate and 0.09 g caprylate per gram VSS d-1. The products were selectively removed by calcium precipitation and solvent extraction with ethyl hexanoate and petroleum ether. Microbial characterization revealed that the microbial populations were stable and dominated by relatives of Clostridium kluyveri.

    VFA could also be reduced to alcohols. Acetic, propionic and butyric acids were biohydrogenated with hydrogen and acetic acid also with an electrode. Observed alcohol concentrations were 0.62 g L-1 ethanol, 0.49 g L-1 propanol and 0.27 g L-1 n-butanol. Methanogenesis was successfully inhibited after thermal pre-treatment incubated at pH 6, while acetate reduction was enhanced. In the second study, ethanol (0.084 g L-1) was produced at the cathodic compartment of a bioelectrochemical system, in which the electron transport was mediated by methyl viologen. The ethanol production activity at the cathode was only of very short term, since the mediator irreversibly reacted at the surface of the cathode.

    Of the two VFA conversion processes, biohydrogenation and chain elongation, chain elongation was a more dominant process that consumes ethanol with acetate to medium chain fatty acids. With this technology, wet organic waste can be converted to biofuels carbon and energy efficient. The technology is promising due to the good fuel and separation properties of medium chain fatty acids, and the possibility to produce them at high concentrations and specific production rates comparable to other anaerobic conversions.

    Bioraffinage Moonshot 2: aquatische biomassa
    Reith, H. ; Israel-Hoevelaken, T.P.M. - \ 2010
    biomassa - algen - zeewieren - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - bioraffinage - biobrandstoffen - biobased economy - ketenmanagement - biomass - algae - seaweeds - sustainability - biorefinery - biofuels - biobased economy - supply chain management
    Aquatische biomassa (micro-algen en zeewieren) is een interessante nieuwe grondstof voor bioraffinage en vormt een belangrijke aanvulling op het bestaande biomassa aanbod. Het kenmerk van deze Moonshot is dat ketens worden ontwikkeld voor grootschalige productie van biobrandstoffen en industriële (bio)chemicaliën uit micro-algen en zeewieren.
    The biobased economy: biofuels, materials and chemicals in the post-oil era
    Langeveld, J.W.A. ; Sanders, J.P.M. ; Meeusen-van Onna, M.J.G. - \ 2010
    London : Earthscan - ISBN 9781844077700 - 389
    duurzaamheid (sustainability) - biomassa - energieomzetting - economisch beleid - industrialisatie - biobrandstoffen - biobased economy - bio-energie - bioplastics - sustainability - biomass - energy conversion - economic policy - industrialization - biofuels - biobased economy - bioenergy - bioplastics
    The impending threats of catastrophic climate change and peak oil are driving our society towards increased use of biomass for energy, chemical compounds and other materrials - the beginnings of a biobased economy. As alternative development models for the biobased economy emerge, we need to determine potential applications, their perspectives and possible impacts as well as policies that can steer technological and market development in such a way that our objectives are met. Currently, it is still far from clear what will be the most sustainable routes to follow, which technologies should be included and how their development will affect, and be affected by, research, public opinion and policy and market forces. (E-book available via MyiLibrary)
    Communicatie biobased economy : overzicht informatiefolders
    Harmsen, P.F.H. ; Bos, H.L. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Food and Biobased Research (Report / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1108) - ISBN 9789085855675 - 55
    vervangbare hulpbronnen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - bio-energie - biomassa - diervoeding - gewassen - biobased economy - biobrandstoffen - bioplastics - bioraffinage - renewable resources - sustainability - bioenergy - biomass - animal nutrition - crops - biobased economy - biofuels - bioplastics - biorefinery
    Overzicht van de informatiefolders van Wageningen Universiteit met betrekking tot onderzoek naar de biobased economy. Deze onderzoekprogramma's gaan in op: bioraffinage, materialen, chemicaliën, brandstoffen, energie, biomassa reststromen dier, diervoeding en gewassen
    Praktijkdag suikerbieten en energieboerderij : suikerbieten een energieke teelt : Vredepeel, 17 september 2009
    PPO Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving, - \ 2009
    Wageningen : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving B.V. - 11
    suikerbieten - maïs - zea mays - akkerbouw - bladschimmels - gewasbescherming - biogas - nematoda - landbouwtechniek - veldproeven - biobrandstoffen - bioethanol - bodemweerbaarheid - biobased economy - brandstofgewassen - sugarbeet - maize - zea mays - arable farming - phylloplane fungi - plant protection - biogas - nematoda - agricultural engineering - field tests - biofuels - bioethanol - soil suppressiveness - biobased economy - fuel crops
    Brochure uitgedeeld op de Velddag op 17 september 2009 te Vredepeel met als onderwerpen: 1. Bestrijdingsstrategieën bladschimmels in suikerbieten; 2. Suikerbieten telen voor de energieproductie; 3a. Bemestingsresultaten suikerbieten in Nutriënten Waterproof; 3b. Ken uw grond; 4. Rasvergelijking Biogasmaïs (Energiemaïs); 5. Bodemgezondheid en aaltjes; 6. Rhizoctoniaresistente rassen; 7. Goede banden op de juiste spanning levert een besparing op; 8. Kop niet te diep, maar verwijder wel al het blad.
    Impacts of the EU Biofuel directive implementation on the EU food supply chain
    Tabeau, A.A. ; Meijl, H. van; Banse, M.A.H. ; Woltjer, G.B. - \ 2009
    - 9
    biobased economy - biobrandstoffen - europese unie - economische modellen - landbouwprijzen - landbouwproductie - wereldmarkten - markten - biobased economy - biofuels - european union - economic models - agricultural prices - agricultural production - world markets - markets
    The paper investigates the impact of the EU Biofuels Directive (BFD) on the EU agri-food supply chain using the computable general equilibrium model of the world economy named LEITAP. LEITAP is an extended version of the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model including an improved land market modeling, substitution possibilities between capital and energy as well as between different energy sources including biofuels, feed byproducts of the biofuel production process and substitution between different feed components and feed byproducts. The simulation results shows that the implementation of the EU BFD has a pronounced impact on the markets of cereals, oilseeds and sugar and shows only a limited impact on production and consumption of other agrifood commodities which are not directly affected by biofuel production. The harvested area and production of biofuel crops (grains, oilseeds) is expected to increase by 17% and 25% respectively and sugar production by 12% as a direct result the BFD. The EU-imports of these commodities are expected to rise more than twice. The increasing demand for biofuel crops and sugar will lift domestic prices of these commodities by 25% and 19% respectively but overall agri-food price inflation will be limited to 3% in the EU and to less than 1% at world market level.
    HYVOLUTION or the hydrogen revolution from potato peels! "Bangers and Mash"
    Claassen, P.A.M. - \ 2009
    S.n.
    waterstof - regionale ontwikkeling - biomassa - fermentatie - economische haalbaarheid - biobased economy - biobrandstoffen - hydrogen - regional development - biomass - fermentation - economic viability - biobased economy - biofuels
    Hoe kun je je auto laten rijden op gekookte aardappel? Of nog beter, op gekookte aardappelschillen? Dit is het idee waarop HYVOLUTION is gebaseerd. Het doel van dit project is om waterstof te produceren uit biomassa en zo bij te dragen aan de beschikbaarheid van energie op een lokaal of regionaal niveau.
    Biobutanol from wheat straw
    Lopez Contreras, A.M. ; Bakker, R.R. ; Wal, H. van der; Houweling-Tan, G.B.N. ; Claassen, P.A.M. - \ 2009
    tarwestro - fermentatie - hydrolyse - butanol - biobrandstoffen - biobased economy - wheat straw - fermentation - hydrolysis - butanol - biofuels - biobased economy
    Poster met onderzoeksinformatie over de productie van biobutanol uit tarwestro door middel van het aceton-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermantatieproces.
    Nieuwe grondstoffen voor biobrandstoffen : alternatieve 1e generatie energiegewassen
    Elbersen, H.W. ; Oyen, L.P.A. ; Bakker, R.R.C. ; Blaauw, R. - \ 2009
    Utrecht [etc.] : SenterNovem - ISBN 9789085855637 - 81
    energiebronnen - vervangbare hulpbronnen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - brandstofgewassen - biobrandstoffen - duurzame energie - biobased economy - bioethanol - energy sources - renewable resources - sustainability - fuel crops - biofuels - sustainable energy - biobased economy - bioethanol
    Bioenergie en dan vooral biobrandstoffen (voor transport) staan in de belangstelling. Hierbij gaat het vooral om de huidige zogenaamde 1e generatie biobrandstoffen. Deze zijn gebaseerd op suikers en zetmeel voor de productie van bioethanol als benzinevervanging of oliën en vetten voor de productie van biodiesel als dieselvervanging. De meeste biobrandstoffen zijn gebaseerd op gangbare grondstoffen zoals bijvoorbeeld suikerriet, koolzaad, maïs of palmolie. Er is ook een aanzienlijk aantal “nieuwe” of minder bekende biobrandstof grondstoffen. Regelmatig wordt er in de media aandacht besteed aan dergelijke nieuwe gewassen en worden deze gepresenteerd als veelbelovend en duurzaam. Echter, van deze “nieuwe” biobrandstof grondstoffen is veelal onduidelijk wat het potentieel is. Er zijn hierover veel vragen bij publiek, industrie en de overheid. Daarom wordt er in dit rapport een kort overzicht gegeven van een aantal alternatieve gewassen die grondstoffen voor 1e generatie biobrandstoffen kunnen leveren en wordt er een korte analyse gegeven van de mogelijkheid voor duurzame biobrandstofproductie. De volgende perspectiefvolle bioethanol- en biodieselgewassen zijn beschreven: Suikerpalm, Tropische suikerbiet, Cassave,Suiker sorghum, Nipa palm, Jatropha, Castor en Kokospalm
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