Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Biorefinery : recovery of valuable biomolecules
    Eppink, M.H.M. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573789 - 28
    biorefinery - recovery - biomass - biofuels - separation technology - biomass conversion - biomass cascading - biobased economy - bioraffinage - terugwinning - biomassa - biobrandstoffen - scheidingstechnologie - biomassaconversie - biomassa cascadering - biobased economy
    Inaugural speech Wageningen University, 23 April 2015
    The feasibility of direct processing of sugar beets in Slovenia: a quick scan
    Jongeneel, R.A. ; Smit, A.L. ; Bakker, Tom ; Jager, J.H. - \ 2015
    LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2015-149) - ISBN 9789086157280 - 25
    sugarbeet - processing - arable farming - ethanol production - biofuels - economic viability - slovenia - cap - european union - biobased economy - suikerbieten - verwerking - akkerbouw - ethanolproductie - biobrandstoffen - economische haalbaarheid - slovenië - gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - europese unie - biobased economy
    This study presents a quick scan of the economic feasibility of direct processing of sugar beet for ethanol production in Slovenia, using the Betaprocess technology. The outcome is that given the prices for sugar, sugar beets, ethanol and other relevant arable crops that are expected to prevail after the liberalisation of the EU’s sugar policy in 2017, direct processing of sugar beets is a profitable activity. This result is conditional on a number of requirements.
    Duurzaamheid, communicatie en veiligheid : verslag van de landelijke bijeenkomst 'Kenniskringen Visserij en duurzaamheid'
    Zaalmink, W. ; Smith, S.R. ; Steenbergen, J. ; Trapman, B.K. ; Valk, O.M.C. van der - \ 2015
    LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI Wageningen UR 2015-160) - 25
    visserij - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - biobrandstoffen - communicatie - familiebedrijven, landbouw - veiligheid - coöperaties - nederland - fisheries - sustainability - biofuels - communication - family farms - safety - cooperatives - netherlands
    Op 6 juni 2015 vond op Fort IJmuiden een landelijke bijeenkomst plaats van het project Kenniskringen Visserij. Het doel van deze dag was te komen tot een uitwisseling van kennisvragen over verschillende visserij gerelateerde thema’s. Het programma bestond uit een plenaire bijeenkomst en uit een aantal zogenoemde cafébijeenkomsten. Bij elke cafébijeenkomst was een relevante expert aanwezig, die de bijeenkomst inleidde. Hierna konden de aanwezigen vragen aan de expert en aan elkaar stellen. Dit verslag is een samenvatting van de uitspraken die door de deelnemers en experts op deze dag gedaan zijn rond de thema’s: 1. Duurzaamheid en de visser als onderzoeker (expert: Bas Haring, volksfilosoof) 2. Communicatie (expert: Marissa Tanis, GoMaris) 3. Fuel of the future (expert: Dirk Kronemeijer) 4. Veiligheid aan boord (expert: Cor Blonk) 5. Coöperaties (expert: Thomas Højrup)
    Illusions, hunger and vices: smallholders, environmentalism and the green agrarian question in Chiapas' biofuel rush
    Castellanos-Navarrete, A. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Leeuwis. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576094 - 221
    biofuels - fuel crops - food vs fuel - mexico - peasant farming - oil palms - biobased economy - biobrandstoffen - brandstofgewassen - voedsel versus brandstof - mexico - landbouw bedrijven in het klein - oliepalmen - biobased economy
    Isolation, characterization and engineering of Bacillus smithii : a novel thermophilic platform organism for green chemical production
    Bosma, E.F. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Willem de Vos; John van der Oost, co-promotor(en): Richard van Kranenburg. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575073 - 220
    bacillus smithii - bacillus (bacteria) - biobrandstoffen - chemicaliën uit biologische grondstoffen - thermofielen - metabolische profilering - genoomanalyse - mutaties - isolatie - bioengineering - karakterisering - bacillus smithii - bacillus (bacteria) - biofuels - biobased chemicals - thermophiles - metabolic profiling - genome analysis - mutations - isolation - bioengineering - characterization

    Due to the globally increasing demand for chemicals and fuels and the high environmental impact and limited amount of fossil resources, there is a growing interest in green chemicals and fuels derived from renewable resources. As described in Chapter 1, one of the most feasible alternatives on the short term is microbial conversion of the sugars in biomass to fuels and chemicals in a biorefinery. To be economically and ethically feasible, non-food biomass should be used as a resource, which is often difficult with currently used production organisms. Also, to be economically feasible, the costs of green chemicals and fuels need to be further reduced to be below the costs of products based on fossil resources. To do so, other organisms than the currently most-used platform organisms such as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae should be used. Ideally, this alternative organism is genetically accessible, has high productivity, titre and yield, is flexible in carbon source, robust, moderately thermophilic, acidophilic, facultatively anaerobic and has little nutritional requirements. The organisms that come closest to these criteria are thermophilic bacilli, which form a diverse class of organisms in the family of Bacillaceae. This thesis describes the isolation, characterization and metabolic engineering of Bacillus smithii, a novel potential thermophilic platform organism.

    Chapter 2 provides more detail on the use of thermophilic microorganisms as platform organisms for green chemical production in a biorefinery concept. As commercially available enzyme mixtures used in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of biomass have their optimum temperature around 50-60°C, using a moderately thermophilic organism would reduce the costs of the SSF process compared to when using mesophiles by reducing the amount of required enzyme. Also, thermophilic processes are less prone to contaminations, and substrate and product solubility are increased. Several successful examples of the application of facultatively anaerobic thermophiles for green chemical production from lignocellulose in an SSF setting are for example Bacillus coagulans for lactic acid production and Bacillus licheniformis for 2,3-butanediol production. However, whereas strongly developed genetic toolboxes are available for current mesophilic production organisms, these tools are still in their infancy for thermophilic organisms. Such tools are required to optimize production and to study metabolism. Thermophilic organisms show a wide variety in metabolism and in many cases the metabolism of these organisms is still poorly understood, hampering full optimization. Chapter 2 furthermore provides an overview of transformation, integration and counter-selection methods currently used for thermophiles. Although several deletion mutants have been constructed using these methods, not all of them are entirely markerless and most are not suited as high-throughput engineering tools, stressing the need for further research in this area.

    Despite several facultatively anaerobic thermophiles being described as genetically accessible, this feature is still one the major bottlenecks in developing these organisms into platform organisms. Therefore, in Chapter 3, we set out to isolate a facultatively anaerobic, moderately thermophilic bacterium that was genetically accessible and produced high titers of organic acids. A total of 267 strains of different thermophilic bacilli species were isolated from compost and screened for C5 and C6 sugar utilization and acid production. The 44 best strains were screened for genetic accessibility via electroporation. Only 3 strains tested positive for this, namely Geobacillus thermodenitrificans strains ET 144-2 and ET 251 and B. smithii strain ET 138. In subsequent evaluations in lab-scale bioreactors at 55°C and pH 6.5 on glucose, the two G. thermodenitrificans strains performed poorly whereas B. smithii performed well with high titers, yields and productivity of mainly lactate. In similar lab-scale reactors, this strain also performed well on xylose and at pH 5.5 and was still able to perform for 48 at pH 4.5. The electroporation protocol for this strain was optimized, resulting in a maximum efficiency of 5x103 colonies per µg plasmid pNW33n. Two other B. smithii strains, among which the type strain DSM 4216T, were also shown to be transformable with pNW33n. This is the first time that genetic accessibility is described for B. smithii and it is the first step towards developing it into a platform organism, for which it appears to be suitable based on its efficient C5 and C6 sugar utilization and acid production profile.

    In order to become a platform organism and to study its atypical metabolism, a genetic toolbox needs to be established for B. smithii. Chapter 5 describes the development of a markerless gene deletion method for B. smithii. For strains ET 138 and DSM 4216T, the ldhL gene was markerlessly removed via double homologous recombination using plasmid pNW33n. Despite the replicative nature of this plasmid at 55°C, mixtures of single and double crossovers were readily obtained. A pure double crossover deletion mutant was obtained after several transfers on a more defined medium containing acetate or lactate and PCR-based screenings. To eliminate the possibility of mixed genotypes, we subsequently developed a lacZ-counter-selection system, which is based on the toxicity of high X-gal concentrations in the presence of the plasmid-encoded lacZ gene. Using this method, the sporulation-specific sigma factor sigF and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E1-α pdhA were consecutively removed from the B. smithii ET 138 genome in a markerless way. An initial evaluation of the growth and production profiles of the mutant strains in tubes showed that removal of the ldhL gene eliminates l-lactate production and causes a severe decrease in anaerobic growth and production capacities. B. smithii mutants lacking the sigF gene were unable to sporulate and removal of the pdhA gene eliminated acetate production and rendered the strains auxotrophic for acetate.

    Biobrandstof met het gemak van benzine
    Klein Lankhorst, R.M. - \ 2015
    Akker magazine 11 (2015)6. - ISSN 1875-9688 - p. 34 - 34.
    brandstoffen - biobrandstoffen - waterstof - zonne-energie - fotosynthese - energiebronnen - projecten - biobased economy - fuels - biofuels - hydrogen - solar energy - photosynthesis - energy sources - projects - biobased economy
    Onderzoekers in Wageningen werken aan brandstoffen voor voertuigen die hernieuwbaar zijn en tegelijk hetzelfde gemak kennen als benzine en diesel. In het BioSolar Cellsconsortium werken ze met technieken die geïnspireerd zijn op fotosynthese in planten. Van water wordt met zonlicht waterstof gemaakt. Met koolzuurgas en enzymen wordt dit gas omgezet in een vloeibare brandstof. Dat is makkelijker te transporteren dan waterstofgas. In plaats van benzine kan de automobilist dan straks klimaatneutrale zonnebrandstof tanken.
    Macro-economics of algae products : Output WP2A7.02
    Voort, M.P.J. van der; Vulsteke, E. ; Visser, C.L.M. de - \ 2015
    EnAlgae Swansea University - 47
    marktonderzoek - algen - macro-economische analyse - markten - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - biobrandstoffen - market research - algae - macroeconomic analysis - markets - biobased materials - biobased chemistry - biobased economy - biofuels
    This report is part of the EnAlgae Workpackage 2, Action 7, directed at the economics of algae production. The goal of this report is to highlight potential markets for algae. Per type of algae market the market size, product alternatives, constraints and prices are highlighted. Based on these market characteristics a conclusion is drawn on the market potential for algae products. Per market desk research is done and literature is consulted to create a reliable market outlook.
    AlgaeEconomics: bio-economic production models of micro-algae and downstream processing to produce bio energy carriers
    Spruijt, J. ; Schipperus, R. ; Kootstra, A.M.J. ; Visser, C.L.M. de - \ 2015
    EnAlgae Swansea University - 67
    algenteelt - teeltsystemen - productiekosten - biomassa productie - economische modellen - groeimodellen - biobrandstoffen - biobased economy - bioraffinage - algae culture - cropping systems - production costs - biomass production - economic models - growth models - biofuels - biobased economy - biorefinery
    This report describes results of work carried out within the EnAlgae project to describe production costs and identify the variables that have most effect in determining future cost prices so that R&D can be focussed on these issues. This has been done by making use of pilots within the EnAlgae consortium and by describing the process in Excel models that have been spread among and discussed with stakeholders active in the field of commercial algae production. The expectation is that this transparency and interaction will lead to an increase of the learning curve to make algae production cheaper and thus supplying more markets.
    Inventory of North-West European algae initiatives
    Spruijt, J. - \ 2015
    EnAlgae Swansea University (Report WP2A7.01 )
    projecten - algen - algenteelt - biobrandstoffen - biobased economy - europa - projects - algae - algae culture - biofuels - biobased economy - europe
    In 2012 an inventory of North-West European (NWE) algae initiatives was carried out to get an impression of the market and research activities on algae production and refinery, especially for bioenergy purposes. A questionnaire was developed that would provide the EnAlgae project with information on the value chains in which algae production was positioned within these initiatives. The questionnaire was used by EnAlgae project partners to collect information in Great Britain, Ireland, Germany, Belgium, France, Switzerland, Luxemburg and the Netherlands. Information about algae initiatives originated from networks and from internet searches. Additional information was collected by bilateral contact with contact persons of several initiatives. The analysis of the results is reported here.
    Nut en risico’s van covergisting : syntheserapport
    Oenema, O. ; Velthof, G.L. ; Commissie Deskundigen Meststoffenwet, - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 32) - 144
    co-vergisting - mest - biogas - biobrandstoffen - dierlijke meststoffen - duurzame energie - overheidsbeleid - broeikasgassen - gezondheid - emissiereductie - bio-energie - veiligheid - biobased economy - co-fermentation - manures - biogas - biofuels - animal manures - sustainable energy - government policy - greenhouse gases - health - emission reduction - bioenergy - safety - biobased economy
    Op verzoek van de ministeries van Economische Zaken en van Infrastructuur & Milieu heeft de Commissie Deskundigen Meststoffenwet (CDM) samen met het Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM), de Omgevingsdienst Zuidoost-Brabant, de Technische commissie bodem (TCB) en diverse instellingen van de ministeries van Economische Zaken en Infrastructuur & Milieu een studie uitgevoerd naar het nut en de risico’s van covergisting van mest in Nederland. Deze studie levert de bouwstenen om het overheidsbeleid voor covergisting door het kabinet en de Tweede Kamer te evalueren. De studie is in het bijzonder gericht op de volgende aspecten: • de meerwaarde van covergisting voor duurzame energie, het gebruik van reststoffen, de reductie broeikasgassen en het verminderen van het mestoverschot; • de risico’s van covergisting voor de gezondheid en veiligheid van mens, dier en het milieu; • de maatregelen waarmee deze risico’s zouden kunnen worden beperkt; en • de handhaafbaarheid van regels, en maatregelen om de handhaafbaarheid te verbeteren. De ministeries hebben in totaal 48 vragen gesteld. Deze 48 vragen zijn in dit rapport beantwoord mede op basis van rapportages van betrokken instellingen. Het rapport bevat ten slotte de synthese, conclusies en aanbevelingen.
    The Economics of Biofuel Policies. Impacts on Price Volatility in Grain and Oilseed Markets
    Gorter, H. de; Drabik, D. - \ 2015
    New York (USA) : Palgrave Macmillan (Palgrave studies in agricultural economics and food policy ) - ISBN 9781137414847
    agrarische economie - milieubeleid - biobrandstoffen - bio-energie - biomassa - energie - voedselprijzen - basisproducten - ethanolproductie - suikerriet - vluchtigheid - landbouwprijzen - agricultural economics - environmental policy - biofuels - bioenergy - biomass - energy - food prices - commodities - ethanol production - sugarcane - volatility - agricultural prices
    The global food crises of 2008 and 2010 and the increased price volatility revolve around biofuels policies and their interaction with each other, farm policies and between countries. The Economics of Biofuel Policies focuses on the role of biofuel policies in creating turmoil in the world grains and oilseed markets since 2006. This book puts together theory and empirical evidence of how biofuel policies created a link between crop (food grains and oilseeds) and biofuel (ethanol and biodiesel) prices. This combined with biofuel policies role in affecting the link between biofuels and energy (gasoline, diesel and crude oil) prices will form the basis to show how alternative US, EU, and Brazilian biofuel policies have immense impacts on the level and volatility of food grain and oilseed prices.
    De waarheid over biomassa
    Rabbinge, R. - \ 2015
    Milieu : opinieblad van de Vereniging van Milieuprofessionals 21 (2015)2. - ISSN 1873-5436 - p. 8 - 9.
    milieubeleid - biobrandstoffen - biobased economy - bio-energie - overheidsbeleid - subsidies - voedsel versus brandstof - duurzame energie - environmental policy - biofuels - biobased economy - bioenergy - government policy - subsidies - food vs fuel - sustainable energy
    Het is twijfelachtig of het klimaat gebaat is bij biobrandstof of bij het meestoken van hout in kolencentrales. Dat blijkt uit het visiedocument ‘Biobrandstof en hout als energiebronnen’ van de Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen (KNAW). Van diverse kanten is kritisch op de bevindingen gereageerd. Ten onrechte. Biomassa inzetten voor energiewinning is alleen zinvol in de allerlaatste fase van hergebruik.
    Valorization of jatropha fruit biomass for energy applications
    Marasabessy, A. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Johan Sanders, co-promotor(en): Ruud Weusthuis; M. Moeis. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572614 - 147
    landbouwbijproducten - jatropha curcas - bio-energie - bioraffinage - biobrandstoffen - economische aspecten - extractie - fractionering - hydrolyse - indonesië - agricultural byproducts - jatropha curcas - bioenergy - biorefinery - biofuels - economic aspects - extraction - fractionation - hydrolysis - indonesia

    Valorization of Jatropha fruit biomass for

    energy applications

    Ahmad Marasabessy

    Thesis Abstract

    Our research objectives were to develop sustainable technologies of Jatropha oil extraction and Jatropha biomass fractionation within a framework of bioconversions (enzymatic and microbial processings). Microbial extraction of oil from Jatropha kernels using whole cells of Bacillus pumilus yields 73% oil, and this is comparable to the known processes such as by using expeller or by enzymatic extraction. The bacterium facilitates oil liberation via degradation of hemicelluloses therefore the majority of Jatropha proteins were preserved in the solid phase of the extraction residues. In investigating the effect of dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment on the enzymatic digestibility of the lignocellulosic components of Jatropha fruit biomass, we found that the seed shell and the seed cake were more recalcitrant to dilute sulfuric acid pretreatments than the fruit hull. A pretreatment of the fruit hull at optimum conditions (10% solid loading, 0.9% sulfuric acid, 30 min, 178 oC) followed by neutralization and a 24-h enzymatic hydrolysis with cellulases (GC220) liberated 100% pentoses (71% yield and 29% degradation to furfural) and 83% hexoses (78% yield and 5% degradation to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural). The fruit hull hydrolyzate can be used as a substrate for Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce ethanol in SSF process. Our economic analysis in the retrospectives showed that valorization of the fruit biomass into variuos products (oil, protein isolate, lignin, biogas, bio-oil, etc.) using the most known techniques (pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, extraction, separation, anaerobic digestion, pyrolysis) could improve the economy value of this biofuel crop significantly.

    JATROPT (Jatropha curcas: Applied and Technological Research on Plant Traits) : Final report EU FP7 Grant 245236 (2010-2013)
    Loo, E.N. van; Jongschaap, R.E.E. - \ 2014
    Plant Research International - 31
    jatropha curcas - fuel crops - plant breeding - new crops - genetic improvement - yield increases - biofuels - biobased economy - jatropha curcas - brandstofgewassen - plantenveredeling - nieuwe cultuurgewassen - genetische verbetering - oogsttoename - biobrandstoffen - biobased economy
    JATROPT aimed to improve jatropha production systems through developing advanced genetics tools for breeding and for development of jatropha agro-systems.
    Agriculture Beyond Food: Experiences from Indonesia
    Loffler, H.J.M. ; Afiff, S. ; Burgers, P.P.M. ; Govers, C. ; Heeres, H.J. ; Karyanto, O. ; Manurung, R. ; Vel, J.A.C. ; Visscher, S. ; Zwaagstra, T. ; Widyarani, R. - \ 2014
    The Hague : NWO/WOTRO - ISBN 9789077875858 - 117
    oliepalmen - biobrandstoffen - biobased economy - biodiesel - reststromen - landdegradatie - jatropha - economische ontwikkeling - projecten - indonesië - oil palms - biofuels - residual streams - land degradation - economic development - projects - indonesia
    The ABF programme addresses one of today’s major societal challenges, how to achieve a sustainable and inclusive biobased economy, with high-level scientific research on the thin lines between food and non-food, commodities and waste products, livelihood opportunities and risks, and local and global economy. This book provides insights into the main issues and key questions relating to the biobased economy, reflects on the objectives of the ABF programme, and offers policy recommendations. It summarises the projects conducted within the three major clusters at the heart of the programme: migration and forest transformation, breakthroughs in biofuel production technology, and the commoditisation of an alternative biofuel crop. The book ends with a number of lessons learned from the ABF programme on interdisciplinary programming.
    Evaluating the macroeconomic impacts of bio-based applications in the EU
    Smeets, E.M.W. ; Vinyes, C. ; Tabeau, A.A. ; Meijl, J.C.M. van; Brink, C. ; Prins, H. - \ 2014
    Luxembourg : Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (JRC scientific and policy reports ) - ISBN 9789279395369 - 40
    macro-economische analyse - biobased economy - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - biobrandstoffen - bio-energie - economische evaluatie - economisch beleid - europese unie - macroeconomic analysis - biobased economy - biobased chemistry - biofuels - bioenergy - economic evaluation - economic policy - european union
    In 2012, the European Commission (EC) launched the Bioeconomy Strategy and Action Plan with the objective of establishing a resource efficient and competitive society that reconciles food security with the sustainable use of renewable resources. This report contributes to the plan by evaluating the macroeconomic impacts of bio-based applications in the EU. Such effects can only be evaluated with a computable general equilibrium model such as MAGNET. Four bio-based applications are considered, namely biofuel (second generation), biochemicals, bioelectricity, and biogas (synthetic natural gas). This is done assuming that 1 EJ lignocellulose biomass is converted into fuel, chemicals, electricity and gas and that the final product replaces an equal amount of conventional (e.g. fossil energy) product (on energy basis). The results show that given the assumed efficiency of conversion technology, costs of conversion, biomass price and oil price, the production of second generation biofuel and biochemicals are the only competitive sectors compare to their conventional counterparts in the year 2030 for the EU. In the case of the fuel sectors, it represents a net GDP effect of 5.1 billion US dollars while biochemicals generates 6 billion US dollars. A substantial part of this impact can be explained by the increase in wages, since the production of biomass is relatively labour intensive. The resulting increase in wages is transmitted to other sectors in the economy and increases production and consumption. Another important contributor is the lower oil and fuel price as a result of the substitution of oil based fuel production by bio-based fuel production, which in turn benefits the entire economy
    IEA Bioenergy Task42 Biorefining : sustainable and synergetic processing of biomass into marketable food & feed ingredients, chemicals, materials and energy (fuels, power, heat)
    Ree, R. van; Zeeland, A.N.T. van - \ 2014
    bioraffinage - secundaire sector - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - biobrandstoffen - voedseltechniek - biomassaconversie - biorefinery - secondary sector - biobased chemistry - biobased economy - biofuels - food engineering - biomass conversion
    Naast een overzicht van de huidige status van bioraffinage, biedt dit rapport inzicht in waardevolle producten van bioraffinaderijen, zoals eiwitten voor voeding en non-foodtoepassingen en biologische chemicaliën. Ook worden er in het rapport dertig praktische voorbeelden van bioraffinagefaciliteiten genoemd in landen die deelnemen aan IEA Task42, met details over de types bioraffinaderijen, grondstoffen en outputs. Het rapport geeft een onafhankelijk overzicht over bioraffinage in het algemeen, en over de specifieke activiteiten binnen IEA Bioenergy Task42 bioraffinage.
    Biofuels and Vertical Price Transmission: The Case of the US Corn, Ethanol, and Food Markets
    Drabik, D. ; Ciaian, P. ; Pokrivcak, J. - \ 2014
    KU Leuven, LICOS
    voedsel versus brandstof - biobrandstoffen - marktprijzen - agrarische economie - economische analyse - maïs - bioethanol - voedselprijzen - vs - biobased economy - food vs fuel - biofuels - market prices - agricultural economics - economic analysis - maize - bioethanol - food prices - usa - biobased economy
    This is the first paper to analyze the impact of biofuels on the price transmission along the food chain. We analyze the U.S. corn sector and its vertical links with food and ethanol (energy) markets. We find that biofuels affect the price transmission elasticity in the food chain compared to a no biofuel production situation but the effect depends on the source of the market shock and the policy regime: the price transmission elasticity declines under a binding blender’s tax credit and a food market shock. Our results also indicate that the response of corn and food prices to shocks in the corn and/or food markets is lower in the presence of biofuels. Finally, the sensitivity analyses indicate that our results are robust to different assumptions about the model parameters.
    (Voor)droging van zuiveringsslib in kassen met en zonder restwarmte
    Meddeler, Barry ; Reitsma, Berend ; Zwart, Feije de - \ 2013
    Amersfoort : Stowa (Stowa rapport 2013-38) - ISBN 9789057736148 - 88
    slib - bio-energie - slibzuivering - warmte - biobrandstoffen - sludges - bioenergy - sludge treatment - heat - biofuels
    In deze STOWA rapportage zijn de kansen van slibdroging in kassen voor de Nederlandse situatie beschreven. Er wordt inzicht gegeven in de potenties van de techniek van kassendroging aan de hand van (voornamelijk Duitse) praktijkervaringen en literatuur. Daarnaast zijn met modelberekeningen vier praktijkcasussen doorgerekend om de haalbaarheid voor Nederland in te schatten.
    Algen voor het leven
    Vianen, Margriet van; Linssen, Guido - \ 2013
    Wageningen UR - 66
    lesmaterialen - algen - fotosynthese - biobrandstoffen - voortgezet onderwijs - biomassa productie - celbiologie - biobased economy - teaching materials - algae - photosynthesis - biofuels - secondary education - biomass production - cellular biology - biobased economy
    De module Algen voor het leven gaat over fotosynthese en hoe alternatieve brandstoffen als biodiesel ingezet kunnen worden.
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