Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Sierteelt in de biobased economy : Screening van siergewasextracten op werking voor de plantgezondheid en de farmacie : Ornamentals in the biobased economy
    Poot, E.H. ; Staaij, M. van der; Hofland-Zijlstra, J.D. ; Vos, C.H. de; Korthout, H. ; Schulte, Annelies - \ 2016
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1387) - 52
    plantensamenstelling - plantextracten - biopesticiden - obesitas - medicinale eigenschappen - screenen - pesticiden bevattende planten - gewasbescherming - biobased economy - siergewassen - sierteelt - plant composition - plant extracts - microbial pesticides - obesity - medicinal properties - screening - pesticidal plants - plant protection - biobased economy - ornamental crops - ornamental horticulture
    The public-private funded project “Ornamentals in the Biobased Economy” was conducted by Royal FloraHolland, Kenniscentrum Plantenstoffen, Wageningen UR, Fytagoras and Prisna. In this project, bioactivity in plant extracts against the most important pests and diseases in greenhouse cultivation were tested. In bioassays, extracts with bioactivity against powdery mildew, botrytis, aphids, spider mite and thrips were found. With LCMS, metabolic profiles of the extracts were generated. Furthermore explorative experiments with plant extracts for crop resilience were conducted, and also plant extracts were tested in a bioassay for fat metabolism in obesitas
    Meer voedsel en minder gif? Het kan!
    Rabbinge, R. - \ 2014
    Tijdschrift Milieu : Vereniging van milieuprofessionals 2014 (2014)3. - p. 6 - 7.
    landbouwsector - agro-ecosystemen - ecologisch evenwicht - biopesticiden - gewasbescherming - biologische bestrijding - agricultural sector - agroecosystems - ecological balance - microbial pesticides - plant protection - biological control
    Grote delen van de wereld kampen met een structureel gebrek aan voedsel. Tegelijkertijd is nog steeds in veel landbouwsystemen sprake van intensief gebruik van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen. Op beide fronten is enorme winst te boeken door radicaal te kiezen voor een ecologische benadering. Onder de noemer Best Ecological Means is deze ontwikkeling de laatste jaren in een stroomversnelling geraakt.
    International Advances in Pesticide Application 122
    Anderson, P.G. ; Balsari, P. ; Carpenter, P.I. ; Cooper, S.E. ; Glass, C.R. ; Magri, B. ; Miller, P.C.H. ; Mountford-Smith, C. ; Robinson, T.H. ; Stock, D. ; Taylor, W.A. ; Zande, J.C. van de - \ 2014
    Wellesbourne, Warwick CV35 9EF, UK : Association of Applied Biologists Warwick Enterprise Park - 470
    pesticiden - biopesticiden - toepassing - toedieningswijzen - wereld - pesticides - microbial pesticides - application - application methods - world
    Vooral een probleem in de wintermaanden: Biologische middelen werken preventief tegen Botrytis in cyclamen (interview met Jantineke Hofland-Zijlstra, m.m.w. van Rozemarijn de Vries)
    Arkesteijn, M. ; Hofland-Zijlstra, J.D. ; Vries, R.S.M. de - \ 2012
    Onder Glas 9 (2012)4. - p. 17 - 19.
    cyclamen - gewasbescherming - biologische bestrijding - botrytis - schimmelziekten - biopesticiden - glastuinbouw - potplanten - cyclamen - plant protection - biological control - botrytis - fungal diseases - microbial pesticides - greenhouse horticulture - pot plants
    Botrytis is vooral in de maanden november tot en met januari een probleem in de cyclamenketen. In die tijd zorgt de schimmelziekte voor bladaantasting. De infectie begint al in een vroeg stadium onder invloed van een aantal factoren en kan in de na-oogstfase leiden tot uitval. Daar komt bij dat juist de nieuwe, compacte rassen gevoeliger zijn voor deze ziekte. Niet-chemische gewasbeschermingsmiddelen zijn een aanvulling om de schimmel tegen te gaan, zowel preventief als curatief.
    De strijd tegen vruchtboomkanker zonder Topsin M : Nu captan, straks een nieuw middel?
    Vlas, M.J. de; Jong, P.F. de - \ 2011
    De Fruitteelt 101 (2011)44. - ISSN 0016-2302 - p. 10 - 11.
    boomkwekerijen - plantenziektebestrijding - neonectria - plantenziekten - pesticiden - biopesticiden - gewasbescherming - toelating van bestrijdingsmiddelen - forest nurseries - plant disease control - neonectria - plant diseases - pesticides - microbial pesticides - plant protection - authorisation of pesticides
    Nu de herfst voor de deur staat, is aandacht voor de bestrijding van vruchtboomkanker (Neonectria ditissima) noodzakelijk. Het aantal middelen waaruit een fruitteler kan kiezen is beperkt, temeer doordat Topsin M niet meer toegelaten is. Omdat uitbreiding van het middelenpakket wenselijk is onderzocht PPO in opdracht van het Productschap Tuinbouw de werking van bestaande en nieuwe middelen. Eén nieuw middel blijkt perspectiefvol te zijn.
    Nieuw middel tegen vruchtrot in de maak : onderzoekers mikken op residuarme vruchten
    Jong, P.F. de; Bruine, J.A. de - \ 2011
    De Fruitteelt 101 (2011)40/41. - ISSN 0016-2302 - p. 6 - 7.
    fruitteelt - vruchtrot - plantenziekten - residuen - biopesticiden - productontwikkeling - fruit growing - fruit rots - plant diseases - residues - microbial pesticides - product development
    Gaaf fruit zonder residu lijkt een utopie. Alleen met een goed (chemisch) afspuitschema en niet te veel regen net voor de pluk, is bewaarrot te voorkomen. Toch is het mogelijk gaaf fruit zonder reguliere gewasbescherming te produceren. PPO zoekt samen met DSM, het bedrijf Ceradis, Fruitconsult, NFO en Horizon Consult naar 'natuurlijke' middelen die vruchtrot voorkomen.
    Toevoeging EcoNomic aan Roundup Evolution onderzocht in de praktijk
    Kempenaar, C. ; Michielsen, J.G.P. - \ 2010
    Plant Research International
    stadsomgeving - stedelijke gebieden - onkruidbestrijding - biopesticiden - plantaardige oliën - doseringseffecten - proeven - bestrating - urban environment - urban areas - weed control - microbial pesticides - plant oils - dosage effects - trials - pavements
    Het afgelopen voorjaar (2010) is de combinatie van het middel RoundUp® Evolution en de hulpstof EcoNomic getest op onkruidbestrijding op verhardingen in de gemeente Capelle aan den IJssel. De onkruidgroei werd beoordeeld gedurende een maand. Met een kritisch lage dosering van het middel in combinatie met EcoNomic werd een positief effect behaald. Minder gevoelige onkruidsoorten blijven een aandachtspunt.
    Verbeterde spintbestrijding door inductie van plantweerbaarheid in komkommer
    Messelink, G.J. ; Groot, E.B. de; Holstein, R. van - \ 2010
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapporten GTB 1045) - 22
    tetranychus urticae - komkommers - cucumis sativus - biologische landbouw - biopesticiden - tetranychus urticae - cucumbers - cucumis sativus - organic farming - microbial pesticides
    Samenvatting en vertaling voor internet De biologische bestrijding van spint in komkommer met de roofmijt Phytoseiulus persimilis gaat beter op planten die vooraf behandeld zijn met middelen die resistentie induceren. Plantmetingen (metabolietenanalyses) geven aan dat deze resistentie sterk gekoppeld is aan de aanmaak van flavonoïde afweerstoffen die spint remmen in hun groeisnelheid. Dit onderzoek werd gefinancierd door het Productschap Tuinbouw in samenwerking met het ministerie van Economische Zaken, Landbouw en Innovatie. Abstract Biological control of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae by the predator Phytoseiulus persimilis is significantly enhanced on cucumber plants where resistance was induced by elicitors. Plant metabolomic analyses showed that resistance was strongly correlated with the production of flavonoids, which slow down the population incresae of spider mites. This study was supported by the Dutch Product Board for Horticulture and the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation.
    Het wortelknobbelaaltje in biologische kasteelten: problematiek en oplossingen
    Wurff, A.W.G. van der; Janse, J. - \ 2010
    Gewasbescherming 41 (2010)6. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 285 - 290.
    biologische landbouw - meloidogyne - glasgroenten - bloementeelt - glastuinbouw - gewasbescherming - biopesticiden - biologische bestrijding - biologische grondontsmetting - ziektebestrijdende teeltmaatregelen - organic farming - meloidogyne - greenhouse vegetables - floriculture - greenhouse horticulture - plant protection - microbial pesticides - biological control - biological soil sterilization - cultural control
    De afgelopen jaren is er gezocht naar duurzame oplossingen voor gewasschade veroorzaakt door het wortelknobbelaaltje (Meloidogyne spp.) in de biologische teelt van bloemen en groenten onder glas. Op dit moment wordt grondstomen nog steeds gezien als het belangrijkste wapen tegen wortelknobbelaatjes. Grondstomen is effectief maar kost veel energie en doodt ook nuttig bodemleven en past daarom eigenlijk niet goed in een biologische teelt. Het onderzoek was daarom gericht op het ontwikkelen van alternatieve beheerssystemen voor wortelknobbelaaltjes waardoor stomen overbodig wordt. Er is gezocht naar zowel middelen als systemen, variërend van onderstammen, biologische middelen en grondontsmetting tot teeltsysteem- oplossingen. Het onderzoek werd gefinancierd door het ministerie van Landbouw, Natuur en Voedselkwalteit (LNV) en het eindrapport is verkrijgbaar in het Nederlands en Engels (Wurff et al 2010).
    Natural products for malaria vector control: flora, fish and fungi
    Howard, A.F.V. - \ 2010
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Willem Takken; Marcel Dicke, co-promotor(en): J.J. Githure. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085857204 - 267
    malaria - ziekten overgebracht door muskieten - vectorbestrijding - natuurlijke producten - biologische bestrijding - plantaardige pesticiden - biopesticiden - vis - malaria - mosquito-borne diseases - vector control - natural products - biological control - botanical pesticides - microbial pesticides - fish
    Introduction
    Despite international organisations providing much focus over the past 10 years, malaria is still killing vast numbers of Africans, especially children. It is agreed that malaria can only be successfully controlled by using different control tools simultaneously in the spirit of integrated vector management (IVM), and that African communities will need to become more directly involved in mosquito control (Chapter 2). Using mosquito control tools in a way that requires almost no technical equipment or knowledge will open them up to the rural communities that are best placed to deploy them. In addition, widespread insecticide resistance is reducing the ability of insecticide-based tools to control mosquitoes. For these reasons, biological control and other natural mosquito control methods are being researched by many institutions. Several potential natural control tools are readily available in sub-Saharan Africa. If these tools prove effective and become operational, then it is possible that they will be sustainable because communities can intentionally produce the biological agents themselves, bringing a source of money to rural communities. This would be especially important in areas where infrastructure is poorly developed, and repeat applications of chemical control tools are not easily made. This thesis was designed to test the feasibility and effectiveness of a variety of natural products against both larval and adult malaria vector mosquitoes using low-tech methods in laboratory and field trials.

    Part I: Flora
    Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae) (the neem tree) was chosen due to the already proved mosquitocidal properties, and its ready availability in Africa. We wanted to use neem in a way that could easily be deployed in resource-poor rural areas. Laboratory studies were conducted to examine the larvicidal and pupicidal properties of a crude aqueous extract of neem wood against the principle African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae Giles s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) (Chapter 3) [1]. The results indicate that even a relatively low dose of 0.15 grams of dried neem wood in 1 litre of water was able to inhibit the emergence of 90% of mosquito adults when larvae were exposed during their first three larval instars. Even for the fourth (last) larval instar, just 0.6 g/l was required to prevent 90% emergence. Furthermore, neem-exposed larvae exhibited significantly increased development times when compared to the controls. Pupae were also killed by the aqueous neem extracts, and were subject to neem-induced emergence abnormalities, but the concentrations required to kill pupae were much higher than for larvae and not likely to be used operationally. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis identified several polar constituents in the aqueous neem extracts including nimbin and salannin. However, azadirachtin was not present in significant amounts. The effect of this extract on the oviposition behaviour of adult female An. gambiae s.s. mosquitoes was then monitored (Chapter 4) [2]. The oviposition results show that when using 0.1 g/l of the crude aqueous neem extract, significantly more mosquitoes laid their eggs when compared to mosquitoes exposed to the control treatment. For the doses 10x and 100x higher, the same proportion of mosquitoes laid their eggs as in the control, indicating that even at much higher doses than required for successful larval control, female oviposition will not be detrimentally affected.

    Part II: Fish
    Larvivorous fish have previously been shown to effectively control mosquito numbers. Therefore, a census was carried out to examine the current status of fish farming in western Kenya (Chapter 5) [3]. Working with the Kenyan Fisheries Department we found that while fish farming is a favoured activity, 30% of the 261 ponds found did not contain fish. These “abandoned” ponds had significantly more An. gambiae s.l., Anopheles funestus Giles and culicine mosquitoes when compared to the ponds that still contained fish. Furthermore, An. gambiae s.l. was proportionally more abundant in the abandoned ponds when compared to the other mosquito types. Surprisingly, vegetation did not significantly affect mosquito distribution. Following our study, demand for fish to restock abandoned ponds increased by 67% when compared to the previous year. The overwhelming majority of fish being farmed in our census area were fish of the tilapiine subfamily. Given this finding, we set up a small-scale field experiment to study the larvivorous potential of the tilapiine fish Oreochromis niloticus L. (Perciformes: Cichlidae) (Chapter 6) [4]. Taking daily measurements of mosquito numbers, we found that immediately after fish introduction, the density of mosquitoes in the treated ponds dropped in comparison to the increase in the control pond. After 15 weeks, anopheline numbers had decreased by >94% in the ponds containing the fish, and we found that fish were able to sustainably control mosquitoes for at least 6 months, when our study finished. It is concluded that this type of fish could be an effective and sustainable way to control mosquito numbers in rural western Kenya. Furthermore, this fish provides a source of much needed income and protein to rural African communities.

    Part III: Fungi
    For the control of mosquito adults using natural products, entomopathogenic fungi hold the most promise. In this thesis the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae were separately suspended in mineral oil and applied to polyester netting. A laboratory experiment was then conducted to investigate the fungal susceptibility of insecticide-susceptible and insecticide-resistant strains of An. gambiae s.s.. In addition, fungal conidial viability was tested at various time points after application onto polyester netting (Chapter 7) [5]. Whilst both mosquito strains were susceptible to both species of fungal infection, the pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae s.s. VKPER strain was significantly more susceptible than the insecticide-susceptible SKK strain, dying more quickly. Conidial viability was significantly lower for both species after application onto the polyester netting when compared to the viability in suspension. However, the ability of the treated netting to infect and kill mosquitoes was not significantly diminished over the one week trial period. Given the finding that fungal-treated polyester netting could infect and kill mosquitoes, an experimental hut field trial was conducted in Benin, West Africa, to investigate the effect of fungal treatment on blood feeding behaviour and survival of wild insecticide-resistant mosquitoes. Benin was chosen due to the presence of multi-insecticide-resistant mosquito populations that are threatening the effectiveness of current vector control. We used fungal-treated netting to infect mosquitoes entering the hut windows, and either an untreated or insecticide-treated bednet was placed into each hut to examine how the entomopathogenic fungi would work with current control tools (Chapter 8) [6]. Only enough Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes were collected from the huts for accurate analysis. Our study was the first to monitor the effect of entomopathogenic fungi on blood feeding of wild mosquitoes. We found that the B. bassiana treatments caused significant and instantaneous reductions in blood feeding. No significant effect of the fungi on mosquito mortality was found. Conidial viability of B. bassiana and M. anisopliae was found to decrease rapidly under field conditions [7].

    Conclusions
    This thesis used several different experimental techniques to examine the potential of three natural products to control mosquitoes. For the flora, it was found that even a small amount of neem wood in water would control mosquitoes (Chapter 3), and at this and higher doses, the oviposition behaviour was not adversely affected (Chapter 4). Neem trees are readily available in many areas of Africa, and promising field trials indicate that the use of this tree species should be incorporated into malaria control trials.
    This thesis reports that edible native African fish can be effective at controlling mosquitoes (Chapter 6), but if fish farming is abandoned and the ponds not filled in, then they can allow large numbers of the most effective malaria vectors to breed (Chapter 5). Fish have been successfully used for malaria vector control in many countries and this could be rolled out across appropriate areas of Africa, as long as it is accompanied with adequate education about the dangers of abandoned ponds.
    We found that insecticide-resistant mosquitoes were more susceptible to fungal infection than the insecticide-susceptible strain. Under field conditions fungi were able to prevent blood feeding but did not cause significant mortality in the wild-caught mosquitoes. Although entomopathogenic fungi produce high levels of mortality in laboratory settings, (Chapter 7), their use under field conditions still has a long way to go and is not yet at the operational stage. Although the results found in this thesis are encouraging for the use of fungi in African situations (Chapter 8), further work should be carried out to maximise fungal persistence under field conditions.
    The current emphasis is on IVM for malaria control (Chapter 2), and focus is turning to biological control tools that can help manage insecticide-resistant populations. With this in mind, the natural products investigated in this thesis have produced encouraging results that show they have the potential to be integrated into malaria control strategies. Furthermore, flora and fish are readily available in the areas where they are most required, and could be used almost immediately to help reduce mosquito numbers and correspondingly, malaria disease transmission.

    The development of microbial pest control products for control of arthropods: a critical evaluation and a roadmap to success
    Ravensberg, W.J. - \ 2010
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Joop van Lenteren. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085856788 - 348
    plagen veroorzaakt door geleedpotigen - biopesticiden - ontwikkeling - potentie - screenen - biologische productie - formuleringen - experimenteel veldonderzoek - kwaliteitscontroles - vercommercialisering - planning - toelating van bestrijdingsmiddelen - arthropod pests - microbial pesticides - development - potency - screening - biological production - formulations - field experimentation - quality controls - commercialization - planning - authorisation of pesticides
    Microbial pesticides have been developed for a hundred years, but many of these biological crop protection products have not been successful in the market. This is illustrated in chapter 1 by the history of microbial pest control products and the biopesticide companies producing those. In this thesis I recognize the need for a model that would facilitate the development and commercialization of biopesticides based on entomopathogenic bacteria, fungi, viruses, and nematodes. The aim of this thesis was to develop a rational and structured approach that will increase the chances of achieving success with microbial pest control products for control of arthropods.
    The initial step is finding a microbial pest control agent which has the potential to control the pest (chapter 2). The search for a novel agent is directed by an elaborate description of the pest problem. The first level of selection is the type of entomopathogen: bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoa, and entomopathogenic nematodes. The second level is at the species and strain level. This study identified three decisive selection criteria for a commercial microbial insecticide: mortality, production efficiency, and safety to humans and the environment. The consecutive steps in the screening process have been identified as the collection of isolates, laboratory screening on efficacy in well-standardized bio-assays, and on production efficiency, assessment of mode of action and toxicological properties, and efficacy in small glasshouse trials. This selection process should deliver determinative information on which one or at the most three to four strains are chosen for further development.
    The next phase is the investigation of the feasibility of economic mass production of the selected strain(s) and the development of a stable product (chapter 3). Two phases are distinguished, the development of the production process, including medium development and downstream processing, and the development of the product, including formulation, packaging and field testing. Mass production is preferably an in vitro process because that offers more control than an in vivo process. Bacteria, fungi and entomopathogenic nematodes are generally produced in vitro, whereas baculoviruses must be produced in vivo. The critical technical and economic factors are identified and evaluated for these four types of pathogens. The goal is to produce the greatest number of infective propagules for the lowest cost.
    A stable product requires a formulation. The four main objectives in formulating the infective propagules are: to stabilize the propagules for reasons of packaging, shelf-life and shipping; to create a user-friendly product that can be effectively delivered to the target; to protect the propagule, once applied, to improve its persistence at the target site; and to minimize risks of exposure to the applicator. Formulation considerations and recommendations are presented per formulation function as well as per type of pathogen.
    Field testing links all steps in the developmental process. It provides information on the efficacy of the selected strain, on the quality of the produced propagules, on the formulation, and on the optimal application strategy. Results from field tests provide a continuous circle of feedback that allows improvement of each of the steps of the entire developmental process.
    The price of a product is an essential element and a cost price model for biopesticides is presented. The model provides a perspective on the makeup of the end-user’s price. Economy of scale, full use of the production capacity, and capacity planning are pivotal factors to keep the costs low. Key elements to successful biopesticides are both production efficiency and product efficacy.
    Quality control (chapter 4) provides feedback on the production and formulation processes, and on the final product. The continuous process of improvements will ultimately decrease costs and improve performance of the production system and the product. Products must meet product specifications. Parameters checked per batch are the number of effective propagules, microbial purity, presence of toxins, technical properties and efficacy. Standardization and comparison with a reference product are prerequisites for proper quality control. Quality control is also required for registration, but standard methods and criteria are lacking. Therefore, guidance documents need to be developed. Biocontrol companies should ensure that product quality is maintained through the whole distribution chain and that end-users receive high quality products. I showed that in that way, both the biocontrol industry and its customers benefit from proper quality control.
    In chapter 5 regulations for microorganisms are reviewed. Microorganisms, except nematodes, need to be registered as plant protection products for crop protection. Registration is perceived as the main hurdle to the development of a biopesticide. The procedures in the EU are presented and difficulties discussed. The issues relate to inappropriate data requirements, lack of guidance for applicants and regulators, testing methods for microbials, lack of experience in regulators, national registration procedures, and the inexperienced small biopesticide companies. Registration is expensive and takes many years. I presented registration cost estimates for each type of entomopathogenic product. Initiatives for improvements from the EU-REBECA project, from the OECD BioPesticides Steering Group, and some national projects are presented. I also provided recommendations for improvements for data requirements and regulatory procedures. New regulations may offer improved procedures in the near future. Various import and export regulations affect the use of microorganisms, and the need for harmonization is emphasized. The Convention of Biodiversity may, through Access and Benefit Sharing, create a further impediment for biocontrol.
    The patentability of an entomopathogen is discussed as well as the criteria for granting a patent: novelty, inventive step, and industrial applicability. I also discussed costs and other considerations whether to apply for a patent for a biopesticide.
    The implementation strategy of the product in an IPM programme is a basic element of the use of any microbial pest control product (chapter 6). Three phases are distinguished: the optimal application strategy of the product, the incorporation of the microbial pest control product in an IPM system, and a carefully designed adoption strategy. Determinative parameters for each phase, and for each type of product are identified. For instance, for a successful use, the compatibility with chemical pesticides and with natural enemies and pollinators needs to be investigated. Furthermore, knowledge transfer and training are pivotal elements. All stakeholders need to participate in this process.
    These phases require a considerable amount of research which should be conducted before market launch. Recommendations are provided for a tiered approach which results in reliable information for commercial conditions. Many companies underestimated or even neglected this part of product development. In my opinion, these phases are paramount for good market introduction. I reported the most relevant requirements for successful use of a microbial pest control product. Successful implementation of a microbial pest control product depends on how well relevant interactions are studied and translated into practical recommendations for the grower. This phase continues after market introduction. It requires a continuous effort from producer, distributor and customer to ensure that product adoption will increase and satisfied customers will remain using the new product in their IPM system.
    In chapter 7, I noted that commercialization is the final and most difficult step in the development and the market introduction of a microbial pest control product. The factors that determine success or failure are identified for a company as well as for a product, and recommendations are provided that will facilitate success.
    Figures on the global biopesticide market are reviewed. The European market is estimated to be €57 million at end-user level, and the market in the Netherlands at €5-6 million. The European biopesticide market comprises less than 1% of the total European crop protection market. Biopesticides are predominantly used in protected crops and in orchards.
    Companies which contemplate the development and commercialization of a biopesticide need realistic data on five key aspects to make their decision: market demand, market size, profit margin, time to market, and time to volume. The biggest mistake companies still make today is a misjudgement of the potential market size and the expected market adoption rate. I proposed the use of a stage-gate process with objective, quantifiable, and transparent tools in decision-making. Examples of scorecards are presented to quantify decisions. The business model that performs best at present seems to be a small company which follows an incremental and manageable growth of the organization. Total developmental costs and time to market are significant factors of a company’s success. Costs amount to € 10-15 million for a company that still needs to be built; while in an existing company, costs may reach € 5-10 million for a biopesticide project. Time to market including registration is five to seven years. I have identified five determinants for successful commercialization: 1) acceptable expenses and time to market; 2) a high quality product; 3) a sufficiently large market; 4) a profit margin that allows expansion in new markets and products; and 5) the appropriate business approach.
    A new product development project is extensive and it is difficult to oversee. In chapter 8 I have made an analysis of the various phases and I highlighted the most important topics in the development and commercialization of a microbial pest control product. This study demonstrated that the development of a microbial pest control product requires a structured project plan. The building blocks of the entire process are defined and essential factors emphasized. From this, I have divided the process in phases and steps, and designed the roadmap to a successful product. Three diagrams illustrate the stepwise approach of the entire process, the selection phase, the product development phase, and the implementation phase. Registration and commercialization are processes that relate to these phases during the entire developmental process.
    A future perspective on the biopesticide market is presented with limiting and promotional factors and trends. The significant drivers for success are food safety concern, changes in the regulatory climate, biodiversity and environmental issues, new research and technology, and the occurrence of new invasive pests. The biopesticide industry has reached a sufficient level of maturity and critical mass to form a base for further expansion. This will allow the biopesticide market to steadily grow. The roadmap proposed in this study will assist developers of biopesticides in accomplishing their goals in a cost- and time-effective way, which will result in successful and sustainable products and expanding biocontrol companies.


    Bestrijding Botrytis in bollen; alternatieven of een verlaagde dosering effectief en verantwoord?
    Boer, M. de; Breeuwsma, S.J. ; Lans, A.M. van der; Bent, J. van der; Buitenwerf, H.A. - \ 2010
    Gewasbescherming 41 (2010)3. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 139 - 140.
    botrytis - bloembollen - tulpen - lelies - dosering - pesticiden - biopesticiden - botrytis - ornamental bulbs - tulips - lilies - dosage - pesticides - microbial pesticides
    Op dit moment spuiten de meeste telers op wekelijkse basis tegen Botrytus. PPO Bloembollen heeft onderzoek gedaan naar stadium-afhankelijke dosering en naar het gebruik van een alternatief gewasbeschermingsmiddel van natuurlijke oorsprong (GNO). De resultaten zijn positief, maar telers hebben moeite met de acceptatie van de nieuw-ontwikkelde maatregelen.
    Geïntegreerde bestrijding houdt rozentelers flink bezig (presentatie Juliëtte Pijnakker)
    Neefjes, H. ; Pijnakker, J. - \ 2009
    Vakblad voor de Bloemisterij 2009 (2009)37. - ISSN 0042-2223 - p. 56 - 57.
    tuinbouw - kassen - snijbloemen - rozen - roofmijten - pseudococcus maritimus - biologische bestrijding - biopesticiden - geïntegreerde bestrijding - glastuinbouw - horticulture - greenhouses - cut flowers - roses - predatory mites - pseudococcus maritimus - biological control - microbial pesticides - integrated control - greenhouse horticulture
    Onderzoekers, adviseurs en rozentelers wisselden tijdens een LTO-bijeenkomst ervaringen uit over geïntegreerde bestrijding. Trips is nog steeds een lastpak, maar ook insecten als wol- en schildluis vragen de aandacht. Goed scouten, snel en adequaat ingrijpen, al dan niet met biologische middelen, is het devies
    Beerling : 'GNO vergt een langduriger toepassing voor een goed effect' : interview
    Arkesteijn, M. ; Beerling, E.A.M. - \ 2009
    Onder Glas 6 (2009)3. - p. 27 - 29.
    kassen - pesticiden - resistentie tegen pesticiden - biopesticiden - metarhizium anisopliae - schimmelinsecticiden - gewasbescherming - bloementeelt - chrysanten - glastuinbouw - snijbloemen - greenhouses - pesticides - pesticide resistance - microbial pesticides - metarhizium anisopliae - fungal insecticides - plant protection - floriculture - chrysanthemums - greenhouse horticulture - cut flowers
    Het gebruik van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen van natuurlijke oorsprong (GNO's) wint terrein door het optreden van resistentie tegen chemische middelen en doordat de markt erom vraagt. Er zijn diverse goed werkende GNO's op de markt, maar een teler moet er anders mee omgaan dan met chemische middelen. Bovendien is nog onvoldoende bekend hoe je deze middelen optimaal moet toepassen. Lees daarom het etiket goed, volg de adviezen op en zit er met de neus bovenop door goed te scouten
    Is co-existentie van de biologische en gangbare landbouw met genetisch gemodificeerde gewassen mogelijk?
    Lammerts Van Bueren, E. - \ 2008
    Gewasbescherming 39 (2008)2. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 75 - 75.
    biologische landbouw - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - veredelingsprogramma's - plagenbestrijding - rassen (planten) - biopesticiden - genetische modificatie - gewassen - gewasbescherming - akkerbouw - organic farming - sustainability - breeding programmes - pest control - varieties - microbial pesticides - genetic engineering - crops - plant protection - arable farming
    Edith Lammerts van Bueren (Louis Bolk Instituut) gaf na een uiteenzetting van de uitgangspunten van de biologische landbouw een inleiding over de co-existentie van de biologische sector met GG-gewassen. De Commisie Co-existentie buigt zich hierover in de gewassen maïs, aardappel en suikerbiet. Men wil in een convenant duidelijke afspraken maken, maar het proces is nog (lang) niet afgerond
    Meer kennis over ziekten en plagen in kool helpt aanpak
    Voorrips, R.E. ; Wolf, J.M. van der - \ 2008
    BioKennis bericht Akkerbouw & vollegrondsgroenten 11 (2008).
    akkerbouw - biologische landbouw - gewasbescherming - biologische bestrijding - koolsoorten - peronospora farinosa - biopesticiden - xanthomonas - vollegrondsteelt - arable farming - organic farming - plant protection - biological control - cabbages - peronospora farinosa - microbial pesticides - xanthomonas - outdoor cropping
    Trips, zwartnervigheid, bladvlekkenziekte en valse meeldauw: het zijn een paar van de ziekten en plagen die de teelt van kwalitatief goede kool en goed zaaizaad belemmeren. Kennis over de plaag of de schimmel levert aanwijzingen voor bestrijding.
    Implementatie van een BOS in aardbei
    Evenhuis, B. ; Kastelein, P. ; Wilms, J.A.M. ; Köhl, J. - \ 2008
    Wageningen : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving B.V. - 38
    aardbeien - gewasbescherming - plantenziekten - vruchtrot - botrytis cinerea - bestrijdingsmethoden - fungiciden - antagonisten - biopesticiden - geïntegreerde bestrijding - beslissingsondersteunende systemen - strawberries - plant protection - plant diseases - fruit rots - botrytis cinerea - control methods - fungicides - antagonists - microbial pesticides - integrated control - decision support systems
    In de teelt van aardbeien vormt vruchtrot, veroorzaakt door Botrytis cinerea, een belangrijk probleem. Van jaar tot jaar verschilt de mate van aantasting, en daarmee het opbrengstverlies, zeer sterk. Chemische bestrijding van vruchtrot behoort tot de mogelijkheden. Daarnaast vormen trips en meeldauw ook bedreigingen voor de teelt. Het beleid in Nederland is erop gericht de afhankelijkheid van chemische gewasbescherming te verminderen. Eén van de mogelijkheden is de ontwikkeling van een strategie ter bevordering van de inzet van antagonisten of Gewasbeschermingsmiddelen van Natuurlijke Oorsprong (GNO’s). Daarnaast is het van belang alleen dan een chemische bestrijding uit te voeren als dit noodzakelijk is. Beslissing Ondersteunende Systemen (BOS) kunnen daarbij helpen. Eén van de best practises is het toepassen van fungicidenbestrijding op basis van een waarschuwingsysteem. In de praktijk wordt vruchtrot bestrijding op basis van een BOS nog onvoldoende overgenomen. In de periode 2006 tot en met 2008 werd onderzoek gedaan naar gebruik van BOS-varianten bij de bestrijding van vruchtrot en meeldauw in aardbei. Doel van deze proeven is het verbeteren en testen van BOS-varianten om gebruik hiervan in de praktijk te stimuleren. Naast het gebruik van waarschuwingssystemen werd ook gekeken naar de toepassing van een GNO tegen meeldauw, met mogelijk een nevenwerking op Botrytis en naar een antagonist tegen Botrytis
    Pseudomonas in prei tackelen vereist drastische ingrepen
    Overbeek, L.S. van; Visser, J.H.M. - \ 2008
    Groenten & Fruit 2008 (2008). - ISSN 0925-9708 - p. 34 - 35.
    tuinbouw - groenteteelt - allium porrum - preien - biopesticiden - biologische bestrijding - pseudomonas syringae - pseudomonadaceae - bacterieziekten - vollegrondsgroenten - horticulture - vegetable growing - allium porrum - leeks - microbial pesticides - biological control - pseudomonas syringae - pseudomonadaceae - bacterial diseases - field vegetables
    Pseudomonas in prei is een groot probleem dat niet te tackelen lijkt zonder drastische ingrepen in teeltprocedures. Dat maakt het plausibel om ook minder voor de hand liggende maatregelen te testen op hun effectiviteit tegen de bacterie. Het nieuwe spoor is de inzet van biologische bestrijdingsmiddelen
    Perspectief voor biologische rozenonderstammen
    Brouwer, J. - \ 2008
    De Boomkwekerij 21 (2008)42. - ISSN 0923-2443 - p. 14 - 15.
    onderstammen - biologische productie - rozen - biopesticiden - boomkwekerijen - rootstocks - biological production - roses - microbial pesticides - forest nurseries
    In samenwerking met DLV Plant is een onderzoek uitgevoerd naar biologische rozenonderstammen. Dankzij raketblad en biologische spuitmiddelen zijn aaltjes en schimmelziekten te onderdrukken
    Moleculaire en biochemische analyse van antagonistische bacteriën betrokken bij bodemgebonden ziektewering tegen Rhizoctonia solani
    Kruijt, M. ; Pangesti, N. ; Wagemakers, L. ; Raaijmakers, J. - \ 2008
    Gewasbescherming 39 (2008)supplement. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 35S - 36S.
    gewasbescherming - thanatephorus cucumeris - plantenziektebestrijding - ziektebestrijdende teeltmaatregelen - bodembacteriën - schimmelantagonisten - biopesticiden - bodemkwaliteit - plant protection - thanatephorus cucumeris - plant disease control - cultural control - soil bacteria - fungal antagonists - microbial pesticides - soil quality
    Een nieuwe carrier voor biologische bestrijders
    Postma, J. ; Nijhuis, E.H. ; Clematis, F. ; Someus, E. - \ 2008
    Gewasbescherming 39 (2008)SPEC. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 36S - 36S.
    beendermeel - biologische bestrijding - biopesticiden - organismen ingezet bij biologische bestrijding - dragers - bone meal - biological control - microbial pesticides - biological control agents - carriers
    Gebruik de competentie van de bodem voor ziekte- en plaagonderdrukking
    Cuijpers, W.J.M. ; Postma, J. ; Bezemer, T.M. ; Bloem, J. ; Paternotte, S.J. ; Messelink, G.J. ; Wurff, A.W.G. van der - \ 2008
    Gewasbescherming 39 (2008)Suppl.. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 35 - 35.
    bodembacteriën - geïntegreerde plagenbestrijding - fusarium - biopesticiden - schimmelantagonisten - bodembeheer - bodemkwaliteit - soil bacteria - integrated pest management - fusarium - microbial pesticides - fungal antagonists - soil management - soil quality
    GNO's tegen Pythium in komkommer
    Paternotte, S.J. ; Flier, W.G. ; Förch, M.G. ; Stevens, L.H. ; Verstappen, F.W.A. ; Bouwmeester, H.J. - \ 2008
    gewasbescherming - komkommers - cucumis sativus - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - pythium aphanidermatum - wortelrot - plantenziektebestrijding - biopesticiden - plantaardige pesticiden - teelt onder bescherming - kasproeven - glastuinbouw - plant protection - cucumbers - cucumis sativus - plant pathogenic fungi - pythium aphanidermatum - root rots - plant disease control - microbial pesticides - botanical pesticides - protected cultivation - greenhouse experiments - greenhouse horticulture
    Tegen Pythium aphanidermatum, het belangrijkste wortelpathogeen in de teelt van komkommer, worden relatief veel chemische gewasbeschermingsmiddelen gebruikt. Onderzocht wordt of GNO’s (Gewasbeschermingsmiddelen van Natuurlijke Oorsprong) een alternatief kunnen bieden
    GNO's tegen insecten: signaalstoffen en toxines
    Kogel, W.J. de; Tol, R.W.H.M. van; Griepink, F.C. ; Deventer, P. van; Schuurman, A.J. ; Wiegers, G.L. - \ 2008
    insectenbestrijding - gewasbescherming - biologische bestrijding - biopesticiden - insectenlokstoffen - feromonen - toxinen - insect control - plant protection - biological control - microbial pesticides - insect attractants - pheromones - toxins
    In diverse laboratoriumopstellingen is een screening gedaan om interessante stoffen (gewasbeschermingsmiddelen van natuurlijke oorsprong, GNO's) te vinden voor insectenbestrijding
    Telen met Toekomst: Over Zuur, Tagetes en minder middelen
    Kool, S.A.M. de - \ 2007
    BloembollenVisie 2007 (2007)129. - ISSN 1571-5558 - p. 20 - 21.
    ondernemerschap - bedrijfsvoering - bloembollen - sierplanten - biologische productie - emissie - biopesticiden - tagetes - compostering - spuiten - biologische landbouw - gewasbescherming - biologische grondontsmetting - waterschappen - entrepreneurship - management - ornamental bulbs - ornamental plants - biological production - emission - microbial pesticides - tagetes - composting - spraying - organic farming - plant protection - biological soil sterilization - polder boards
    In de laatste aflevering van Telen met Toekomst van 2007 veel informatie uit de verschillende groepen. Ervaringen van ondernemers met bewust minder spuiten, met de zuurcheck en de teelt van Tagetes komen dit keer aan de orde. Daarnaast geeft Henk Bouwman vanuit de waterschappen zijn ervaringen door met Telen met Toekomst
    Masterplan Gewasbescherming
    Baars, J.J.P. - \ 2007
    Paddestoelen : onafhankelijk vakblad voor Nederland en België 2 (2007). - ISSN 1380-359X - p. 5 - 5.
    paddestoelen - eetbare paddestoelen - cultuurmethoden - pesticiden - biologische productie - biopesticiden - biologische bestrijding - mushrooms - edible fungi - cultural methods - pesticides - biological production - microbial pesticides - biological control
    De paddenstoelensector werkt aan een sectorplan om de Nederlandse sector uit de malaise te halen. Een van de onderdelen van dit plan is de introductie van een chemisch middelenvrije teelt. Een Masterplan Gewasbescherming zal daar deel vanuit maken
    Biologische bestrijding aaltjes in ontwikkeling
    Jagers op Akkerhuis, F. ; Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw, - \ 2007
    Groenten en Fruit. Algemeen 2007 (2007)21. - ISSN 0925-9694 - p. 20 - 21.
    gewasbescherming - biologische bestrijding - organismen ingezet bij biologische bestrijding - biopesticiden - meloidogyne javanica - plantenparasitaire nematoden - nematologie - landbouwkundig onderzoek - komkommers - tomaten - glastuinbouw - glasgroenten - plant protection - biological control - biological control agents - microbial pesticides - meloidogyne javanica - plant parasitic nematodes - nematology - agricultural research - cucumbers - tomatoes - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse vegetables
    Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw heeft sinds vorig jaar een afdeling nematologie. Speerpunt van die afdeling is een oplossing vinden voor het wortelknobbelaaltje in de biologische groenteteelt. Dit aaltje kan in tomaat en komkommer voor flink wat opbrengstverlies zorgen. Diverse bestrijdingsmethoden zijn in onderzoek
    Perspectieven voor een betere biologische schurftbestrijding
    Heijne, B. ; Jong, P.F. de - \ 2006
    De Fruitteelt 96 (2006)41. - ISSN 0016-2302 - p. 12 - 13.
    plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - schimmelbestrijding - fungiciden - bestrijdingsmethoden - biologische bestrijding - biopesticiden - extracten - yucca - gewasbescherming - plant pathogenic fungi - fungus control - fungicides - control methods - biological control - microbial pesticides - extracts - yucca - plant protection
    Binnen het REPCO-project is gezocht naar middelen of methoden voor een biologische schurftbestrijding in de biologische appelteelt. Extracten van Yucca-soorten bleken effectief tegen schurft op appel
    Toedieningswijze en formulering cruciaal voor effectiviteit van GNO's
    Zande, J.C. van de; Stevens, L.H. ; Spits, H.G. - \ 2006
    gewasbescherming - pesticiden - plantaardige pesticiden - biopesticiden - toedieningswijzen - doseringseffecten - formuleringen - bladbespuiting - aardappelen - lelies - appels - toelating van bestrijdingsmiddelen - plant protection - pesticides - botanical pesticides - microbial pesticides - application methods - dosage effects - formulations - foliar spraying - potatoes - lilies - apples - authorisation of pesticides
    Succesvolle introductie van GNO’s in de praktijk is in hoge mate afhankelijk van een juiste toedieningswijze en daarmee samenhangende formulering. Verbetering van de effectiviteit verlaagt de benodigde hoeveelheid GNO’s, waardoor de kans op introductie wordt verhoogd. Onderzoek naar toediening en formulering is daarom een integraal onderdeel van de ontwikkeling van GNO-produkten voor de praktijk
    Lichtpuntje in de bestrijding van taxuskevers
    Elberse, I.A.M. ; Tol, R. van der - \ 2006
    De Boomkwekerij 19 (2006)2. - ISSN 0923-2443 - p. 8 - 9.
    otiorhynchus rugosostriatus - organismen ingezet bij biologische bestrijding - biopesticiden - pesticiden - insecten - plantenplagen - gewasbescherming - houtachtige planten als sierplanten - veldproeven - tests - otiorhynchus rugosostriatus - biological control agents - microbial pesticides - pesticides - insects - plant pests - plant protection - ornamental woody plants - field tests - tests
    Vanaf 2006 zijn de vertrouwde bestrijdingsmiddelen in de bestrijding van taxuskevers of gegroefde lapsnuitkevers verboden. PPO Bomen en DLV Plant gingen in 2005 het veld in om 'nieuwe' middelen te testen. Met positief resultaat.
    Kies je middel met de milieu-effectenkaarten
    Nouwens, F.H.C. ; Kuik, F. van - \ 2006
    De Boomkwekerij 19 (2006)3. - ISSN 0923-2443 - p. 8 - 9.
    milieueffect - kaarten (charts) - gewasbescherming - milieubescherming - milieubeheer - pesticiden - biopesticiden - environmental impact - charts - plant protection - environmental protection - environmental management - pesticides - microbial pesticides
    Met de nieuwe milieu-effectenkaarten zie je in één oogopslag of een middel wel of niet belastend is voor water, lucht of nuttige beestjes. De kleuren op de kaart geven aan hoe groot de milieu-effecten zijn. Inmiddels zijn voor ruim 30 verschillende gewassen milieu-effectenkaarten beschikbaar.
    Geïntegreerde tripsbestrijding chrysant
    Beerling, E.A.M. ; Stolk, J. - \ 2006
    Gewasnieuws Chrysant 9 (2006)3. - p. 3 - 3.
    geïntegreerde plagenbestrijding - chrysanthemum - thrips - plaagbestrijding met natuurlijke vijanden - biopesticiden - roofmijten - entomopathogene schimmels - gewasbescherming - glastuinbouw - integrated pest management - chrysanthemum - thrips - augmentation - microbial pesticides - predatory mites - entomogenous fungi - plant protection - greenhouse horticulture
    Berichten over de huidige stand van zaken van een roofmijten-proef en een GNO-proef uitgevoerd in proefkassen door PPO Glastuinbouw, en van het praktijkonderzoek op vijf chrysantenbedrijven door van Iperen en Syngenta bioline.
    BioSupport: op weg naar registratie van GNO's
    Köhl, J. - \ 2005
    gewasbescherming - biologische bestrijding - plantaardige pesticiden - natuurlijke producten - biopesticiden - registratie - marketing - plant protection - biological control - botanical pesticides - natural products - microbial pesticides - registration - marketing
    PRI en PPO ontwikkelen biologische bestrijders en GNO’s tegen ziekten en plagen. Ondanks de hoge werkzaamheid zijn tot nu toe weinig nieuwe middelen beschikbaar gekomen voor de praktijk. De marktintroductie van deze gewasbeschermingsmiddelen van natuurlijke oorsprong (GNO’s) verloopt moeizaam. Een van de oorzaken zijn de zeer hoge kosten van registratie. BioSupport helpt bij de registratie van ‘marktrijpe’ GNO’s en biologische bestrijders
    Perspectieven voor bestrijding van Verticillium fungicola in de champignonteelt
    Baar, J. ; Rutjens, A.J. ; Kogel, W.J. de; Zijlstra, C. - \ 2005
    gewasbescherming - paddestoelen - lecanicillium fungicola - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - vectoren - megaselia halterata - biologische bestrijding - biopesticiden - moleculaire detectie - plant protection - mushrooms - lecanicillium fungicola - plant pathogenic fungi - vectors - megaselia halterata - biological control - microbial pesticides - molecular detection
    Voor de bestrijding van Verticillium fungicola in de champignonteelt is een moleculaire detectietest ontwikkeld. Daarnaast zijn nieuwe biologische gewasbeschermingsmiddelen tegen Verticillium fungicola en Megaselia halterata in ontwikkeling
    Toepassing signaalstoffen/GNO's tegen gladiolentrips in bloembolgewassen
    Conijn, C.G.M. - \ 2005
    thysanoptera - gladiolus - biopesticiden - plagenbestrijding - biologische bestrijding - bloembollen - thysanoptera - gladiolus - microbial pesticides - pest control - biological control - ornamental bulbs
    Onderzoek naar het toepassen van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen van natuurlijke oorsprong (GNO's) tegen gladiolentrips tijdens de bewaring van deze bollen
    Stof uit kreeftjes vermindert aantasting door aaltjes : biologisch middel Chitosan kan wortelkobbelaaltjes in chrysant bestrijden
    Stapel, L.H.M. ; Amsing, J.J. - \ 2005
    Vakblad voor de Bloemisterij 60 (2005)9. - ISSN 0042-2223 - p. 48 - 49.
    snijbloemen - chrysanthemum - biologische bestrijding - nematoda - biopesticiden - cut flowers - chrysanthemum - biological control - nematoda - microbial pesticides
    Onderzoek naar de effecten van GNO's (Gewasbeschermingsmiddelen van Natuurlijke Ooorsprong) en chemische middelen op wortelknobbelaaltjes in chrysant
    Ecological risk assessment framework for biological control agents
    Hokkanen, H.M.T. ; Bigler, F. ; Burgio, G. ; Lenteren, J.C. van; Thomas, M.B. - \ 2003
    In: Environmental Impacts of Microbial Insecticides / Hokkanen, H.M.T., Hajek, A.E., Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers (Progress in biological control Vol. 1) - ISBN 9781402008139 - p. 1 - 14.
    organismen ingezet bij biologische bestrijding - biopesticiden - risicoschatting - milieueffect - biological control agents - microbial pesticides - risk assessment - environmental impact
    Quality Control and Production of Biological Control Agents - Theory and Testing Procedures
    Lenteren, J.C. van - \ 2003
    Wallingford, Oxon, U.K. : CABI - ISBN 9780851996882 - 327
    organismen ingezet bij biologische bestrijding - insectenplagen - parasitoïden - biopesticiden - bacteriële insecticiden - schimmelinsecticiden - virale insecticiden - natuurlijke vijanden - kwaliteitscontroles - testprocedure - massakweek - biological control agents - quality controls - test procedure - insect pests - parasitoids - natural enemies - mass rearing - microbial pesticides - bacterial insecticides - fungal insecticides - viral insecticides
    This book contains 20 chapters, divided into 6 sections. The first section discusses the development of quality control for natural enemies. The second section consists of chapters dealing with background information on sources of variation in foraging behaviour that are regularly encountered, but not understood and often misinterpreted in mass rearing. The third section focuses on how to cope with this variation. The fourth section gives an overview of the species of natural enemies that are mass produced worldwide. The fifth section contains chapters that describe developments towards quality control testing of natural enemies. The sixth and the final section deals with actual quality control tests. This section provides a description of the guidelines that are currently used for quality control of commercially produced natural enemies, and discusses future improvements of these guidelines.
    Bacillus thuringiensis: een overzicht
    Gerritsen, L.J.M. - \ 2003
    Wageningen : Plant Research International (Nota / Plant Research International 277) - 17
    bacillus thuringiensis - biopesticiden - biologische bestrijding - milieueffect - veiligheid - nederland - bacillus thuringiensis - microbial pesticides - biological control - environmental impact - safety - netherlands
    Biologische bestrijding van bovengrondse plantenziekten met Ulocladium atrum : biologische akkerbouw en vollegrondsgroenteteelt in perspectief
    Meekes, E.T.M. ; Köhl, J. ; Molhoek, W.M.L. ; Goossen-van der Geijn, H.M.G. ; Gerlagh, M. - \ 2002
    In: Biologisch bedrijf onder de loep : 'biologische akkerbouw en vollegrondsgroenteteelt in perspectief' / Wijnands, F.G., - p. 103 - 111.
    biologische bestrijding - schimmelantagonisten - biologische landbouw - organismen ingezet bij biologische bestrijding - biopesticiden - Ulocladium atrum - biological control - fungal antagonists - organic farming - biological control agents - microbial pesticides - Ulocladium atrum
    Bij beheersing van ziekten en plagen ligt in de biologische landbouw de nadruk op preventie, om te zorgen dat de kans op aantasting zo klein mogelijk is. Preventie is echter vaak onvoldoende bij zeer mobiele en/of polyfage ziekten en plagen, waardoor directe bestrijding noodzakelijk wordt. Naast fysische en chemische bestrijding kunnen ook biologische middelen worden ingezet. Biologische bestrijding van schimmelziekten met behulp van toevoeging van nuttige micro-organismen is in ontwikkeling. Fundamenteel en toegepast onderzoek, uitgevoerd door instituten en bedrijven, richt zich op de ontwikkeling van biologische bestrijdingsmiddelen voor toepassingen in biologische teelten, maar ook in gangbare systemen. Hier wordt een beeld geschetst van mogelijke bestrijding van bovengrondse ziekteverwekkers d.m.v. het inzetten van antagonisten, met name Ulocladium atrum. Deze antagonist is in staat de grauwe schimmel te onderdrukken onder veldomstandigheden. Mogelijkheden voor het gebruik van deze antagonist tegen andere ziektes, zoals zwarteplekkenziekte in peen en ringvlekkenziekte in kool, worden onderzocht. Verder wordt ingegaan op de mogelijkheden van het gebruik van microbiële bestrijdingsmiddelen in de biologische landbouw
    Effect Bacillus thuringiensis gekwantificeerd
    Elderson, J. ; Belder, E. den - \ 2001
    Ekoland 21 (2001)2. - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 26 - 27.
    spruitjes - brassica oleracea var. gemmifera - plutella xylostella - plantenplagen - insecten - insectenplagen - lepidoptera - plagenbestrijding - biologische bestrijding - insectenbestrijding - bacillus thuringiensis - organismen ingezet bij biologische bestrijding - biopesticiden - bacteriële insecticiden - gewasopbrengst - oogstschade - gewaskwaliteit - gewasbescherming - rupsen - brussels sprouts - brassica oleracea var. gemmifera - plutella xylostella - plant pests - insects - insect pests - lepidoptera - pest control - biological control - insect control - bacillus thuringiensis - biological control agents - microbial pesticides - bacterial insecticides - crop yield - crop damage - crop quality - plant protection - caterpillars
    PRI onderzocht in veldproeven de effecten van het biologische middel Dipel WP voor de bestrijding van rupsen (koolmot e.a.) in de biologische spruitkoolteelt. Na behandeling loopt het aantal koolmotten fors terug; de opbrengst van de behandelde en onbehandelde velden was gelijk, maar de kwaliteit van de spruiten in de behandelde velden was veel beter door minder vraat
    Fungal biopesticide production by solid-state fermentation : growth and sporulation of Coniothyrium minitans
    Ooijkaas, L.P. - \ 2000
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): J. Tramper; R.M. Buitelaar; A. Rinzema. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058081681 - 120
    paraconiothyrium minitans - biopesticiden - fermentatie - sporulatie - groei - paraconiothyrium minitans - microbial pesticides - fermentation - sporulation - growth

    The use of an inert carrier impregnated with a chemically defined medium might be attractive in industrial processes. This system can be used as alternative for agricultural substrates such as grains in solid-state fermentation for the production of fungal biopesticides. During recent years, the use of fungal spores for the biological control of plant pests and diseases has received increasing interest. Coniothyrium minitans is a biocontrol agent of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum a widespread plant pathogen affecting more than 360 plant species. As with other biopesticides, large quantities of effective spores of C. minitans are needed. An SSF process seems the preferred mass production method for this fungus. However, rational design and operation of an SSF-process for mass production of fungal conidia are hampered by several factors. One of them is the lack of knowledge about the physiology and the kinetics of fungal growth and sporulation in SSF.

    In this thesis, research on the physiology and kinetics of growth and sporulation of C. minitans in SSF is described. The aim was to determine the optimal substrate composition for spore production and to determine the kinetic parameters and stoichiometry of the bioconversion reactions. The quantity of biomass is an essential variable in characterizing the optimal growth and sporulation conditions. However, direct measurement of biomass is almost impossible in SSF since fungi penetrate into and bind tightly to the solid substrate. Therefore, various indirect methods to estimate the amount of biomass, being respiration measurements and several biochemical analyses, were first evaluated for C. minitans .

    Secondly, the influence of the main medium components, carbon and nitrogen, was studied in more detail using chemically defined media, which facilitate reproducible studies. Several nitrogen sources in combination with glucose or starch were evaluated for their influence on sporulation of C. minitans. The medium with the combination of nitrogen and carbon source giving the best results was further optimized with respect to spore quantity using statistically based experimental designs. These designs are more efficient than varying one factor at a time. This optimization strategy allowed the spore production to be increased by a factor 7 from 4*10 9to almost 3*10 10spores per Petri dish of 9-cm diameter. These numbers correspondes with a spore production of 2*10 8to 3*10 12spores.kg -1medium.

    Thirdly, the stoichiometry and kinetics of mycelium and spore production were studied on defined media with different concentrations of starch, urea and trace elements. By means of elemental balances the stoichiometry of growth and sporulation was established. Based on the kinetics, the process costs for producing spores were roughly calculated. It was shown that fermentor costs form the major part of the production costs.

    In all these laboratory studies the use of a chemically defined medium was very useful. It facilitates reproducible and detailed physiological and kinetic studies in SSF, which will eventually be the basis for efficient process development, control strategies and reactor design. The use of an inert carrier impregnated with a chemically defined medium, as alternative for agricultural substrates in SSF, might be attractive in industrial processes too. The industrial potential of inert carriers impregnated with chemically defined medium for the production of spores of C. minitans and other (high-added-value) products is finally discussed.

    Beheersing van pathogene Erwinia spp. in de pootaardappelteelt met antagonisten : verslag over het in 1993 t/m 1996 uitgevoerde onderzoek
    Kastelein, P. ; Schepel, E.G. - \ 1997
    Wageningen etc. : DLO-Instituut voor Planteziektenkundig Onderzoek [etc.] (IPO-DLO rapport nr. 97-02) - 23
    solanum tuberosum - aardappelen - pootaardappelen - erwinia - schimmelantagonisten - biopesticiden - antagonisten - biologische bestrijding - organismen ingezet bij biologische bestrijding - solanum tuberosum - potatoes - seed potatoes - erwinia - fungal antagonists - microbial pesticides - antagonists - biological control - biological control agents
    Effects of granular nematicides on the infection of potatoes by Rhizoctonia solani
    Hofman, T.W. - \ 1988
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): J. Dekker; A.F. van der Wal. - Amsterdam : Hofman - 125
    bacteriën - biologische bestrijding - organismen ingezet bij biologische bestrijding - deuteromycotina - schimmels - biopesticiden - nematiciden - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - gewasbescherming - aardappelen - solanum tuberosum - virussen - moniliaceae - bacteria - biological control - biological control agents - deuteromycotina - fungi - microbial pesticides - nematicides - plant pathogenic fungi - plant protection - potatoes - solanum tuberosum - viruses - moniliaceae
    The granular nematicides aldicarb, oxamyl and ethoprophos often are applied to control plant parasitic nematodes. However, the use of these pesticides may have some disadvantages. In field trials, they increased stem infection of potatoes caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn and incidence of black scurf (sclerotia of R. solani ) on tubers. This thesis, reports about possible mechanisms involved in the increased infection in nematicide treated fields. The effects of granular nematicides were studied on:
    - the pathogenicity of R. solani (Chapters 2 and 3)
    - the susceptibility of the host plant (Chapter 3)
    - the microbial antagonism to R. solani (Chapter 2)
    - the mycophagous soil fauna, i.e. nematodes (Chapters 5 and 7) or springtails and mites (Chapters 6 and 7)
    Ethoprophos was fungitoxic to R. solani . On Czapek Dox agar (CDA), the EC 50 of the compound was 49 mg l -1and at 100 mg l -1there was a total growth inhibition. Oxamyl showed a slight fungitoxicity. At 100 Mg 1-1 oxamyl in CDA, the growth of R. solani was reduced by 26 %. Aldicarb did not influence the growth of R. solani on CDA, but caused a slight growth stimulation on potato dextrose agar (PDA).

    The carbamate compounds aldicarb and oxamyl are systemically transported in plants. The presence inside the plant might, therefore, have some effect on the host-plant resistance to R. solani . The organophosphorus compound ethoprophos is not known to have a systemic activity, so it differs from the other two nematicides with respect to the uptake by the host plant. It was therefore, less likely that the increased infection by R. solani in nematicide-treated soil, was due to a reduced host-plant resistance. Laboratory experiments supplied the evidence that the nematicides did not reduce host-plant resistance.

    Ethoprophos caused an initial growth inhibition of potato sprouts, but immediately after their emergence, growth was promoted. In laboratory experiments carried out at 15 °C in a growth chamber, the emergence of sprouts was delayed by three days, when tubers were planted in ethoprophos-treated soil. However, most probably due to the fungitoxicity of ethoprophos, the appearance of lesions on the stems was delayed by nine days in this treatment. Oxamyl showed similar effects to ethoprophos, but to a lesser extent, while aldicarb did neither influence sprout development nor the appearance of lesions.

    The stages in the infection process, including growth of runner hyphae, branching of hyphae on the stem surface, formation of infection cushions and the relationship between size of the infection cushions and size of lesions, were not influenced by any of the nematicides.

    The previous observations made an indirect effect highly evident. In a study on the infection process was found that the size of lesions was proportional to the size of the infection cushions (dense masses of mycelium from which R. solani penetrates the plant). Any agent that changes the size of infection cushions will alter, therefore, the severity of the disease.

    By far the most important mycoparasite of R. solani in Dutch potato fields is Verticillium biguttatum , so the study on effects on mycoparasites was focussed on this fungus. The growth of V. biguttatum was strongly stimulated by aldicarb and ethoprophos on potato dextrose agar plates covered with mycelium of R. solani . The mechanism involved was not studied. In the nematicide-treated fields, the incidence of V. biguttatum on stolons was increased. This may be due to an increased availability of substrate (i.e. mycelium of R. solani ) or a reduced activity of the mycophagous soil fauna, as well as from a direct stimulation by the nematicide. At the recommended dosages of aldicarb, oxamyl or ethoprophos, an effect on soil fungistasis was not found, neither in laboratory experiments nor in field experiments.

    The laboratory experiments indicated that the most probable explanation for the increased disease severity of R. solani in nematicide-treated fields is a suppression of the mycophagous soil fauna. In the experimental fields, the most abundant mycophagous nematodes were Aphelenchus avenae and Aphelenchoides spp. These nematodes could be reared on petri-dishes covered with mycelium of R. solani . In the rhizosphere of plants of which the foliage was removed, numbers of A. avenae increased dramatically. Outside the rhizosphere, only very low numbers of A. avenae and Aphelenchoides spp. were found. It was assumed that the large increase was due to a rapid development of the microflora in the rhizosphere of dying roots. Aldicarb, oxamyl and ethoprophos greatly limited this increase.

    In a field that had been fumigated with dichloropropene, the granular nematicides hardly affected stem infection and black scurf incidence. Initially, metabolites that may have been formed after fumigation could have had a toxic effect on R. solani . All soil animals were strongly reduced at the beginning of the growing season in the fumigated field. Later in the season, numbers of A. avenae were much higher in the rhizosphere of plants grown in fumigated soil than in non-fumigated soil. Although the granular nematicides reduced numbers of A. avenae also in the fumigated soil, the remaining population density of A. avenae was still high. In nematicide-treated plots, the disease suppression was, therefore, not much lower than in the untreated plots.

    To simulate potato stems colonized by R. solani , flax straws colonized by the fungus were buried in the field. Mycophagous nematodes rapidly increased on the straws. In aldicarb-treated plots, only low numbers of mycophagous nematodes were observed on these straws. These data show that grazing of mycophagous nematodes on mycelium and probably also on infection cushions of R. solani will be less in nematicide-treated soil than in untreated soil.

    In one field trial, the effect of the insecticide lindane on R. solani was assessed to discriminate between the role of mycophagous nematodes and mycophagous microarthropods. In lindane-treated plots, stem infection and black scurf incidence were increased to almost the same extent as in aldicarb-treated plots. Lindane did not have any nematicidal activity. This indicates that at least in this field microarthropods may also reduce R. solani by grazing. Aldicarb, ethoprophos and lindane reduced the numbers of most springtails and mites in potato fields. The most abundant springtails were Tullbergia krausbaueri , Isotoma notabilis and Folsomia fimetaria , and the most abundant mites were Pygmephorus sellnicki , Pygmephorus blumentritti , Coccotydeus sp. and Histiosoma litorale . Numbers of Pygmephorus spp. were not reduced in aldicarb- and ethoprophos-treated plots. T. krausbaueri was reduced in lindaneand ethoprophos-treated plots, but only slightly in aldicarb- treated plots.

    In the laboratory, T. krausbaueri , F. fimetaria and H. litorale could be reared on petri-dishes covered with R. solani or cultures of R. solani in sterilized soil. Pygmephorus spp. and Coccotydeus sp. could not be reared on these cultures, while I. notabilis was not successfully isolated from the field. In laboratory experiments where the microarthropods were introduced in a soil inoculated with R. solani , T. krausbaueri and F. fimetaria caused a strong reduction of stem infection of potatoes. Lowest numbers of T. krausbaueri and F. fimetaria that significantly reduced disease severity were 9800 and 430 individuals per litre soil, respectively. H. litorale did not survive during the experiment, so it was probably not important in grazing on mycelium of R. solani . In similar inoculation experiments, A. avenae was also found to cause a significant reduction in stem infection when inoculated with 500 nematodes per litre. An Aphelenchoides sp. had no effect on stem infection. Nematodes reproduced within a few days at room temperature, while springtails and mites had a much slower reproduction cycle.

    A. avenae and F. fimetaria seem to be some of the most important mycophagous soil animals that lead to a reduction by R. solani in the field. A smaller contribution in the reduction of disease severity can be expected from T. krausbaueri and other mycophagous soil animals that are only present at low densities. However, some of the species that were not reared in the laboratory on mycelium of R. solani , may also be able to cause a significant reduction of disease severity at low population densities.

    Any pesticide that reduces the density of mycophagous soil animals will, therefore, facilitate a better development of R. solani . The stimulatory effects of granular nematicides on R. solani on potato seem primarily caused by reduced grazing of the mycophagous soil fauna on the pathogen in nematicide-treated fields.

    Voorlichting over biologische bestrijding van plagen.
    Alebeek, F.A.N. van; Minkenberg, O.P.J.M. - \ 1987
    Bedrijfsontwikkeling 18 (1987). - ISSN 0303-4127 - p. 295 - 298.
    bacteriën - biologische bestrijding - organismen ingezet bij biologische bestrijding - voorlichting - schimmels - methodologie - biopesticiden - virussen - bacteria - biological control - biological control agents - extension - fungi - methodology - microbial pesticides - viruses
    In een literatuuronderzoek naar doorstroming van onderzoeksresultaten naar de praktijk kwam naar voren dat ondanks het intensieve netwerk van contacten en informatieuitwisseling toch knelpunten en vertragingen ontstaan in de stroom van onderzoeksgegevens naar de praktijk. Een aanzet tot het komen van verbetering hierin is behandeld
    Fundamental and applied aspects of invertebrate pathology.
    Samson, R.A. ; Vlak, J.M. ; Peters, D. - \ 1986
    Wageningen : Foundation of the Fourth International Colloquium of Invertebrate Pathology - ISBN 9789090013404 - 711
    ongewervelde dieren - biologische bestrijding - bacteriën - schimmels - virussen - biopesticiden - organismen ingezet bij biologische bestrijding - dierziekten - dierpathologie - invertebrates - biological control - bacteria - fungi - viruses - microbial pesticides - biological control agents - animal diseases - animal pathology
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