Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    An apple a day... : de rol van voeding in transmurale zorg
    Witteman, Ben J.M. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571990 - 32
    ziekenhuiszorg - voedsel - chronische darmontstekingen - darmziekten - prikkelbaar colon - coeliakie - narcose - ondervoeding - vasten - darmen - hospital care - food - inflammatory bowel diseases - intestinal diseases - irritable colon - coeliac syndrome - narcosis - undernutrition - fasting - intestines
    'De gemiddelde levensverwachting stijgt in Nederland. Nochtans worden we op jongere leeftijd met chronische aandoeningen geconfronteerd. De kans hierop neemt de komende jaren sterk toe: van 1 miljoen nu naar 1,5 miljoen in 2020. Hierdoor zullen we geconfronteerd worden met voedingsproblemen waarbij een chronische ziekte een rol speelt. Aangepaste voeding, op grond van de onderliggende pathofysiologie, kan naast preventie van progressie van ziekte ook leiden tot een eerder klinisch herstel. De darm als gate-keeper van het lichaam speelt hierbij een belangrijke rol. Voedingsonderzoek bij deze doelgroep, gericht op verbetering van de darmgezondheid kan de patiënt een beter welzijn geven en de gezondheidszorg mogelijk goedkoper maken.'
    Glutenvrij ? Pils onde de loep
    Sleutels, I. ; Meer, I.M. van der; Broeck, H.C. van den - \ 2014
    Voedingsmiddelentechnologie 7 (2014). - ISSN 0042-7934 - p. 10 - 11.
    gluten - coeliakie - glutenvrije diëten - bieren - alcoholische dranken - gerst - lc-ms - analytische methoden - coeliac syndrome - gluten free diets - beers - alcoholic beverages - barley - liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry - analytical methods
    Gluten meten in gehydrolyseerde en gefermenteerde voedingsmiddelen – zoals pils – is lastig. De door de Codex Alimentarius gevalideerde test onderschat het gehalte gluten in deze producten. Een uitgebreide LC-MS/MS-analyse geeft gedetailleerde informatie over de aanwezige coeliakie-stimulerende gluten in pils. Met deze gegevens is een geschikte test te ontwikkelen.
    Laying the foundations for dough-based oat bread
    Londoño, D.M. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Richard Visser; Rob Hamer, co-promotor(en): Rene Smulders; Luud Gilissen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570085 - 139
    avena sativa - haver - deeg - bakkwaliteit - coeliakie - avenine - genen - genetische kartering - bèta-glucaan - wei-eiwit - plantenveredeling - avena sativa - oats - doughs - baking quality - coeliac syndrome - avenin - genes - genetic mapping - beta-glucan - whey protein - plant breeding

    The motivation to perform this study was to generate the fundamentals to use oats for bread-making applications. This will offer consumers a healthier alternative product to wheat bread in their daily diet, because oat foods, especially through their high amount of soluble fibre (notably beta-glucans) contribute to the reduction of blood cholesterol levels and of blood glucose rise after the meal. Oats also have a high content of (poly-) unsaturated fatty acids that contribute to maintaining normal blood cholesterol levels. One specific target group that would benefit from the development of good quality oat bread are people with celiac disease (CD). Oats is widely consumed by them, even though its safety has been subject of some debate for a long time. Two peptides from oat avenins can be recognized as T cell epitopes by few CD patients, and differential signals of gluten-specific monoclonal antibodies and in-vitro T cells to oat varieties have suggested the existence of differences in immunogenicity. These health and food safety issues have been addressed in the General Introduction.

    Bread is consumed all over the world. So far, production of large-volume bread is only possible with wheat. The quality of existing oat bread is below to what consumers are used to with wheat bread. This is partly due to the lack of knowledge regarding the functionality of oats for other purposes than porridge and breakfast cereals, which are the most common applications. These applications do not represent a big technological challenge as bread does, because bread-making requires a system able to hold gas during proving and baking. In wheat, this is conferred by gluten proteins that form a viscoelastic network with the capacity to expand and to maintain itself after expansion. Oats lack gluten proteins with network-forming capacity. Current oat bread applications rely on batter systems and on the use of additives to increase viscosity for stabilization of gas cells.

    This thesis consists of two parts. The first part concerns the safety of oats for people with celiac disease (Chapter 2). This was studied by cloning and sequencing avenin genes from 13 Avena species with combinations of the three genomes (A, C, D) that are also present in the hexaploid cultivated A. sativa. We identified up to 10 avenin genes in a single hexaploid oat plant. Avenin proteins clustered in four groups of which two contained the two avenin CD epitopes. All Avena species examined harbored avenins of these two groups, so it is unlikely to find oat cultivars that are devoid of the avenin CD epitopes. None of the internationally agreed gluten CD epitopes from wheat, rye and barley were found to be present in oat avenins. Some epitope variants with two and three amino acid substitutions occurred, but they were predicted to not resist proteolysis in the gastro-intestinal tract and will therefore not be of clinical relevance. Perfect recognition sites of antibodies R5 and G12 (which are used in commercial gluten detection kits) were also not present in avenins. Thus, monoclonal antibody signals to oat are probably due to cross-reactivity or promiscuous recognition of avenin peptides, and such signals should not be interpreted as differences in immunogenicity of oat varieties for CD patients.

    The second part of this thesis focussed on the study of the technological properties of oats. Oats have been used as an addition to wheat-based dough or in an oat-based batter system. However, while for wheat the dough-making parameters necessary to obtain good quality bread have been defined through a long history of research, this is not the case for oats. To fill this gap, this thesis studied the technological properties of oats using a systematic approach. First, we developed a dough testing system that allowed us to assess the dough-making properties of oat flour in a standardized way (Chapter 3). For this we used wheat as a model. We reproduced various quality profiles of wheat flour using combinations of oat flour and vital gluten. Then, we selected a dough system made of 87.2% oat flour and 12.8% gluten as our standard dough test system. This dough system was sensitive to differences among oat cultivars. Thus, having developed a tool that could detect differences regarding dough-making properties among oat cultivars, the next step was to try to explain those differences in terms of compositional factors. We decided to start our exploration with beta-glucans, because these fibres are one of the oat components that attract interest because of their health benefits. We studied the impact of beta-glucans on dough rheology (Chapter 4) following two strategies: (i) using the developed standard dough system containing gluten; and (ii) by removing the gluten from the system and replacing these proteins by alternative network-forming compounds. In both systems, beta-glucans affected dough rheology. Increasing their concentration resulted in an increase of dough stiffness and in a reduction of dough extensibility. Beta-glucans negatively influenced the elastic properties that additional wheat gluten conferred to oat dough. Low beta-glucan (<2%) oat flour had better extensibility properties than oat meal dough or oat flour dough enriched with beta-glucans. The effect was governed by its concentration and its molecular weight (which determines viscosity). Medium-viscosity beta-glucans had a less negative impact than high-viscosity (high molecular weight) beta-glucans. Overall, our findings indicate that beta-glucans are a key component determining rheology of oat-based dough systems.

    Chapter 5 addressed the effect of particle size distribution on dough-making properties. We found that oat meal is not the best material for bread-applications because it produces a very stiff and short dough. Re-milling did not change this pattern. In contrast, complete removal of the bran from the oat meal did improve dough-making properties, which indicated that dough rheology was negatively impacted by the bran. Large and medium size bran particles were more harmful than fine bran particles. Large and medium bran contained 8% beta-glucans, while fine bran contained 1.6% only. We concluded that oat meal is not appropriate for bread applications. Fractionation of the milled product is an interesting alternative to produce low-beta-glucan flour for bread-making purposes, and the bran can be used to enrich other food products with beta-glucans. This chapter also addressed whether kilning and milling methods applied to oat grains could affect bread-making purposes. Infrared (IR) and steam kilning both affected dough-making properties of oat grains in the standard dough system. The effect of steam kilning was on water absorption only. Non-kilned and steam-kilned grains showed similar extensibility behavior. In contrast, IR kilning affected water absorption and harmed completely the dough extensibility properties of oat grains. Flour from IR kilned grains made a very stiff and short dough. Thus, IR kilning is definitely not suitable for bread applications.

    Finally, in Chapter 6, we addressed the need for good quality gluten-free oat bread. As further research is required for better understanding of the oat dough system, we studied the rheological properties of oat flour relevant for leavening with gluten alternatives. Whey protein particles (WPP) had appeared to be successful in enhancing viscoelastic properties of wheat starch dough, allowing loaves with specific volumes of ca 3.7 mL/g. We studied whether WPP could have a similar positive effect on oat flour dough. WPP increased the resistance to extension and the gas retention capacity of oat flour dough. However, in our small scale baking experiments, WPP did not increase loaf specific volume and had a negative effect on gas production. On the other hand, WPP improved crumb texture. WPP are promising as a structuring agent in oat dough, but the process should be further optimized.

    In the General Discussion we pay attention to the food safety issue of oats for people with coeliac disease. Our analysis across the genus Avena of avenin genes and proteins produced an important new and supporting argument to the safety of oats, as they appeared to contain none of the generally agreed celiac disease-related gluten epitopes from wheat, barley and rye. With this analysis we also could explain the positive signals for the presence of gluten (as described in the literature for several oat varieties on the basis of the R5 and the G12 antibody assay and on T cell tests) as being the result of cross-reactivity or promiscuity, without having clinical relevance. The data in this thesis therefore support the advice to gradually introduce the consumption of oats into the daily diet of people with coeliac disease. Further, we discuss the results and the consequences of our technological research on oat flour dough. It appeared that beta-glucans have a serious negative effect on the rheology of the oat dough, which indicates the need for further research on improvement of the balance between optimum application of beta-glucans for health (high amounts and of high molecular weight is better) and for baking quality (low amounts and of low molecular weight is better). Also the pre-treatment of oat flour (notably kilning and milling) and the application of whey protein particles to replace gluten require further optimization. Here the developed standard oat flour dough model system will be a useful tool.

    Europese markt voor humane haver : haver, voedingsbron voor iedereen, inclusief Coeliakie patiënten?
    Kamp, J.A.L.M. ; Reeuwijk, P. van - \ 2011
    Lelystad : PPO AGV (PPO publicatie 416) - 38
    avena sativa - haver - gluten - coeliakie - marketing - voedselindustrie - avena sativa - oats - gluten - coeliac syndrome - marketing - food industry
    Haver uit een (gegarandeerd) glutenvrije keten blijkt wel veilig te zijn voor coeliakiepatiënten. Haver vormt tevens een goede aanvulling op het dieet van een coeliakiepatiënt, zowel qua smaak als qua voedingsstoffen. Dit wordt bekrachtigd door de gezondheidsclaim van de EFSA. De waarschuwingen van coeliakieverenigingen over de mogelijke besmetting van haver met gluten werkt echter negatief op de introductie van haver als glutenvrij alternatief. Gezien de positie van haver in het Verenigd Koninkrijk en de Scandinavische landen, ligt er ook in Nederland, Duitsland en Frankrijk een markt open voor glutenvrije haverproducten.
    Nieuwe haverketen glutenvrij
    Gilissen, L.J.W.J. - \ 2011
    Kennis Online 2011 (2011)14 juni. - p. 4 - 4.
    haver - glutenvrije diëten - voedselintolerantie - coeliakie - voeding en gezondheid - oats - gluten free diets - food intolerance - coeliac syndrome - nutrition and health
    Plantenfysioloog Luud Gilissen van Plant Research International werkte aan het opzetten van een glutenvrije keten voor haver. Het succes daarvan leidde tot een nieuw initiatief met medewerking van meer bedrijven om een haverketen op grotere schaal op te zetten.
    Evaluatie “Gezond met Haver” (IN-062)
    PRI, ; PPO Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroente, - \ 2010
    avena sativa - haver - agro-industriële sector - gezondheidsvoedsel - gezondheidszorg - gluten - coeliakie - nieuwe voedingsmiddelen - voeding en gezondheid - avena sativa - oats - agroindustrial sector - health foods - health care - gluten - coeliac syndrome - novel foods - nutrition and health
    In dit project was het de ambitie om een nieuwe verbinding te creëren tussen de agrosector en gezondheidssector om zo nieuwe producten en nieuwe product-markt te ontwikkelen. Het beoogde resultaat was een haverketen die hoogwaardige producten levert en die daarmee bij kan dragen aan de vermindering van enkele belangrijke maatschappelijke gezondheidsproblemen (coeliakie, obesitas, hart- en vaatziekten, diabetes, kanker). Dit project had tevens moeten leiden tot de ontwikkeling van een glutenvrije keten op basis van haver. Allergie voor gluten (coeliakie) vormt een toenemend gezondheidsprobleem. Haver vormt een goed alternatief voor mensen die allergisch zijn voor gluten.
    The quest for celiac-safe wheat
    Broeck, H.C. van den - \ 2010
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rob Hamer; Dirk Bosch, co-promotor(en): Ingrid van der Meer. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085857938 - 162
    tarwe - tarwegluten - coeliakie - bakkwaliteit - wheat - wheat gluten - coeliac syndrome - baking quality
    Gluten proteins from wheat have the unique property to interact with each other and form a network in dough preparation. In this gluten network gas bubbles can be retained that are produced by yeast, which is added during dough preparation. The result is a voluminous, viscoelastic dough for bread making. Besides these network forming properties, gluten proteins contain remarkably high amounts of the amino acids proline and glutamine. Therefore, these proteins can not be degraded completely in the human gastrointestinal tract and so called epitopes are generated in the small intestine after ingestion of gluten containing foods such as bread and cookies. Intolerance to gluten proteins can cause inflammation of the small intestine, which leads to villous atrophy (flatten mucosa) and malabsorption. This intolerance to gluten proteins is also called celiac disease. The with celiac disease occurring inflammation can lead to many symptoms such as malnutrition, weight loss, stomach pain, diarrhea, dermatitis and in the worst case lymphoma. In children, celiac disease can cause growth retardation. Gluten proteins from rye and barley, because of their similarity to gluten proteins from wheat and high proline and glutamine content, can also cause celiac disease. Celiac disease patients therefore have to avoid life-long all food products containing wheat, rye, and barley (gluten-free diet). Not only gluten protein intake but also genetic susceptibility is necessary to develop celiac disease. Therefore, relatives of celiac disease patients have a highly increased risk to develop celiac disease. About 0.52% of the Western population suffers from celiac disease of which 7097% is undiagnosed, and the prevalence of celiac disease is still increasing. The reason for this may be the consumption of many bread, cookie and pasta products, but also because wheat constituents, such as gluten and starch, are increasingly used as food additive in soups, sauces, sausage, candy, ice-cream, and even in medicines.
    Because bread wheat originated thousands of years ago by fusion of three different grass species, many different gluten proteins exist. Pasta wheat originated from two of the three grass species and lacks the species that contains most of the celiac disease epitopes. Not all gluten proteins can be removed because baking properties might be lost. For analysis of the presence of celiac disease epitopes, it is important that all gluten proteins are extracted from the wheat kernels. Therefore, an extraction protocol was developed to extract as many gluten proteins as possible, which allows analysis of many samples at the same time. Because thousands of different wheats exist that have never been tested for celiac disease epitopes, this extraction and detection method was applied to analyze whether modern wheats, which are used by breeders, exist with lower amounts of celiac disease epitopes. These modern wheats were subsequently compared to old wheats collected from all over the world. From these analyses it seemed that there was an increase in celiac disease epitopes in modern wheats. This might be the reason for the increase of prevalence of celiac disease. For future breeding of bread wheat it is important to select and breed not only for high yield, disease/pest resistance, and baking quality, but also for the (reduced) presence of relevant celiac disease epitopes. In older bread and pasta wheats, we observed that fewer celiac disease epitopes are present. Knowing this, a more celiac-safe bread wheat could be developed by performing crossings with a selection of wheats. In the analysis of wheat lines that miss specifically genetic parts of one of the three grass species from which bread wheat evolved, it appeared that if the part is removed that encodes celiac disease epitopes to which most patients respond, the dough properties improved compared to the control dough. By addition of similar proteins from oat (avenins), the dough properties improved even more. These gluten proteins from oat are tolerated by most celiac disease patients. The results show that it is feasible to develop wheat that contains less celiac disease epitopes without decreasing dough properties.
    Celiac disease patients, however, respond differently to different celiac disease epitopes which complicates the development of wheat that is suitable for all celiac disease patients. The research performed in this thesis shows that selection of wheat for the presence of celiac disease epitopes is extremely relevant because it can reduce the number of celiac disease patients in the future. At the same time, we demonstrate that celiac-safe wheat can still maintain good baking properties. Diagnosed celiac disease patients will benefit as well from celiac-safe wheat because exposure to ‘hidden’ gluten proteins will decrease.

    Coeliakie, gluten en de ontwikkeling van granen met verlaagde toxiciteit
    Gilissen, L.J.W.J. ; Meer, I.M. van der; Smulders, M.J.M. - \ 2009
    Patient Care 12 (2009). - ISSN 0770-4224 - p. 19 - 23.
    coeliakie - gluten - tarwegluten - graansoorten - toxiciteit - overgevoeligheid - eiwitten - voeding en gezondheid - voedselintolerantie - coeliac syndrome - gluten - wheat gluten - cereals - toxicity - hypersensitivity - proteins - nutrition and health - food intolerance
    Coeliakie is een voedingsgerelateerd probleem, veroorzaakt door een overgevoeligheidsreactie op gluten. De diagnose is moeilijk te stellen wegens de grote verscheidenheid aan symptomen. Een levenslang glutenvrij dieet is tot op heden de enige remedie. Gluten is echter een product dat in toenemende mate in een breed scala aan voedingsmiddelen gebruikt wordt, waardoor het steeds moeilijker wordt om gluten te vermijden. Granen met een verlaagde coeliakietoxiciteit kunnen uitkomst bieden.
    'Gezond met haver' rapportage van het haverketenproject 'Gezond met haver' 2006-2008
    Gilissen, L.J.W.J. ; Pinxterhuis, E.K. ; Gremmen, H.G.J. - \ 2009
    Wageningen : Plant Research International [etc.] - 19
    avena sativa - haver - glutenvrije diëten - coeliakie - gezondheidsvoedsel - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - nieuwe voedingsmiddelen - voeding en gezondheid - avena sativa - oats - gluten free diets - coeliac syndrome - health foods - sustainability - novel foods - nutrition and health
    In dit rapport wordt ingegaan op de resultaten en ervaringen van het project ‘Gezond met haver’. Het project betreft een innovatief Praktijkproject van TransForum. Het project is gestart in 2006 en afgerond in 2008. Het project heeft beoogd om een relevante bijdrage te leveren aan de maatschappelijk belangrijke aspecten verantwoorde voeding, gezondheid en duurzaamheid. De doelstelling van het project is dan ook als volgt geformuleerd: “Het opzetten van een haverketen om daarmee bij te dragen aan een nieuw duurzaam agronomisch perspectief [‘Planet’] voor de ontwikkeling van nieuwe voedingsproducten met hoge toegevoegde waarde, bereid van gegarandeerd zuiver haver en gegarandeerd glutenvrije ingrediënten [‘Profit’] ter bevordering van de gezondheid van iedereen, inclusief coeliakiepatiënten [‘People’]”.
    Coelliac disease safe gluten : the challenge to reduce toxicity while preserving wheat technology properties
    Herpen, T.W.J.M. van - \ 2008
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rob Hamer; Dirk Bosch, co-promotor(en): Rene Smulders; Luud Gilissen. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085048824 - 182
    coeliakie - tarwegluten - coeliac syndrome - wheat gluten
    The central aim of this project was the total elimination of allergenic sequences from the wheat genome while retaining the industrial quality of the gluten proteins.
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