Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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A comparative history of commercial transition in three West African slave trading economies, 1630 to 1860
Dalrymple-Smith, Angus - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): E.H.P. Frankema; E.J.V. van Nederveen Meerkerk, co-promotor(en): M. van Rossum. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436199 - 283
slavery - history - colonialism - trade - commodities - gold - law - social change - economic change - west africa - slavernij - geschiedenis - kolonialisme - handel - basisproducten - goud - recht - sociale verandering - economische verandering - west-afrika

The nineteenth century ‘commercial transition’ from export economies based on slaves to ones dominated by commodities like palm oil has been a central theme in West African history. However, most studies have tended to focus on the impact of the change and assumed that its causes were largely a result of the British decision to abolish their transatlantic slave trade in 1807 and subsequently persuading or forcing other nations to do the same. This thesis makes two principal contributions to this debate. Firstly, it reviews new evidence which shows that the commercial transition in West Africa’s most important slave exporting regions, the Gold Coast, the Bight of Biafra and the Bight of Benin, can be predicted by the patterns of trade established in previous centuries. It then presents a model of analysis which sets out which interrelated factors shaped their export economies and ultimately determined how they responded to the changing political and economic environment of the Atlantic world from the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries. This study offers an important comparative, long term quantitative perspective on the transition from slave exports to so-called ‘legitimate commerce’.

Chapter 1 shows that the speed and timing of the nineteenth century commercial transition differed considerably across the case study regions. Along the Gold Coast there was a sudden, and effectively total end to transatlantic slave trading after 1807. In the Bight of Biafra slave exports gradually declined until largely ceasing in the 1830s. Lastly in the Bight of Benin export slavery continued until the 1850s. The chapter argues that earlier studies have tended to ignore long term trends and also lack a comparative approach, as many are focused on individual regions. It then suggests a new model of analysis and dismisses two factors as irrelevant; the British slave trade patrol and changing demands for, or changing supply of, African slaves. The chapter argues that regional variations can be explained by five key factors: 1) the nature and duration of long-term trade relations; 2) the identity of the principal European trade partner; 3) certain aspects of the ecology of the different regions; 4) the regional political contexts; and 5) the development of institutions that either encouraged or discouraged elite participation in non-slave exports.

Chapter 2 provides a broad overview of each case study region’s patterns of trade from the fifteenth to the eighteenth Centuries based on secondary and primary qualitative sources. It then reviews quantitative evidence of commodity trading patterns from the earlier eighteenth century from British and Dutch commodity traders and slaving vessels that bought commodities. It argues that the expansion of slavery in the Bight of Biafra did not crowd out other forms of commerce. On the Gold Coast the early eighteenth century saw continued engagement in commodity exports while the slave trade expanded. However, by the 1780s, both slave and commodity exports seem to have begun to decline. In the Dahomean-controlled area of the Bight of Benin, there is no evidence of slavery crowding out other forms of commerce, as captives were always the only item of trade with the Atlantic world.

Chapter 3 investigates the extent to which the 18th century intensification of the trans-Atlantic slave trade boosted commercial agriculture in the coastal areas of West Africa and in particular in the case study regions. It explores the provisioning strategies of 187 British, French, Dutch and Danish slave voyages conducted between 1681 and 1807, and calls for a major downward adjustment of available estimates of the slave trade induced demand impulse. It shows that during the 18th century, an increasing share of the foodstuffs required to feed African slaves were taken on board in Europe instead of West Africa. However, there was considerable variation in provisioning strategies among slave trading nations and across main regions of slave embarkation. The Bight of Benin never significantly engaged in provisioning trade. Traders along the Gold Coast provided relatively large quantities of food to slaving vessels, but in the Bight of Biafra, British demand stimulated a considerable trade in foodstuffs. The chapter explains these trends and variation in terms of the relative (seasonal) security of European versus African food supplies, the falling relative costs of European provisions and the increasing risks in the late 18th century trade, putting a premium on faster embarkation times.

Chapter 4 uses a newly constructed dataset on the quantities and prices of African commodities on the coast and in British markets over the long eighteenth century and provides new insights into the changing nature of Britain’s non-slave trade. It improves on previous work by Johnson et al. (1990) and finds that earlier estimates of the volume and value of commodity trade have been underestimates and fail to account for regional changes in output. The data suggests that from the 1770s the focus of Britain’s commodity trade shifted from Senegambia to the Bight of Biafra and that in the later eighteenth century non-slave goods were primarily purchased by slave ships, not specialist bi-lateral traders. The chapter argues that these changes were motivated by a number of factors; conflicts between Atlantic powers, the prices of British trade goods and African imports, increasing levels of risk faced by British slave merchants and the fact that traders in the Bight of Biafra were both willing and able to supply desirable commodities.

Part 1 establishes that the Gold Coast had a far long history of commodity trading and seemed to have been moving away from the slave trade at the end of the eighteenth century. The region of the Bight of Benin controlled by Dahomey always focused exclusively on slaves. The Bight of Biafra had a considerable non-slave export economy that was growing at the end of the eighteenth century. Part 2 of the thesis applies the model of analysis to the case study regions.

Chapter 5 argues that that for the Gold Coast and more particularly the Asante empire British abolition policies and the slave forts can explain the timing of the end of transatlantic slavery but not why it ended. Following the model of analysis, the chapter shows that the presence of gold determined both long term political development and the nature of the region’s trade relationship with the Atlantic. In addition, gold became essential as a means of marking status and wealth at all levels of society and for domestic exchange. This meant that slaves were always essential for the production of gold, meaning that there was an important competing domestic market for coerced labour. Over the eighteenth-century gold became scarcer leading to slaves being pulled out of the Atlantic market to focus on production. In addition, well-developed trade relations with the interior and a rise in demand from the Islamic states in the Sokoto caliphate led to an expansion of kola exports which demanded yet more labour. Most importantly, the chapter argues that both households and elite groups could profit more from commodity than slave exports which explains the rapid move away from the transatlantic slavery and towards the production of commodities.

In Chapter 6 it is argued that in the Bight of Biafra, the slave and commodity trades were not only compatible but complementary. The region’s riverine transport networks, long established coastal-interior trade relations and suitability for the growing of yams, palm oil and tropical hardwoods meant that the provisioning and commodity trades could function alongside slave exports. The relatively late opening of central Igboland to the Atlantic slave markets meant that the region did not see the influx of wealth in the seventeenth century that spurred the development of states in the other case study areas. Instead the region followed a different institutional path which saw the development small political entities linked together through the Aro trade network. Elites in the interior and at the coast were reliant on trade for both power and status, but not specifically the slave trade. As a result, abolition was not a serious economic shock as commodities and slaves had always been traded side by side. As in Gold Coast both commoners and elites benefited from commodity trading. Atlantic goods allowed many more people to purchase goods to improve their standards of living, while elites benefitted from the less volatile commodity trade. Furthermore, the British state also perhaps unintentionally supported the development of the palm oil trade through its customs policies. Eventually, this led to palm oil crowding out slave exports through greater demands for domestic labour.

Chapter 7 investigates why the region of the Bight of Benin controlled by Dahomey only ever exported slaves. It shows that this region possessed no gold and had less favourable geography for commodity exports than the Bight of Biafra. The early expansion of export slavery in the seventeenth century spurred the development of states and elites who were entirely dependent on slave exports to maintain their wealth and power. It led to the development of a militaristic culture and institutions based on large scale slave raiding that were highly effective as a means of controlling and harnessing elite violence, generating wealth and defending the state from powerful external threats and economic competition. The demands of the army and elites took much of the kingdom’s potential labour away from households. In addition, constant warfare led to a serious demographic decline across the region further reducing the amount of available labour. The chapter argues that it was never in the interests of elites to switch to an alternative economic system and there was, until the 1850s, always sufficient external demand. In the end abolition efforts were a necessary condition to ending the slave trade.

Chapter 8 concludes with a summary of the main contributions of thesis; the importance of long term patterns of trade in determining nineteenth century commercial transition and a modified model of analysis to explain the diverging trajectories of the different case study regions. It also argues that the impact of Britain’s abolition campaign should be reassessed. In the Gold Coast and the Bight of Biafra it was not an important factor in ending transatlantic slavery, while in the Bight of Benin it was. The chapter ends with suggestions for future research.

Upscaling sustainability initiatives in international commodity chains : Examples from cocoa, coffee and soy value chains in the Netherlands.
Ingram, V.J. ; Judge, L.O. ; Luskova, Martina ; Berkum, S. van; Berg, J. van den - \ 2016
Wageningen : Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOt-technical report 67) - 125 p.
value chains, soy, cocoa, coffee, policy, trade, development policy, sustainability, upscaling - waardeketenanalyse - basisproducten - cacao - koffie - glycine soja - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - handel - nederland - value chain analysis - commodities - cocoa - coffee - sustainability - trade - netherlands
This study reports on the extent to which sustainability initiatives in the cocoa, coffee and soy value chains
have been scaled up by companies. We have investigated how the private sector can be further stimulated to engage in, sustain and increase their involvement in actions to increase the sustainability of commodity chains with links to the Netherlands. The report analyses the motives for companies to join sustainability initiatives and their reasons for not engaging. It concludes with several recommendations on how government and value-chain stakeholders could further stimulate the scaling up of sustainability initiatives
Financial value-chain analysis : tuna, shrimp, soy and beef
Duijn, A.P. van; Beukers, R. ; Cow an, Roberta B. ; Judge, L.O. ; Pijl, W. van der; Römgens, Indra ; Scheele, Fleur ; Steinweg, Tim - \ 2016
LEI Wageningen UR (Brochure / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-029) - 50 p.
supply chain management - agro-industrial chains - commodities - retail marketing - finance - tuna - shrimps - glycine (fabaceae) - beef - world - ketenmanagement - agro-industriële ketens - basisproducten - marketing voor de detailhandel - financiën - tonijn - garnalen - rundvlees - wereld
This brochure offers a detailed analysis of the financial vehicles and mechanisms that drive the expansion of production of the following four commodities: skipjack canned tuna; cultured shrimp; soy; and beef. The commodities were selected in view of their global economic importance and their potentially adverse impact on the environment. The financial sector (investors, lenders, insurers, funds, etc.) serves as a gate-keeper to capital flows that are critical in supporting companies’ expansions of operational capacity. This sector can significantly influence how these businesses exploit renewable resources. In this brochure therefore:  The supply chains for each commodity were verified by geography;  The top companies in each segment of the supply chain were identified (e.g. farmers, primary processors, etc.); and  Primary sources of financing were identified.
Financial value-chain analysis : tuna, shrimp, soy and beef
Duijn, A.P. van; Beukers, R. ; Cowan, Roberta B. ; Judge, L.O. ; Pijl, Willem van der; Römgens, Indra ; Scheele, Fleur ; Steinweg, Tim - \ 2016
LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-028) - 80 p.
supply chain management - agro-industrial chains - retail marketing - commodities - finance - tuna - shrimps - glycine (fabaceae) - beef - world - ketenmanagement - agro-industriële ketens - marketing voor de detailhandel - basisproducten - financiën - tonijn - garnalen - rundvlees - wereld
This study is a detailed analysis of which parts of the tuna, shrimp, soy and beef supply chains are most open to constructive engagement through financial vehicles and mechanisms. The study indentifies the largest market shares in the various supply chains. For the retail sector, the objective was to analyse the openness of the retail sector to financial influence taking into account the latest sector trends.
Extensive literature searches soil and growing media inventories : (RC/EFSA/PLH/2013/01-SC1)
Bremmer, J. ; Holeva, M. ; Breukers, M.L.H. ; Brouwer, J.H.D. - \ 2015
Brussels : IBF International Consulting (EFSA supporting publication 2015- EN-834) - 49
bodem - groeimedia - basisproducten - plantenziekteverwekkers - plantenplagen - onkruiden - gastheerreeks - inventarisaties - risicoschatting - soil - growing media - commodities - plant pathogens - plant pests - weeds - host range - inventories - risk assessment
In this project two inventories by means of extensive literature searches have been executed: Inventory 1 of all types of soil and growing media (if relevant components thereof) to be elaborated considering (i) the soil and growing medium imported as commodities (i.e. not in association with plants intended for planting), (ii) the soil and growing medium attached to plants for planting, and (iii) the soil and growing medium attached as a contaminant to imported goods (ranging from ware potatoes to agricultural machinery). Inventory 2, based on interceptions data and scientific and technical literature, of plant pests, plant diseases and weeds that can be associated with soil and growing medium (if relevant components thereof). Execution of Inventory 1 resulted in a list of 956 soils and growing media. Execution of Inventory 2 resulted in Excel tables for each taxonomic group separately in which the pests and diseases are linked to the soil and growing media. Additional information has been provided for processes applied to produce growing media and the impact on harmful organisms and private certification schemes applied in Europe to control the trade and use of growing media.
The Economics of Biofuel Policies. Impacts on Price Volatility in Grain and Oilseed Markets
Gorter, H. de; Drabik, D. - \ 2015
New York (USA) : Palgrave Macmillan (Palgrave studies in agricultural economics and food policy ) - ISBN 9781137414847
agrarische economie - milieubeleid - biobrandstoffen - bio-energie - biomassa - energie - voedselprijzen - basisproducten - ethanolproductie - suikerriet - vluchtigheid - landbouwprijzen - agricultural economics - environmental policy - biofuels - bioenergy - biomass - energy - food prices - commodities - ethanol production - sugarcane - volatility - agricultural prices
The global food crises of 2008 and 2010 and the increased price volatility revolve around biofuels policies and their interaction with each other, farm policies and between countries. The Economics of Biofuel Policies focuses on the role of biofuel policies in creating turmoil in the world grains and oilseed markets since 2006. This book puts together theory and empirical evidence of how biofuel policies created a link between crop (food grains and oilseeds) and biofuel (ethanol and biodiesel) prices. This combined with biofuel policies role in affecting the link between biofuels and energy (gasoline, diesel and crude oil) prices will form the basis to show how alternative US, EU, and Brazilian biofuel policies have immense impacts on the level and volatility of food grain and oilseed prices.
Integrating ecosystem services into the tropical commodity value chain : cocoa, soy and palm oil
Berg, J. van den; Ingram, V.J. ; Judge, L.O. ; Arets, E.J.M.M. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOT Natuur & Milieu) (WOt-technical report 6) - 101
ecosysteemdiensten - theobroma cacao - cacao - glycine soja - palmoliën - waardeketenanalyse - basisproducten - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - tropen - innovaties - ecosystem services - cocoa - palm oils - value chain analysis - commodities - sustainability - tropics - innovations
This technical report explores the governance options available to the Dutch government to promote the sustainable use and maintenance of ecosystem services in tropical commodity value chains with Dutch links. It examines how ecosystem services can be given a more explicit role in public and market mechanisms, using the cocoa, soy, palm oil and timber chains as case studies. The document presents a discourse analysis of the way Dutch policies and practice address ecosystem services, updating the report of a forerunner study on the timber chain (Van den Berg et al. 2013). The discourse analysis indicates that the term ecosystem services still lacks a clear definition in Dutch policy, with ecosystem services largely being seen as an economic issue, which can be solved by market drive, voluntary and multi-actor value chain based solutions. The report presents results of a detailed examination of specific cases of innovation in sustainability initiatives and payments for ecosystem services projects in the cocoa chain, the Round Table for Responsible Soy (RTRS) and the Round Table for Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO). Lessons learnt from the analysis of these cases include the need to simplify what is meant by ecosystem services – for example using the term natural capital - to make it more appealing and intuitive, particularly for business. More evidence is needed on the impact of certification and how it maintains or enhances ecosystem services. Internationally agreed impact indicators are also recommended. The array of available certification schemes could be harmonised. A mix of policy instruments appears to offer more scope for the government, using market based ‘carrots’ and incentive-based ‘sticks’ (such as tax incentives and pilot projects) to stimulate new partnerships and initiatives. Challenges include giving ecosystem services an explicit role in policysupported innovations, and engaging with all value chain stakeholders, particularly community and consumer organisations.
Governance of global organic agro-food networks from Africa
Glin, L.C. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol, co-promotor(en): Peter Oosterveer. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570245 - 200
biologische landbouw - basisproducten - netwerken - samenwerking - milieubeleid - goederenmarkten - beleid - afrika - organic farming - commodities - networks - cooperation - environmental policy - commodity markets - policy - africa

The increasing global concerns with regard to agro-food risks and the subsequent consumerist turn in the global food economy challenges the conventional chemical-intensive agricultural production. In fact, the post-war dominant agro-industrial development fostered the intensive use of chemical inputs, corporate concentration, and standardization of products for mass consumption (Goodman et al. 1987; Raynolds et al. 2007). This prompted a rapid agricultural development, which contributed to overall growth, reducing poverty and food insecurity (Koning and Mol, 2009). Despite the success so far achieved, this Fordist regime generated several externalities on natural ecosystems and human and animal health. In addition, the further modernization of production techniques (for instance the genetically modified organisms) combined with globalization processes extended the scope and character of agro-food risks, which became global and cross-border. The global organization of the food system crystallized the ‘globalization’ of food related risks through the growing time and distance compression and the subsequent intensification of commodity flows and exchanges globally. Thus, to be effectively handled, these risks must be addressed from a global perspective; hence within supra nation-state institutions. In parallel, the concerns about the impacts of chemical use in agriculture also expanded over time to include others, such as animal welfare, food safety, energy use, landscape, biodiversity and climate change (Oosterveer and Sonnenfeld, 2012). However, state-led international regimes (WTO and environmental regimes) failed to adequately address modern agro-food related risks, particularly sustainability issues (including environmental, social, ethical, and animal welfare). However, globalization processes also facilitated networking processes and alliance and coalition buildings between various stakeholders within and across regions, aiming for sustainable food provision; hence the double phenomenon of ‘globalization of agro-food risks’ and the ‘reflexive globalization of alternative agro-food’. Thus, several non-state regimes, i.e. market- and civil society-led mechanisms emerged around standards and labeling schemes to respond to these issues while restructuring agro-food production and trade towards more sustainability and rebuilding consumer trust in food. Organic agro-food production and trade is of particular importance among these non-state regimes as this constitutes a major innovation towards the greening of the (global) agro-food economy and the fastest growing food sector worldwide with around 170% increase from 2002 to 2011 (Sahota, 2013).

In Africa, organic agriculture emerged as response to the environmental and health burden of conventional farming techniques and the growing demand for organic products from the North as a result of the emergence of new consumption patterns. Owing to globalization, agricultural products flows and exchanges between Africa and the other regions of the globe, particularly the Europe Union, have been intensified. The Europe Union is a major destination of most agricultural product exports from Africa. Thus, more demand in sustainable agro-foods in global and EU markets affects agricultural production systems in Africa towards more sustainability. In all, given the particular importance of agricultural exports for national and household economies, the fragility of natural resources and the vulnerability of livelihoods Africa is witnessing the double phenomenon of ‘globalization of agro-food risks’ and the ‘reflexive globalization of alternative agro-food’. In this respect, it may be expected

that the introduction of organic agriculture in Africa could help address the pressing challenges of income generation for smallholder farmers, poverty alleviation, and resilience of production systems and natural resources (land, water, forests, etc.).

Broadly, this thesis aims to contribute to the understanding of the governance arrangements of transnational organic commodity networks from Africa to inform policy makers, development organizations, civil society and business actors as well as scientists and academia about the underlying rationalities and processes, the challenges and prospects of organic agriculture in the continent. More specifically, this research aims to understand the governing (f)actors, i.e. rationalities and processes that steered the development of organic commodity networks from Africa and to highlight whether and how these processes transform civil society-business-state relationships. In this respect, the following research questions are addressed: (1) how did different rationalities and stakeholders initiate and co-structure the development and further transformation of organic commodity networks from Africa across time and space? (2) how is trust (re)created to establish and mediate relationships between the different stakeholders and material substances involved in the production, processing and marketing nodes across the organic commodity networks? (3) how and to what extent have governance arrangements within the organic commodity networks subsequently reshaped civil society-business-state relationships?

For this purpose we adopted a qualitative and holistic methodology by employing the (global) commodity network perspective (See Chapter 2). The commodity network approach is rooted in the (global) commodity chain tradition of investigation and analysis of the links between production, processing, and distribution of commodities. The commodity network perspective aims to provide a more holistic analysis of actors, institutions, and their interrelations. Governance in this lens refers to how social and political as well as economic actors ideologically and materially construct, maintain, transform, and sustain commodity networks (Raynolds, 2004). Purposively, three cases are selected and investigated in this thesis: the organic cotton from Benin, the organic cocoa from Ghana, and the organic sesame from Burkina-Faso.

Prior to these case studies, Chapter 3 provides an overview of organic agriculture in Africa. The trends in certified organic production as well as the history and development of organic agriculture in the continent are presented. The organic sector in Africa is relatively young and dynamic with some nuances and differentiations across sub-regions in terms of orientation, driving forces and leading stakeholders. Overall, the organic sector in Africa relies mainly on NGO networks, private stakeholders and development funds while government support is lacking. However, there are some recent experiences of engagement from state agencies, mostly through public-private partnerships and other hybrid arrangements. Chapter 3 also presents some features of trade and regulation of organic commodities in Africa and highlights the major challenges that face the development of organic agriculture on the continent.

Chapter 4 addresses the case of the organic cotton network from Benin by responding specifically to the question how the organic cotton production–consumption network is governed locally and internationally. The findings reveal that beyond the traditional producer versus buyer dualism, intermediate stakeholders, namely transnational and local environmental NGO networks, are instrumental in the construction, maintenance and transformation of the organic cotton network. It is also apparent that farmers’ leaders play an important role in mediating and (re)building trust among organic farmers, though they exert insufficient vertical power in the organic cotton network to control it. International conferences and events provided important occasions for establishing linkages between organic cotton promoters and businesses, and they strengthened the organic movement. The findings favour widening the concept of Global Value Chain beyond economics by acknowledging and including environmental rationalities and the representatives of their interests, not as external elements, but rather as co-governing or co-structuring factors (or actors) of sustainable value chains.

Chapter 5 presents the case study on the organic cocoa network from Ghana and addresses particularly the question how the state responded to and engaged with civil society actors in the evolving organic cocoa network and to what extent state involvement reshaped state-business-civil society relationships. While most of the literature argues that globalization and liberalization processes weakened the state’s position as key player in the development and management of agro-food networks, the case of the (organic) cocoa sector in Ghana is often depicted as an exception because of the strong position the state still occupies in it. The chapter demonstrates that although the state is still a major player in the contemporary (organic) cocoa network some hybrid governance arrangements, involving state, transnational and national NGO-networks, and businesses, are emerging. It came out that the tendency toward sustainability in the global cocoa industry with its increased attention for transversal critical matters (eradication of child labor, health safety, good farming practices) offers a fertile ground for newcomers (civil society and business actors) and the hybridization of the governance arrangements of the organic cocoa network. The organic cocoa network also prompted a double process of ‘dis- and re-embedding’ at the local level that helped shape and strengthen the organic cocoa network.

Chapter 6 addresses the case study on the organic sesame network from Burkina Faso. Specifically, this chapter examines the structure and development of this network to explain the declining trend in organic sesame export and addresses the question whether the organic sesame network is structurally (re)shaped as a conventional mainstream market or whether it still presents a real alternative to conventional sesame production and trade. For this purpose, the chapter elaborates on the concept of conventionalization of ‘alternative’ food economies from governance perspective. It is found that over the last decade organic sesame is increasingly incorporated into mainstream market channels. But contrary to the well-known case of conventionalization in California, where organic agriculture grew into mainstream agro-food arrangements, this study illustrates a case where organic sesame agriculture shrank into mainstream agro-food arrangements. In fact, the organic sesame trading system is strongly affected by fierce price competition and volatility in the conventional sesame sector and the free market behavior of conventional sesame traders. This makes the organic sesame network vulnerable and permeable to the international commercial pressure from the mainstream conventional sesame market. The weak coherence in the organic sesame chain resulted in failures to vertically mediate information, balance power relationships in and across sesame chains, build trust, and limit price volatility and speculation, resulting in a shrinking organic sesame market. For developing a viable alternative to conventional sesame trading, relations between production and trading nodes in the organic networks need to be strengthened through public-private partnerships, combined with other public and legal reinforcement.

Chapter 7 elaborates on the major findings from the case studies to draw conclusions on the governing (f)actors, i.e. the rationalities and processes that steer the initiation, development and further transformation of the organic commodity networks from Africa. By doing so, this chapter also responds to the research questions of the thesis. From the empirical findings, it came out that various rationalities, stakeholders, processes, values and practices from different spheres (political, environmental, social, and economic) interfere to co-structure and shape the development and life of the commodity network. Several networking processes, different in their scope and importance, are instrumental in the construction, (re)shaping, and (re)configuration of the organic commodity networks. These networking processes include: (1) mobilization of personal social networks and interpersonal social ties; (2) mediation of material and natural resources; (3) market networking and relations and (4) transnational events and gatherings. However, this does not suggest that the governance arrangements and dynamics are linear or similar across the three cases. In fact, it stands out that the degree and relative engagement of each category of stakeholders and rationality evolved over time and differs from one case to another. As Coe et al. (2008: 271) argue unraveling the complexities of the global economy, with its fundamental geographical unevenness and huge inequalities, poses immense conceptual and empirical difficulties. The commodity network perspective applied in this thesis helped to conceptualize and capture the diverse, fluid, and dynamic processes involved in the governance of organic commodities from Africa. The research methodology based on a multi-case study and a qualitative approach unraveled the multifaceted factors, rationalities, processes, and realities of the governance arrangements and dynamics of the organic commodity networks from Africa.

Trust appears to be a major determinant of connectivity and networking among individuals, organizations, places, and material objects involved in the organic commodity networks from local to global level and vice versa. Three trust building mechanisms are identified including trust in persons, trust in organizations/institutions, and trust in things. In organic commodity networks practices these forms of trust often intermingle. However, this trust is sometimes challenged because of opportunism, information and power asymmetry, and suspicion between producer groups and traders, potentially resulting in severe consequences for the success of organic commodity networks. In this case, a mediation process (often led by farmer leaders or a third-party, in general a development organization) may be necessary to rebuild trust and reconnect the ties between these categories. Otherwise, this situation may ultimately lead to mistrust and distrust in, and put at risk the viability of the organic commodity network.

It also appears that the governance of organic commodity networks opened up the way for (further) collaboration and partnerships between civil society organizations, private enterprises and public agencies. In fact, throughout the processes of initiation, development and further transformation of the organic commodity networks the relationships between the three key players (State, Businesses, and CSOs) have been reshaped as result of ongoing across sesame chains, build trust, and limit price volatility and speculation, resulting in a shrinking organic sesame market. For developing a viable alternative to conventional sesame trading, relations between production and trading nodes in the organic networks need to be strengthened through public-private partnerships, combined with other public and legal reinforcement.

Chapter 7 elaborates on the major findings from the case studies to draw conclusions on the governing (f)actors, i.e. the rationalities and processes that steer the initiation, development and further transformation of the organic commodity networks from Africa. By doing so, this chapter also responds to the research questions of the thesis. From the empirical findings, it came out that various rationalities, stakeholders, processes, values and practices from different spheres (political, environmental, social, and economic) interfere to co-structure and shape the development and life of the commodity network. Several networking processes, different in their scope and importance, are instrumental in the construction, (re)shaping, and (re)configuration of the organic commodity networks. These networking processes include: (1) mobilization of personal social networks and interpersonal social ties; (2) mediation of material and natural resources; (3) market networking and relations and (4) transnational events and gatherings. However, this does not suggest that the governance arrangements and dynamics are linear or similar across the three cases. In fact, it stands out that the degree and relative engagement of each category of stakeholders and rationality evolved over time and differs from one case to another. As Coe et al. (2008: 271) argue unraveling the complexities of the global economy, with its fundamental geographical unevenness and huge inequalities, poses immense conceptual and empirical difficulties. The commodity network perspective applied in this thesis helped to conceptualize and capture the diverse, fluid, and dynamic processes involved in the governance of organic commodities from Africa. The research methodology based on a multi-case study and a qualitative approach unraveled the multifaceted factors, rationalities, processes, and realities of the governance arrangements and dynamics of the organic commodity networks from Africa.

Trust appears to be a major determinant of connectivity and networking among individuals, organizations, places, and material objects involved in the organic commodity networks from local to global level and vice versa. Three trust building mechanisms are identified including trust in persons, trust in organizations/institutions, and trust in things. In organic commodity networks practices these forms of trust often intermingle. However, this trust is sometimes challenged because of opportunism, information and power asymmetry, and suspicion between producer groups and traders, potentially resulting in severe consequences for the success of organic commodity networks. In this case, a mediation process (often led by farmer leaders or a third-party, in general a development organization) may be necessary to rebuild trust and reconnect the ties between these categories. Otherwise, this situation may ultimately lead to mistrust and distrust in, and put at risk the viability of the organic commodity network.

It also appears that the governance of organic commodity networks opened up the way for (further) collaboration and partnerships between civil society organizations, private enterprises and public agencies. In fact, throughout the processes of initiation, development and further transformation of the organic commodity networks the relationships between the three key players (State, Businesses, and CSOs) have been reshaped as result of ongoing .

Increasing homogeneity in global food supplies and the implications for food security
Khoury, C.K. ; Bjorkman, A.D. ; Dempewolf, H. ; Ramirez-Villegas, J. ; Guarino, L. ; Jarvis, A. ; Rieseberg, L.H. ; Struik, P.C. - \ 2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111 (2014)11. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 4001 - 4006.
voedselzekerheid - soortendiversiteit - diversiteit - voedselvoorziening - gewassen - basisproducten - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - food security - species diversity - diversity - food supply - crops - commodities - plant genetic resources - plant genetic-resources - climate-change - ecosystem services - farming systems - biodiversity - productivity - nutrition - policy - world
The narrowing of diversity in crop species contributing to the world’s food supplies has been considered a potential threat to food security. However, changes in this diversity have not been quantified globally. We assess trends over the past 50 y in the richness, abundance, and composition of crop species in national food supplies worldwide. Over this period, national per capita food supplies expanded in total quantities of food calories, protein, fat, and weight, with increased proportions of those quantities sourcing from energy-dense foods. At the same time the number of measured crop commodities contributing to national food supplies increased, the relative contribution of these commodities within these supplies became more even, and the dominance of the most significant commodities decreased. As a consequence, national food supplies worldwide became more similar in composition, correlated particularly with an increased supply of a number of globally important cereal and oil crops, and a decline of other cereal, oil, and starchy root species. The increase in homogeneity worldwide portends the establishment of a global standard food supply, which is relatively species-rich in regard to measured crops at the national level, but species-poor globally. These changes in food supplies heighten interdependence among countries in regard to availability and access to these food sources and the genetic resources supporting their production, and give further urgency to nutrition development priorities aimed at bolstering food security.
A New Methodology for Incorporating Nutrition Indicators in Economy-Wide Scenario Analyses
Rutten, M.M. ; Tabeau, A.A. ; Godeschalk, F.E. - \ 2013
The Hague : FOODSECURE project office LEI Wageningen UR (FOODSECURE technical paper 1) - 30
basisproducten - landbouwproducten - voedingsmiddelen - indicatoren - huishoudelijke consumptie - voedingsstoffen - evenwichtstheorie - commodities - agricultural products - foods - indicators - household consumption - nutrients - equilibrium theory
This paper develops an innovative approach for calculating household nutrition indicators in a Computable General Equilibrium framework, using the flow of primary agri-food commodities through the global economy from farm to fork. It has been incorporated as a nutrition module in MAGNET. The method of tracing nutrients through the food system allows for making agriculture, the food supply chain and the economy as a whole nutrition-sensitive in scenario analyses. The validation of the nutrition outcomes in the base year with global data on nutrient consumption from the FAO reveals important differences which stem from differences in data and assumptions. Various solutions are identified to improve the calculations in the future. In the short run, correction factors are applied in the calculation of indicators in the nutrition module to capture and adjust the methodology for the remaining differences.
Global Histories, Imperial Commodities, Local Interactions
Curry Machado, J.M. - \ 2013
Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan (Cambridge imperial and post-colonial studies series ) - ISBN 9781137283597 - 304
internationale handel - geschiedenis - goederenmarkten - basisproducten - international trade - history - commodity markets - commodities
The history of the modern world can be described through the history of the commodities that were produced, traded and consumed, on an increasingly global scale. The papers presented in this book show how in this process borders were transgressed, local agents combined with metropolitan representatives, power relations were contested and frontiers expanded. Including cases from Asia, Africa and the Americas, as well as a number of global commodities (sugar, tobacco, rubber, cotton, cassava, tea and beer), this collection presents a sample of the range of innovative research taking place today into commodity history. Together they cover the last two centuries, in which commodities have led the consolidation of a globalised economy and society – forging this out of distinctive local experiences of cultivation and production, and regional circuits of trade.
Voedselprijzen en speculatie op agrarische termijnmarkten : literatuurstudie en interviews
Meijerink, G.W. ; Shutes, K. ; Herder, Anniek ; Gelder, J.W. - \ 2012
Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI : Onderzoeksveld, Internationaal beleid ) - ISBN 9789086155675 - 105
basisproducten - landbouwproducten - agrarische handel - internationale handel - goederenmarkten - landbouwprijzen - termijnhandel - voedsel - speculatie - voedselprijzen - commodities - agricultural products - agricultural trade - international trade - commodity markets - agricultural prices - futures trading - food - speculation - food prices
Het LEI heeft informatie over kapitaalstromen op financiële termijnmarkten voor agrarische goederen bij elkaar gebracht. Daarnaast heeft het een literatuuronderzoek gedaan waarbij zowel kwantitatieve (21) als kwalitatieve (19) studies en opiniestukken zijn meegenomen. Het LEI heeft de literatuur zowel inhoudelijk samengevat als beoordeeld op kwaliteit. Daarnaast heeft het LEI op basis van beschikbare bronnen een overzicht gegeven van de mogelijke effecten van het beperken van derivatenhandel door middel van positielimieten. Profundo heeft een aantal pensioenfondsen en andere vermogensbeheerders (zoals banken) geïnterviewd om inzicht te krijgen over hun beleid en hun visie over financiële derivaten markten en voedselprijzen.
Stabilisation of the grain market by the flexible use of grain for bioethanol
Helming, J.F.M. ; Pronk, A. ; Woltjer, I. - \ 2010
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI : Research area International policy ) - ISBN 9789086154296 - 62
internationale handel - landbouwprijzen - basisproducten - voedselgranen - markten - prijsbeleid - landbouwbeleid - bioethanol - biobrandstoffen - graan - biobased economy - international trade - agricultural prices - commodities - food grains - markets - price policy - agricultural policy - biofuels - grain
This report reviews whether the grain market and grain price can be stabilised by the variation of the use of grain in the EU-27's production of bioethanol. The time horizon of this study is 2020, whereby account is taken of the minimum 10% obligation for biofuel use in the EU-27. An economic computational model was used to develop a baseline scenario and a number of alternative scenarios for 2020. The alternative scenarios assume the use of a larger or smaller quantity of grain than in the base scenario for the EU-27's production of bioethanol. This variation depends on the availability of grain as compared to the baseline scenario. The effect of this variation on the grain price is then examined.
Stabilisatie graanmarkten door flexibel gebruik van graan voor bio-ethanol
Helming, J.F.M. ; Pronk, A. ; Woltjer, G.B. - \ 2010
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI : Onderzoeksveld 1, Internationaal beleid ) - ISBN 9789086154265 - 63
internationale handel - landbouwprijzen - basisproducten - voedselgranen - prijsbeleid - markten - landbouwbeleid - biobrandstoffen - bioethanol - graan - biobased economy - international trade - agricultural prices - commodities - food grains - price policy - markets - agricultural policy - biofuels - grain
Dit rapport gaat in op de vraag of het mogelijk is de graanmarkt en de graan-prijs te stabiliseren door middel van variatie in het gebruik van graan voor de productie van bio-ethanol in de EU-27. De tijdshorizon van dit onderzoek is 2020, waarbij rekening wordt gehouden met de bijmengverplichting van bio-brandstoffen van minimaal 10% in de EU-27. Met behulp van een economisch rekenmodel wordt een basisscenario en een aantal alternatieve scenario's voor 2020 ontwikkeld. In de alternatieve scenario's wordt ten opzichte van het basis-scenario meer of minder graan gebruikt voor de eigen productie van bio-ethanol in de EU-27. Deze variatie hangt af van de omvang van de graanproductie ten opzichte van het basisscenario. Vervolgens wordt gekeken naar het effect van de extra eigen productie van bio-ethanol op de graanprijs.
Value Chain Management in the Chemical Industry
Kannegiesser, M. - \ 2008
Technical University of Berlin. Promotor(en): H.O. Günther, co-promotor(en): Paul van Beek. - Springer - ISBN 9783790820317 - 270
bedrijfsvoering - kapitaalvennootschappen - waarden - chemische industrie - planning - basisproducten - wereld - ketenmanagement - management - companies - values - chemical industry - planning - commodities - world - supply chain management
Supply chain management helped companies to manage volumes, fulfil customer demand and optimize costs in production and distribution. Specifically, chemical industry companies with high complexity in production and distribution used supply chain management to steer their operations. Confronted with globalization and increasing raw material and sales price volatility, optimizing supply chain costs is no longer sufficient to ensure the overall profitability of the business. Value chain management takes supply chain management to the next level by integrating all volume and value decisions from sales to procurement. The book presents the value chain management concept and demonstrates how it is applied in a global value chain planning model for commodities in the chemical industry. A comprehensive industry case study illustrates the effects of decision making integration, e.g. the influence of raw material prices or exchange rates on optimal sales, production, distribution and procurement plans as well as overall company profitability.
Lessons learned : evaluatie van logistieke bundelingsprojecten in de praktijk
Snels, J.C.M.A. ; Wassenaar, N. - \ 2008
Wageningen : Agrotechnology and Food Sciences Group (Rapport / Agrotechnology and Food Sciences Group nr. 873) - 89
binnenlands transport - wegtransport - basisproducten - samenwerking - proefprojecten - leerervaringen - logistiek - netwerken - randstad - inland transport - road transport - commodities - cooperation - pilot projects - learning experiences - logistics - networks
GOVERA is een samenwerkingsverband waarin overheid en bedrijfsleven werken aan een gemeenschappelijke aanpak en oplossing van de goederenvervoer problematiek in de Randstad. GOVERA heeft haar netwerkvisie omgezet in praktijkgerichte (samenwerkings- en/of bundelings) pilots. Dit rapport evalueert o.a. deze pilots aan de hand van de theorie, de beschikbare rapportages en interviews met betrokkenen. Met als doelstelling dat er een analyse plaats moet vinden van de uitgevoerde bundelingsprojecten die in opdracht van GOVERA uitgevoerd en beschikbaar zijn, om te komen tot het achterhalen van de leerervaringen (lessons learned) en te komen tot ‘reflectie’ zowel kwalitatief als kwantitatief
Waarom zijn de huidige wereldvoedselprijzen zo hoog?
Banse, M.A.H. ; Nowicki, P.L. ; Meijl, H. van - \ 2008
Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Werkveld 1, Internationaal beleid ) - ISBN 9789086152384 - 33
agrarische economie - voedselprijzen - wereldmarkten - markten - basisproducten - internationale handel - wereld - globalisering - landbouwprijzen - armoede - wereldbevolking - aanbod - vraag - prijsbeleid - biobrandstoffen - biobased economy - agricultural economics - food prices - world markets - markets - commodities - international trade - world - globalization - agricultural prices - poverty - world population - supply - demand - price policy - biofuels
De gestage stijging van de voedselprijzen in de afgelopen twee jaar treft de gehele wereldbevolking, met name de allerarmsten. Het duidelijk in kaart brengen van de diverse oorzaken die ten grondslag liggen aan deze prijsverhoging is cruciaal om beleidsmaatregelen te vermijden die mogelijk averechts zouden werken. Dit overzicht van de factoren die momenteel van invloed zijn op de voedselprijzen helpt om de passende beleidsmix te ontwikkelen en in de komende tijd ten uitvoer te leggen.
Why are current world food prices so high? : a memo
Banse, M.A.H. ; Nowicki, P.L. ; Meijl, H. van - \ 2008
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI : International policy ) - 27
agrarische economie - wereldmarkten - landbouwprijzen - voedselprijzen - voedselproductie - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - landbouwbeleid - marktprijzen - consumentenprijzen - goederenmarkten - basisproducten - aanbod - vraag - economische groei - populatiegroei - gewasproductie - marktstructuur - economische aspecten - biobased economy - agricultural economics - world markets - agricultural prices - food prices - food production - natural resources - agricultural policy - market prices - consumer prices - commodity markets - commodities - supply - demand - economic growth - population growth - crop production - market structure - economic aspects - biobased economy
World agricultural prices are very volatile which is due to traditional characteristics of agricultural markets such as inelastic (short run) supply and demand curves. A combination of record low global inventory levels, weather induced supply side shocks, surging outside investor influence, record oil prices and structural changes in demand for grains and oilseeds due to biofuels have created the high prices. The question is whether it is a coincidence that the past and current high price levels coincide with high oil prices or whether other reasons for the current price peak are more important.
When less sells more and when it does not: The impact of product scarcity on preference and choice
Herpen, E. van; Pieters, F.G.M. ; Zeelenberg, M. - \ 2007
Wageningen : Lsg Marktkunde en Consumentengedrag (Working paper / Mansholt Graduate School of Social Sciences : Discussion paper ) - 36
consumptie - consumenten - consumentengedrag - basisproducten - schaarste - consumption - consumers - consumer behaviour - commodities - scarcity
The present research extends commodity theory, by revealing the effects of product scarcity due to different causes on consumers’ inferences, preferences and choice. The attraction of scarce products comes from two markedly different mechanisms: popularity for demand-caused scarcity and exclusiveness for supply-caused scarcity. In addition, scarcity due to excess demand may actually backfire and reduce product preferences if the need to be unique is activated. In this way, the authors have shown when less sells more and when it does not
Econometric analyses of horticultural production and marketing in Central and Eastern Ethiopia
Jaleta Debello, M. - \ 2007
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arie Oskam, co-promotor(en): Koos Gardebroek; Tassew Woldehanna. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085045373 - 104
tuinbouw - groenten - export - commerciële landbouw - voedselgewassen - marktgewassen - basisproducten - kleine landbouwbedrijven - ethiopië - inkomsten uit het landbouwbedrijf - landbouwproductie - marketing - economische analyse - prijzen - horticulture - vegetables - exports - commercial farming - farm income - agricultural production - marketing - economic analysis - food crops - cash crops - commodities - prices - small farms - ethiopia
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