The SOLUTIONS project: Challenges and responses for present and future emerging pollutants in land and water resources management
Brack, W. ; Altenburger, R. ; Schuurmann, G. ; Krauss, M. ; Brink, P.J. van den - \ 2015
Science of the Total Environment 503-504 (2015). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 22 - 31.
effect-directed analysis - community tolerance pict - waste-water - risk-assessment - environmental contamination - organic micropollutants - chemical footprint - complex-mixtures - treatment plants - stress-response
SOLUTIONS (2013 to 2018) is a European Union Seventh Framework Programme Project (EU-FP7). The project aims to deliver a conceptual framework to support the evidence-based development of environmental policies with regard to water quality. SOLUTIONS will develop the tools for the identification, prioritisation and assessment of those water contaminants that may pose a risk to ecosystems and human health. To this end, a new generation of chemical and effect-based monitoring tools is developed and integrated with a full set of exposure, effect and risk assessment models. SOLUTIONS attempts to address legacy, present and future contamination by integrating monitoring and modelling based approaches with scenarios on future developments in society, economy and technology and thus in contamination. The project follows a solutions-oriented approach by addressing major problems of water and chemicals management and by assessing abatement options. SOLUTIONS takes advantage of the access to the infrastructure necessary to investigate the large basins of the Danube and Rhine as well as relevant Mediterranean basins as case studies, and puts major efforts on stakeholder dialogue and support. Particularly, the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) Common Implementation Strategy (CIS) working groups, International River Commissions, and water works associations are directly supported with consistent guidance for the early detection, identification, prioritisation, and abatement of chemicals in the water cycle. SOLUTIONS will give a specific emphasis on concepts and tools for the impact and risk assessment of complex mixtures of emerging pollutants, their metabolites and transformation products. Analytical and effect-based screening tools will be applied together with ecological assessment tools for the identification of toxicants and their impacts. The SOLUTIONS approach is expected to provide transparent and evidence-based candidates or River Basin Specific Pollutants in the case study basins and to assist future review of priority pollutants under the WFD as well as potential abatement options.
Radical-Scavenging Compounds from Olive Tree (Olea europaea L.) wood
Pérez-Bonilla, M. ; Salido, S. ; Beek, T.A. van; Altarejos, J. - \ 2014
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 62 (2014)1. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 144 - 151.
solid-phase extraction - antioxidant activity - phenolic-compounds - complex-mixtures - pruning biomass - potential uses - food-industry - plants - hplc - identification
The purpose of this study was to complete knowledge on the chemical composition and radical-scavenging activity of olive tree wood. Two new monoterpene glycosides, (-)-oleuropeic acid 6'-O-a-d-glucopyranosyl ester (6a) and (-)-perillic acid 1'-O-ß-d-primeverosyl ester (8), together with the known compounds (-)-oleuropeic acid (1), (-)-olivil (2), the aldehydic form of oleuropein aglycone (3), (+)-1-hydroxypinoresinol 1-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside (4), (-)-oleuropeic acid 1'-O-ß-d-glucopyranosyl ester (5), (-)-oleuropeic acid 6'-O-ß-d-glucopyranosyl ester (6b), and (-)-olivil 4-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside (7) were isolated from an ethyl acetate extract. The radical scavengers found (2–4 and 7) were detected and isolated with the help of the online HPLC-DAD-DPPH/ABTS technique. Compounds 2–4 and 7 displayed a higher antioxidative effect against the free radical DPPH than the reference BHT and lower than hydroxytyrosol, whereas compounds 1, 5, 6a, 6b, and 8 showed no activity.
An on-line high performance liquid chromatography-crocin bleaching assay for detection of antioxidants
Bountagkidou, O. ; Klift, E.J.C. van der; Tsimidou, M.Z. ; Ordoudi, S.A. ; Beek, T.A. van - \ 2012
Journal of Chromatography. A, Including electrophoresis and other separation methods 1237 (2012). - ISSN 0021-9673 - p. 80 - 85.
radical scavenging compounds - chemiluminescence detection - natural antioxidants - complex-mixtures - identification - capacity - extracts - inhibition - plant
An on-line HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) method for the rapid screening of individual antioxidants in mixtures was developed using crocin as a substrate (i.e. oxidation probe) and 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (AAPH)) in phosphate buffer (pH 7.5) as a radical generator. The polyene structure of crocin and AAPH-derived peroxyl radicals resemble the lipidic substrates and radicals found in true food more closely than the popular, albeit artificial, DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS+ (2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate)) do. After separation by a C18 (octadecyl silica) column and UV (ultraviolet) detection, antioxidative analytes react with peroxyl radicals at 90 °C and the inhibition of crocin oxidation (i.e. bleaching) is detected as a positive peak by an absorbance detector at 440 nm. The method is simple, uses standard instruments and inexpensive reagents. It can be applied for isocratic HPLC runs using mobile phases containing 10–90% organic solvent in water, weak acids or buffers (pH 3.5–8.5). With baseline correction, gradient runs are also feasible. The radical scavenging activity of several natural antioxidants and a green tea extract was studied. After optimisation of conditions such as reagent concentrations and flows, the limit of detection varied from 0.79 to 7.4 ng, depending on the antioxidant. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Specific in vitro toxicity of crude and refined petroleum products. 1. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated responses
Vrabie, C.M. ; Jonker, M.T.O. ; Murk, A.J. - \ 2009
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 28 (2009)9. - ISSN 0730-7268 - p. 1995 - 2003.
polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons - ah receptor - estrogenic activity - aquatic toxicity - complex-mixtures - heavy oil - assay - gene - agonists - fuel
The present study is the first in a series reporting on in vitro toxic potencies of oils. The objective was to determine whether 11 crude oils and refined products activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in a dioxin receptor¿mediated luciferase assay. Cells were exposed for 6 and 24 h to different oil concentrations to screen for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon¿like or dioxin-like activity. Moreover, cytotoxicity of the oils was determined using rat hepatoma cells. Except for one crude oil, none of the oils appeared cytotoxic up to 100 mg/L, but all oils activated the AhR. Strong AhR induction was observed for most oils after 6 h, and responses decreased after 24 h, indicating the presence of metabolizable agonists. However, several oils still caused high responses after 24 h, also demonstrating the presence of persistent agonists. The potencies (calculated based on comparisons of concentrations at which 50% of the maximal effect was observed) of oils were found to be approximately 40 to 106 times lower than the potency of the assay's standards benzo[a]pyrene and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. However, considering that oils contain thousands of chemicals, the potencies of petrochemical agonists may be very high. Among the most potent oils were bunker and crude oils. Induction up to 200% as compared to the maximum induction caused by benzo[a]pyrene was observed for these oils. Such supermaximal responses suggest mixture effects that may not be receptor-mediated. Experiments in which oils were tested in combination with the standards demonstrated that oils acted via an antagonistic or additive mode. The results of the present study may help improve risk assessment of petroleum products and judge the necessity or priority of oil spill cleanup activities