A high-resolution map of the Nile tilapia genome: a resource for studying cichlids and other percomorphs
Guyon, R. ; Rakotomanga, M. ; Azzouzi, N. ; Coutanceau, J.P. ; Bonillo, C. ; Cotta, H. D'; Pepey, E. ; Soler, L. ; Rodier-Goud, M. ; Hont, A. D'; Conte, M.A. ; Bers, N.E.M. van; Penman, D.J. ; Hitte, C. ; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A. ; Kocher, T.D. ; Ozouf-Costaz, C. ; Baroiller, J.F. ; Galibert, F. - \ 2012
BMC Genomics 13 (2012). - ISSN 1471-2164
radiation hybrid map - genetic-linkage map - oreochromis-niloticus - sex determination - tetraodon-nigroviridis - zebrafish genome - fish - sequence - construction - evolution
Background: The Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is the second most farmed fish species worldwide. It is also an important model for studies of fish physiology, particularly because of its broad tolerance to an array of environments. It is a good model to study evolutionary mechanisms in vertebrates, because of its close relationship to haplochromine cichlids, which have undergone rapid speciation in East Africa. The existing genomic resources for Nile tilapia include a genetic map, BAC end sequences and ESTs, but comparative genome analysis and maps of quantitative trait loci (QTL) are still limited. Results: We have constructed a high-resolution radiation hybrid (RH) panel for the Nile tilapia and genotyped 1358 markers consisting of 850 genes, 82 markers corresponding to BAC end sequences, 154 microsatellites and 272 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). From these, 1296 markers could be associated in 81 RH groups, while 62 were not linked. The total size of the RH map is 34,084 cR(3500) and 937,310 kb. It covers 88% of the entire genome with an estimated inter-marker distance of 742 Kb. Mapping of microsatellites enabled integration to the genetic map. We have merged LG8 and LG24 into a single linkage group, and confirmed that LG16-LG21 are also merged. The orientation and association of RH groups to each chromosome and LG was confirmed by chromosomal in situ hybridizations (FISH) of 55 BACs. Fifty RH groups were localized on the 22 chromosomes while 31 remained small orphan groups. Synteny relationships were determined between Nile tilapia, stickleback, medaka and pufferfish. Conclusion: The RH map and associated FISH map provide a valuable gene-ordered resource for gene mapping and QTL studies. All genetic linkage groups with their corresponding RH groups now have a corresponding chromosome which can be identified in the karyotype. Placement of conserved segments indicated that multiple inter-chromosomal rearrangements have occurred between Nile tilapia and the other model fishes. These maps represent a valuable resource for organizing the forthcoming genome sequence of Nile tilapia, and provide a foundation for evolutionary studies of East African cichlid fishes.
Reverse breeding in Arabidopsis thaliana generates homozygous parental lines from a heterozygous plant
Wijnker, T.G. ; Dun, K.P.M. van; Snoo, C.B. ; Lelivelt, C.L.C. ; Keurentjes, J.J.B. ; Naharudin, N.S. ; Ravi, M. ; Chan, S.W.L. ; Jong, J.H.S.G.M. de; Dirks, R. - \ 2012
Nature Genetics 44 (2012). - ISSN 1061-4036 - p. 467 - 470.
genome - dna - construction - meiosis - genes - rflp - map
Traditionally, hybrid seeds are produced by crossing selected inbred lines. Here we provide a proof of concept for reverse breeding, a new approach that simplifies meiosis such that homozygous parental lines can be generated from a vigorous hybrid individual. We silenced DMC1, which encodes the meiotic recombination protein DISRUPTED MEIOTIC cDNA1, in hybrids of A. thaliana, so that non-recombined parental chromosomes segregate during meiosis. We then converted the resulting gametes into adult haploid plants, and subsequently into homozygous diploids, so that each contained half the genome of the original hybrid. From 36 homozygous lines, we selected 3 (out of 6) complementing parental pairs that allowed us to recreate the original hybrid by intercrossing. In addition, this approach resulted in a complete set of chromosome-substitution lines. Our method allows the selection of a single choice offspring from a segregating population and preservation of its heterozygous genotype by generating homozygous founder lines
Development of a dense SNP-based linkage map of an apple rootstock progeny using the Malus Infinium whole genome genotyping array
Antanaviciute, L. ; Fernández-Fernández, F. ; Jansen, J. ; Banchi, E. ; Evans, K.M. ; Viola, R. ; Velasco, R. ; Dunwell, J.M. ; Troggio, M. ; Sargent, D.J. - \ 2012
BMC Genomics 13 (2012). - ISSN 1471-2164
domestica borkh. - construction - alleles
Background: A whole-genome genotyping array has previously been developed for Malus using SNP data from 28 Malus genotypes. This array offers the prospect of high throughput genotyping and linkage map development for any given Malus progeny. To test the applicability of the array for mapping in diverse Malus genotypes, we applied the array to the construction of a SNP-based linkage map of an apple rootstock progeny. Results: Of the 7,867 Malus SNP markers on the array, 1,823 (23.2%) were heterozygous in one of the two parents of the progeny, 1,007 (12.8%) were heterozygous in both parental genotypes, whilst just 2.8% of the 921 Pyrus SNPs were heterozygous. A linkage map spanning 1,282.2 cM was produced comprising 2,272 SNP markers, 306 SSR markers and the S-locus. The length of the M432 linkage map was increased by 52.7 cM with the addition of the SNP markers, whilst marker density increased from 3.8 cM/marker to 0.5 cM/marker. Just three regions in excess of 10 cM remain where no markers were mapped. We compared the positions of the mapped SNP markers on the M432 map with their predicted positions on the 'Golden Delicious' genome sequence. A total of 311 markers (13.7% of all mapped markers) mapped to positions that conflicted with their predicted positions on the 'Golden Delicious' pseudo-chromosomes, indicating the presence of paralogous genomic regions or mis-assignments of genome sequence contigs during the assembly and anchoring of the genome sequence. Conclusions: We incorporated data for the 2,272 SNP markers onto the map of the M432 progeny and have presented the most complete and saturated map of the full 17 linkage groups of M. pumila to date. The data were generated rapidly in a high-throughput semi-automated pipeline, permitting significant savings in time and cost over linkage map construction using microsatellites. The application of the array will permit linkage maps to be developed for QTL analyses in a cost-effective manner, and the identification of SNPs that have been assigned erroneous positions on the 'Golden Delicious' reference sequence will assist in the continued improvement of the genome sequence assembly for that variety.
Random and cyclical deletion of large DNA segments in the genome of Pseudomonas putida
Leprince, A. ; Lorenzo, V. de; Völler, P. ; Passel, M.W.J. van; Martins Dos Santos, V.A.P. - \ 2012
Environmental Microbiology 14 (2012)6. - ISSN 1462-2912 - p. 1444 - 1453.
escherichia-coli genome - kt2440 - construction - sequence - system - genes - biodegradation - phenotypes - selection - insights
Cumulative site-directed mutagenesis is of limited suitability for the global analysis of the gene functions in the microbe's cellular network. In order to simplify and stabilize the genome of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida, we developed a recyclable three-step excision method based on the combination of customized mini-transposons and the FLP-FRT site-specific recombination system. To demonstrate the powerful potential of these tools, we first established insertion mutant libraries that allow users to study gene functions with respect either to phenotypic characteristics (single insertions) or to their involvement in predicted networks (double insertions). Based on these libraries, we generated as a proof-of-principle, single-deletion mutants lacking ~ 4.1% of the genome (~ 3.7% of the gene repertoire). A cyclical application of the method generated four double-deletion mutants of which a maximum of ~ 7.4% of the chromosome (~ 6.9% of the gene count) was excised. This procedure demonstrates a new strategy for rapid genome streamlining and gain of new insights into the molecular interactions and regulations
A hybrid BAC physical map of potato: a framework for sequencing a heterozygous genome
Boer, J.M. de; Borm, T.J.A. ; Jesse, T. ; Brugmans, B.W. ; Tang, X. ; Bryan, G.J. ; Bakker, J. ; Eck, H.J. van; Visser, R.G.F. - \ 2011
BMC Genomics 12 (2011). - ISSN 1471-2164 - 60 p.
quantitative trait loci - candidate genes - disease resistance - linkage map - tomato - aflp - solanum - markers - dna - construction
Background Potato is the world's third most important food crop, yet cultivar improvement and genomic research in general remain difficult because of the heterozygous and tetraploid nature of its genome. The development of physical map resources that can facilitate genomic analyses in potato has so far been very limited. Here we present the methods of construction and the general statistics of the first two genome-wide BAC physical maps of potato, which were made from the heterozygous diploid clone RH89-039-16 (RH). Results First, a gel electrophoresis-based physical map was made by AFLP fingerprinting of 64478 BAC clones, which were aligned into 4150 contigs with an estimated total length of 1361 Mb. Screening of BAC pools, followed by the KeyMaps in silico anchoring procedure, identified 1725 AFLP markers in the physical map, and 1252 BAC contigs were anchored the ultradense potato genetic map. A second, sequence-tag-based physical map was constructed from 65919 whole genome profiling (WGP) BAC fingerprints and these were aligned into 3601 BAC contigs spanning 1396 Mb. The 39733 BAC clones that overlap between both physical maps provided anchors to 1127 contigs in the WGP physical map, and reduced the number of contigs to around 2800 in each map separately. Both physical maps were 1.64 times longer than the 850 Mb potato genome. Genome heterozygosity and incomplete merging of BAC contigs are two factors that can explain this map inflation. The contig information of both physical maps was united in a single table that describes hybrid potato physical map. Conclusions The AFLP physical map has already been used by the Potato Genome Sequencing Consortium for sequencing 10% of the heterozygous genome of clone RH on a BAC-by-BAC basis. By layering a new WGP physical map on top of the AFLP physical map, a genetically anchored genome-wide framework of 322434 sequence tags has been created. This reference framework can be used for anchoring and ordering of genomic sequences of clone RH (and other potato genotypes), and opens the possibility to finish sequencing of the RH genome in a more efficient way via high throughput next generation approaches.
Perspectives on landscape identity, a conceptual challenge
Stobbelaar, D.J. ; Pedroli, B. - \ 2011
Landscape Research 36 (2011)3. - ISSN 0142-6397 - p. 321 - 339.
place-identity - regional identity - european landscape - community - sense - representation - attachment - construction - perception - diversity
The concept of landscape identity is often referred to in landscape policy and planning. A clear definition of the concept is lacking however. This is problematic because the term ‘landscape identity’ can have many different meanings and thus easily lead to confusion. We define landscape identity as ‘the perceived uniqueness of a place’ and endeavour to describe the content of this definition more concisely. Within this context the paper introduces the framework of the Landscape Identity Circle for the various dimensions of landscape identity based on two axes: differentiation between spatial as opposed to existential identity, and differentiation between personal and cultural landscape identity. This framework is valuable in positioning research approaches and disciplines addressing landscape identity
The sociocultural sustainability of livestock farming: an inquiry into social perceptions of dairy farming.
Boogaard, B.K. ; Oosting, S.J. ; Bock, B.B. ; Wiskerke, J.S.C. - \ 2011
Animal 5 (2011)9. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 1458 - 1466.
animal-welfare - lay discourses - agriculture - netherlands - systems - construction - environment - consumer - society - ethics
Over the past 50 years, the scale and intensity of livestock farming have increased significantly. At the same time, Western societies have become more urbanised and fewer people have close relatives involved in farming. As a result, most citizens have little knowledge or direct experience of what farming entails. In addition, more people are expressing concerns over issues such as farm animal welfare. This has led to increasing public demand for more sustainable ways of livestock farming. To date, little research has been carried out on the social pillar of sustainable livestock farming. The aim of this study is to provide insights into the sociocultural sustainability of livestock farming systems. This study reviews the key findings of earlier published interdisciplinary research about the social perceptions of dairy farming in the Netherlands and Norway (Boogaard et al., 2006, 2008, 2010a and 2010b) and synthesises the implications for sociocultural sustainability of livestock farming. This study argues that the (sociocultural) sustainable development of livestock farming is not an objective concept, but that it is socially and culturally constructed by people in specific contexts. It explains the social pillar of the economics/ecological/social model sustainability in terms of the fields of tensions that exist between modernity, traditions and naturality – ‘the MTN knot’ – each of which has positive and negative faces. All three angles of vision can be seen in people's attitudes to dairy farming, but the weight given to each differs between individuals and cultures. Hence, sociocultural sustainability is context dependent and needs to be evaluated according to its local meaning. Moreover, sociocultural sustainability is about people's perceptions of livestock farming. Lay people might perceive livestock farming differently and ascribe different meanings to it than experts do, but their ‘reality’ is just as real. Finally, this study calls for an ongoing collaboration between social and animal scientists in order to develop livestock farming systems that are more socioculturally sustainable.
Genotype calling in tetraploid species from bi-allelic marker data using mixture models
Voorrips, R.E. ; Gort, G. ; Vosman, B. - \ 2011
BMC Bioinformatics 12 (2011). - ISSN 1471-2105 - 11 p.
microsatellite dna - sect. caninae - genome - potato - configuration - construction - map
Background: Automated genotype calling in tetraploid species was until recently not possible, which hampered genetic analysis. Modern genotyping assays often produce two signals, one for each allele of a bi-allelic marker. While ample software is available to obtain genotypes (homozygous for either allele, or heterozygous) for diploid species from these signals, such software is not available for tetraploid species which may be scored as five alternative genotypes (aaaa, baaa, bbaa, bbba and bbbb; nulliplex to quadruplex). Results: We present a novel algorithm, implemented in the R package fitTetra, to assign genotypes for bi-allelic markers to tetraploid samples from genotyping assays that produce intensity signals for both alleles. The algorithm is based on the fitting of several mixture models with five components, one for each of the five possible genotypes. The models have different numbers of parameters specifying the relation between the five component means, and some of them impose a constraint on the mixing proportions to conform to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) ratios. The software rejects markers that do not allow a reliable genotyping for the majority of the samples, and it assigns a missing score to samples that cannot be scored into one of the five possible genotypes with sufficient confidence. Conclusions: We have validated the software with data of a collection of 224 potato varieties assayed with an Illumina GoldenGate™ 384 SNP array and shown that all SNPs with informative ratio distributions are fitted. Almost all fitted models appear to be correct based on visual inspection and comparison with diploid samples. When the collection of potato varieties is analyzed as if it were a population, almost all markers seem to be in Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium. The R package fitTetra is freely available under the GNU Public License from http://www. plantbreeding.wur.nl/UK/software_fitTetra.html and as Additional files with this article.
Text, talk, things, and the subpolitics of performing place
Buizer, I.M. ; Turnhout, E. - \ 2011
Geoforum 42 (2011)5. - ISSN 0016-7185 - p. 530 - 538.
politics - participation - construction - governance - identity - policy - space
This article tells the story of how a group of Dutch and Belgian citizens organized themselves to promote an area that they valued, to put it on the map, to raise awareness about its qualities, and to protect it from urban and industrial development. Our theoretical perspective focuses on the performative and political aspects of this place-making process and the discursive and material practices involved. We connect this to Beck’s concept of subpolitics. Our findings show how the group performed this place not only through text and talk – giving the area a name, using their knowledge and expertise to raise awareness about its values, lobbying and cooperating with decision-makers –, but also through things – installing art objects and information signs that articulate certain characteristics and values of the area. Our findings demonstrate the struggles involved in these performances. The group involved multiple perspectives on what the important values and characteristics of the area are and on what strategies would work best in trying to influence decision-making and protect the area. However, the use of expertise as the main strategy to gain influence excluded the more critical and activist strategies and privileging archaeological and historical values and characteristics came at the expense of attention on agricultural and natural values. Our findings make clear that performing place cannot be taken to be homogeneous and that it inevitably involves multiple perspectives and demands. The struggles, power relations and dynamics of inclusion and exclusion that this multiplicity implicates reveal a form of sub-politics that involves both politicization and depoliticization. Also, it is a form of subpolitics that is more diverse and ambiguous than Beck’s conceptualization presupposes by its emphasis on the role of outsiders as a homogeneous group.
Energieneutrale sierteelt binnen bereik met DaglichtKas (interview met o.a. Feije de Zwart)
Bezemer, J. ; Zwart, H.F. de - \ 2011
Onder Glas 8 (2011)6/7. - p. 56 - 57.
glastuinbouw - kassen - constructie - beglazing - optische eigenschappen - lichtrelaties - zonnecollectoren - energie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - sierteelt - potplanten - snijbloemen - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouses - construction - glazing - optical properties - light relations - solar collectors - energy - sustainability - ornamental horticulture - pot plants - cut flowers
De ontwikkeling van de zogenaamde DaglichtKas is ver gevorderd. Deze kas brengt een energieneutrale teelt binnen bereik, met name voor potplanten- en bloementelers. De splitsing van het zonlicht door een daglichtinstallatie in de kas is het geheim daarachter. Direct zonlicht wordt weggevangen voor de productie van warmte en elektriciteit, terwijl het diffuse licht voor het gewas beschikbaar blijft.
A model-based greenhouse design method
Vanthoor, B.H.E. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Eldert van Henten, co-promotor(en): Cecilia Stanghellini; Pieter de Visser. - [s.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085859192 - 307
kassen - glastuinbouw - constructie - ontwerp - materialen - bouwtechnologie - modellen - klimaatfactoren - dynamisch modelleren - greenhouses - greenhouse horticulture - construction - design - materials - construction technology - models - climatic factors - dynamic modeling
Doel van dit proefschrift is het ontwikkelen van een methode die kasontwerpen genereert die geschikt zijn voor de locale klimaat en economische condities. Deze methode moet functioneren voor de verschillende condities die men wereldwijd tegen kan komen. De ontwerpmethode die ontwikkeld is maakt gebruik van computermodellen.
|Nokschermen voorkomen kouval (interview met o.a. Peter van Weel)
Sleegers, J. ; Weel, P.A. van - \ 2011
Vakblad voor de Bloemisterij 66 (2011)15. - ISSN 0042-2223 - p. 34 - 35.
glastuinbouw - kassen - schermen - materialen - constructie - gebruikswaarde - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouses - blinds - materials - construction - use value
Bedrijven die belichten onder een dicht scherm hebben vaak las van kouval. Nokschermen zijn dan een goede en goedkope oplossing. Er zijn verschillende materialen en constructies mogelijk.
Do scale frames matter? Scale frame mismatches in the decision making process of a 'mega farm' in a small Dutch village
Lieshout, M. van; Dewulf, A. ; Aarts, M.N.C. ; Termeer, C.J.A.M. - \ 2011
Ecology and Society 16 (2011)1. - ISSN 1708-3087 - p. 38 - 38.
resource-management - governance - construction - multilevel - conflict - systems
Scale issues are an increasingly important feature of complex sustainability issues, but they are mostly taken for granted in policy processes. However, the scale at which a problem is defined as well as the scale at which it should be solved are potentially contentious issues. The framing of a problem as a local, regional, or global problem is not without consequences and influences processes of inclusion and exclusion. Little is known about the ways actors frame scales and the effect of different scale frames on decision making processes. This paper addresses the questions that different scale frames actors use and what the implications of scale frames are for policy processes. It does so by analyzing the scale frames deployed by different actors on the establishment of a so-called new mixed company or mega farm and the related decision making process in a Dutch municipality. We find that actors deploy different and conflicting scale frames, leading to scale frame mismatches. We conclude that scale frame mismatches play an important role in the stagnation of the decision making process
Databases, scaling practices, and the globalization of biodiversity
Turnhout, E. ; Boonman-Berson, S.H. - \ 2011
Ecology and Society 16 (2011)1. - ISSN 1708-3087 - p. 35 - 35.
environmental governance - politics - construction - perspective - multilevel
Since the Convention on Biological Diversity in 1992, biodiversity has become an important topic for scientific research. Much of this research is focused on measuring and mapping the current state of biodiversity, in terms of which species are present at which places and in which abundance, and making extrapolations and future projections, that is, determining the trends. Biodiversity databases are crucial components of these activities because they store information about biodiversity and make it digitally available. Useful biodiversity databases require data that are reliable, standardized, and fit for up-scaling. This paper uses material from the EBONE-project (European Biodiversity Observation Network) to illustrate how biodiversity databases are constructed, how data are negotiated and scaled, and how biodiversity is globalized. The findings show a continuous interplay between scientific ideals related to objectivity and pragmatic considerations related to feasibility and data availability. Statistics was a crucial feature of the discussions. It also proved to be the main device in up-scaling the data. The material presented shows that biodiversity is approached in an abstract, quantitative, and technical way, disconnected from the species and habitats that make up biodiversity and the people involved in collecting the data. Globalizing biodiversity involves decontextualization and standardization. This paper argues that while this is important if the results of projects like EBONE are to be usable in different contexts, there is a risk involved as it may lead to the alienation from the organizations and volunteers who collect the data upon which these projects rely
Towards a unified genetic map of diploid roses
Spiller, M. ; Hibrand-Saint Oyant, L. ; Tsai, C. ; Byrne, D.H. ; Smulders, M.J.M. ; Foucher, A.L.J.L. ; Debener, T. - \ 2011
Theoretical and Applied Genetics 122 (2011)3. - ISSN 0040-5752 - p. 489 - 500.
marker-assisted selection - linkage maps - mapping populations - disease resistance - tetraploid roses - integrated map - aflp markers - construction - traits - genome
We have constructed the first integrated consensus map (ICM) for rose, based on the information of four diploid populations and more than 1,000 initial markers. The single population maps are linked via 59 bridge markers, on average 8.4 per linkage group (LG). The integrated map comprises 597 markers, 206 of which are sequence-based, distributed over a length of 530 cM on seven LGs. By using a larger effective population size and therefore higher marker density, the marker order in the ICM is more reliable than in the single population maps. This is supported by a more even marker distribution and a decrease in gap sizes in the consensus map as compared to the single population maps. This unified map establishes a standard nomenclature for rose LGs, and presents the location of important ornamental traits, such as self-incompatibility, black spot resistance (Rdr1), scent production and recurrent blooming. In total, the consensus map includes locations for 10 phenotypic single loci, QTLs for 7 different traits and 51 ESTs or gene-based molecular markers. This consensus map combines for the first time the information for traits with high relevance for rose variety development. It will serve as a tool for selective breeding and marker assisted selection. It will benefit future efforts of the rose community to sequence the whole rose genome and will be useful for synteny studies in the Rosaceae family and especially in the section Rosoideae
Genetic mapping in Lilium: mapping of major genes and quantitative trait loci for several ornamental traits and disease resistances
Shahin, A. ; Arens, P.F.P. ; Heusden, S. van; Linden, C.G. van der; Kaauwen, M.P.W. van; Nadeem Khan, M. ; Schouten, H.J. ; Weg, W.E. van de; Visser, R.G.F. ; Tuyl, J.M. van - \ 2011
Plant Breeding 130 (2011)3. - ISSN 0179-9541 - p. 372 - 382.
diversity arrays technology - linkage map - zea-mays - segregation distortion - wild relatives - durum-wheat - markers - dart - construction - pollination
Construction of genetic linkage maps for lily was achieved using two populations, LA and AA that share one parent ‘Connecticut King’. Three different molecular marker systems (AFLP™, DArT and NBS profiling) were used in generating linkage maps for ‘Connecticut King’. The LA and the AA populations consist of 20 and 21 linkage groups (LGs), respectively. Average density between markers was 3.9 cM for the LA and 5 cM for the AA population. Several horticultural traits were mapped for the first time in Lilium and showed to be single gene based. We propose to name these genes as LFCc for flower colour, lfs for flower spots, LSC for stem colour, lal for antherless phenotype and lfd for flower direction whereby upper and lower case names refer to dominant and recessive genes, respectively. Additionally, resistance to Lily mottle virus (LMoV) was mapped as a locus on LG AA10. For Fusarium resistance, the Kruskal–Wallis test identified six putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the AA population of which one QTL (explaining 25% of the variation in resistance) could be confirmed by interval mapping
Disentangling scale approaches in governance research: comparing monocentric, multilevel, and adaptive governance
Termeer, C.J.A.M. ; Dewulf, A. ; Lieshout, M. van - \ 2010
Ecology and Society 15 (2010)4. - ISSN 1708-3087 - p. 29 - 29.
social-ecological systems - resource regimes - water-resources - global change - size - construction - organization - perspective - management - government
The question of how to govern the multiscale problems in today’s network society is an important topic in the fields of public administration, political sciences, and environmental sciences. How scales are defined, studied, and dealt with varies substantially within and across these fields. This paper aims to reduce the existing conceptual confusion regarding scales by disentangling three representative approaches that address both governance and scaling: monocentric governance, multilevel governance, and adaptive governance. It does so by analyzing the differences in (1) underlying views on governing, (2) assumptions about scales, (3) dominant problem definitions regarding scales, and (4) preferred responses for dealing with multiple scales. Finally, this paper identifies research opportunities within and across these approaches.
Dak en gevelgroen
Hop, M.E.C.M. - \ 2010
daken - constructie - gebouwen - ontwerp - architectuur - vegetatie - soortenkeuze - groene daken - technische informatie - tuinarchitectuur - groene gevels - roofs - construction - buildings - design - architecture - vegetation - choice of species - green roofs - technical information - garden architecture - green walls
Deze brochure geeft zoveel mogelijk informatie gebaseerd op harde cijfers uit onderzoek en ervaringen van professionals. De informatie is bestemd voor mensen die over dak- en gevelgroen communiceren, en daarvoor goede basisinformatie willen hebben. Bijvoorbeeld gemeenten, woningbouwverenigingen, architecten, bouwbedrijven en opdrachtgevers.De toepassing van dak- en gevelgroen is de afgelopen jaren in Nederland in een stroomversnelling gekomen. Steeds meer gemeenten geven er subsidie voor. Ook het onderzoek naar de effecten van dak- en gevelgroen kan steeds beter worden onderbouwen, waarom deze typen groen zo belangrijk zijn voor steden. Een ander onderwerp dat in deze brochure vrij uitvoerig wordt behandeld is welke beplanting het meest geschikt is voor dak- en gevelgroen. De keuze van de genoemde planten is gebaseerd op zoveel mogelijk relevante aspecten, zoals grootte, zontolerantie, waterbehoefte, inheems of exoot, schadelijkheid van de wortels, effect op luchtvervuiling, maar ook praktische punten als verkrijgbaarheid. Dit maakt de brochure ook voor boomkwekers, ontwerpers en aanlegbedrijven van dak- en gevelgroen interessant.
Vooral aantal schermen en gebruik bepalend voor energiebesparing (interview met Jouke Campen en Feije de Zwart)
Staalduinen, J. van; Campen, J.B. ; Zwart, H.F. de - \ 2010
Onder Glas 7 (2010)5. - p. 62 - 63.
kassen - thermische schermen - constructie - schermen - bouwmaterialen - isolatie (insulation) - standaardisering - methodologie - glastuinbouw - energiebesparing - greenhouses - thermal screens - construction - blinds - building materials - insulation - standardization - methodology - greenhouse horticulture - energy saving
TNO en Wageningen UR hebben hun verschillende methodieken voor de bepaling van U-waarden geëvalueerd en vervangen door één nieuwe methode. Dit biedt zowel producenten als gebruikers meer duidelijkheid. Onderzoek naar hoogisolerende schermconfiguraties heeft uitgewezen dat een extra schermlaag meer bespaart dan het vervangen van bestaande schermen door doeken of folies met lagere U-waarden. Met een hoogtransparant scherm en actieve ontvochtiging met aangezogen buitenlucht, is overdag veel winst te boeken.
A pipeline for high throughput detection and mapping of SNPs from EST databases
Anithakumari, A.M. ; Tang, Jifeng ; Eck, H.J. van; Visser, R.G.F. ; Leunissen, J.A.M. ; Vosman, B. ; Linden, C.G. van der - \ 2010
Molecular Breeding 26 (2010)1. - ISSN 1380-3743 - p. 65 - 75.
single-nucleotide polymorphisms - map-based cloning - linkage maps - genome - markers - potato - discovery - construction - varieties - haplotype
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) represent the most abundant type of genetic variation that can be used as molecular markers. The SNPs that are hidden in sequence databases can be unlocked using bioinformatic tools. For efficient application of these SNPs, the sequence set should be error-free as much as possible, targeting single loci and suitable for the SNP scoring platform of choice. We have developed a pipeline to effectively mine SNPs from public EST databases with or without quality information using QualitySNP software, select reliable SNP and prepare the loci for analysis on the Illumina GoldenGate genotyping platform. The applicability of the pipeline was demonstrated using publicly available potato EST data, genotyping individuals from two diploid mapping populations and subsequently mapping the SNP markers (putative genes) in both populations. Over 7000 reliable SNPs were identified that met the criteria for genotyping on the GoldenGate platform. Of the 384 SNPs on the SNP array approximately 12% dropped out. For the two potato mapping populations 165 and 185 SNPs segregating SNP loci could be mapped on the respective genetic maps, illustrating the effectiveness of our pipeline for SNP selection and validation. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11032-009-9377-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users