Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Weidevogelscenario’s : Mogelijkheden voor aanpak van verbetering van de weidevogelstand in Nederland
    Melman, Dick ; Sierdsema, Henk - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2769) - 29
    weidevogels - graslanden - populatiebiologie - landschapsbeheer - kosten - habitats - natuurbescherming - nederland - grassland birds - grasslands - population biology - landscape management - costs - habitats - nature conservation - netherlands
    Onderhoudsstaat en onderhoudskosten van groen erfgoed in Nederland
    Paulissen, Maurice ; Debie, Patricia ; Brus, Dick ; Koomen, Arjen ; Nieuwenhuizen, Wim ; Schuiling, Rini ; Verkuijl, Paul - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2773) - 81
    tuinen - parken - nederland - kosten - onderhoud - groenbeheer - buitenplaatsen - gardens - parks - netherlands - costs - maintenance - management of urban green areas - country estates
    Het onderzoek is uitgevoerd door Wageningen Environmental Research en onderzoeksbureau Debie & Verkuijl. De resultaten van het onderzoek naar de staat en onderhoudsbehoefte van groene rijksmonumenten zijn bij brief van 8 mei 2017 (TK 32 156, nr. 81) door de Minister aan de Tweede Kamer aangeboden. Kort samengevat blijkt dat 69% redelijk scoort, 20% goed, 11% matig en 0% slecht. Verontrustend is dat uit het onderzoek is gebleken dat van de beschermde groenaanleg in Nederland 30% totaal is verdwenen en dat 14% is aangetast. Grof afgerond betekent dit dus dat bijna de helft van de als groen aangewezen rijksmonument niet meer of nog slechts deels bestaat. Kanttekening hierbij is dat de beschrijvingen vaak decennia geleden zijn opgesteld en soms summier zijn. Controle is dus soms lastig. Het onderzoek betreft de instandhoudingsbehoefte van de onderhoudskosten om de groenaanleg door middel van sober en doelmatig onderhoud in redelijke staat te houden volgens de normen van de Leidraad subsidiabele instandhoudingskosten. De restauratiebehoefte is daarbij niet in kaart gebracht.
    Een haalbaarheidsstudie naar integratie van elektrische voortstuwing in de visserijsector : Academic Consultancy Training
    Born, Michael van den; Geurts, Joris ; Jong, Hermen de; Langezaal, Hugo ; Dreessen, Sebastiaan - \ 2016
    Kenniskringvisserij.nl - 68
    fisheries - costs - fuels - electricity - visserij - kosten - brandstoffen - elektriciteit
    De visserijsector heeft de laatste jaren te maken gehad met grote fluctuaties in visprijzen en brandstofkosten. Om de sector toekomstbestendig te maken moeten brandstofkosten worden verlaagd om zo minder invloed te hebben op de financiële resultaten. Daarnaast is het terugdringen van emissies en onafhankelijkheid van fossiele brandstoffen een steeds belangrijker thema. Daarom is in dit project onderzocht in hoeverre het mogelijk is om vissersschepen volledig elektrisch aan te drijven. De focus gelegd op drie thema’s: technische haalbaar, ecologisch verantwoord en economisch rendabel. Tevens is er een stakeholderanalyse uitgevoerd. De resultaten zijn samengevat in een sterkte-zwakte analyse.
    Beprijzen van water voor de landbouw - geactualiseerde versie
    Linderhof, Vincent ; Snellen, W.B. ; Schipper, P.N.M. ; Hattum, T. van; Veraart, J.A. - \ 2016
    Stowa (Deltafactsheet ) - 6
    landbouw - beregening - oppervlaktewater - watergebruik - kosten - marktregulaties - agriculture - overhead irrigation - surface water - water use - costs - market regulations
    Deze deltafact behandelt de achtergronden en mogelijkheden om water te beprijzen dat door de landbouw wordt gebruikt voor beregening. De nadruk hierbij ligt op het gebruik van oppervlaktewater en de haalbaarheid om water te beprijzen in tijden van watertekorten.
    Onafhankelijke bemonstering vaste mest : globale indicatie van de kosten en administratieve lasten
    Koeijer, T.J. de; Luesink, H.H. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-050) - ISBN 9789462578494 - 35
    dierlijke meststoffen - rundvee - varkens - bemonsteren - kosten - methodologie - animal manures - cattle - pigs - sampling - costs - methodology
    Bij invoering van de nieuwe systematiek van onafhankelijke bemonstering van de dikke fractie van rundvee- en varkensdrijfmest nemen de kosten voor de sector naar schatting toe met circa 2 mln. euro per jaar. Daarbij is aangenomen dat ondernemers kiezen voor de goedkoopste methode op basis van de gegeven inschatting van de kosten van de verschillende opties voor bemonstering en de logistieke situatie en aantallen transporten van dikke fractie van 2015. In dat geval zullen de ondernemers kiezen voor een variant waarin zo veel mogelijk met geautomatiseerde vrachtbemonstering wordt gewerkt, in combinatie met ‘handmatige bemonstering per partij vlak voor afvoer.
    Effecten van derogatie op de kosten van mestafzet
    Koeijer, T.J. de; Luesink, H.H. ; Blokland, P.W. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Nota / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-024) - 15
    dierlijke meststoffen - mestverwerking - kosten - nitraten - mestbeleid - nederland - animal manures - manure treatment - costs - nitrates - manure policy - netherlands
    De Nederlandse Zuivelorganisatie en LTO Nederland hebben LEI Wageningen UR gevraagd om de effecten van het eventueel wegvallen van de derogatie op de kosten van mestafzet en de benodigde mestverwerkingscapaciteit in beeld te brengen. Inzichten zijn verkregen via berekeningen met het LEI-mestmodel MAMBO, gebaseerd op het aantal bedrijven en dieren van het jaar 2013 en het mestbeleid van 2015. Gegeven de gehanteerde uitgangspunten, zoals voldoende beschikbaarheid van mestverwerkingscapaciteit, tonen de resultaten aan dat bij het wegvallen van de derogatie de totale mestafzetkosten voor de rundveehouderijsector met circa 116 mln. euro toenemen en die voor de varkenshouderij met 3 mln. euro afnemen. Voor de rundveehouderij komen daar circa 30 mln. euro aan kosten van extra stikstofkunstmest en 9 mln. euro aan kosten voor extra fosfaatkunstmest bij. In de akkerbouw nemen de kunstmestkosten met 3 mln. euro af. De benodigde mestverwerkingscapaciteit zal bij het wegvallen van de derogatie met ruim 75% moeten toenemen tot circa 41 mln. kg fosfaat. Omdat de benodigde mestverwerkingscapaciteit op het moment van het eventueel verlies van derogatie mogelijk niet beschikbaar is, is ook nagegaan wat het effect van het wegvallen van derogatie op het extra mestaanbod op de mestmarkt is als deze wordt gecompenseerd door een vermindering van het aantal graasdieren. Op basis van de dieraantallen van 2013 is dan een reductie van 20% van het aantal graasdieren nodig.
    Een overzicht van de benodigde vergunningen en regelgeving voor de start van een viskweekbedrijf
    Abbink, W. - \ 2016
    Yerseke : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES C011/16) - 15
    vergunningen - visteelt - milieuwetgeving - wetgeving - overheid - kosten - permits - fish culture - environmental legislation - legislation - public authorities - costs
    Het ministerie van EZ heeft IMARES Wageningen UR gevraagd om een overzicht te maken van de aanvraagprocedures voor benodigde vergunningen en bepalende regelgeving voor het opzetten van een viskweekbedrijf. In dit rapport zijn de procedures opgedeeld in de twee hoofdonderdelen Bouw en Milieu, en Dieren. De laatste jaren zijn met de invoering van de Wet algemene bepalingen omgevingsrecht (Wabo, 2010) en de Waterwet (2009) tientallen wetten en regelgevingen samengevoegd en geïntegreerd. Dit heeft onder andere geleid tot de omgevingsvergunning, milieuvergunning en watervergunning, die van belang zijn bij het starten van een viskweekbedrijf. Via online modules kan gecontroleerd worden welke vergunningen of onderdelen van de vergunningen nodig zijn (de vergunningcheck), en de aanvraag van de benodigde vergunningen verloopt ook via een van deze modules. De aanvraag wordt automatisch naar de bevoegde lokale of regionale overheid gestuurd, die deze afhandelt. Door al deze maatregelen zijn de procedures om de verschillende benodigde vergunningen aan te vragen sterk versimpeld. De inhoudelijke wet- en regelgeving is hiermee echter niet versimpeld, en door de sterke digitalisatie is het moeilijk om gespecialiseerde ambtenaren rechtstreeks te benaderen. Op het gebied van de dieren zijn de vergunningen en de regelgeving veelal nationaal en/of Europees georganiseerd, en fungeert in de meeste gevallen de nVWA als centraal orgaan waarbij de regelgevingen kunnen worden bestudeerd en vergunningen moeten worden aangevraagd. De duur en de kosten voor het verkrijgen van de vergunningen zijn sterk afhankelijk van de precieze vergunningen of onderdelen van vergunningen die nodig zijn, en van de gemeente waar de vergunningen worden aangevraagd. Het invullen van de vergunningcheck is hierbij de belangrijkste leidraad. Ondernemers moeten rekening houden met een procedure tijd van zes maanden.
    Beleid waterkwaliteit: kosten voor de landbouw : een quick scan : Een quick scan
    Koeijer, T.J. de; Buurma, J.S. ; Luesink, H.H. ; Ruijs, M.N.A. - \ 2015
    LEI Wageningen UR (Nota / LEI Wageningen UR LEI 2015-147) - 17
    landbouwsector - waterkwaliteit - mestbeleid - gewasbescherming - kosten - nederland - agricultural sector - water quality - manure policy - plant protection - costs - netherlands
    Om een goede waterkwaliteit te realiseren, is er beleid voor het gebruik van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen en mest. Dit rapport brengt de belangrijkste kostenposten op basis van de bij het LEI beschikbare informatie in beeld. De netto jaarkosten van het mestbeleid bedragen voor de landbouw in 2013 101 mln. euro. In 2015 is dit naar verwachting 159 mln. euro. Hiervan bedragen de kosten voor de veehouderijsectoren 386 mln. euro. De baten voor de akkerbouw, extensieve veehouderij en opengrondstuinbouw bedragen 227 mln. euro. De jaarkosten als gevolg van het gewasbeschermingsmiddelenbeleid bedragen voor 2013 in totaal 78 mln. euro. Hiervan is 18 mln. euro voor de akkerbouw en 60 mln. euro voor de glastuinbouw.
    Recreatiemodule in Instrumentarium Kosten Natuurbeleid (IKN) : bepaling van de recreatiekosten
    Blaeij, A.T. de; Michels, R. ; Verburg, R.W. ; Hennen, W.H.G.J. - \ 2015
    Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 58) - 50
    openluchtrecreatie - natuurbescherming - natuurbeleid - bosrecreatie - economische modellen - kosten - nederland - recreatie - outdoor recreation - nature conservation - nature conservation policy - forest recreation - economic models - costs - netherlands - recreation
    De Recreatiemodule in het Instrumentarium Kosten Natuurbeleid (IKN) is opgesteld om de kosten te bepalenvoor het toegankelijk en recreatief aantrekkelijker maken van natuur en landschap voor verschillendescenario’s. De module bestaat uit een rekenmodel en een kostendatabase. De kostendatabase is opgebouwdmet normkosten per eenheid recreatieve voorziening. Dit zijn voorzieningen die een gebied toegankelijk danwel recreatief aantrekkelijk maken. De Recreatiemodule is een aanvulling op het IKN-model. Dit technicaldocument is zo opgezet dat het op termijn kan dienen om de berekeningen met de Recreatiemodule teborgen conform ‘Status A’ van de WOT Natuur & Milieu. Het bevat daarom een theoretische onderbouwing eneen technische beschrijving van het model en de kostendatabase. Verder is er een beschrijving van dewerking ervan en de gebruikte gegevens. Doordat de inputkaarten voor het model nog ontbreken, heeftvalidatie van het model nog niet kunnen plaatsvinden
    Opbrengsten en kosten in de kottersector : product van Kenniskringen visserij
    Turenhout, M.N.J. ; Klok, A.J. ; Zaalmink, W. - \ 2015
    visserij - vissersschepen - economische analyse - kosten - opbrengsten - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - fisheries - fishing vessels - economic analysis - costs - yields - sustainability
    Als kottereigenaar is het van belang om economisch duurzaam te ondernemen. De kosten mogen gemiddeld niet hoger liggen dan de verkregen opbrengsten. Maar waar bestaan de kosten en opbrengsten in de kottersector daadwerkelijk uit? In deze factsheet van Kenniskringen Visserij wordt een overzicht gegeven van de belangrijkste kosten en opbrengsten.
    Low cost drip irrigation in Burkina Faso : unravelling actors, networks and practices
    Wanvoeke, M.J.V. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Margreet Zwarteveen; Charlotte de Fraiture, co-promotor(en): J.P. Venot. - Wageningen University : Wageningen - ISBN 9789462576117 - 144
    irrigatie - irrigatiesystemen - kosten - waterbeheer - waterbeleid - druppelbevloeiing - burkina faso - irrigation - irrigation systems - costs - water management - water policy - trickle irrigation - burkina faso

    Title: Low cost drip irrigation in Burkina Faso: Unravelling Actors, Networks and Practices

    In Burkina Faso, there is a lot of enthusiasm about Low Cost Drip Irrigation (LCDI) as a tool to irrigate vegetables, and thus improve food security, solve water scarcity and reduce poverty. Already for more than ten years, development cooperation donors, policy makers, and kit designers have invested in the technology, funded its dissemination, and encouraged farmers to adopt it. Yet, there are only very few farmers who are using the technology in their fields. This study shows that this is because the funds for paying the technology mostly do not come from them, but from external donors. For LCDI promoters and disseminators, LCDI is also importantly a tool to survive or make profits. For this, they need to continuously re-assert the success of the technology through reports and stories. Farmers agree to play this game, as they hope and do receive other benefits by associating themselves with LCDI projects.

    Sixty-five data sets of profit, labour input, fertilizer and pesticide use in seventeen vegetable crops of the Arusha region, Tanzania
    Everaarts, A.P. ; Putter, H. de - \ 2015
    Lelystad : PPO AGV (PPO/PRI report 652) - 77
    groenteteelt - rentabiliteit - input van landbouwbedrijf - kosten - arbeid (werk) - inkomen - tanzania - investering - penen - voederkool - koolsoorten - tomaten - aardappelen - bemesting - gewasbescherming - vegetable growing - profitability - farm inputs - costs - labour - income - tanzania - investment - carrots - kale - cabbages - tomatoes - potatoes - fertilizer application - plant protection
    This report contains the 65 individual crop data sets to the related report A.P. Everaarts, H. de Putter and A.P. Maerere, 2015. Profitability, labour input, fertilizer application and crop protection in vegetable production in the Arusha region, Tanzania.PPO Report 653.
    Profitability, labour input, fertilizer application and crop protection in vegetable production in the Arusha region, Tanzania
    Everaarts, A.P. ; Putter, H. de; Maerere, A.P. - \ 2015
    Lelystad : PPO AGV (PPO/PRI report 653) - 37
    groenteteelt - rentabiliteit - input van landbouwbedrijf - kosten - arbeid (werk) - inkomen - tanzania - investering - penen - voederkool - koolsoorten - tomaten - aardappelen - bemesting - gewasbescherming - vegetable growing - profitability - farm inputs - costs - labour - income - tanzania - investment - carrots - kale - cabbages - tomatoes - potatoes - fertilizer application - plant protection
    An analysis was made of the inputs, costs and profit of vegetable production in three areas in the Arusha region of Tanzania. The major aim of the study was to establish whether vegetable producers would have the means to invest in modern production methods, such as hybrid seeds and drip irrigation, to improve and intensify their production.
    Aanpassing Instrumentarium Kosten Natuurbeleid (IKN) aan de typologie van het Subsidiestelsel Natuur en Landschap (SNL)
    Verburg, R.W. ; Michels, R. ; Puister-Jansen, L.F. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 38) - 39
    natuurbeleid - natuurbescherming - kosten - subsidies - natuur - nederland - nature conservation policy - nature conservation - costs - subsidies - nature - netherlands
    In de uitvoering van het natuurbeleid in Nederland is het Subsidiestelsel Natuur en Landschap (SNL) leidend geworden. In dit stelsel zijn nieuwe natuurtypen gedefinieerd en zijn maatregelen voor beheer uitgewerkt. Maatregelen om de stikstofdepositie te verlagen en verdrogingseffecten te verkleinen, zijn in de Programmatische Aanpak Stikstof (PAS) uitgewerkt. Het Instrumentarium Kosten Natuurbeleid (IKN) is een model dat de kosten van natuurbeleid kan doorrekenen. Deze kosten omvatten de kosten van (regulier) beheer en van eenmalige inrichtings- of herstelmaatregelen. Het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving gebruikt het model IKN bij de doorrekening van veranderingen in het natuurbeleid, zoals in de Balans van de Leefomgeving en de Natuurverkenning. In dit rapport zijn de aanpassingen van IKN aan deze nieuwe ontwikkelingen beschreven en uitgewerkt
    Verkenning van de mogelijkheid om waterplanten in te zetten als natuurlijke stuwen
    Keizer-Vlek, H.E. ; Verdonschot, P.F.M. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR - 62
    waterplanten - waterlopen - stuwen - zoetwaterconstructies - kosten - maaien - nederland - waterstromingsweerstand - aquatic plants - streams - weirs - freshwater structures - costs - mowing - netherlands - water flow resistance
    Waterplanten vormen een essentieel onderdeel van laaglandbeken. Naast hun ecologische functie hebben ze een significante impact op de geomorfologie, waterkwaliteit en waterkwantiteit van laaglandbeken. In Nederland heeft historisch gezien de nadruk altijd gelegen op het verwijderen van waterplanten uit waterlopen om de primaire functie, het watervoerend vermogen, te handhaven. De hoge kosten van het maaibeheer in Nederland in combinatie met de aandacht voor de positieve ecologische effecten van waterplanten vanuit de Kaderichtlijn Water, de mogelijkheden om water vast te houden met behulp van waterplanten om zo verdroging van natuurgebieden en de toenemende droogteschade in de landbouw tegen te gaan, hebben geleid tot het idee om te kijken in hoeverre het mogelijk is om de werking van de stuwen in watergangen te vervangen door waterplanten.
    Potential of extensification of European agriculture for a more sustainable food system; the case for nitrogen and livestock
    Grinsven, J.J.M. van; Erisman, J.W. ; Vries, W. de; Westhoek, H. - \ 2015
    Environmental Research Letters 10 (2015)2. - ISSN 1748-9326 - 10 p.
    dairy farms - management - intensification - welfare - trends - impact - costs - meat - pig
    Most global strategies for future food security focus on sustainable intensification of production of food and involve increased use of nitrogen fertilizer and manure. The external costs of current high nitrogen (N) losses from agriculture in the European Union, are 0.3–1.9% of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2008. We explore the potential of sustainable extensification for agriculture in the EU and The Netherlands by analysing cases and scenario studies focusing on reducing N inputs and livestock densities. Benefits of extensification are higher local biodiversity and less environmental pollution and therefore less external costs for society. Extensification also has risks such as a reduction of yields and therewith a decrease of the GDP and farm income and a smaller contribution to the global food production, and potentially an i0ncrease of global demand for land. We demonstrate favourable examples of extensification. Reducing the N fertilization rate for winter wheat in Northwest Europe to 25–30% below current N recommendations accounts for the external N cost, but requires action to compensate for a reduction in crop yield by 10–20%. Dutch dairy and pig farmers changing to less intensive production maintain or even improve farm income by price premiums on their products, and/or by savings on external inputs. A scenario reducing the Dutch pig and poultry sector by 50%, the dairy sector by 20% and synthetic N fertilizer use by 40% lowers annual N pollution costs by 0.2–2.2 billion euro (40%). This benefit compensates for the loss of GDP in the primary sector but not in the supply and processing chain. A 2030 scenario for the EU27 reducing consumption and production of animal products by 50% (demitarean diet) reduces N pollution by 10% and benefits human health. This diet allows the EU27 to become a food exporter, while reducing land demand outside Europe in 2030 by more than 100 million hectares (2%), which more than compensates increased land demand when changing to organic farming. We conclude that in Europe extensification of agriculture is sustainable when combined with adjusted diets and externalization of environmental costs to food prices.
    Economische evaluatie : Star+ voor dier- en milieuvriendelijk huisvesting vleesvarkens
    Vermeij, I. ; Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Classens, P.J.A.M. ; Verdoes, N. - \ 2015
    V-focus (2015)juni 2015. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 35 - 37.
    varkenshouderij - varkensstallen - dierenwelzijn - huisvesting, dieren - dierlijke productie - kosten - mestverwerking - economische evaluatie - varkens - pig farming - pig housing - animal welfare - animal housing - animal production - costs - manure treatment - economic evaluation - pigs
    Voor de Star+-stal is een economische evaluatie uitgevoerd. Hiertoe is de Star+ vergeleken met een reguliere stal. Uit deze evaluatie blijkt dat een meerprijs van 8 eurocent per kg geslacht gewicht nodig is ten opzichte van een reguliere stal. Maar met een besparing op de mestafzetkosten en een reguliere hokbezetting kan de benodigde meerprijs fors worden teruggebracht.
    Information, trust and pesticide overuse: Interactions between retailers and cotton farmers in China
    Jin, S. ; Bluemling, B. ; Mol, A.P.J. - \ 2015
    NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 72-73 (2015). - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 23 - 32.
    risk perceptions - bt cotton - knowledge - management - pest - workers - health - costs - crops - ipm
    In the absence of adequate extension services, retailers have become the major information source for farmers’ pesticide use in rural China. Pesticide application for smallholders is rather complex, and mistakes can lead to significant crop losses. Farmers, therefore, seek sources of information regarding pesticide use. This paper first explores how different kinds of retailers may employ different strategies of providing information to farmers. We find that for village, town, and county retailers, the more familiar they are with farmers, the more likely they are to amplify the recommended dosage of pesticide use. In cooperatives, who buy pesticides from an extension station, the information is directly transferred to member farmers without information distortion. Apart from examining retailers’ different strategies of information provision, this paper also asks in how far farmers’ trust in retailers may affect pesticide use. It finds that trust in different kinds of retailers indeed varies and plays a critical role in converting information into farming behavior. Members of the cooperative show rather high levels of trust in their retailer, while farmers who are not members of a cooperative show low levels of trust in retailers. Pesticide use is a joint result of retailers’ information provision strategies and farmers’ trust. The lowest pesticide use occurs when accurate information is provided and when farmers highly trust the information provider. Overuse occurs with either information distortion or low levels of trust. Cooperatives have advantages both in terms of information provision and trust, thereby leading to the lowest use of pesticides.
    The optimal number of heifer calves to be reared as dairy replacements
    Mohd Nor, N. ; Steeneveld, W. ; Mourits, M.C.M. ; Hogeveen, H. - \ 2015
    Journal of Dairy Science 98 (2015)2. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 861 - 871.
    holstein-friesian heifers - genomic selection - simulation-model - rearing period - netherlands - costs - mortality - cattle - performance - fertility
    Dairy farmers often keep almost all their newborn heifer calves despite the high cost of rearing. By rearing all heifer calves, farmers have more security and retain flexibility to cope with the uncertainty in the availability of replacement heifers in time. This uncertainty is due to mortality or infertility during the rearing period and the variation in culling rate of lactating cows. The objective of this study is to provide insight in the economically optimal number of heifer calves to be reared as replacements. A herd-level stochastic simulation model was developed specific for this purpose with a herd of 100 dairy cows; the biological part of the model consisted of a dairy herd unit and rearing unit for replacement heifers. The dairy herd unit included variation in the number of culled dairy cows. The rearing unit incorporated variation in the number of heifers present in the herd by including uncertainty in mortality and variation in fertility. The dairy herd unit and rearing unit were linked by the number of replacement heifers and culled dairy cows. When not enough replacement heifers were available to replace culled dairy cows, the herd size was temporarily reduced, resulting in an additional cost for the empty slots. When the herd size reached 100 dairy cows, the available replacement heifers that were not needed were sold. It was assumed that no purchase of cows and calves occurred. The optimal percentage of 2-wk-old heifer calves to be retained was defined as the percentage of heifer calves that minimized the average net costs of rearing replacement heifers. In the default scenario, the optimal retention was 73% and the total net cost of rearing was estimated at €40,939 per herd per year. This total net cost was 6.5% lower than when all heifer calves were kept. An earlier first-calving age resulted in an optimal retention of 75%, and the net costs of rearing were €581 per herd per year lower than in the default scenario. For herds with a lower or higher culling rate of dairy cows (10 or 40% instead of 25% in the default scenario), it was optimal to retain 35 or 100% of the heifer calves per year. Herds that had a lower or higher cost of empty slots (€50 or 120 per month instead of €82 in the default scenario) had an optimal retention of 49 or 83% per year; the optimal retention percentage was dependent on farm and herd characteristics. For Dutch dairy farming conditions, it was not optimal to keep all heifer calves.
    The time-dependent two-echelon capacitated vehicle routing problem with environmental considerations
    Soysal, M. ; Bloemhof, J.M. ; Bektas, T. - \ 2015
    International Journal of Production Economics 164 (2015). - ISSN 0925-5273 - p. 366 - 378.
    road freight transportation - city logistics - emission - optimization - models - algorithm - windows - impact - costs
    Multi-echelon distribution strategies in which freight is delivered to customers via intermediate depots rather than direct shipments is an increasingly popular strategy in urban logistics. This is primarily to alleviate the environmental (e.g., energy usage and congestion) and social (e.g., traffic-related air pollution, accidents and noise) consequences of logistics operations. This paper presents a comprehensive MILP formulation for a time-dependent two-echelon capacitated vehicle routing problem (2E-CVRP) that accounts for vehicle type, traveled distance, vehicle speed, load, multiple time zones and emissions. A case study in a supermarket chain operating in the Netherlands shows the applicability of the model to a real-life problem. Several versions of the model, each differing with respect to the objective function, are tested to produce a number of selected key performance indicators (KPIs) relevant to distance, time, fuel consumption and cost. The paper offers insight on economies of environmentally-friendly vehicle routing in two-echelon distribution systems. The results suggest that an environmentally-friendly solution is obtained from the use of a two-echelon distribution system, whereas a single-echelon distribution system provides the least-cost solution.
    The relationship between farmers’ participation in veterinary herd health management programs and farm performance
    Derks, M. ; Werven, T. van; Hogeveen, H. ; Kremer, W.D.J. - \ 2014
    Journal of Dairy Science 97 (2014)3. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 1336 - 1347.
    dutch dairy farmers - netherlands - mastitis - prevention - objectives - perception - attitudes - behavior - cattle - costs
    In the past few decades, farms have increased in size and the focus of management has changed from curative to preventive. To help farmers cope with these changes, veterinarians offer veterinary herd health management (VHHM) programs, whose major objective is to support the farmer in reaching his farm performance goals. The association between farm performance and participation in VHHM, however, remains unknown. The aim of this paper was to compare farm performance parameters between participants and nonparticipants in VHHM and to differentiate within participation to evaluate the possible added value of VHHM on the farm. Five thousand farmers received a questionnaire about the level of VHHM on their farm. Farm performance parameters of these 5,000 farms were provided. For all respondents (n = 1,013), farm performance was compared between participants and nonparticipants and within level of participation, using linear mixed and linear regression models. Farmers who participated in VHHM produced 336 kg of milk/cow per year more and their average milk somatic cell count (SCC) was 8,340 cells/mL lower than farmers who did not participate in VHHM. Participating herds, however, had an older age at first calving (+12 d), a lower 56-d nonreturn rate percentage (-3.34%), and a higher number of inseminations per cow (+0.09 inseminations). They also had more cows culled per year (+1.05%), and a lower age at culling (-70 d). Participants in the most-extended form of VHHM (level 3) had a lower SCC (-19,800 cells/mL), fewer cows with high SCC (-1.70%), fewer cows with new high SCC (-0.47%), a shorter calving interval (-6.01 d), and fewer inseminations per heifer (-0.07 inseminations) than participants in the least-extended form of VHHM (level 1). Level 3 participants, however, also had more cows culled per year (+1.74%) and a lower age at culling (-103 d). Discussing specific topics with the veterinarian (milk production, fertility, and udder health) had only marginal effects on improving the farm performance parameters related to those topics. Given the relevance of fertility on the farm and the focus on longevity by society, it is important to determine underlying reasons for the negative associations of these topics with participation in VHHM. A longitudinal study could provide answers to this. For now, veterinarians should be aware of the associations. The increased milk production and milk quality could help the marketing of VHHM to farmers.
    Efficiency of dairy farms participating and not participating in veterinary herd health management programs
    Derks, M. ; Hogeveen, H. ; Kooistra, S.R. ; Werven, T. van; Tauer, L.W. - \ 2014
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine 117 (2014)3-4. - ISSN 0167-5877 - p. 478 - 486.
    economic-efficiency - simulation-model - netherlands - inefficiency - perception - cattle - error - costs
    This paper compares farm efficiencies between dairies who were participating in a veterinary herd health management (VHHM) program with dairies not participating in such a program, to determine whether participation has an association with farm efficiency. In 2011, 572 dairy farmers received a questionnaire concerning the participation and execution of a VHHM program on their farms. Data from the questionnaire were combined with farm accountancy data from 2008 through 2012 from farms that used calendar year accounting periods, and were analyzed using Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA). Two separate models were specified: model 1 was the basic stochastic frontier model (output: total revenue; input: feed costs, land costs, cattle costs, non-operational costs), without explanatory variables embedded into the efficiency component of the error term. Model 2 was an expansion of model 1 which included explanatory variables (number of FTE; total kg milk delivered; price of concentrate; milk per hectare; cows per FTE; nutritional yield per hectare) inserted into the efficiency component of the joint error term. Both models were estimated with the financial parameters expressed per 100 kg fat and protein corrected milk and per cow. Land costs, cattle costs, feed costs and non-operational costs were statistically significant and positive in all models (P <0.01). Frequency distributions of the efficiency scores for the VHHM dairies and the non-VHHM dairies were plotted in a kernel density plot, and differences were tested using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov two-sample test. VHHM dairies had higher total revenue per cow, but not per 100 kg milk. For all SFA models, the difference in distribution was not statistically different between VHHM dairies and non-VHHM dairies (P values 0.94, 0.35, 0.95 and 0.89 for the basic and complete model per 100 kg fat and protein corrected milk and per cow respectively). Therefore we conclude that with our data farm participation in VHHM is not related to overall farm efficiency.
    Implementing REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation): evidence on governance, evaluation and impacts from the REDD-ALERT project
    Matthews, R.B. ; Noordwijk, M. van; Lambin, E. ; Meyfroidt, P. ; Gupta, J. ; Verschot, L. ; Hergoualc'h, K. ; Veldkamp, E. - \ 2014
    Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 19 (2014)6. - ISSN 1381-2386 - p. 907 - 925.
    land-use - agricultural intensification - environmental services - avoided deforestation - shifting cultivation - developing-world - food security - carbon - payments - costs
    Abstract The REDD-ALERT (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation from Alternative Land Uses in the Rainforests of the Tropics) project started in 2009 and finished in 2012, and had the aim of evaluating mechanisms that translate international-level agreements into instruments that would help change the behaviour of land users while minimising adverse repercussions on their livelihoods. Findings showed that some developing tropical countries have recently been through a forest transition, thus shifting from declining to expanding forests at a national scale. However, in most of these (e.g. Vietnam), a significant part of the recent increase in national forest cover is associated with an increase in importation of food and timber products from abroad, representing leakage of carbon stocks across international borders. Avoiding deforestation and restoring forests will require a mixture of regulatory approaches, emerging market-based instruments, suasive options, and hybrid management measures. Policy analysis and modelling work showed the high degree of complexity at local levels and highlighted the need to take this heterogeneity into account—it is unlikely that there will be a one size fits all approach to make Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+) work. Significant progress was made in the quantification of carbon and greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes following land-use change in the tropics, contributing to narrower confidence intervals on peat-based emissions and their reporting standards. There are indications that there is only a short and relatively small window of opportunity of making REDD+ work—these included the fact that forest-related emissions as a fraction of total global GHG emissions have been decreasing over time due to the increase in fossil fuel emissions, and that the cost efficiency of REDD+ may be much less than originally thought due to the need to factor in safeguard costs, transaction costs and monitoring costs. Nevertheless, REDD+ has raised global awareness of the world’s forests and the factors affecting them, and future developments should contribute to the emergence of new landscape-based approaches to protecting a wider range of ecosystem services. Keywords Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation . REDD+ . Indonesia . Vietnam. Cameroon . Peru . Peatlands . Carbon stocks .Greenhouse gases . GHGs
    Reconciling interests concerning wildlife and livestock near conservation areas: A model for analysing alternative land uses
    Chaminuka, P. ; Groeneveld, R.A. ; Ierland, E.C. van - \ 2014
    Ecological Economics 98 (2014). - ISSN 0921-8009 - p. 29 - 38.
    reserve network - southern africa - biodiversity - selection - policy - costs
    Land use decisions are central to both biodiversity conservation and rural development goals at local, national and international levels. Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs), now common in Southern Africa, present an opportunity to address these goals simultaneously. This paper proposes a theoretical spatial land allocation model that enables analysis of alternative scenarios for realising rural development and biodiversity conservation within TFCAs. The model includes socioeconomic and ecological factors such as income, fencing, connectivity, predation and disease costs and allows for clarification of opportunities and tradeoffs in land use. The model demonstrates alternative spatial options for diversification in land use, whilst accommodating the connectivity requirements and endogenous effects of wildlife on other land uses. The model is illustrated using several scenarios which include changes in key parameters, and limitations on total land allocated per land use. Illustrated scenarios show that land allocated to different land uses varies with output prices and costs such as fencing and wildlife damages, resulting in different spatial land use allocations. In addition, total revenue also changes when limitations are placed on land allocated to wildlife and tourism uses. The model can be used to reconcile interests where conservation and agricultural development activities compete for land.
    Synthese monitoring mestmarkt 2006-2012
    Koeijer, T.J. de; Luesink, H.H. ; Daatselaar, C.H.G. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 18)
    dierlijke meststoffen - markten - monitoring - landbouwtellingen - schattingen - aanbod - vraag - kosten - landbouw - nederland - animal manures - markets - monitoring - agricultural censuses - estimates - supply - demand - costs - agriculture - netherlands
    De aanvoer en afzet van dierlijke mest via de mestmarkt in Nederland zijn op verzoek van het ministerie van Economische Zaken (EZ) voor de periode 2006-2012 in beeld gebracht. Dit is gedaan op basis van analyses van de Vervoersbewijzen Dierlijke Mest (VDM’s) van RVO.nl (Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland) en op basis van modelberekeningen met MAMBO. Dit WOt-technical report geeft een synthese van de resultaten. Op basis van vergelijkbare meststromen is het aanbod op basis van de VDM’s 73 mln. kg fosfaat. Op basis van modelberekeningen is dit aanbod 74 mln. kg fosfaat. De afzet naar landbouwbedrijven vormt met 40% de belangrijkste afzetpost op de VDM’s. De overige afzetposten op de VDM’s zijn export (28%), verwerking (28%), particulieren (3%) en overige bestemmingen (1%)
    The economic power of the Golden Rice opposition
    Wesseler, J.H.H. ; Zilberman, D. - \ 2014
    Environment and Development Economics 19 (2014)6. - ISSN 1355-770X - p. 724 - 742.
    birth-weight - vitamin-a - health - uncertainty - benefits - growth - impact - costs - gm
    Vitamin A enriched rice (Golden Rice) is a cost-efficient solution that can substantially reduce health costs. Despite Golden Rice being available since early 2000, this rice has not been introduced in any country. Governments must perceive additional costs that overcompensate the benefits of the technology to explain the delay in approval. We develop a real option model including irreversibility and uncertainty about perceived costs and arrival of new information to explain a delay in approval. The model has been applied to the case of India. Results show the annual perceived costs have to be at least US$199 million per year approximately for the last decade to explain the delay in approval of the technology. This is an indicator of the economic power of the opposition towards Golden Rice resulting in about 1.4 million life years lost over the past decade in India.
    Strategies to reduce electricity consumption on dairy farms : an economic and environmental assessment
    Upton, J.R. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Imke de Boer; Peter Groot Koerkamp, co-promotor(en): L. Shalloo. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570771 - 171
    elektriciteit - energiegebruik - melkveehouderij - reductie - kosten - technologie - innovaties - economische analyse - milieutoets - electricity - energy consumption - dairy farming - reduction - costs - technology - innovations - economic analysis - environmental assessment

    The aim of this thesis was to assess how, and to what extent, do managerial and technology changes affect electricity consumption, associated costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of dairy farms. Dairy farms in Ireland are expected to expand in the future, due to policy incentives and the abolishment of European Union milk quotas in 2015, which will result in an increased use of resources such as land, water, and energy, and increased emissions to the environment. In order to develop strategies to reduce electricity consumption associated costs and GHG emissions, it was necessary to understand the consumption trends and the hot-spots of electricity consumption within the farm. Therefore, we performed a life cycle assessment by quantifying the energy use on 22 commercial Irish dairy farms, from cradle-to-farm-gate. This analysis demonstrated that a total of 31.7 MJ of energy was required to produce one kg of milk solids, of which 20% was direct and 80% was indirect energy use. Electricity consumption was found to represent 12% of total cradle-to-farm-gate energy use or 60% of direct energy, and was centered on milk harvesting. Following this analysis we devised two main groups of strategies, i.e. ‘cost strategies’ and ‘energy strategies’. ‘Cost strategies’ consisted of measures that could save on-farm costs but no energy or related emissions, such as, moving to a new electricity tariff or decoupling large electricity users, such as water heating, from milking times and shifting them to off-peak periods when electricity price is lower. Examples of ‘energy strategies’ are; the use of variable speed vacuum pumps on the milking machine, pre-cooling of milk and solar thermal technologies to provide hot water for cleaning purposes. A mechanistic model of electricity consumption that simulates farm equipment on an hourly and monthly basis was developed to further evaluate the ‘cost’ and ‘energy’ strategies. We used this model to show that a Day & Night electricity tariff minimised annual electricity costs, while a Flat tariff would increase the electricity costs by between 16% and 34%, depending on farm size. We also discovered that milking earlier in the morning and later in the evening reduced the simulated annual electricity consumption and related GHG emissions by between 5% and 7%, depending on farm size. An analysis of ‘energy strategies’ was carried out which revealed that that the ideal blend of technologies to maximise farm profitability while also reducing electricity consumption and GHG emissions, consisted of a direct expansion milk tank with pre-cooling of milk with well water to 15°C, electrical water heating and standard vacuum pumps. An individual farmer can also choose to increase his or her use of renewable energy by adding solar thermal water heating with the trade-off of reduced profitability and negative return on investment figures. This analysis highlighted the need for an investment appraisal approach to technology investments on dairy farms.

    Sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste
    Bing, X. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jack van der Vorst; Jacqueline Bloemhof-Ruwaard. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570870 - 205
    logistiek - huishoudens - afval - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - kunststoffen - modelleren - transport - kosten - logistics - households - wastes - sustainability - plastics - modeling - transport - costs

    Summary of the thesis titled “Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Household Plastic Waste”

    PhD Candidate: Xiaoyun Bing

    Recycled plastic can be used in the manufacturing of plastic products to reduce the use of virgin plastics material. The cost of recycled plastics is usually lower than that of virgin plastics. Therefore, it is environmentally and economically beneficial to improve the plastic recycling system to ensure more plastic waste from households is properly collected and processed for recycling.

    Plastic waste has a complex composition and is polluted, thus requires a substantial technical effort to separate the plastics from the waste and to sort these into recyclable materials. There are several alternatives in the existing collection methods (curb-side and drop-off) and separation methods (source separation and post-separation). It is challenging to select a suitable combination of these methods and to design a network that is efficient and sustainable. It is necessary to build a suitable, efficient and sustainable recycling network from collection to the final processor in order to provide solutions for different future scenarios of plastics household waste recycling. Decision support is needed in order to redesign the plastic waste reverse logistics so that the plastic waste recycling supply chain can be improved towards a more sustainable direction. To improve the efficiency in the recycling of plastic packaging waste, insights are required into this complex system. Insights solely on a municipal level are not sufficient, as the processing and end market are important for a complete network configuration. Therefore, we have investigated the problem at three levels: municipal, regional, and global. Decision support systems are developed based on optimization techniques to explore the power of mathematical modelling to assist in the decision-making process.

    This thesis investigates plastic waste recycling from a sustainable reverse logistics angle. The aim is to analyse the collection, separation and treatments systems of plastic waste and to propose redesigns for the recycling system using quantitative decision support models.

    We started this research project by identifying research opportunities. This was done through a practical approach that aimed to find future research opportunities to solve existing problems (Chapter 2). We started from a review of current municipal solid waste recycling practices in various EU countries and identified the characteristics and key issues of waste recycling from waste management and reverse logistics point of view. This is followed by a literature review regarding the applications of operations research. We conclude that waste recycling is a multi-disciplinary problem and that research opportunities can be found by considering different decision levels simultaneously. While analyzing a reverse supply chain for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) recycling, a holistic view and considering characteristics of different waste types are necessary.

    Municipal Level

    In Chapter 3, we aim to redesign the collection routes of household plastic waste and compare the collection options at the municipal level using eco-efficiency as a performance indicator. The collection problem is modeled as a vehicle routing problem. A tabu search heuristic is used to improve the routes. Scenarios are designed according to the collection alternatives with different assumptions in collection method, vehicle type, collection frequency, and collection points, etc. The results show that the source-separation drop-off collection scenario has the best performance for plastic collection, assuming householders take the waste to the drop-off points in a sustainable manner.

    In Chapter 4, we develop a comprehensive cost estimation model to further analyze the impacts of various taxation alternatives on the collection cost and environmental impact. This model is based on such variables as fixed and variable costs per vehicle, personnel cost, container or bag costs, as well as emission costs (using imaginary carbon taxes). The model can be used for decision support when strategic changes to the collection scheme of municipalities are considered. The model, which considers the characteristics of municipalities, including degree of urbanization and taxation schemes for household waste management, was applied to the Dutch case of post-consumer plastic packaging waste. The results showed that post-separation collection generally has the lowest costs. Curb-side collection in urban municipalities without residual waste collection taxing schemes has the highest cost. These results were supported by the conducted sensitivity analysis, which showed that higher source-separation responses are negatively related to curb-side collection costs.

    Regional Level

    Chapter 5 provides decision support for choosing the most suitable combination of separation methods in the Netherlands. Decision support is provided through an optimized reverse logistics network design that makes the overall recycling system more efficient and sustainable, while taking into account the interests of various stakeholders (municipalities, households, etc.). A mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model, which minimizes both transportation cost and environmental impact, is used to design this network. The research follows the approach of a scenario study; the baseline scenario is the current situation and other scenarios are designed with various strategic alternatives. Comparing these scenarios, the results show that the current network settings of the baseline situation is efficient in terms of logistics, but has the potential to adapt to strategic changes, depending on the assumptions regarding availability of the required processing facilities to treat plastic waste. In some of the tested scenarios, a separate collection channel for polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles is cost-efficient and saves carbon emission. Although the figures differ depending on the choices in separation method made by municipalities, our modeling results of all the tested scenarios show a reduction in carbon emissions of more than 25 percent compared to the current network.

    Chapter 6 studies a plastic recycling system from a reverse logistics angle and investigates the potential benefits of a multimodality strategy to the network design of plastic recycling. The aim was to quantify the impact of multimodality in the network in order to provide decision support for the design of more sustainable plastic recycling networks in the future. A MILP model is developed in order to assess different plastic waste collection, treatment, and transportation scenarios. A baseline scenario represents the optimized current situation, while other scenarios allow multimodality options (barge and train) to be applied. With our input parameter settings, results show that transportation costs contribute to approximately 7 percent of the total costs, and multimodality can help reduce transportation costs by almost 20 percent (CO_2-eq emissions included). In our illustrative case with two plastic separation methods, the post-separation channel benefits more from a multimodality strategy than the source-separation channel. This relates to the locations and availability of intermediate facilities and the quantity of waste transported on each route.

    Global Level

    After the regional network redesign, Chapter 7 shows a global network redesign. The aim of this chapter was to redesign a reverse supply chain from a global angle based on a case study conducted on household plastic waste distributed from Europe to China. Emissions trading restrictions are set on processing plants in both Europe and China. We used a mixed-integer programming model in the network optimization to decide on location reallocation of intermediate processing plants under such restrictions, with the objective of maximizing total profit under Emission Trading Schemes (ETS). Re-locating facilities globally can help reduce the total cost. Once carefully set, ETS can function well as incentive to control emissions in re-processors. Optimization results show that relocating re-processing centers to China reduces total costs and total transportation emissions. ETS applied to re-processors further helps to reduce emissions from both re-processors and the transportation sector. Carbon caps should be set carefully in order to be effective. These results give an insight in the feasibility of building a global reverse supply chain for household plastic waste recycling and demonstrate the impact of ETS on network design. The results also provide decision support for increasing the synergy between the policy for global shipping of waste material and the demand of recycled material.

    Conclusions

    Chapter 8 summarizes the findings from chapters 2 to 7 and provides brief answers to the research questions. Beyond that, the integrated findings combine the results from different decision levels and elaborate the impacts of various system characteristics and external factors on the decision making in order to achieve an improved sustainable performance. Main findings are:

    Regarding the impact of carbon cost, the results from different chapters are consistent in terms that emission cost is only a small part of the total cost, even when carbon cost is set at its historically highest figure. When carbon price is set to a different value, impact of carbon cost on the change of optimization results is higher on the upstream of the reverse supply chain for plastic waste than the downstream.In Emission Trading scheme (ETS), carbon cap has a larger impact on eco-efficiency performance of the global network than carbon price.On one decision level, models can help to find the ``best option". For example, in the collection phase, the average total collection costs per ton of plastic waste collected for source-separation municipalities are more than twice of the post-separation municipalities' collection costs due to the frequent stops made and idling time at each stop. From the regional network perspective, post-separation scenarios have higher costs and environmental impact than source separation due to the limited number of separation centers compared to the numerous cross-docking sites for source-separation. When combining decision levels, however, it is difficult to find one ``best option" that fits all, as there are contradictory results when looking at the same factor from different decision levels. Through decision support models, we provided clear insights into the trade-offs and helped to quantify the differences and identify key factors to determine the differences.Population density differences in various municipalities influence the performance of curbside collection more than drop-off collection.

    This information is valuable for decision makers to consider in the decision making process. Finally, managerial insights derived from sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste are summarized in conclusion section.

    Cisgenese drukt kosten phytophthorabestrijding
    Kessel, G.J.T. - \ 2014
    Boerderij 99 (2014)49. - ISSN 0006-5617 - p. 61 - 61.
    akkerbouw - aardappelen - gewasbescherming - genetische gewasbescherming - resistentie van variëteiten - phytophthora infestans - plantenveredeling - cisgenese - kosten - opbrengst - veldproeven - arable farming - potatoes - plant protection - genetic control - varietal resistance - phytophthora infestans - plant breeding - cisgenesis - costs - outturn - field tests
    Wageningen UR test op aardappelen die via cisgenese zijn voorzien van een of meer genen, die ze beter bestand maken tegen phytophthora. Bij cisgenese worden soorteigen genen uit wilde aardappelplanten gebruikt. (Bij transgenese gaat het om soortvreemde genen.)
    Demo rekentool KWIN
    Livestock Research, - \ 2014
    Wageningen UR Livestock Research
    veehouderij - meetinstrumenten - berekening - kostenanalyse - economie van de veehouderij - rundveehouderij - varkenshouderij - pluimveehouderij - kosten - rundvee - varkens - pluimvee - livestock farming - indicating instruments - calculation - cost analysis - livestock economics - cattle husbandry - pig farming - poultry farming - costs - cattle - pigs - poultry
    Deze korte video toont de mogelijkheden van de modules in de rekentool. http://www.kwin.nl/
    Economische evaluatie 2011-2012, Bodemkwaliteit op Zandgrond
    Spruijt, J. ; Haan, J.J. de - \ 2014
    PPO AGV
    akkerbouw - bemesting - bodemkwaliteit - opbrengsten - kosten - maïs - preien - aardappelen - grondbewerking - onkruidbestrijding - teeltsystemen - arable farming - fertilizer application - soil quality - yields - costs - maize - leeks - potatoes - tillage - weed control - cropping systems
    Voor het project Bodemkwaliteit op zandgrond worden de opbrengst en de kosten vergeleken van handmatig wieden tegenover grondbewerking tegen onkruid. Bemesten met drijfmest tegenover meststoffen en NKG (niet kerende grondbewerking) tegenover ploegen.
    JONKOS - Rekenprogramma om opfokkosten jongvee te berekenen
    Evers, A.G. ; Haan, M.H.A. de - \ 2014
    Verantwoorde veehouderij
    rundvee - kalveren - jonge dieren - dierlijke productie - kosten - dierveredeling - berekening - cattle - calves - young animals - animal production - costs - animal breeding - calculation
    Download of open hieronder de spreadsheet van het bedrijfstype dat u door wilt rekenen door erop te klikken. Vul in de spreadsheet de gele cellen van de hoofdpagina in. Zo berekent u de kosten voor jongveeopfok van uw bedrijf.
    De verkoop van vlees van eigen dieren
    Vijn, M.P. ; Alebeek, F.A.N. van; Voort, M.P.J. van der; Boxtel, M. van; Schoutsen, M.A. - \ 2014
    Lelystad : PPO AGV (PPO rapport 611) - 35
    multifunctionele landbouw - boerderijwinkels - vleeswaren - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - ondernemerschap - streekgebonden producten - rundveehouderij - rundvlees - verse producten - nevenactiviteiten - kosten - multifunctional agriculture - on-farm sales - meat products - farm management - entrepreneurship - regional specialty products - cattle husbandry - beef - fresh products - ancillary enterprises - costs
    De onderzoeksvraag is hoe bestaande bedrijven het concept ‘verkoop van vlees van eigen dieren’ toepassen, wat de financiële haalbaarheid ervan is, en wat de succes- en faalfactoren en randvoorwaarden zijn. Als afbakening is gekozen voor de verkoop van vlees van eigen runderen. Omdat dit onderzoek gaat over versproducten wordt ingezoomd op de verkoop van vers vlees.
    Short Communication: Effectiveness of tools provided by a dairy company on the udder health of Dutch dairy farms.
    Steeneveld, W. ; Velthuis, A.G.J. ; Hogeveen, H. - \ 2014
    Journal of Dairy Science 97 (2014)3. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 1529 - 1534.
    somatic-cell count - mastitis control program - bulk tank milk - management-practices - risk-factors - quality - netherlands - costs
    A Dutch dairy company initiated a quality system to support dairy farmers to improve sustainability on their farm. Improvement of udder health is defined by the dairy company as one of the sustainability items. A part of that quality system is to offer farmers 3 tools to improve the udder health status of the herd. The first tool is an Udder Health Workshop at which farmers make a farm-specific action plan to improve the udder health situation in their herd. The second tool is the Udder Health Navigator, which is an internet-based program to gain insight in the actual udder health situation at the farm. The third tool is the Udder Health Checklist, which is available on the internet and it identifies farmspecific risks for udder health problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of these tools in improving udder health. The bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) was used as the measure of herd udder health performance. In total, 605 farms attended the Udder Health Workshop, 988 farms completed the Udder Health Navigator, and 1,855 farms completed the Udder Health Checklist in 2012. Information on BMSCC records (2 records per month) was available for 12,782 Dutch dairy farms during the years 2011 and 2012. For every farm, the average BMSCC of all months during the years 2012 and 2011 were calculated. This resulted in 306,768 average monthly observations of the BMSCC. Subsequently, all months after the completion of one of the tools were assigned a 1, and all other months were assigned a 0. A statistical analysis was carried out to compare the average monthly BMSCC of the farms that completed one or more tools with farms that did not complete one of the tools. Both completing the Udder Health Navigator and the Udder Health Checklist had a significant association with a lower average monthly BMSCC. The effect of the Udder Health Navigator and Udder Health Checklist on the BMSCC were greater in herds with a BMSCC in 2011 of 200,000 to 250,000 cells/mL and even greater for herds with a BMSCC above 250,000 cells/mL compared with herds with a BMSCC in 2011 of 150,000 to 200,000 cells/mL or less than 150,000 cells/mL. It is difficult to draw conclusions on the effect of the Udder Health Workshop due to overlap in participation between the tools. The results suggest that completing the web tools is associated with a reduction in the BMSCC of the herd.
    Livelihood roles of cattle and prospects for alternative land uses at the wildlife/livestock interface in South Africa
    Chaminuka, P. ; Udo, H.M.J. ; Eilers, C.H.A.M. ; Zijpp, A.J. van der - \ 2014
    Land Use Policy 38 (2014). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 80 - 90.
    benefits - livestock - policy - conservation - management - valuation - poverty - systems - costs - areas
    The emergence of wildlife ranching as an alternative land use option to agriculture, in Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs), has cast renewed interest on the role of cattle farming in rural livelihoods in areas close to wildlife parks. This study analysed the contribution of cattle to livelihoods and relationships between cattle and potential wildlife land uses in rural areas near Kruger National Park. Data were collected through household surveys, key informant interviews and community workshops. About 11% of households studied owned cattle, and cattle income constituted 29% of total household income. Benefits from cattle were also derived by households without cattle. About 71% of households had at least three sources of income, reflecting diversity of livelihoods. Wildlife related land uses were perceived by some households as threatening cattle production, whilst others viewed them as opportunities for alternative livelihoods. We conclude that cattle production has important livelihood roles, but is not sufficient as a driver of economic development in these areas. Incentives to encourage diversification of livelihoods at the wildlife/livestock interface, with possibilities for rural communities to explore wildlife based land uses should be put in place. In addition, land use policy and planning in such areas should focus on creating institutional mechanisms through which programmes integrating conservation and rural development goals can benefit rural communities
    A New Decision Support Framework for Managing Foot-and-mouth Disease Epidemics
    Ge, L. ; Kristensen, A.R. ; Mourits, M.C.M. ; Huirne, R.B.M. - \ 2014
    Annals of Operations Research 219 (2014)1. - ISSN 0254-5330 - p. 49 - 62.
    hierarchical markov-processes - eradication - prevention - costs - fmd
    Animal disease epidemics such as the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) pose recurrent threat to countries with intensive livestock production. Efficient FMD control is crucial in limiting the damage of FMD epidemics and securing food production. Decision making in FMD control involves a hierarchy of decisions made at strategic, tactical, and operational levels. These decisions are interdependent and have to be made under uncertainty about future development of the epidemic. Addressing this decision problem, this paper presents a new decision-support framework based on multi-level hierarchic Markov processes (MLHMP). The MLHMP model simultaneously optimizes decisions at strategic, tactical, and operational levels, using Bayesian forecasting methods to model uncertainty and learning about the epidemic. As illustrated by the example, the framework is especially useful in contingency planning for future FMD epidemics
    HTBOM-Akkerbouw
    Hoving, Idse - \ 2013
    precision agriculture - arable farming - humidity gauges - sensors - roots - crop growth stage - pf-curve - overhead irrigation - irrigation - costs - fodder crops - cost benefit analysis
    Macro-economic impact of large-scale deployment of biomass resources for energy and materials on a national level-A combined approach for the Netherlands
    Hoefnagels, R. ; Banse, M.A.H. ; Dornburg, V. ; Faaij, A. - \ 2013
    Energy Policy 59 (2013). - ISSN 0301-4215 - p. 727 - 744.
    biofuel mandates - land-use - emissions - bioenergy - ethanol - balance - europe - costs
    Biomass is considered one of the most important options in the transition to a sustainable energy system with reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increased security of enegry supply. In order to facilitate this transition with targeted policies and implementation strategies, it is of vital importance to understand the economic benefits, uncertainties and risks of this transition. This article presents a quantification of the economic impacts on value added, employment shares and the trade balance as well as required biomass and avoided primary energy and greenhouse gases related to large scale biomass deployment on a country level (the Netherlands) for different future scenarios to 2030. This is done by using the macro-economic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model LEITAP, capable of quantifying direct and indirect effects of a bio-based economy combined with a spread sheet tool to address underlying technological details. Although the combined approach has limitations, the results of the projections show that substitution of fossil energy carriers by biomass, could have positive economic effects, as well as reducing GHG emissions and fossil energy requirement. Key factors to achieve these targets are enhanced technological development and the import of sustainable biomass resources to the Netherlands. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Pretreatment of lignocellulose for biotechnological production of lactic acid
    Harmsen, P.F.H. ; Lips, S.J.J. ; Bakker, R.R.C. - \ 2013
    Wageningen UR FBR (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1384, public version) - ISBN 9789461736079 - 104
    voorbehandeling - biomassaconversie - lignocellulose - melkzuur - bioproceskunde - technologie - suikerriet - kosten - kostenanalyse - biobased economy - pretreatment - biomass conversion - lignocellulose - lactic acid - bioprocess engineering - technology - sugarcane - costs - cost analysis - biobased economy
    The breakdown of biomass in pretreatment facilitates enzymatic hydrolysis by disrupting cell wall structures, driving lignin into solution or modification of the lignin structure, and reducing cellulose crystallinity and chain length, while preventing hydrolysis of cellulose. In an ideal situation the pretreatment leads to high yields of fermentable sugars with a limited formation of degradation products that inhibit enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation to lactic acid, while remaining cost effective. This review deals with these challenges by providing information on available pretreatment technologies in general (chapter 3), and more specific on pretreatment of the model feedstock sugarcane bagasse (chapter 4). Techno economic studies are described in chapter 5 with the NREL study from 2011 as benchmark. This review starts with characteristics of lignocellulosic biomass in relation to compostion and formation of inhibitors.
    Databank Gemeentelijk Groenbeheer geeft inzicht: Hoe doet de buurman dat?
    Hop, M.E.C.M. ; Spijker, J. - \ 2013
    Vitale Groene Stad 2013 (2013)2. - p. 40 - 41.
    openbaar groen - kosten - groenbeheer - budgetten - kennisoverdracht - public green areas - costs - management of urban green areas - budgets - knowledge transfer
    De crisis gaat ook aan het gemeentelijk groen niet ongemerkt voorbij. Beheerafdelingen proberen het gemeentelijk groen zo goed mogelijk te beheren met afnemende budgetten. Moet je bezuinigen op groen, dan is het handig om te weten wat realistische mogelijkheden daarvoor zijn. Een kijkje in de keuken bij andere gemeenten kan zeer verhelderend werken.
    Comparison of a sodium-based and a chloride-based approach for the determination of sodium chloride content of processed foods in the Netherlands
    Capuano, E. ; Veer, G. van der; Verheijen, P.J.J. ; Heenan, S.P. ; Laak, L.F.J. van de; Koopmans, H.B.M. ; Ruth, S.M. van - \ 2013
    Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 31 (2013)1. - ISSN 0889-1575 - p. 129 - 136.
    blood-pressure - salt intake - reduction - disease - health - world - costs - risk
    This study reports and discusses the sodium content of a set of 1016 processed food samples collected in the Netherlands, which covered 10 food groups (cakes/pastries, chips/nuts, sauces, processed meat, conserves, snacks, ready-to-eat products, cheese, bread, and soups) and 100 food commodities. The food groups that showed highest sodium contents were processed meat (1030 mg Na 100 g-1), cheese (820 mg Na 100 g-1), and sauces (752 mg Na 100 g-1). Lowest sodium concentrations were determined in conserves (286 mg Na 100 g-1), cakes/pastries (322 mg Na 100 g-1), and soups (355 mg Na 100 g-1). In addition, two different approaches for the assessment of sodium chloride content in the same sample set have been compared for all 1016 samples: determination of sodium by flame emission spectroscopy and determination of chloride by potentiometric titration. The sodium chloride content was then calculated converting the sodium and chloride content into the corresponding salt (NaCl) content. For the NaCl contents determined by the two approaches, significant differences for seven out of the ten food groups were observed, and the sodium contents of nearly half of the commodities showed significantly different NaCl levels. At food group level, the NaCl contents calculated from sodium were significantly higher (p <0.05) than the NaCl content calculated from chloride for cakes/pastries, processed meat, snacks, cheese and soups, whereas it was significantly lower for the chips/nuts and the bread group. These differences can be explained by additional sources of sodium and/or chloride, e.g. certain food additives and the natural sodium and chloride content of the ingredients. Although most legal recommendations specify NaCl levels, the present study shows that sodium and chloride concentrations do not go necessarily hand in hand since they may originate from different sources.
    Rice Straw and Wheat Straw - Potential feedstocks for the Biobased Economy
    Bakker, R.R.C. ; Elbersen, H.W. ; Poppens, R.P. ; Lesschen, J.P. - \ 2013
    Utrecht : NL Agency - 31
    rijststro - tarwestro - stro - reststromen - beschikbaarheid - kosten - logistiek - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - biomassa - biobased economy - rice straw - wheat straw - straw - residual streams - availability - costs - logistics - sustainability - biomass - biobased economy
    Dit rapport zet de mogelijkheden voor het gebruik van rijststro en tarwestro in de biobased economy op een rij. Er is gekeken naar beschikbaarheid, kosten (vooral van inzameling en logistiek) en duurzaamheidsaspecten.
    Do farmers internalise environmental spillovers of pesticides in production?
    Skevas, T. ; Stefanou, S.E. ; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M. - \ 2013
    Journal of Agricultural Economics 64 (2013)3. - ISSN 0021-857X - p. 624 - 640.
    damage control - alfalfa weevil - econometrics - economics - specification - inputs - costs
    Pesticides are used in agriculture to protect crops from pests and diseases, with indiscriminate pesticide use having several adverse effects on the environment and human health. An important question is whether the environmental spillovers of pesticides also affect the farmers’ production environment. We use a model of optimal pesticide use that explicitly incorporates the symmetric and asymmetric effect of pesticides’ environmental spillovers on crop production. The application focuses on panel data from Dutch cash crop producers. We show that pesticides have a positive direct impact on output and a negative indirect impact through their effects on the production environment.
    Lager antibioticagebruik op varkensbedrijven gaat gepaard met uiteenlopende diergezondheidskosten
    Puister-Jansen, L.F. ; Wisman, A. - \ 2013
    Agri-monitor 2013 (2013)dec. - ISSN 1383-6455 - p. 1 - 3.
    diergezondheid - dierenwelzijn - varkenshouderij - zeugen - kosten - antibiotica - bedrijfsresultaten in de landbouw - rendement - animal health - animal welfare - pig farming - sows - costs - antibiotics - farm results - returns
    De totale diergezondheidskosten op zeugenbedrijven zijn in de periode 2005-2012 toegenomen tot 74 euro per zeug (inclusief biggen). Op vleesvarkensbedrijven zijn de kosten voor diergezondheid in dezelfde periode gedaald naar ruim 2 euro per vleesvarken. Bij beide diersoorten zijn de kosten voor antibiotica omlaag gegaan. Op zeugenbedrijven lijkt de daling van het antibioticagebruik samen te hangen met hogere kosten voor vaccinaties. Op vleesvarkensbedrijven is daarentegen geen relatie gevonden tussen aantal dagdoseringen antibioticagebruik en vaccinatiekosten.
    Economische analyse algenproductie in kassen
    Hemming, S. ; Sapounas, A. - \ 2013
    algenteelt - economische analyse - kosten - scenario-analyse - glastuinbouw - biobased economy - algae culture - economic analysis - costs - scenario analysis - greenhouse horticulture - biobased economy
    Poster met onderzoeksinformatie.
    Mid-term financial impact of animal welfare improvements
    Gocsik, E. ; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M. ; Saatkamp, H.W. - \ 2013
    Poultry Science 92 (2013)12. - ISSN 0032-5791 - p. 3314 - 3329.
    poultry production systems - sustainability - risk - netherlands - costs
    This study used a stochastic bioeconomic simulation model to simulate the business and financial risk of different broiler production systems over a 5-yr period. Simulation analysis was conducted using the @Risk add-in in MS Excel. To compare the impact of different production systems on economic feasibility, 2 cases were considered. The first case focused on the economic feasibility of a completely new system, whereas the second examined economic feasibilities when a farm switches from a conventional to an animal welfare-improving production system. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the key drivers of economic feasibility and to reveal systematic differences across production systems. The study shows that economic feasibility of systems with improved animal welfare predominantly depends on the price that farmers receive. Moreover, the study demonstrates the importance of the level and variation of the price premium for improved welfare, particularly in the first 5 yr after conversion. The economic feasibility of the production system increases with the level of welfare improvements for a sufficiently high price level for broiler meat and low volatility in producer prices. If this is not the case, however, risk attitudes of farmers become important as well as the use of potential risk management instruments.
    First-calving age and first-lactation milk production on Dutch dairy farms
    Mohd Nor, N. ; Steeneveld, W. ; Werven, T. van; Mourits, M.C.M. ; Hogeveen, H. - \ 2013
    Journal of Dairy Science 96 (2013)2. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 981 - 992.
    heifer management decisions - southwest sweden - lactation milk - 1st lactation - growth - costs - yield - netherlands - performance - cows
    Farmers attempting to reduce first-calving age (FCA) need to understand which rearing management factors influence FCA and first-lactation milk production (FLP). Reduced FCA might be associated with lower FLP. This study describes the association between herd FCA, FLP, and several herd-level health and rearing management variables and describes the association between FCA and FLP at the cow level. It uses data from a 2010 survey of 100 Dutch dairy farms about general management, colostrum and milk feeding, housing, cleanliness, healthcare, disease, and breeding. It also used available data on FCA and 305-d FLP at both cow and herd level. The associations between median FCA and median FLP of the herd and herd-level health and rearing management variables were determined using multivariate regression analysis. The median FCA was associated with minimum age of first insemination, feeding of waste milk, and the amount of milk given preweaning. The median FLP was associated with median FCA and vaccination status for bovine respiratory syncytial virus. The association between FCA and FLP (based on 8,454 heifers) was analyzed with a single-effect linear mixed model, where the dependent variable was either FCA or relative FCA (defined as the difference between FCA of the heifer and median FCA of the herd to which they belonged). Heifers having an FCA of 24. mo produced, on average, 7,164. kg of milk per 305. d, and calving 1. mo earlier gave 143. kg less milk per 305. d. When FCA did not deviate from the median herd FCA, heifers produced, on average, 7,272. kg of milk per 305. d. From the median FCA of the herd, heifers calving 1. mo earlier produced 90. kg of milk per 305. d less, and heifers calving 1. mo later produced 86. kg per 305. d more. This is the first study that explained FLP using relative FCA. It assumes that heifers raised within the same farm have similar development because they are similarly managed. Similar management is reflected by the median FCA of the herd, with a deviation of the heifer's FCA from median FCA reflecting the heifer's development relative to the herd's average. The advantage of using relative FCA was that it accounts for between-farm differences in rearing management. It showed that earlier insemination without adjusting management to ensure sufficient development lowers FLP. An economic optimum exists between rearing costs, FCA, and FLP and, as a consequence, decisions with regard to young stock management should be made with care. © 2013 American Dairy Science Association.
    State governance of pesticide use and trade in Vietnam
    Pham Van Hoi, ; Mol, A.P.J. ; Oosterveer, P.J.M. - \ 2013
    NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 67 (2013). - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 19 - 26.
    environmental governance - costs - china
    Vietnam is facing serious challenges with respect to the amount and toxicity of the pesticides used. With hardly any domestic pesticides production, Vietnam experienced an exponential growth of both the quantity and the value of imported pesticides in recent years. And the increasing import of newly formulated (and safer) pesticides has not replaced or reduced the highly toxic pesticides with low efficacy. The improper use of pesticides by farmers (too high dosages, cocktailing of pesticides, inadequate pre-harvest intervals etc.) has further contributed to the environmental and health problems resulting from pesticides, especially in poorer areas where farmers have to largely rely on cheap but often old and more toxic pesticides. Despite a growth in pesticide policies and regulation, the state has been unable to regulate the pesticide market. The main causes behind the state failure in pesticide market regulation are the governance structure (i.e., centralized decision making), large corruption, information distortion and a failing legal system. To some extent, and in some more wealthy areas, famers and retailers have emerged successfully as new pesticide governance actors. But an overall improvement of pesticide registration and pesticide use can only rely on better government intervention: more stringent implementation and enforcement of regulations, more effective promotion of IPM-based pest control, further public participation in implementation and higher ethics within government.
    Verminder kostbare verliezen door bewaarrot
    Wenneker, M. - \ 2013
    De Fruitteelt 103 (2013)8. - ISSN 0016-2302 - p. 14 - 14.
    fruitteelt - plantenziekten - vruchtrot - plagenbestrijding - landbouwkundig onderzoek - kosten - kwekers - opslag - monitoring - ziektebestrijding - fruit growing - plant diseases - fruit rots - pest control - agricultural research - costs - growers - storage - disease control
    In de lange bewaring van appel en peer wordt geregeld extreem veel vruchtrot aangetroffen. Aantasting door vruchtrot leidt jaarlijks tot veel uitval en kost dus veel geld. Deze kosten zijn niet alleen directe bewaarverliezen: de kosten voor het telen van het product zijn immers ook gemaakt. Bovendien kunnen partijen met vruchtrotinfecties, die bij de sortering nog visueel perfect zijn, in de supermarkt of bij de consument versneld gaan afleven of rotten.
    Consumption of antimicrobials in pigs, veal calves, and broilers in the Netherlands: Quantitative results of nationwide collection of data in 2011
    Bos, M.E.H. ; Taverne, F.J. ; Geijlswijk, I.M. van; Mouton, J.W. ; Mevius, D.J. ; Heederik, D.J.J. - \ 2013
    PLoS ONE 8 (2013)10. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 9 p.
    resistant staphylococcus-aureus - escherichia-coli - animals - farmers - health - costs - herds - usage - meat - food
    In 2011, Dutch animal production sectors started recording veterinary antimicrobial consumption. These data are used by the Netherlands Veterinary Medicines Authority to create transparency in and define benchmark indicators for veterinary consumption of antimicrobials. This paper presents the results of sector wide consumption of antimicrobials, in the form of prescriptions or deliveries, for all pig, veal calf, and broiler farms. Data were used to calculate animal defined daily dosages per year (ADDD/Y) per pig or veal calf farm. For broiler farms, number of animal treatment days per year was calculated. Furthermore, data were used to calculate the consumption of specific antimicrobial classes per administration route per pig or veal calf farm. The distribution of antimicrobial consumption per farm varied greatly within and between farm categories. All categories, except for rosé starter farms, showed a highly right skewed distribution with a long tail. Median ADDD/Y values varied from 1.2 ADDD/Y for rosé finisher farms to 83.2 ADDD/Y for rosé starter farms, with 28.6 ADDD/Y for white veal calf farms. Median consumption in pig farms was 9.3 ADDD/Y for production pig farms and 3.0 ADDD/Y for slaughter pig farms. Median consumption in broiler farms was 20.9 ATD/Y. Regarding specific antimicrobial classes, fluoroquinolones were mainly used on veal calf farms, but in low quantities: P75 range was 0 – 0.99 ADDD/Y, and 0 – 0.04 ADDD/Y in pig farms. The P75 range for 3rd/4th-generation cephalosporins was 0 – 0.07 ADDD/Y for veal calf farms, and 0 – 0.1 ADDD/Y for pig farms. The insights obtained from these results, and the full transparency obtained by monitoring antimicrobial consumption per farm, will help reduce antimicrobial consumption and endorse antimicrobial stewardship. The wide and skewed distribution in consumption has important practical and methodological implications for benchmarking, surveillance and future analysis of trends.
    Is agricultural intensification in The Netherlands running up to its limits?
    Bos, J.F.F.P. ; Smit, A.L. ; Schroder, J.J. - \ 2013
    NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 66 (2013). - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 65 - 73.
    farmland bird populations - food security - land-use - biodiversity conservation - dairy production - sustainability - nitrogen - europe - costs - consequences
    Environmental pressures posed through human activities are expected to further increase due to growing population numbers and increasing per capita consumption. It will be crucial that the sum of all pressures leaves the planet within sustainability thresholds. The huge challenge for agriculture is to double its food production without further deteriorating the environment, but there is little consensus on how to do this. At the global scale, ‘sustainable intensification’ is seen as an important strategy. At best, intensification improves the utilization of resources, but it also increases emissions per ha and may go hand in hand with specialisation, increases in the scale of farming and regional concentration. A typical example of a sector characterised by intensification, scale enlargement and regional concentration is the Dutch livestock sector. To consolidate and strengthen the Dutch position as second agricultural exporter in the world, this process is still continuing, linked with constant efforts to further improve economic and environmental efficiencies through farm size enlargement and adoption of additional technologies. However, the industrial and inherently resource-intensive character of this livestock production leaves numerous sustainability issues unaddressed, provoking new questions and controversy in Dutch society. Sound policies start with the acknowledgement of trade-offs between population size, food consumption patterns and land spared for nature. Therefore, a legitimate, but seldom asked question is which part of the total effort needed to feed the human population should be on more production and which part on limiting population growth, changing human diets and global redistribution of wealth.
    Kosten weiderantsoen Dynamisch Beweiden mei, juni en juli 2013
    Klooster, B. van 't; Stienezen, M.W.J. - \ 2013
    [S.l.] : S.n. - 4
    melkveehouderij - melkveevoeding - voedingsrantsoenen - melkproductie - begrazing - voedergrassen - kosten - dairy farming - dairy cattle nutrition - feed rations - milk production - grazing - fodder grasses - costs
    Op basis van de melkproductie en de bijvoeding is terug gerekend hoeveel weidegras de koeien hebben opgenomen. Voor de overige producten is uitgegaan van de hoeveelheid die door de melkveehouders is opgegeven. Voor weidegras is met een kostprijs van 7 eurocent per kg droge stof gerekend. Voor kuilgras en maïskuil is gerekend met een kostprijs van respectievelijk 17 eurocent en 15 eurocent. De overige voedermiddelen zijn ingerekend op basis van een kostprijs zoals die door de melkveehouders is opgegeven.
    Pythium in hyacint : wat zijn de kosten en wat leveren maatregelen op?
    Roelofs, P.F.M.M. ; Vreeburg, P.J.M. - \ 2013
    bloembollen - hyacinthus - pythium - modellen - kosten - maatregelen - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - economische aspecten - economische evaluatie - agrarische economie - ornamental bulbs - hyacinthus - pythium - models - costs - measures - plant pathogenic fungi - economic aspects - economic evaluation - agricultural economics
    Rekenmodel voor het berekenen van economische schade door Pythium en van het economisch effect van bestrijding.
    Kosteneffectiviteit reductiemaatregelen emissie broeikasgassen zuivel
    Pol, A. van den; Blonk, H. ; Dolman, M.A. ; Evers, A.G. ; Haan, M.H.A. de; Reijs, J.W. ; Sebek, L.B. ; Vellinga, Th.V. ; Wemmenhove, H. - \ 2013
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 725) - 40
    melkveehouderij - broeikasgassen - emissie - cost effective analysis - kosten - dairy farming - greenhouse gases - emission - cost effectiveness analysis - costs
    This report summarises measures for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the dairy chain. The cost effectiveness of measures on dairy farms is shown.
    Teelt eigen krachtvoer meestal niet rendabel: 'Ga niet hobbyen met dure hectares'
    Livestock Research, - \ 2013
    dairy farming - force feeding - costs - dairy cattle nutrition - forage quality
    Monitoring en observatoria van voedselprijzen; Een verkenning van kosten en effecten
    Oosterkamp, E.B. ; Logatcheva, K. ; Galen, M.A. van; Georgiev, E.S. - \ 2013
    Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (LEI-rapport : Onderzoeksveld Markt & ketens ) - ISBN 9789086156283 - 116
    voedselprijzen - monitoring - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - voedsel - dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - prijsvorming - observatie - kosten - food prices - monitoring - sustainability - food - animal welfare - animal production - price formation - observation - costs
    Prijzenobservatoria, zoals ze in Spanje en Frankrijk zijn opgericht, zijn zeer kostbaar. Dit komt vooral door de continue, aanvullende primaire dataverzameling door overheid en bedrijfsleven.
    Jongveeopfok in bedrijfsverband = Heifer rearing; failure costs and profit opportunities
    Mourits, M.C.M. ; Zom, R.L.G. ; Derks, A.J.J. ; Evers, A.G. ; Haan, M.H.A. de; Steeneveld, W. ; Hogeveen, H. - \ 2013
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 705) - 77
    melkvee - melkveehouderij - dierhouderij - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - kosten - dairy cattle - dairy farming - animal husbandry - farm management - costs
    In this study the importance of the various economic aspects within the heifer rearing analysis has been analysed based on the available scientific knowledge and practical findings. An accessible model has been developed which makes it possible to evaluate the rearing costs of individual farms.
    Are green hopes too rosy? Employment and welfare impacts of renewable energy promotion
    Bohringer, C. ; Keller, A. ; Werf, E. van der - \ 2013
    Energy Economics 36 (2013). - ISSN 0140-9883 - p. 277 - 285.
    nominal wage rigidity - climate policy - market - curve - labor - unemployment - germany - world - costs
    In view of pressing unemployment problems, policy makers across all parties jump on the prospects of renewable energy promotion as a job creation engine which can boost economic well-being. Our analytical model shows that initial labor market rigidities in theory provide some scope for such a double dividend. However, the practical outcome of renewable energy promotion might be sobering. Our computable general equilibrium analysis of subsidized electricity production from renewable energy sources (RES-E) in Germany suggests that the prospects for employment and welfare gains are quite limited and hinge crucially on the level of the subsidy rate and the financing mechanism. If RES-E subsidies are financed by labor taxes, welfare and employment effects are strictly negative for a broad range of subsidy rates. The use of an electricity tax to fund RES-E subsidies generates minor benefits for small subsidy rates but these benefits quickly turn into significant losses as the subsidy rate exceeds some threshold value.
    Concurrentiekracht van de Nederlandse pluimveevleessector
    Horne, P.L.M. van - \ 2013
    Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (LEI-rapport : Onderzoeksveld Markt & ketens ) - ISBN 9789086156351 - 65
    pluimvee - pluimveehouderij - dierlijke productie - vleeskuikens - pluimveevlees - vleesproductie - kosten - marktconcurrentie - landbouwprijzen - poultry - poultry farming - animal production - broilers - poultry meat - meat production - costs - market competition - agricultural prices
    The Dutch poultry meat sector is competitive within Europe thanks to lower production costs at farm level and the efficient chain organisation. The production of poultry meat from broilers in the Netherlands has been increasing steadily over recent years. The majority of the supply from Dutch slaughterhouses originates from Dutch broiler farms, but the proportion supplied from farms outside the Netherlands is increasing and amounted to 16% in 2011. More than half of Dutch poultrymeat is exported, with Germany, the United Kingdom and France forming the most important destinations. In these countries, the costs of keeping broilers for primary producers were higher than in the Netherlands in 2011. The production costs after slaughter in the Netherlands in 2011 were comparable to those in Germany, lower than those in France, the United Kingdom and Denmark, but higher than in Poland. Over the coming years, increasing competition is therefore expected from Poland. The Dutch product will have to distinguish itself within the market on the basis of more sustainable production with a higher level of animal welfare and food safety. In all European countries, primarily conventionally-reared broilers are kept on specialised farms. The production costs for the Netherlands are comparable with the neighbouring countries. Strengths for the Dutch poultry chain include the lower feed price and the good results within the primary sector and the efficient chain organisation of the slaughterhouses. Unfavourable aspects are the manure disposal costs and the high energy costs (energy taxes).
    Bedrijfseconomische effecten van verhoging van het bodemorganische-stofgehalte: bedrijfseconomische effecten van verhoging van het bodemorganische-stofgehalte
    Wit, J. de - \ 2013
    Driebergen : Louis Bolk Instituut (Publicatie / Louis Bolk Instituut nr. 2013-005 LbD) - 17 p.
    compost - akkerbouw - afvalcompost - organische stof - bemesting - kosten - bedrijfseconomie - composts - arable farming - refuse compost - organic matter - fertilizer application - costs - business economics
    Berekende bedrijfseconomische effecten bij gebruik van GFT-compost zijn positief voor een gemiddeld akkerbouwbedrijf in Zuid-Nederland (circa +55 € per ha per jaar). Sensitiviteitsanalyse voor andere situaties laat zien dat de soort compost en het effect op de totale bemestingskosten (m.n.verdringing van organische mest) van grote invloed zijn op de bedrijfseconomische effecten.
    Bedrijfsuitkomsten in de Nederlandse particuliere bosbouw over 2011
    Silvis, H.J. ; Voskuilen, M.J. - \ 2013
    Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (LEI-rapport, onderzoeksveld Natuurlijke Hulpbronnen 2013-026) - ISBN 9789086156245 - 95
    bosbouw - particuliere bosbouw - bosbezit - kosten - rendement - nederland - forestry - private forestry - forest ownership - costs - returns - netherlands
    De particuliere bosbedrijven hebben over 2011 gemiddeld goede resultaten behaald. Terwijl de gemiddelde opbrengsten over 2010 al 9% boven de kosten uitkwamen, is over 2011 een score van 16% bereikt. Dit staat in contrast met de resultaten in 2008 en 2009, toen de opbrengsten 10% bij de kosten achterbleven. De gunstige resultaten over 2010 en 2011 zijn vooral veroorzaakt door de ontwikkeling van de houtopbrengsten.
    Absence of induced resistance in Agaricus bisporus against Lecanicillium fungicola
    Berendsen, R.L. ; Schrier, N. ; Kalkhove, S.I. ; Lugones, L.G. ; Baars, J.J.P. ; Zijlstra, C. ; Weerdt, M. de; Wösten, H.A.B. ; Bakker, P.A.H.M. - \ 2013
    Antonie van Leeuwenhoek: : Nederlandsch tijdschrift voor hygiëne, microbiologie en serologie 103 (2013)3. - ISSN 0003-6072 - p. 539 - 550.
    systemic acquired-resistance - verticillium disease - chemical defense - button mushroom - dry bubble - plants - immunity - animals - costs - accumulation
    Lecanicillium fungicola causes dry bubble disease and is an important problem in the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus. Little is known about the defense of mushrooms against pathogens in general and L. fungicola in particular. In plants and animals, a first attack by a pathogen often induces a systemic response that results in an acquired resistance to subsequent attacks by the same pathogen. The development of functionally similar responses in these two eukaryotic kingdoms indicates that they are important to all multi-cellular organisms. We investigated if such responses also occur in the interaction between the white button mushroom and L. fungicola. A first infection of mushrooms of the commercial A. bisporus strain Sylvan A15 by L. fungicola did not induce systemic resistance against a subsequent infection. Similar results were obtained with the A. bisporus strain MES01497, which was demonstrated to be more resistant to dry bubble disease. Apparently, fruiting bodies of A. bisporus do not express induced resistance against L. fungicola.
    Kunststofverpakkingsafval : van inzamelen naar spontaan hergebruik
    Thoden van Velzen, E.U. ; Groot, J.J. ; Bos-Brouwers, H.E.J. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research - 14
    afvalbeheer - afvalhergebruik - kunststoffen - verpakkingen - verpakkingsmaterialen - kosten - waste management - waste utilization - plastics - wrappings - packaging materials - costs
    Het hergebruikssysteem voor kunststofverpakkingsafval staat momenteel vol in de aandacht. Deze korte bijdrage aan het publieke debat beoogt geïnteresseerde lezers inzicht te geven in hoe het kunststofverpakkingsafval momenteel wordt ingezameld, hoeveel het kost en hoe het beter zou kunnen. Het uiteindelijke doel is kunststofhergebruik een wezenlijk onderdeel te laten worden van de in de toekomst noodzakelijk geachte hergebruikseconomie. Kostenneutraliteit is hierbij een belangrijk middel om dit te bereiken. De kunststofverpakkingsafvalketen moet echter nog bij alle ketenpartners worden verbeterd om kostenneutraliteit mogelijk te maken. Een gezamenlijke keten brede aanpak van alle partijen is hierbij noodzakelijk
    Kosten onkruidbeheer op verhardingen
    Dijk, C.J. van; Kempenaar, C. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Plant Research International (Rapport / Plant Research International 432) - 12
    onkruidbestrijding - bestrating - kosten - economische analyse - berekening - bestrijdingsmethoden - openbare ruimte - benodigde machines - weed control - pavements - costs - economic analysis - calculation - control methods - public space - machinery requirements
    In deze studie worden kostprijzen berekend voor verschillende technieken van onkruidbestrijding op verhardingen. Hierbij is een kostensystematiek toegepast die gangbaar is binnen grond-, weg- en waterbouw en de groensector. Kengetallen zijn overgenomen uit de systematiek of aangeleverd door diverse groenaannemers en producenten van machines. Op basis van de kengetallen is de kostprijs berekend door voor iedere techniek de directe kosten te bepalen en vervolgens het percentage van opslag voor indirecte kosten hierop toe te passen. Berekende prijzen worden uitgedrukt in eurocent per m2.
    A proposal for a new scenario framework to support research and assessment in different climate research communities
    Vuuren, D.P. van; Riahi, K. ; Moss, R. ; Edmonds, J. ; Thomson, A. ; Nakicenovic, N. ; Kram, T. ; Berkhout, F. ; Swart, R.J. ; Janetos, A. ; Rose, S.K. ; Arnell, N. - \ 2012
    Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 22 (2012)1. - ISSN 0959-3780 - p. 21 - 35.
    expert judgments - impact assessment - vulnerability - costs - stabilization - adaptation - strategies
    In this paper, we propose a scenario framework that could provide a scenario "thread" through the different climate research communities (climate change - vulnerability, impact, and adaptation - and mitigation) in order to support assessment of mitigation and adaptation strategies and climate impacts. The scenario framework is organized around a matrix with two main axes: radiative forcing levels and socio-economic conditions. The radiative forcing levels (and the associated climate signal) are described by the new Representative Concentration Pathways. The second axis, socio-economic developments comprises elements that affect the capacity for mitigation and adaptation, as well as the exposure to climate impacts. The proposed scenarios derived from this framework are limited in number, allow for comparison across various mitigation and adaptation levels, address a range of vulnerability characteristics, provide information across climate forcing and vulnerability states and span a full century time scale. Assessments based on the proposed scenario framework would strengthen cooperation between integrated-assessment modelers, climate modelers and vulnerability, impact and adaptation researchers, and most importantly, facilitate the development of more consistent and comparable research within and across these research communities.
    Food price monitoring and observatories: an exploration of costs and effects; Summary and Executive Summary
    Oosterkamp, E.B. ; Logatcheva, K. ; Galen, M.A. van; Georgiev, E.S. - \ 2012
    The Hague : LEI, part of Wageningen UR (LEI-memorandum : Markets & chains ) - 16
    voedselprijzen - monitoring - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - voedsel - dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - prijsvorming - observatie - kosten - food prices - monitoring - sustainability - food - animal welfare - animal production - price formation - observation - costs
    The Ministry of Economic Affairs asked what the costs and effects of a food price observatory and more intensive price monitoring would be for the Netherlands. In the first instance, price observatories such as those which exist in Spain and France were considered. Face-to-face interviews were conducted in these countries with individuals involved in the observatories, but also with chain parties, in order to catalogue costs and effects. The Belgian Prices Observatory, the European 'Food Prices Monitoring Tool' and the price monitoring in Germany were examined in more general terms using the literature, the internet and presentations to the 'High Level Forum for a better functioning Food Supply Chain'. In order to be able to compare properly, Dutch price monitoring was also described. In a literature study, it was ascertained on the basis of economic theory what transparency means for pricing and which new approaches - in addition to the more 'standard analyses' - are used to study price transmission.
    Beprijzen van water voor de landbouw
    Snellen, W.B. ; Hattum, T. van; Schipper, P.N.M. - \ 2012
    Amersfoort : Stowa
    landbouw - beregening - oppervlaktewater - watergebruik - kosten - marktregulaties - agriculture - overhead irrigation - surface water - water use - costs - market regulations
    Deze deltafact behandelt de achtergronden en mogelijkheden om water te beprijzen dat door de landbouw wordt gebruikt voor beregening. De nadruk hierbij ligt op het gebruik van oppervlaktewater en de haalbaarheid om water te beprijzen in tijden van watertekorten.
    A review of EU bio-economic models for fisheries: The value of a diversity of a diversity models
    Prellezo, R. ; Accadia, P. ; Andersen, J.L. ; Andersen, B.S. ; Buisman, F.C. ; Little, A. ; Nielsen, J.R. ; Poos, J.J. ; Powell, J.P. ; Rockmann, C. - \ 2012
    Marine Policy 36 (2012)2. - ISSN 0308-597X - p. 423 - 431.
    management - dynamics - costs
    The lessons learned from a review of thirteen existing European bio-economic models used in the evaluation of EU policies are presented. How these models compare and differ in terms of their biological and economic components, the integration between the components, which indicators are selected and how they are used, are described and analysed. The article concludes that the multitude of construction differences reflects the necessity of adapting the modelling approach to answer different questions. Since real life questions in fisheries are so diverse, answering them requires a diversity of models.
    The Impact of Trade Credit on Customer Switching Behaviour: Evidence from the Tanzanian Rice Market
    Hermes, N. ; Kihanga, E. ; Lensink, B.W. ; Lutz, C. - \ 2012
    Journal of Development Studies 48 (2012)3. - ISSN 0022-0388 - p. 363 - 376.
    costs - determinants - satisfaction - competition - retention - services - barriers - industry
    We use primary survey data to analyse the relationship between trade credit and customer switching in the context of trade transactions between wholesalers and retailers in the Tanzanian rice market. Results reveal a negative relation of trade credit and customer switching, that is, trade credit acts as a switching barrier; retailers are reluctant to move to another supplier if they depend on trade credit as a source of external finance. This interpretation fits with the underdeveloped financial markets in Tanzania, in which access to external finance is poor among rice retailers.
    AlgaeParc : Algae Production and Research Center Young Algaeneers symposium 15 June 2012
    Bosma, Rouke - \ 2012
    cropping systems - algae culture - costs - production costs - biomass production - biobased economy
    The financial and GHG cost of avoiding ILUC in biomass sourcing - a comparison between switchgrass produced with and without ILUC in Ukraine
    Lesschen, J.P. ; Elbersen, H.W. ; Poppens, R. ; Galytska, M. ; Kylik, M. ; Lerminiaux, L. - \ 2012
    indirecte veranderingen van landgebruik - kosten - panicum virgatum - brandstofgewassen - oekraïne - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - broeikasgassen - bio-energie - biobased economy - indirect land use change - costs - panicum virgatum - fuel crops - ukraine - sustainability - greenhouse gases - bioenergy - biobased economy
    Avoiding ILUC is becoming important. An important option is the use of land that would otherwise not be used for food or feed production. This generally means that lower quality or marginal land will be used. Switchgrass is one of the main perennial biomass crops that can produce high biomass yields under low input conditions and which can be established at low cost by seeds. In Ukraine this crop has in recent years been tested, yielding information that can be used to assess the cost and GHG balance of growing the crop, pelletizing, transport to the Netherlands and conversion into electricity. Results show that GHG emissions on low quality soil without ILUC are higher than for good quality soil grown switchgrass with ILUC. Analysis of the costs of growing switchgrass on low productive soils are 22% higher compared to high quality soils. It is concluded that ILUC avoidance needs to be quantified and rewarded.
    Can economic incentives encourage actual reductions in pesticide use and enfironmental spillovers
    Skevas, T. ; Spiro, A. ; Stefanou, S.E. ; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M. - \ 2012
    Agricultural Economics 43 (2012)3. - ISSN 0169-5150 - p. 267 - 276.
    damage control - productivity - econometrics - specification - netherlands - pollution - taxation - systems - costs
    Chemical pesticides constitute an important input in crop production. But their indiscriminate use can impact negatively agricultural productivity, human health, and the environment. Recently, attention is focused on the use of economic incentives to reduce pesticide use and its related indirect effects. The aim of this work is to assess the effectiveness of different economic instruments such as taxes and levies in encouraging farmers to decrease pesticide use and their environmental spillovers. A policy simulation model is employed using data from Dutch cash crop producers including two pesticide categories that differ in terms of toxicity and pesticides’ environmental spillovers. Four different instruments were selected for evaluation: pesticide taxes, price penalties on pesticides’ environmental spillovers, subsidies, and quotas. The results of the study indicate that even high taxes and penalties would result in a small decrease in pesticide use and environmental spillovers. Taxes that differentiate according to toxicity do not lead to substitution of high- with low-toxicity pesticides. Subsidies on low-toxicity products are not able to affect the use of high-toxicity products. Pesticide quotas are more effective in reducing pesticide use and environmental spillovers.
    Diverse alternatieven voor emissieloze substraatteelt (interview met Ellen Beerling en Jos Balendonck)
    Sleegers, J. ; Neefjes, H. ; Beerling, E.A.M. ; Balendonck, J. - \ 2012
    Vakblad voor de Bloemisterij 67 (2012)40. - ISSN 0042-2223 - p. 12 - 13.
    glastuinbouw - sierteelt - cultuur zonder grond - teeltsystemen - lozing - reductie - alternatieve methoden - kosten - greenhouse horticulture - ornamental horticulture - soilless culture - cropping systems - disposal - reduction - alternative methods - costs
    In 2027 wil de glastuinbouw nagenoeg emissieloos kunnen telen. Het project Glastuinbouw Waterproof heeft onderzocht of en hoe dat mogelijk is. Inmiddels kan de balans worden opgemaakt. Technisch gezien kan emissie in de meeste substraatteelten aanzienlijk omlaag. Kosten zijn redelijk behapbaar, blijkt na doorrekenen van diverse oplossingen.
    Framework for modelling economic impacts of invasive species, applied to pine wood nematode in Europe
    Soliman, T. ; Mourits, M.C.M. ; Werf, W. van der; Hengeveld, G.M. ; Robinet, C. ; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M. - \ 2012
    PLoS ONE 7 (2012)9. - ISSN 1932-6203
    bursaphelenchus-xylophilus - wilt disease - united-states - costs - dispersal - spread
    Background Economic impact assessment of invasive species requires integration of information on pest entry, establishment and spread, valuation of assets at risk and market consequences at large spatial scales. Here we develop such a framework and demonstrate its application to the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which threatens the European forestry industry. The effect of spatial resolution on the assessment result is analysed. Methodology/Principal Findings Direct economic impacts resulting from wood loss are computed using partial budgeting at regional scale, while impacts on social welfare are computed by a partial equilibrium analysis of the round wood market at EU scale. Substantial impacts in terms of infested stock are expected in Portugal, Spain, Southern France, and North West Italy but not elsewhere in EU in the near future. The cumulative value of lost forestry stock over a period of 22 years (2008–2030), assuming no regulatory control measures, is estimated at €22 billion. The greatest yearly loss of stock is expected to occur in the period 2014–2019, with a peak of three billion euros in 2016, but stabilizing afterwards at 300–800 million euros/year. The reduction in social welfare follows the loss of stock with considerable delay because the yearly harvest from the forest is only 1.8%. The reduction in social welfare for the downstream round wood market is estimated at €218 million in 2030, whereby consumers incur a welfare loss of €357 million, while producers experience a €139 million increase, due to higher wood prices. The societal impact is expected to extend to well beyond the time horizon of the analysis, and long after the invasion has stopped. Conclusions/Significance Pinewood nematode has large economic consequences for the conifer forestry industry in the EU. A change in spatial resolution affected the calculated directed losses by 24%, but did not critically affect conclusions
    Hogere energie- en onderhoudskosten voor bedrijven met melkrobot
    Jager, J.H. ; Everdingen, W.H. van - \ 2012
    Agri-monitor 2012 (2012)sept. - ISSN 1383-6455 - 3
    melkveehouderij - melkveehouderijsystemen - melkrobots - melkstandinrichtingen - kosten - bedrijfskosten - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - rendement - inkomsten uit het landbouwbedrijf - dairy farming - dairy farming systems - milking robots - milking parlours - costs - operating costs - farm management - returns - farm income
    De laatste jaren hebben veel melkveebedrijven in een nieuw melksysteem geïnvesteerd. De bedrijven die een melkrobot kochten, realiseren dezelfde kasstroom per 100 kg als de bedrijven die in een zij-aan-zijstal investeerden. Wel vallen ze op door hogere kosten voor onderhoud en energie. Bedrijven met een draaimelkstal zijn gemiddeld veel groter dan de andere twee groepen en hebben gemiddeld het hoogste inkomen uit bedrijf, ondanks de forse investeringen. De bedrijven met een zij-aan-zijmelkstal produceren relatief goedkoop en passen vaker dan gemiddeld weidegang toe.
    Medical innovation and age-specific trends in health care utilization: findings and implications
    Wong, A. ; Wouterse, B. ; Slobbe, L.C. ; Boshuizen, H.C. ; Polder, J.J. - \ 2012
    Social Science and Medicine 74 (2012)2. - ISSN 0277-9536 - p. 263 - 272.
    red herrings - expenditure - costs - population - insurance - services
    Health care utilization is expected to rise in the coming decades. Not only will the aggregate need for health care grow by changing demographics, so too will per capita utilization. It has been suggested that trends in health care utilization may be age-specific. In this paper, age-specific trends in health care utilization are presented for different health care sectors in the Netherlands, for the period 1981–2009. For the hospital sector we also explore the link between these trends and the state of medical technology. Using aggregated data from a Dutch health survey and a nationwide hospital register, regression analysis was used to examine age-specific trends in the probability of utilizing health care. To determine the influence of medical technology, the growth in age-specific probabilities of hospital care was regressed on the number of medical patents while adjusting for confounders related to demographics, health status, supply and institutional factors. The findings suggest that for most health care sectors, the trend in the probability of health care utilization is highest for ages 65 and up. Larger advances in medical technology are found to be significantly associated with a higher growth of hospitalization probability, particularly for the higher ages. Age-specific trends will raise questions on the sustainability of intergenerational solidarity in health care, as solidarity will not only be strained by the ageing population, but also might find itself under additional pressure as the gap in health care utilization between elderly and non-elderly grows over time. For hospital care utilization, this process might well be accelerated by advances in medical technology
    DYNAMO-HIA - A Dynamic Modelling tool for generic Health Impact Assessments
    Lhachimi, S.K. ; Nusselder, W.J. ; Smit, H.A. ; Baal, P. van; Bailli, P. ; Bennett, K. ; Fernández, E. ; Kulik, M.C. ; Lobstein, T. ; Pomerleau, J. ; Mackenbach, J.P. ; Boshuizen, H.C. - \ 2012
    PLoS ONE 7 (2012)5. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 11 p.
    standard tool - care - projection - costs
    Background Currently, no standard tool is publicly available that allows researchers or policy-makers to quantify the impact of policies using epidemiological evidence within the causal framework of Health Impact Assessment (HIA). A standard tool should comply with three technical criteria (real-life population, dynamic projection, explicit risk-factor states) and three usability criteria (modest data requirements, rich model output, generally accessible) to be useful in the applied setting of HIA. With DYNAMO-HIA (Dynamic Modeling for Health Impact Assessment), we introduce such a generic software tool specifically designed to facilitate quantification in the assessment of the health impacts of policies. Methods and Results DYNAMO-HIA quantifies the impact of user-specified risk-factor changes on multiple diseases and in turn on overall population health, comparing one reference scenario with one or more intervention scenarios. The Markov-based modeling approach allows for explicit risk-factor states and simulation of a real-life population. A built-in parameter estimation module ensures that only standard population-level epidemiological evidence is required, i.e. data on incidence, prevalence, relative risks, and mortality. DYNAMO-HIA provides a rich output of summary measures – e.g. life expectancy and disease-free life expectancy – and detailed data – e.g. prevalences and mortality/survival rates – by age, sex, and risk-factor status over time. DYNAMO-HIA is controlled via a graphical user interface and is publicly available from the internet, ensuring general accessibility. We illustrate the use of DYNAMO-HIA with two example applications: a policy causing an overall increase in alcohol consumption and quantifying the disease-burden of smoking. Conclusion By combining modest data needs with general accessibility and user friendliness within the causal framework of HIA, DYNAMO-HIA is a potential standard tool for health impact assessment based on epidemiologic evidence.
    Bedrijfsuitkomsten in de Nederlandse particuliere bosbouw over 2010
    Luijt, J. ; Voskuilen, M.J. - \ 2012
    Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (LEI-rapport, onderderzoeksveld Natuurlijke Hulpbronnen 2012-053) - ISBN 9789086155927 - 91
    bosbouw - particuliere bosbouw - bosbezit - kosten - rendement - nederland - forestry - private forestry - forest ownership - costs - returns - netherlands
    In deze rapportage wordt een overzicht gegeven van kosten, opbrengsten en bedrijfsresultaat van particuliere bosbedrijven in 2010. Dit wordt gedaan tegen de achtergrond van de ontwikkelingen in voorgaande jaren. Het is het zesendertigste rapport in een vanaf 1975 aaneengesloten reeks.
    Eierproductie duurder dan ooit
    Vermeij, I. ; Horne, P.L.M. van - \ 2012
    De Pluimveehouderij 42 (2012)8. - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 32 - 33.
    eierproductie - pluimveehouderij - eieren - huisvesting van kippen - landbouwprijzen - kosten - berekening - egg production - poultry farming - eggs - chicken housing - agricultural prices - costs - calculation
    De hogere voerprijzen laten de kostprijs van consumptie-eieren weer stijgen. Ten opzichte van twee jaar geleden (de vorige berekening) is de kostprijs ongeveer 10 procent hoger.
    Stapsgewijze selectie voor de ontwikkeling van biologische bestrijders van plantenpathogenen
    Postma, J. ; Köhl, J. - \ 2012
    Gewasbescherming 43 (2012)1. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 10 - 10.
    organismen ingezet bij biologische bestrijding - selectie - eigenschappen - kosten - biological control agents - selection - properties - costs
    Korte projectbeschrijving.
    Zuivering van dompelbadrestanten met de Sentinel
    Werd, H.A.E. de; Lans, A.M. van der; Roelofs, P.F.M.M. ; mestdagh, I. ; Hoop, M. D' - \ 2012
    Lisse : PPO Bloembollen en Bomen
    bloembollen - dompelbaden - ontsmettingsmiddelen - residuen van ontsmettingsmiddelen - waterkwaliteit - benodigde machines - gebruiksefficiëntie - kosten - ornamental bulbs - dips - disinfectants - disinfectant residuals - water quality - machinery requirements - use efficiency - costs
    Het doel van dit onderzoek is om het bloembollenbedrijfsleven en de KAVB in het bijzonder de kennis te geven waarmee zij kan beoordelen of zuivering van dompelbadrestanten met de Sentinel een reëel alternatief is, voor het geval het uitrijden van dompelbadrestanten in de toekomst geen werkbare oplossing meer zou zijn. Hiervoor is inzicht nodig in: - effectiviteit van zuivering met de Sentinel - het wettelijke kader waar bij gebruik van de Sentinel rekening gehouden dient te worden - kosten. Daarnaast is gevraagd de voor- en nadelen van biologische zuivering van dompelbadrestanten ten opzichte van zuivering met de Sentinel inzichtelijk te maken indien dat mogelijk is op basis van bestaande kennis.
    Analyse Nederlands statiegeldsysteem voor PET flessen : studie naar kosten, materiaalgebruik en energiegebruik van het Nederlandse statiegeldsysteem voor frisdrank- en waterflessen
    Thoden van Velzen, E.U. ; Bos-Brouwers, H.E.J. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research nr. 1316B) - ISBN 9789461732606 - 58
    flessen - afvalhergebruik - afvalbeheer - afvalverwerking - kosten - energiegebruik - verpakkingsmaterialen - recycling - nederland - bottles - waste utilization - waste management - waste treatment - costs - energy consumption - packaging materials - recycling - netherlands
    The Dutch deposit-refund system for large (>0.5 l) PET bottles has been analysed in terms of costs, material use and energy use. A process chain analysis has been conducted to quantify the costs, material usage and energy use of all process steps from the beverage industry to the RPET processor and all contributions that are uniquely linked to the deposit-refund system are revealed.
    An innovation systems approach to institutional change: Smallholder development in West Africa
    Hounkonnou, D. ; Kossou, D. ; Kuyper, T.W. ; Leeuwis, C. ; Nederlof, S. ; Roling, N. ; Sakyi-Dawson, O. ; Traoré, M. ; Huis, A. van - \ 2012
    Agricultural Systems 108 (2012). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 74 - 83.
    agricultural-research - perspective - intensification - environment - management - prices - costs - corn
    Sustainable intensification of smallholder farming is a serious option for satisfying 2050 global cereal requirements and alleviating persistent poverty. That option seems far off for Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) where technology-driven productivity growth has largely failed. The article revisits this issue from a number of angles: current approaches to enlisting SSA smallholders in agricultural development; the history of the phenomenal productivity growth in the USA, The Netherlands and Green Revolution Asia; and the current framework conditions for SSA productivity growth. This analysis shows that (1) the development of an enabling institutional context was a necessary condition that preceded the phenomenal productivity growth in industrial and Green Revolution countries; and that (2) such a context is also present for successful SSA export crop production, but that (3) the context is pervasively biased against SSA’s smallholder food production. The article traces the origins of technology supply push (TSP) as a dominant paradigm that hinders recognition of the role of enabling institutions. The article then reviews the literature on institutional change and zooms in on Innovation Platforms (IPs) as a promising innovation system approach to such change. We describe the concrete experience with IP in the Sub-Sahara Challenge Program (SSA-CP) and in the Convergence of Sciences: Strengthening Innovation Systems (CoS-SIS) Program. The former has demonstrated proof of concept. The latter is designed to trace causal mechanisms. We describe its institutional experimentation and research methodology, including causal process tracing. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Industrial clusters and social networks and their impact on the performance of micro- and small-scale enterprises: evidence from the handloom sector in Ethiopia
    Ali, M.A. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arie Oskam, co-promotor(en): Jack Peerlings. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461731272 - 175
    agrarische economie - industrie - clusters - sociale netwerken - kleine bedrijven - ondernemingen - weven - industrialisatie - financiën - welzijn - kosten - afrika - ethiopië - etniciteit - agricultural economics - industry - clusters - social networks - small businesses - enterprises - weaving - industrialization - finance - well-being - costs - africa - ethiopia - ethnicity

    This study empirically investigates how clustering and social networks affect the performance of micro- and small-scale enterprises by looking at the evidence from Ethiopia. By contrasting the performance of clustered micro enterprises with that of dispersed ones, it was first shown that clustering significantly increases profit. The increase in profit from clustering is found to be higher in urban than rural areas. It is also found that regional specific factors determining clustering of micro enterprises are different in urban and rural areas. Second, it is empirically shown that clustering eases the financial constraints of micro enterprises by lowering the capital entry barrier through the reduction of the initial investment required to start a business. This effect is significantly larger for enterprises investing in districts with high capital market inefficiency. Third, the impact of clustering on the entry and exit decisions of farm households into and from non-farm enterprises is examined. Clustering significantly increases the likelihood of entry and enhances the survival of rural enterprises. The impact of entry and exit on household’s well-being is further investigated. Entry into non-farm enterprises significantly increases household’s income and boosts their food security status, while exit from non-farm enterprises is found to significantly reduce household’s income. Finally, the role of ethnic ties on the performance of micro enterprises is investigated. The empirical results show that ethnic ties affect the performance of producers negatively, which implies that the positive effect of ethnic ties, through the reduction of transaction costs arising from market imperfections, does not outweigh the negative effects of closed social networks.

    Keywords: clustering, micro enterprises, industrialization, finance, entry, exit, well-being, ethnic ties, transaction cost, Africa, Ethiopia.

    Flexibiliteit in beheer van natuurgebieden : naar een beheerondersteunend instrument voor flexibiliteit in beheer met het oog op mogelijke gevolgen van klimaatverandering
    Oosterbaan, A. ; Massop, H.T.L. ; Paulissen, M.P.C.P. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2256) - 70
    natuurbeheer - klimaatverandering - habitats - kosten - natura 2000 - overijssel - zeeuwse eilanden - nature management - climatic change - habitats - costs - natura 2000 - overijssel - zeeuwse eilanden
    Om de mogelijkheden voor meer flexibiliteit in het beheer van natuurgebieden te onderzoeken is een systeem ontworpen dat bestaat uit vijf stappen. Hierbij wordt het gebied geanalyseerd, een risico- en gevoeligheidsanalyse uitgevoerd, het beheer geanalyseerd, mogelijkheden voor flexibiliteit in beheer bepaald en tenslotte de kosteneffectiviteit van mogelijke beheerscenario's ingeschat. Dit systeem is toegepast op twee gebieden; De Borkeld in Overijssel en de Kop van Schouwen in Zeeland.
    Marktwerking in het natuurbeleid vraagt om een ondernemende overheid
    Heide, C.M. van der; Selnes, T. - \ 2012
    natuurbeleid - financieren - kosten - marketing - beleidsevaluatie - nature conservation policy - financing - costs - marketing - policy evaluation
    Met het Natuurakkoord binnen handbereik, koerst het kabinet Rutte aan op een trendbreuk in het Nederlandse natuurbeleid. Er komt minder (Rijks)beleid en minder publieke financiering en vele taken worden overgedragen van Rijk naar provincies. Met deze stap hoopt het kabinet twee vliegen in een klap te slaan: de overheidsuitgaven worden minder belast en de uitvoering van het als star ervaren natuurbeleid wordt meer flexibel gemaakt, waarbij een grotere rol voor burgers, boeren en bedrijven is weggelegd. De Wageningse onderzoekers Van der Heide en Selnes stellen dat bij (meer) marktwerking in het natuurbeleid de overheid juist zeer actief moet zijn en – afhankelijk van welke natuur gewenst wordt – het beste als motto kan hanteren ‘privaat wat privaat kan, en publiek wat publiek moet’.
    Spatial variation of environmental impacts of regional biomass chains
    Hilst, F. van der; Lesschen, J.P. ; Dam, J.M.C. van; Riksen, M.J.P.M. ; Verweij, P.A. ; Sanders, J.P.M. ; Faaij, A. - \ 2012
    Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16 (2012)4. - ISSN 1364-0321 - p. 2053 - 2069.
    scale bioenergy production - energy crop cultivation - land-use - organic-matter - argentina part - water-use - biodiversity - miscanthus - costs - certification
    In this study, the spatial variation of potential environmental impacts of bioenergy crops is quantitatively assessed. The cultivation of sugar beet and Miscanthus for bioethanol production in the North of the Netherlands is used as a case study. The environmental impacts included are greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (during lifecycle and related to direct land use change), soil quality, water quantity and quality, and biodiversity. Suitable methods are selected and adapted based on an extensive literature review. The spatial variation in environmental impacts related to the spatial heterogeneity of the physical context is assessed using Geographical Information System (GIS). The case study shows that there are large spatial variations in environmental impacts of the introduction of bioenergy crops. Land use change (LUC) to sugar beet generally causes more negative environmental impacts than LUC to Miscanthus. LUC to Miscanthus could have positive environmental impacts in some areas. The most negative environmental impacts of a shift towards sugar beet and Miscanthus occur in the western wet pasture areas. The spatially combined results of the environmental impacts illustrate that there are several trade offs between environmental impacts: there are no areas were no negative environmental impacts occur. The assessment demonstrates a framework to identify areas with potential negative environmental impacts of bioenergy crop production and areas where bioenergy crop production have little negative or even positive environmental impacts
    Optimising the delivery of food allergy information. An assessment of food allergic consumer preferences for different information delivery formats
    Voordouw, J. ; Antonides, G. ; Cornelisse-Vermaat, J.R. ; Pfaff, S. ; Niemietz, D. ; Frewer, L.J. - \ 2012
    Food Quality and Preference 23 (2012)1. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 71 - 78.
    labeling preferences - self-efficacy - prevalence - communication - perspective - europe - health - impact - trust - costs
    In this study, the preferences of food allergic consumers for different prototype information delivery tools was examined, with the aim of improving informed product choices. Sixty-two self-reported food allergic participants from the Netherlands and Germany were included in the study. Each tested three prototype information delivery tools (a food label, a handheld electronic scanner, and an information booklet) to access allergy information. Participants rated each tool in terms of perceived convenience, usefulness and confidence. Principal Component Analysis indicated that convenience and usefulness loaded on one construct, namely functionality. The impact of information delivery tool and country on functionality and confidence was analysed with two repeated measures generalised linear models. The highest perceived functionality was found for the label. The electronic scanner was rated as the next most functional method to deliver information, followed by the booklet. Food allergic consumers were equally confident about using all three information delivery tools. The results have implications for developing new policies and legislation concerning information provision to food allergic consumers
    Wat gaat dat allemaal wel niet kosten? : Normenboek Natuur, Bos en Landschap: kostencalculatie voor groenaanleg
    Raffe, J.K. van; Jong, J.J. de - \ 2011
    Boomzorg 4 (2011)1. - p. 26 - 27.
    landscape - forest administration - management - work planning - nature management - costs - landscape management
    Sex-specific effects of increased incubation demand on innate immunity in black guillemots
    Berzins, L.L. ; Gilchrist, H.G. ; Matson, K.D. ; Burness, G. - \ 2011
    Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 84 (2011)2. - ISSN 1522-2152 - p. 222 - 229.
    clutch-size - reproductive effort - collared flycatcher - future reproduction - energy-expenditure - tree swallows - parus-major - great tits - trade-offs - costs
    Life-history theory predicts that there should be negative fitness consequences, in terms of future reproduction and survival, for parents with increased reproductive effort. We examined whether increased incubation demand affected innate immunity and body condition by performing a clutch-size manipulation experiment in black guillemots (Cepphus grylle). We found that plasma from males incubating experimentally enlarged clutches exhibited significantly reduced lysis titers compared with plasma from males incubating control clutches, while this was not observed in females. The increased incubation demand also impacted agglutination titers differently in males and females, although the effect of treatment was not significant in either sex. Among all birds, lysis titers increased and haptoglobin concentrations decreased from mid- to late incubation. Natural antibody-mediated agglutination titers and body condition were highly repeatable within the incubation bout and between years. This suggests that agglutination titers may serve as a reliable and resilient index of the immunological character of individuals in future studies. Overall, this study demonstrates that increased incubation demand impacts indices of innate immunity differently in males and females. The potential for different components of the immune system to be impacted sex-specifically should be considered in future studies linking immune function and life-history trade-offs.
    CO2-neutraal stoken met biomassa
    Animal Sciences Group (ASG), - \ 2011
    Lelystad : Animal Sciences Group
    bio-energie - biomassa - kachels - kosten - varkenshouderij - biobased economy - energieproductie in de landbouw - energiebesparing - bioenergy - biomass - stoves - costs - pig farming - biobased economy - agricultural energy production - energy saving
    Het gebruik van biomassa als brandstof kan financieel voordeel opleveren ten opzichte van het gebruik van aardgas. Wel heb je bij gebruik van alternatieve brandstoffen te maken met hogere investeringen in kachel en voorzieningen voor opslag en aanvoer van de brandstoffen. Of omschakelen naar een andere brandstof geld oplevert, hangt vooral af van de prijs van het beoogde alternatief en de ontwikkeling van de gasprijs.
    Exploring the influence of proximity to death on disease-specific hospital expenditures: a carpaccio of red herrings.
    Wong, A. ; Baal, P.H. van; Boshuizen, H.C. ; Polder, J.J. - \ 2011
    Health Economics 20 (2011)4. - ISSN 1057-9230 - p. 379 - 400.
    health-care expenditure - long-term-care - last year - longitudinal data - costs - life - age - population - models - time
    It has been demonstrated repeatedly that time to death is a much better predictor of health care expenditures than age. This is known as the ‘red herring’ hypothesis. In this article, we investigate whether this is also the case regarding disease-specific hospital expenditures. Longitudinal data samples from the Dutch hospital register (n=11¿253¿455) were used to estimate 94 disease-specific two-part models. Based on these models, Monte Carlo simulations were used to assess the predictive value of proximity to death and age on disease-specific expenditures. Results revealed that there was a clear effect of proximity of death on health care expenditures. This effect was present for most diseases and was strongest for most cancers. However, even for some less fatal diseases, proximity to death was found to be an important predictor of expenditures. Controlling for proximity to death, age was found to be a significant predictor of expenditures for most diseases. However, its impact is modest when compared to proximity to death. Considering the large variation in the degree to which proximity to death and age matter for each specific disease, we may speak not only of age as a ‘red herring’ but also of a ‘carpaccio of red herrings’
    Lungworm outbreaks in adult dairy cows: estimating economic losses and lessons to be learned
    Holzhauer, M. ; Schaik, G. van; Saatkamp, H.W. ; Ploeger, H.W. - \ 2011
    Veterinary Record 169 (2011)19. - ISSN 0042-4900
    virus serotype 8 - dictyocaulus-viviparus - cattle - infection - resistance - mastitis - immunity - costs - herds
    Two lungworm outbreaks in dairy herds were investigated in order to estimate the resulting economic costs. On the two farms, with 110 and 95 cows, total costs were estimated at (sic)159 and (sic)167 per cow, respectively. Overall, milk production reduced by 15 to 20 per cent during the outbreaks. Five cows died on one farm, while on the other farm seven cows died as a result of the lungworm outbreak. On one farm, 51.7 per cent of the total costs was due to reduced milk production and 33.1 per cent was due to disposal of dead animals. On the other farm, it was 36.3 and 50.9 per cent, respectively. The remaining 13 to 15 per cent of the total costs were due to extra inseminations, laboratory diagnosis and treatments. The history and development of the outbreaks are described. One lesson from these outbreaks is that recognising that potentially lungworm-naive animals are to be introduced into the adult herd allows for timely measures (for example, vaccination) to prevent a lungworm outbreak.
    Kostprijs bio-ei een derde cent gestegen
    Vermeij, I. - \ 2011
    De Pluimveehouderij 41 (2011)1. - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 36 - 37.
    biologische landbouw - pluimveehouderij - kosten - landbouwprijzen - eieren - organic farming - poultry farming - costs - agricultural prices - eggs
    De kostprijs van een biologisch ei valt in 2010 hoger uit dan in 2009. Door de overgang op het programma LegManager zit in de gebruikte technische kengetallen een kleine trendbreuk.
    Economische Berekeningen Pluimvee met smaak
    Vermeij, I. - \ 2011
    pluimveehouderij - huisvesting van kippen - dierenwelzijn - kosten - vleeskuikens - berekening - poultry farming - chicken housing - animal welfare - costs - broilers - calculation
    Er zijn twee concepten ontwikkeld: 1) Som der delen en 2) Winds of Change. Op basis van de concepten is een ruwe inschatting gemaakt van de kostprijs van kuikenvlees. Deze worden vergeleken met de kostprijs van reguliere vleeskuikenhouderij, zodat een indruk ontstaat van de meerprijs. Vanwege het feit dat het om concepten gaat die sterk afwijken van het gebruikelijke (daarom is het ook een innovatie) geeft deze kostprijsberekening slechts een indicatie en wordt ook een bandbreedte weergegeven.
    Kostenmodule Natuurplanner : functioneel ontwerp en software-validatie
    Raffe, J.K. van; Jong, J.J. de; Wamelink, G.W.W. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 217)
    natuurbeheer - natuur - kosten - modellen - biodiversiteit - financiën - nature management - nature - costs - models - biodiversity - finance
    De Natuurplanner (NP) is een computermodel waarmee de effecten op biodiversiteit worden doorgerekend van veranderingen in milieu, water, ruimtelijke samenhang en natuurbeheer. Om ook de financiële effecten van verschillende scenario’s voor natuurbeheer snel en efficiënt door te kunnen rekenen is de Kostenmodule NP ontwikkeld. Dit doorrekenen gebeurt in eerste instantie op gridniveau (250x250m) om vervolgens te aggregeren tot uitspraken op regionaal of landelijk niveau. Dit kan bijvoorbeeld van belang zijn als men wil overschakelen naar een goedkoper of een meer natuurlijk beheer. De module is getest voor vier scenario’s: natuurbeheer volgens de Index Natuur, Landschap & Recreatie (NLR) en een minder intensief beheer, beide gecombineerd met lage en hoge stikstofdepositie. De kostenmodule blijkt aan de verwachting te voldoen, maar een verdere aanpassing aan de nieuwe nationale beheertypenindeling (Index NL) is gewenst evenals een automatische koppeling aan de zgn. Databank Kostennormen zodat technisch-financiële wijzigingen direct doorwerken.
    Evaluatie van de nota Duurzame gewasbescherming; Deelrapport Economie
    Schoorlemmer, H.B. ; Spruijt, J. - \ 2011
    Lelystad : PPO AGV (PPO rapport 442) - 72
    geïntegreerde plagenbestrijding - gewasbescherming - pesticiden - overheidsbeleid - bedrijfseconomie - economische aspecten - kosten - toelating van bestrijdingsmiddelen - resistentie tegen pesticiden - nederland - integrated pest management - plant protection - pesticides - government policy - business economics - economic aspects - costs - authorisation of pesticides - pesticide resistance - netherlands
    projectnummer 3250152700
    Economic aspects of mastitis: New developments
    Hogeveen, H. ; Huijps, K. ; Lam, T.J.G.M. - \ 2011
    New Zealand Veterinary Journal 59 (2011)1. - ISSN 0048-0169 - p. 16 - 23.
    somatic-cell count - pasteurized fluid milk - subclinical mastitis - partial budget - dairy-cattle - clinical mastitis - simulation-model - bovine mastitis - shelf-life - costs
    Good udder health is not only important for the dairy farmer but, because of increasing interest of consumers in the way dairy products are produced, also for the dairy production chain as a whole. An important role of veterinarians is in advising on production diseases such as mastitis. A large part of this advice is given around the planning of management to maintain or improve the udder health status of a farm. Mastitis is a costly disease, due to losses (a reduction of output due to mastitis) and expenditure (additional inputs to reduce the level of mastitis). Worldwide, published estimates of the economic losses of clinical mastitis range from €61 to €97 per cow on a farm, with large differences between farms, e.g. in The Netherlands, losses due to clinical and subclinical mastitis varied between €17 and €198 per cow per year. Moreover, farmers tended to underestimate these costs. This indicates that for a large proportion of farms there are many avoidable losses. In order to provide good support to farmers' decision-making, it is important to describe the mastitis setting not only in terms of disease, e.g. incidence of clinical mastitis, but also in monetary terms; and to make good decisions, it is necessary to provide the dairy farmer with information on the additional expenditure and reduced losses associated with alternative decisions. Six out of 18 preventive measures were shown to have a positive nett benefit, viz blanket use of dry-cow therapy, keeping cows standing after milking, back-flushing of the milk cluster after milking a cow with clinical mastitis, application of a treatment protocol, washing dirty udders, and the use of milkers' gloves. For those measures that included a large amount of routine labour or investment, the reduced losses did not outweigh the additional expenditure. The advisor cannot expect that measures that are cost-effective are always implemented. Reasons for this are the objectives of the dairy farmer can be other than maximisation of profit, resources to improve the mastitis situation compete with other fields of management, risk involved with the decision, economic behaviour of the dairy farmer, and valuation of the cost factors by the dairy farmer. For all decision-makers this means that, although financial incentives do have an effect on the management of mastitis, it is not always sufficient to show the economic benefits of improved management to induce an improvement of management of mastitis.
    Factors Determining Awareness and Knowledge of Aquatic Invasive Species
    Eiswerth, M.E. ; Yen, S.T. ; Kooten, G.C. van - \ 2011
    Ecological Economics 70 (2011)9. - ISSN 0921-8009 - p. 1672 - 1679.
    management - perceptions - models - costs
    Public perceptions of invasive species may influence policies and programs initiated by public and private stakeholders. We investigate the determinants of the public's awareness and knowledge of invasive species as few studies have examined this relationship. We focus on aquatic invasive species (AIS) and employ survey data from property owners in a lake district. A major contribution is that we estimate a mixed trivariate binary-ordered probit regression model that accommodates correlations among unobserved characteristics, produces statistically more efficient estimates, and allows a more proper investigation of the probability of knowledge conditional on awareness. Our results provide insights for invasive species education and management programs. We find that individuals are more likely to be aware of AIS if they participate in water-based recreation, visit lakes outside their area, have a boat, belong to a lake association, or are college educated. This has a policy implication: Given high levels of AIS awareness by those most involved in activities around lakes and those with a higher education, it may be beneficial to target informational campaigns at those who do not display these characteristics, so that they can better make informed decisions about whether to support and expend money on invasive species management programs.
    Onkruidbestrijding in laanbomen vanuit economisch perspectief
    Snoek, A.J. ; Guiking, F.C.T. - \ 2011
    Boskoop : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving B.V.
    onkruidbestrijding - boomteelt - straatbomen - kosten - bedrijfseconomie - berekening - weed control - arboriculture - street trees - costs - business economics - calculation
    Onkruidbestrijding zorgt op veel bedrijven voor hoofdbrekens. Het kost veel tijd en middelen om het goed uit te voeren. De deelnemers van Telen met toekomst zoeken naar duurzame methoden voor onkruidbestrijding. Dat wil zeggen dat ze het onkruid op hun bedrijf niet alleen kosten-effectief, maar ook milieubewust willen aanpakken. De vraag is wat een milieuvriendelijker wijze van onkruidbestrijding kost. In dit artikel is zo’n andere aanpak van onkruidbestrijding economisch doorgerekend.
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