Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    The relationship between farmers’ participation in veterinary herd health management programs and farm performance
    Derks, M. ; Werven, T. van; Hogeveen, H. ; Kremer, W.D.J. - \ 2014
    Journal of Dairy Science 97 (2014)3. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 1336 - 1347.
    dutch dairy farmers - netherlands - mastitis - prevention - objectives - perception - attitudes - behavior - cattle - costs
    In the past few decades, farms have increased in size and the focus of management has changed from curative to preventive. To help farmers cope with these changes, veterinarians offer veterinary herd health management (VHHM) programs, whose major objective is to support the farmer in reaching his farm performance goals. The association between farm performance and participation in VHHM, however, remains unknown. The aim of this paper was to compare farm performance parameters between participants and nonparticipants in VHHM and to differentiate within participation to evaluate the possible added value of VHHM on the farm. Five thousand farmers received a questionnaire about the level of VHHM on their farm. Farm performance parameters of these 5,000 farms were provided. For all respondents (n = 1,013), farm performance was compared between participants and nonparticipants and within level of participation, using linear mixed and linear regression models. Farmers who participated in VHHM produced 336 kg of milk/cow per year more and their average milk somatic cell count (SCC) was 8,340 cells/mL lower than farmers who did not participate in VHHM. Participating herds, however, had an older age at first calving (+12 d), a lower 56-d nonreturn rate percentage (-3.34%), and a higher number of inseminations per cow (+0.09 inseminations). They also had more cows culled per year (+1.05%), and a lower age at culling (-70 d). Participants in the most-extended form of VHHM (level 3) had a lower SCC (-19,800 cells/mL), fewer cows with high SCC (-1.70%), fewer cows with new high SCC (-0.47%), a shorter calving interval (-6.01 d), and fewer inseminations per heifer (-0.07 inseminations) than participants in the least-extended form of VHHM (level 1). Level 3 participants, however, also had more cows culled per year (+1.74%) and a lower age at culling (-103 d). Discussing specific topics with the veterinarian (milk production, fertility, and udder health) had only marginal effects on improving the farm performance parameters related to those topics. Given the relevance of fertility on the farm and the focus on longevity by society, it is important to determine underlying reasons for the negative associations of these topics with participation in VHHM. A longitudinal study could provide answers to this. For now, veterinarians should be aware of the associations. The increased milk production and milk quality could help the marketing of VHHM to farmers.
    Efficiency of dairy farms participating and not participating in veterinary herd health management programs
    Derks, M. ; Hogeveen, H. ; Kooistra, S.R. ; Werven, T. van; Tauer, L.W. - \ 2014
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine 117 (2014)3-4. - ISSN 0167-5877 - p. 478 - 486.
    economic-efficiency - simulation-model - netherlands - inefficiency - perception - cattle - error - costs
    This paper compares farm efficiencies between dairies who were participating in a veterinary herd health management (VHHM) program with dairies not participating in such a program, to determine whether participation has an association with farm efficiency. In 2011, 572 dairy farmers received a questionnaire concerning the participation and execution of a VHHM program on their farms. Data from the questionnaire were combined with farm accountancy data from 2008 through 2012 from farms that used calendar year accounting periods, and were analyzed using Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA). Two separate models were specified: model 1 was the basic stochastic frontier model (output: total revenue; input: feed costs, land costs, cattle costs, non-operational costs), without explanatory variables embedded into the efficiency component of the error term. Model 2 was an expansion of model 1 which included explanatory variables (number of FTE; total kg milk delivered; price of concentrate; milk per hectare; cows per FTE; nutritional yield per hectare) inserted into the efficiency component of the joint error term. Both models were estimated with the financial parameters expressed per 100 kg fat and protein corrected milk and per cow. Land costs, cattle costs, feed costs and non-operational costs were statistically significant and positive in all models (P <0.01). Frequency distributions of the efficiency scores for the VHHM dairies and the non-VHHM dairies were plotted in a kernel density plot, and differences were tested using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov two-sample test. VHHM dairies had higher total revenue per cow, but not per 100 kg milk. For all SFA models, the difference in distribution was not statistically different between VHHM dairies and non-VHHM dairies (P values 0.94, 0.35, 0.95 and 0.89 for the basic and complete model per 100 kg fat and protein corrected milk and per cow respectively). Therefore we conclude that with our data farm participation in VHHM is not related to overall farm efficiency.
    Implementing REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation): evidence on governance, evaluation and impacts from the REDD-ALERT project
    Matthews, R.B. ; Noordwijk, M. van; Lambin, E. ; Meyfroidt, P. ; Gupta, J. ; Verschot, L. ; Hergoualc'h, K. ; Veldkamp, E. - \ 2014
    Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 19 (2014)6. - ISSN 1381-2386 - p. 907 - 925.
    land-use - agricultural intensification - environmental services - avoided deforestation - shifting cultivation - developing-world - food security - carbon - payments - costs
    Abstract The REDD-ALERT (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation from Alternative Land Uses in the Rainforests of the Tropics) project started in 2009 and finished in 2012, and had the aim of evaluating mechanisms that translate international-level agreements into instruments that would help change the behaviour of land users while minimising adverse repercussions on their livelihoods. Findings showed that some developing tropical countries have recently been through a forest transition, thus shifting from declining to expanding forests at a national scale. However, in most of these (e.g. Vietnam), a significant part of the recent increase in national forest cover is associated with an increase in importation of food and timber products from abroad, representing leakage of carbon stocks across international borders. Avoiding deforestation and restoring forests will require a mixture of regulatory approaches, emerging market-based instruments, suasive options, and hybrid management measures. Policy analysis and modelling work showed the high degree of complexity at local levels and highlighted the need to take this heterogeneity into account—it is unlikely that there will be a one size fits all approach to make Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+) work. Significant progress was made in the quantification of carbon and greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes following land-use change in the tropics, contributing to narrower confidence intervals on peat-based emissions and their reporting standards. There are indications that there is only a short and relatively small window of opportunity of making REDD+ work—these included the fact that forest-related emissions as a fraction of total global GHG emissions have been decreasing over time due to the increase in fossil fuel emissions, and that the cost efficiency of REDD+ may be much less than originally thought due to the need to factor in safeguard costs, transaction costs and monitoring costs. Nevertheless, REDD+ has raised global awareness of the world’s forests and the factors affecting them, and future developments should contribute to the emergence of new landscape-based approaches to protecting a wider range of ecosystem services. Keywords Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation . REDD+ . Indonesia . Vietnam. Cameroon . Peru . Peatlands . Carbon stocks .Greenhouse gases . GHGs
    Reconciling interests concerning wildlife and livestock near conservation areas: A model for analysing alternative land uses
    Chaminuka, P. ; Groeneveld, R.A. ; Ierland, E.C. van - \ 2014
    Ecological Economics 98 (2014). - ISSN 0921-8009 - p. 29 - 38.
    reserve network - southern africa - biodiversity - selection - policy - costs
    Land use decisions are central to both biodiversity conservation and rural development goals at local, national and international levels. Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs), now common in Southern Africa, present an opportunity to address these goals simultaneously. This paper proposes a theoretical spatial land allocation model that enables analysis of alternative scenarios for realising rural development and biodiversity conservation within TFCAs. The model includes socioeconomic and ecological factors such as income, fencing, connectivity, predation and disease costs and allows for clarification of opportunities and tradeoffs in land use. The model demonstrates alternative spatial options for diversification in land use, whilst accommodating the connectivity requirements and endogenous effects of wildlife on other land uses. The model is illustrated using several scenarios which include changes in key parameters, and limitations on total land allocated per land use. Illustrated scenarios show that land allocated to different land uses varies with output prices and costs such as fencing and wildlife damages, resulting in different spatial land use allocations. In addition, total revenue also changes when limitations are placed on land allocated to wildlife and tourism uses. The model can be used to reconcile interests where conservation and agricultural development activities compete for land.
    Synthese monitoring mestmarkt 2006-2012
    Koeijer, T.J. de; Luesink, H.H. ; Daatselaar, C.H.G. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 18)
    dierlijke meststoffen - markten - monitoring - landbouwtellingen - schattingen - aanbod - vraag - kosten - landbouw - nederland - animal manures - markets - monitoring - agricultural censuses - estimates - supply - demand - costs - agriculture - netherlands
    De aanvoer en afzet van dierlijke mest via de mestmarkt in Nederland zijn op verzoek van het ministerie van Economische Zaken (EZ) voor de periode 2006-2012 in beeld gebracht. Dit is gedaan op basis van analyses van de Vervoersbewijzen Dierlijke Mest (VDM’s) van (Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland) en op basis van modelberekeningen met MAMBO. Dit WOt-technical report geeft een synthese van de resultaten. Op basis van vergelijkbare meststromen is het aanbod op basis van de VDM’s 73 mln. kg fosfaat. Op basis van modelberekeningen is dit aanbod 74 mln. kg fosfaat. De afzet naar landbouwbedrijven vormt met 40% de belangrijkste afzetpost op de VDM’s. De overige afzetposten op de VDM’s zijn export (28%), verwerking (28%), particulieren (3%) en overige bestemmingen (1%)
    The economic power of the Golden Rice opposition
    Wesseler, J.H.H. ; Zilberman, D. - \ 2014
    Environment and Development Economics 19 (2014)6. - ISSN 1355-770X - p. 724 - 742.
    birth-weight - vitamin-a - health - uncertainty - benefits - growth - impact - costs - gm
    Vitamin A enriched rice (Golden Rice) is a cost-efficient solution that can substantially reduce health costs. Despite Golden Rice being available since early 2000, this rice has not been introduced in any country. Governments must perceive additional costs that overcompensate the benefits of the technology to explain the delay in approval. We develop a real option model including irreversibility and uncertainty about perceived costs and arrival of new information to explain a delay in approval. The model has been applied to the case of India. Results show the annual perceived costs have to be at least US$199 million per year approximately for the last decade to explain the delay in approval of the technology. This is an indicator of the economic power of the opposition towards Golden Rice resulting in about 1.4 million life years lost over the past decade in India.
    Strategies to reduce electricity consumption on dairy farms : an economic and environmental assessment
    Upton, J.R. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Imke de Boer; Peter Groot Koerkamp, co-promotor(en): L. Shalloo. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570771 - 171
    elektriciteit - energiegebruik - melkveehouderij - reductie - kosten - technologie - innovaties - economische analyse - milieutoets - electricity - energy consumption - dairy farming - reduction - costs - technology - innovations - economic analysis - environmental assessment

    The aim of this thesis was to assess how, and to what extent, do managerial and technology changes affect electricity consumption, associated costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of dairy farms. Dairy farms in Ireland are expected to expand in the future, due to policy incentives and the abolishment of European Union milk quotas in 2015, which will result in an increased use of resources such as land, water, and energy, and increased emissions to the environment. In order to develop strategies to reduce electricity consumption associated costs and GHG emissions, it was necessary to understand the consumption trends and the hot-spots of electricity consumption within the farm. Therefore, we performed a life cycle assessment by quantifying the energy use on 22 commercial Irish dairy farms, from cradle-to-farm-gate. This analysis demonstrated that a total of 31.7 MJ of energy was required to produce one kg of milk solids, of which 20% was direct and 80% was indirect energy use. Electricity consumption was found to represent 12% of total cradle-to-farm-gate energy use or 60% of direct energy, and was centered on milk harvesting. Following this analysis we devised two main groups of strategies, i.e. ‘cost strategies’ and ‘energy strategies’. ‘Cost strategies’ consisted of measures that could save on-farm costs but no energy or related emissions, such as, moving to a new electricity tariff or decoupling large electricity users, such as water heating, from milking times and shifting them to off-peak periods when electricity price is lower. Examples of ‘energy strategies’ are; the use of variable speed vacuum pumps on the milking machine, pre-cooling of milk and solar thermal technologies to provide hot water for cleaning purposes. A mechanistic model of electricity consumption that simulates farm equipment on an hourly and monthly basis was developed to further evaluate the ‘cost’ and ‘energy’ strategies. We used this model to show that a Day & Night electricity tariff minimised annual electricity costs, while a Flat tariff would increase the electricity costs by between 16% and 34%, depending on farm size. We also discovered that milking earlier in the morning and later in the evening reduced the simulated annual electricity consumption and related GHG emissions by between 5% and 7%, depending on farm size. An analysis of ‘energy strategies’ was carried out which revealed that that the ideal blend of technologies to maximise farm profitability while also reducing electricity consumption and GHG emissions, consisted of a direct expansion milk tank with pre-cooling of milk with well water to 15°C, electrical water heating and standard vacuum pumps. An individual farmer can also choose to increase his or her use of renewable energy by adding solar thermal water heating with the trade-off of reduced profitability and negative return on investment figures. This analysis highlighted the need for an investment appraisal approach to technology investments on dairy farms.

    Sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste
    Bing, X. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jack van der Vorst; Jacqueline Bloemhof-Ruwaard. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570870 - 205
    logistiek - huishoudens - afval - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - kunststoffen - modelleren - transport - kosten - logistics - households - wastes - sustainability - plastics - modeling - transport - costs

    Summary of the thesis titled “Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Household Plastic Waste”

    PhD Candidate: Xiaoyun Bing

    Recycled plastic can be used in the manufacturing of plastic products to reduce the use of virgin plastics material. The cost of recycled plastics is usually lower than that of virgin plastics. Therefore, it is environmentally and economically beneficial to improve the plastic recycling system to ensure more plastic waste from households is properly collected and processed for recycling.

    Plastic waste has a complex composition and is polluted, thus requires a substantial technical effort to separate the plastics from the waste and to sort these into recyclable materials. There are several alternatives in the existing collection methods (curb-side and drop-off) and separation methods (source separation and post-separation). It is challenging to select a suitable combination of these methods and to design a network that is efficient and sustainable. It is necessary to build a suitable, efficient and sustainable recycling network from collection to the final processor in order to provide solutions for different future scenarios of plastics household waste recycling. Decision support is needed in order to redesign the plastic waste reverse logistics so that the plastic waste recycling supply chain can be improved towards a more sustainable direction. To improve the efficiency in the recycling of plastic packaging waste, insights are required into this complex system. Insights solely on a municipal level are not sufficient, as the processing and end market are important for a complete network configuration. Therefore, we have investigated the problem at three levels: municipal, regional, and global. Decision support systems are developed based on optimization techniques to explore the power of mathematical modelling to assist in the decision-making process.

    This thesis investigates plastic waste recycling from a sustainable reverse logistics angle. The aim is to analyse the collection, separation and treatments systems of plastic waste and to propose redesigns for the recycling system using quantitative decision support models.

    We started this research project by identifying research opportunities. This was done through a practical approach that aimed to find future research opportunities to solve existing problems (Chapter 2). We started from a review of current municipal solid waste recycling practices in various EU countries and identified the characteristics and key issues of waste recycling from waste management and reverse logistics point of view. This is followed by a literature review regarding the applications of operations research. We conclude that waste recycling is a multi-disciplinary problem and that research opportunities can be found by considering different decision levels simultaneously. While analyzing a reverse supply chain for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) recycling, a holistic view and considering characteristics of different waste types are necessary.

    Municipal Level

    In Chapter 3, we aim to redesign the collection routes of household plastic waste and compare the collection options at the municipal level using eco-efficiency as a performance indicator. The collection problem is modeled as a vehicle routing problem. A tabu search heuristic is used to improve the routes. Scenarios are designed according to the collection alternatives with different assumptions in collection method, vehicle type, collection frequency, and collection points, etc. The results show that the source-separation drop-off collection scenario has the best performance for plastic collection, assuming householders take the waste to the drop-off points in a sustainable manner.

    In Chapter 4, we develop a comprehensive cost estimation model to further analyze the impacts of various taxation alternatives on the collection cost and environmental impact. This model is based on such variables as fixed and variable costs per vehicle, personnel cost, container or bag costs, as well as emission costs (using imaginary carbon taxes). The model can be used for decision support when strategic changes to the collection scheme of municipalities are considered. The model, which considers the characteristics of municipalities, including degree of urbanization and taxation schemes for household waste management, was applied to the Dutch case of post-consumer plastic packaging waste. The results showed that post-separation collection generally has the lowest costs. Curb-side collection in urban municipalities without residual waste collection taxing schemes has the highest cost. These results were supported by the conducted sensitivity analysis, which showed that higher source-separation responses are negatively related to curb-side collection costs.

    Regional Level

    Chapter 5 provides decision support for choosing the most suitable combination of separation methods in the Netherlands. Decision support is provided through an optimized reverse logistics network design that makes the overall recycling system more efficient and sustainable, while taking into account the interests of various stakeholders (municipalities, households, etc.). A mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model, which minimizes both transportation cost and environmental impact, is used to design this network. The research follows the approach of a scenario study; the baseline scenario is the current situation and other scenarios are designed with various strategic alternatives. Comparing these scenarios, the results show that the current network settings of the baseline situation is efficient in terms of logistics, but has the potential to adapt to strategic changes, depending on the assumptions regarding availability of the required processing facilities to treat plastic waste. In some of the tested scenarios, a separate collection channel for polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles is cost-efficient and saves carbon emission. Although the figures differ depending on the choices in separation method made by municipalities, our modeling results of all the tested scenarios show a reduction in carbon emissions of more than 25 percent compared to the current network.

    Chapter 6 studies a plastic recycling system from a reverse logistics angle and investigates the potential benefits of a multimodality strategy to the network design of plastic recycling. The aim was to quantify the impact of multimodality in the network in order to provide decision support for the design of more sustainable plastic recycling networks in the future. A MILP model is developed in order to assess different plastic waste collection, treatment, and transportation scenarios. A baseline scenario represents the optimized current situation, while other scenarios allow multimodality options (barge and train) to be applied. With our input parameter settings, results show that transportation costs contribute to approximately 7 percent of the total costs, and multimodality can help reduce transportation costs by almost 20 percent (CO_2-eq emissions included). In our illustrative case with two plastic separation methods, the post-separation channel benefits more from a multimodality strategy than the source-separation channel. This relates to the locations and availability of intermediate facilities and the quantity of waste transported on each route.

    Global Level

    After the regional network redesign, Chapter 7 shows a global network redesign. The aim of this chapter was to redesign a reverse supply chain from a global angle based on a case study conducted on household plastic waste distributed from Europe to China. Emissions trading restrictions are set on processing plants in both Europe and China. We used a mixed-integer programming model in the network optimization to decide on location reallocation of intermediate processing plants under such restrictions, with the objective of maximizing total profit under Emission Trading Schemes (ETS). Re-locating facilities globally can help reduce the total cost. Once carefully set, ETS can function well as incentive to control emissions in re-processors. Optimization results show that relocating re-processing centers to China reduces total costs and total transportation emissions. ETS applied to re-processors further helps to reduce emissions from both re-processors and the transportation sector. Carbon caps should be set carefully in order to be effective. These results give an insight in the feasibility of building a global reverse supply chain for household plastic waste recycling and demonstrate the impact of ETS on network design. The results also provide decision support for increasing the synergy between the policy for global shipping of waste material and the demand of recycled material.


    Chapter 8 summarizes the findings from chapters 2 to 7 and provides brief answers to the research questions. Beyond that, the integrated findings combine the results from different decision levels and elaborate the impacts of various system characteristics and external factors on the decision making in order to achieve an improved sustainable performance. Main findings are:

    Regarding the impact of carbon cost, the results from different chapters are consistent in terms that emission cost is only a small part of the total cost, even when carbon cost is set at its historically highest figure. When carbon price is set to a different value, impact of carbon cost on the change of optimization results is higher on the upstream of the reverse supply chain for plastic waste than the downstream.In Emission Trading scheme (ETS), carbon cap has a larger impact on eco-efficiency performance of the global network than carbon price.On one decision level, models can help to find the ``best option". For example, in the collection phase, the average total collection costs per ton of plastic waste collected for source-separation municipalities are more than twice of the post-separation municipalities' collection costs due to the frequent stops made and idling time at each stop. From the regional network perspective, post-separation scenarios have higher costs and environmental impact than source separation due to the limited number of separation centers compared to the numerous cross-docking sites for source-separation. When combining decision levels, however, it is difficult to find one ``best option" that fits all, as there are contradictory results when looking at the same factor from different decision levels. Through decision support models, we provided clear insights into the trade-offs and helped to quantify the differences and identify key factors to determine the differences.Population density differences in various municipalities influence the performance of curbside collection more than drop-off collection.

    This information is valuable for decision makers to consider in the decision making process. Finally, managerial insights derived from sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste are summarized in conclusion section.

    Cisgenese drukt kosten phytophthorabestrijding
    Kessel, G.J.T. - \ 2014
    Boerderij 99 (2014)49. - ISSN 0006-5617 - p. 61 - 61.
    akkerbouw - aardappelen - gewasbescherming - genetische gewasbescherming - resistentie van variëteiten - phytophthora infestans - plantenveredeling - cisgenese - kosten - opbrengst - veldproeven - arable farming - potatoes - plant protection - genetic control - varietal resistance - phytophthora infestans - plant breeding - cisgenesis - costs - outturn - field tests
    Wageningen UR test op aardappelen die via cisgenese zijn voorzien van een of meer genen, die ze beter bestand maken tegen phytophthora. Bij cisgenese worden soorteigen genen uit wilde aardappelplanten gebruikt. (Bij transgenese gaat het om soortvreemde genen.)
    Demo rekentool KWIN
    Livestock Research, - \ 2014
    Wageningen UR Livestock Research
    veehouderij - meetinstrumenten - berekening - kostenanalyse - economie van de veehouderij - rundveehouderij - varkenshouderij - pluimveehouderij - kosten - rundvee - varkens - pluimvee - livestock farming - indicating instruments - calculation - cost analysis - livestock economics - cattle husbandry - pig farming - poultry farming - costs - cattle - pigs - poultry
    Deze korte video toont de mogelijkheden van de modules in de rekentool.
    Economische evaluatie 2011-2012, Bodemkwaliteit op Zandgrond
    Spruijt, J. ; Haan, J.J. de - \ 2014
    akkerbouw - bemesting - bodemkwaliteit - opbrengsten - kosten - maïs - preien - aardappelen - grondbewerking - onkruidbestrijding - teeltsystemen - arable farming - fertilizer application - soil quality - yields - costs - maize - leeks - potatoes - tillage - weed control - cropping systems
    Voor het project Bodemkwaliteit op zandgrond worden de opbrengst en de kosten vergeleken van handmatig wieden tegenover grondbewerking tegen onkruid. Bemesten met drijfmest tegenover meststoffen en NKG (niet kerende grondbewerking) tegenover ploegen.
    JONKOS - Rekenprogramma om opfokkosten jongvee te berekenen
    Evers, A.G. ; Haan, M.H.A. de - \ 2014
    Verantwoorde veehouderij
    rundvee - kalveren - jonge dieren - dierlijke productie - kosten - dierveredeling - berekening - cattle - calves - young animals - animal production - costs - animal breeding - calculation
    Download of open hieronder de spreadsheet van het bedrijfstype dat u door wilt rekenen door erop te klikken. Vul in de spreadsheet de gele cellen van de hoofdpagina in. Zo berekent u de kosten voor jongveeopfok van uw bedrijf.
    De verkoop van vlees van eigen dieren
    Vijn, M.P. ; Alebeek, F.A.N. van; Voort, M.P.J. van der; Boxtel, M. van; Schoutsen, M.A. - \ 2014
    Lelystad : PPO AGV (PPO rapport 611) - 35
    multifunctionele landbouw - boerderijwinkels - vleeswaren - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - ondernemerschap - streekgebonden producten - rundveehouderij - rundvlees - verse producten - nevenactiviteiten - kosten - multifunctional agriculture - on-farm sales - meat products - farm management - entrepreneurship - regional specialty products - cattle husbandry - beef - fresh products - ancillary enterprises - costs
    De onderzoeksvraag is hoe bestaande bedrijven het concept ‘verkoop van vlees van eigen dieren’ toepassen, wat de financiële haalbaarheid ervan is, en wat de succes- en faalfactoren en randvoorwaarden zijn. Als afbakening is gekozen voor de verkoop van vlees van eigen runderen. Omdat dit onderzoek gaat over versproducten wordt ingezoomd op de verkoop van vers vlees.
    Short Communication: Effectiveness of tools provided by a dairy company on the udder health of Dutch dairy farms.
    Steeneveld, W. ; Velthuis, A.G.J. ; Hogeveen, H. - \ 2014
    Journal of Dairy Science 97 (2014)3. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 1529 - 1534.
    somatic-cell count - mastitis control program - bulk tank milk - management-practices - risk-factors - quality - netherlands - costs
    A Dutch dairy company initiated a quality system to support dairy farmers to improve sustainability on their farm. Improvement of udder health is defined by the dairy company as one of the sustainability items. A part of that quality system is to offer farmers 3 tools to improve the udder health status of the herd. The first tool is an Udder Health Workshop at which farmers make a farm-specific action plan to improve the udder health situation in their herd. The second tool is the Udder Health Navigator, which is an internet-based program to gain insight in the actual udder health situation at the farm. The third tool is the Udder Health Checklist, which is available on the internet and it identifies farmspecific risks for udder health problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of these tools in improving udder health. The bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) was used as the measure of herd udder health performance. In total, 605 farms attended the Udder Health Workshop, 988 farms completed the Udder Health Navigator, and 1,855 farms completed the Udder Health Checklist in 2012. Information on BMSCC records (2 records per month) was available for 12,782 Dutch dairy farms during the years 2011 and 2012. For every farm, the average BMSCC of all months during the years 2012 and 2011 were calculated. This resulted in 306,768 average monthly observations of the BMSCC. Subsequently, all months after the completion of one of the tools were assigned a 1, and all other months were assigned a 0. A statistical analysis was carried out to compare the average monthly BMSCC of the farms that completed one or more tools with farms that did not complete one of the tools. Both completing the Udder Health Navigator and the Udder Health Checklist had a significant association with a lower average monthly BMSCC. The effect of the Udder Health Navigator and Udder Health Checklist on the BMSCC were greater in herds with a BMSCC in 2011 of 200,000 to 250,000 cells/mL and even greater for herds with a BMSCC above 250,000 cells/mL compared with herds with a BMSCC in 2011 of 150,000 to 200,000 cells/mL or less than 150,000 cells/mL. It is difficult to draw conclusions on the effect of the Udder Health Workshop due to overlap in participation between the tools. The results suggest that completing the web tools is associated with a reduction in the BMSCC of the herd.
    Livelihood roles of cattle and prospects for alternative land uses at the wildlife/livestock interface in South Africa
    Chaminuka, P. ; Udo, H.M.J. ; Eilers, C.H.A.M. ; Zijpp, A.J. van der - \ 2014
    Land Use Policy 38 (2014). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 80 - 90.
    benefits - livestock - policy - conservation - management - valuation - poverty - systems - costs - areas
    The emergence of wildlife ranching as an alternative land use option to agriculture, in Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs), has cast renewed interest on the role of cattle farming in rural livelihoods in areas close to wildlife parks. This study analysed the contribution of cattle to livelihoods and relationships between cattle and potential wildlife land uses in rural areas near Kruger National Park. Data were collected through household surveys, key informant interviews and community workshops. About 11% of households studied owned cattle, and cattle income constituted 29% of total household income. Benefits from cattle were also derived by households without cattle. About 71% of households had at least three sources of income, reflecting diversity of livelihoods. Wildlife related land uses were perceived by some households as threatening cattle production, whilst others viewed them as opportunities for alternative livelihoods. We conclude that cattle production has important livelihood roles, but is not sufficient as a driver of economic development in these areas. Incentives to encourage diversification of livelihoods at the wildlife/livestock interface, with possibilities for rural communities to explore wildlife based land uses should be put in place. In addition, land use policy and planning in such areas should focus on creating institutional mechanisms through which programmes integrating conservation and rural development goals can benefit rural communities
    A New Decision Support Framework for Managing Foot-and-mouth Disease Epidemics
    Ge, L. ; Kristensen, A.R. ; Mourits, M.C.M. ; Huirne, R.B.M. - \ 2014
    Annals of Operations Research 219 (2014)1. - ISSN 0254-5330 - p. 49 - 62.
    hierarchical markov-processes - eradication - prevention - costs - fmd
    Animal disease epidemics such as the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) pose recurrent threat to countries with intensive livestock production. Efficient FMD control is crucial in limiting the damage of FMD epidemics and securing food production. Decision making in FMD control involves a hierarchy of decisions made at strategic, tactical, and operational levels. These decisions are interdependent and have to be made under uncertainty about future development of the epidemic. Addressing this decision problem, this paper presents a new decision-support framework based on multi-level hierarchic Markov processes (MLHMP). The MLHMP model simultaneously optimizes decisions at strategic, tactical, and operational levels, using Bayesian forecasting methods to model uncertainty and learning about the epidemic. As illustrated by the example, the framework is especially useful in contingency planning for future FMD epidemics
    Hoving, Idse - \ 2013
    precision agriculture - arable farming - humidity gauges - sensors - roots - crop growth stage - pf-curve - overhead irrigation - irrigation - costs - fodder crops - cost benefit analysis
    Macro-economic impact of large-scale deployment of biomass resources for energy and materials on a national level-A combined approach for the Netherlands
    Hoefnagels, R. ; Banse, M.A.H. ; Dornburg, V. ; Faaij, A. - \ 2013
    Energy Policy 59 (2013). - ISSN 0301-4215 - p. 727 - 744.
    biofuel mandates - land-use - emissions - bioenergy - ethanol - balance - europe - costs
    Biomass is considered one of the most important options in the transition to a sustainable energy system with reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increased security of enegry supply. In order to facilitate this transition with targeted policies and implementation strategies, it is of vital importance to understand the economic benefits, uncertainties and risks of this transition. This article presents a quantification of the economic impacts on value added, employment shares and the trade balance as well as required biomass and avoided primary energy and greenhouse gases related to large scale biomass deployment on a country level (the Netherlands) for different future scenarios to 2030. This is done by using the macro-economic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model LEITAP, capable of quantifying direct and indirect effects of a bio-based economy combined with a spread sheet tool to address underlying technological details. Although the combined approach has limitations, the results of the projections show that substitution of fossil energy carriers by biomass, could have positive economic effects, as well as reducing GHG emissions and fossil energy requirement. Key factors to achieve these targets are enhanced technological development and the import of sustainable biomass resources to the Netherlands. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Pretreatment of lignocellulose for biotechnological production of lactic acid
    Harmsen, P.F.H. ; Lips, S.J.J. ; Bakker, R.R.C. - \ 2013
    Wageningen UR FBR (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1384, public version) - ISBN 9789461736079 - 104
    voorbehandeling - biomassaconversie - lignocellulose - melkzuur - bioproceskunde - technologie - suikerriet - kosten - kostenanalyse - biobased economy - pretreatment - biomass conversion - lignocellulose - lactic acid - bioprocess engineering - technology - sugarcane - costs - cost analysis - biobased economy
    The breakdown of biomass in pretreatment facilitates enzymatic hydrolysis by disrupting cell wall structures, driving lignin into solution or modification of the lignin structure, and reducing cellulose crystallinity and chain length, while preventing hydrolysis of cellulose. In an ideal situation the pretreatment leads to high yields of fermentable sugars with a limited formation of degradation products that inhibit enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation to lactic acid, while remaining cost effective. This review deals with these challenges by providing information on available pretreatment technologies in general (chapter 3), and more specific on pretreatment of the model feedstock sugarcane bagasse (chapter 4). Techno economic studies are described in chapter 5 with the NREL study from 2011 as benchmark. This review starts with characteristics of lignocellulosic biomass in relation to compostion and formation of inhibitors.
    Databank Gemeentelijk Groenbeheer geeft inzicht: Hoe doet de buurman dat?
    Hop, M.E.C.M. ; Spijker, J. - \ 2013
    Vitale Groene Stad 2013 (2013)2. - p. 40 - 41.
    openbaar groen - kosten - groenbeheer - budgetten - kennisoverdracht - public green areas - costs - management of urban green areas - budgets - knowledge transfer
    De crisis gaat ook aan het gemeentelijk groen niet ongemerkt voorbij. Beheerafdelingen proberen het gemeentelijk groen zo goed mogelijk te beheren met afnemende budgetten. Moet je bezuinigen op groen, dan is het handig om te weten wat realistische mogelijkheden daarvoor zijn. Een kijkje in de keuken bij andere gemeenten kan zeer verhelderend werken.
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