Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    The neurotoxin BMAA in aquatic systems : analysis, occurrence and effects
    Faassen, E.J. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Marten Scheffer, co-promotor(en): Miguel Lurling. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577855 - 194
    cum laude - neurotoxins - aquatic environment - urban areas - effects - environmental impact - daphnia magna - elisa - water quality - analytical methods - aquatic ecology - neurotoxinen - aquatisch milieu - stedelijke gebieden - effecten - milieueffect - daphnia magna - elisa - waterkwaliteit - analytische methoden - aquatische ecologie

    Eutrophication is a major water quality issue and in many aquatic systems, it leads to the proliferation of toxic phytoplankton species. The neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is one of the compounds that can be present in phytoplankton. BMAA has been suggested to play a role in the neurodegenerative diseases Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, although this hypothesis still needs to be confirmed. It is expected that the main human exposure pathways to BMAA are through direct contact with BMAA containing phytoplankton and through ingestion of BMAA contaminated food, such as fish and shellfish. However, reports on the occurrence of BMAA in aquatic systems have been conflicting and the cause of these reported differences was heavily debated. The use of different analytical methods seems to play a crucial role in the observed discrepancies, but initially, there was little consensus on which method produced most reliable results. The objectives of the work presented in this thesis therefore were to find out what has caused the differences in published results on BMAA concentrations, and to identify and produce reliable data on the presence of BMAA in aquatic systems. In addition, I aimed to determine the effect of BMAA exposure on a key species in many freshwater ecosystems, the grazer Daphnia magna.

    The performances of different analytical techniques were compared, and LC-MS/MS analysis, either preceded by derivatisation or not, was found to produce most reliable results. LC-FLD and ELISA should not be used for BMAA analysis, as both methods risk misidentifying BMAA or overestimating its concentrations due to their low selectivity. When reviewing literature on the presence of BMAA in aquatic systems, it was found that the observed discrepancies in results could be explained by the use of unselective analytical methods in some studies, and by severe reporting deficiencies in others. When only studies that used appropriate analytical techniques and that correctly reported their work were taken into account, it was shown that BMAA could be present in phytoplankton and higher aquatic organisms, in concentrations of µg/g dry weight or lower. These results are in agreement with our findings of BMAA in cyanobacterial scums from Dutch urban waters. In a 2008 screening, BMAA was found to be present in 9 out of 21 analysed cyanobacterial scums, at concentrations ranging from 4 to 42 µg/g dry weight. When this screening was repeated 8 years later with 52 similar samples, BMAA was detected below the quantification limit in one sample and quantified in another sample at 0.6 µg/g dry weight.

    In order to perform the work presented in this thesis, sensitive and selective analytical methods, mostly based on LC-MS/MS analysis without derivatisation, were developed. This resulted in a standard operating procedure for the underivatised LC-MS/MS analysis of BMAA in cyanobacteria. Also, a CYANOCOST initiated workshop was given, in which a group of scientists from 17 independent laboratories evaluated LC-MS/MS based methods in different matrices. A bound BMAA from found in the supernatant was the most abundant fraction in the positive samples that were tested: cycad seed, seafood and exposed D. magna. In addition, it was found that the deuterated internal standard used for quantification was not a good indicator for the release of BMAA from bound forms, resulting in unprecise quantification of total BMAA.

    BMAA was found to reduce survival, somatic growth, reproduction and population growth in D. magna. Animals did not adapt to BMAA exposure: exposed animals born from exposed mothers had a lower brood viability and neonate weight than animals exposed to BMAA, but born from unexposed mothers. In addition, D. magna was shown to take up BMAA from the growth medium and to transfer it to its offspring. D. magna therefore might be an important vector for BMAA transfer along the pelagic food chain, but whether BMAA plays a role in preventing zooplankton from controlling cyanobacterial blooms needs further investigation.

    Although BMAA research has much progressed between the start of this thesis’ work and its completion, some important questions still require an answer. Most urgently, it should be determined whether BMAA is indeed involved in the neurological diseases mentioned above, and if so, which doses trigger the onset of these diseases. Human exposure pathways should then be more systematically quantified, and it might be prudent to investigate if the occurrence of BMAA is restricted to aquatic systems, or whether sources from terrestrial systems contribute to BMAA exposure as well.

    Feed sources for livestock : recycling towards a green planet
    Zanten, H.H.E. van - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Imke de Boer, co-promotor(en): Paul Bikker; Bastiaan Meerburg. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578050 - 251
    cum laude - livestock - livestock feeding - feeds - resources - food wastes - leftovers - recycling - greenhouse gases - environmental impact - innovations - sustainable animal husbandry - animal production - vee - veevoeding - voer - hulpbronnen - voedselafval - etensresten - recycling - broeikasgassen - milieueffect - innovaties - duurzame veehouderij - dierlijke productie

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way. Current levels of production of especially animal-source food (ASF), pose severe pressure on the environment via their emissions to air, water, and soil; and their use of scarce resources, such as land, water, and fossil energy. The livestock sector, for example, is responsible for about 15% of the global anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and uses about 70% of global agricultural land.

    Many proposed mitigation strategies to feed the world sustainably, therefore, focus primarily on reducing the environmental impact of the livestock sector, so-called production-side strategies. Other strategies focus on changing consumption patterns by reducing consumption of ASF, or on shifting from ASF with a higher environmental impact (e.g. beef) to ASF with a lower environmental impact (e.g. pork or chicken), so called consumption-side strategies.

    Most of the environmental impact of production of ASF is related to production of feed. One production-side strategy to reduce the environmental impact is the use of products that humans cannot or do not want to eat, such as co-products, food-waste, and biomass from marginal lands for livestock feed (referred to as ‘leftover streams’ in this thesis). This strategy is effective, because feeding leftover streams to livestock transforms an inedible food stream into high-quality food products, such as meat, milk, and eggs.

    Two production-side strategies that use leftover streams as livestock feed were explored in this thesis: replacing soybean meal (SBM) in diets of growing pigs with either rapeseed meal (RSM) or with waste-fed larvae meal. Replacing SBM with RSM in growing-pig diets was assessed because RSM became increasingly available following an increase in bio-energy production in the EU. In this strategy, therefore, the RSM content in pig diets increased at the expense of SBM. SBM is an ingredient associated with a high environmental impact. It was expected, therefore, that replacing SBM with RSM in pig diets would lead to a decrease in the environmental impact of pork production. Replacing SBM with waste-fed larvae meal was assessed because recent developments show the environmental benefits of rearing insects as livestock feed. Insects have a low feed conversion ratio (kg feed/kg product) and can be consumed completely, without residual materials, such as bones or feathers. The nutritional value of insects is high, especially as a protein source for livestock. Insect-based feed products, therefore, can replace conventional feed ingredients, such as SBM. Altogether this strategy suggests that waste-fed larvae meal might become an important alternative feed source in the future.

    To gain insight into the status quo of the environmental impact of both mitigation strategies, replacing SBM with RSM or with waste-fed insects, we first used the attributional life cycle assessment (ALCA) method. Based on the ALCA method, results showed that each mitigation strategy was promising. Replacing SBM with RSM in growing pig diets hardly changed either global warming potential (GWP) or energy use (EU), but decreased land use (LU) up to 16% per kg body weight gain. As expected, feed production had the largest environmental impact, responsible for about 50% of the GWP, 60% of the EU, and 77% of the total LU. Feed production in combination with feed intake, were the most sensitive parameters; a small change in both these two parameters changed the results. Replacing SBM with waste-fed larvae meal in growing-pig diets showed that EU hardly changed, but GWP (29%) and LU (54%) decreased per kg body weight gain. Based on ALCA results, each mitigation strategy, therefore, seems to offer potential to reduce the environmental impact of pork production. An ALCA, however, has two disadvantages: it does not account for product-packages and it does not consider feed-food competition.

    The first disadvantage of ALCA was that the complexity of dealing with product-packages is not fully considered. ‘Product-package’ refers to a multiple-output situation. During the processing of sugar beet, for example, beet-pulp and molasses are produced in addition to sugar. Sugar, beet-pulp, and molasses together form a ‘package of products’ because they cannot be produced independently from each other. An ALCA does not account for the fact that the production volume of the co-product(s) depends on the demand for the determining product (e.g. sugar), which results in the limited availability of co-products. Increasing the use of co-products in animal feed, consequently, results in reducing use of a co-product in another sector, requiring them to be replaced with a different product. The environmental impact of increasing the use of a co-product or food-waste, therefore, depends on the net environmental impact. The net environmental impact refers to the environmental benefits of using the product in its new application minus the environmental cost of replacing the product in its old application.

    A consequential theoretical framework was developed to account for product-packages. The results, based on the consequential framework, contradicted standard ALCA results. The consequential LCA (CLCA) method we used for replacing SBM with RSM showed an increased GWP (up to 15%), EU (up to 12%), and LU (up to 10%) per kg body weight gain. Moreover, this CLCA method showed that replacing SBM with waste-fed larvae meal increased GWP (60%) and EU (90%), but decreased LU (73%) per kg body weight gain.

    Accounting for product-packages increased the net environmental impact of each strategy, replacing SBM with RSM or with waste-fed larvae meal. The difference in results between ALCA and CLCA was especially large in the strategy with waste-fed larvae meal. The difference was caused mainly by the use of food-waste. Food-waste fed to larvae was used initially to produce bio-energy via anaerobic digestion. In CLCA, the environmental impact related to replacing the bio-energy function of food-waste with fossil-energy was included. The net environmental impact became negative, because environmental benefits of replacing SBM with waste-fed larvae meal were less than environmental costs related to the marginal energy source, i.e. fossil energy, replacing the bio-energy. Results of the indirect environmental impact, however, are situation specific: if the marginal energy source were wind or solar energy, the net environmental impact of using waste-fed larvae meal might be positive. Waste-fed larvae meal, therefore, appears to be an interesting mitigation strategy only when energy from wind and solar energy are used more dominantly than energy from fossil sources.

    If results were based solely on ALCA, then these potentially negative impacts would have been overlooked. Consideration of the environmental consequences of product-packaging, therefore, is essential to determine total environmental costs. If policy makers or the feed industry want to assess the net environmental impact of a potential mitigation strategy, then we recommend to perform a CLCA instead of an ALCA. The framework developed in this thesis can be used to perform such an assessment.

    The second disadvantage of an LCA was that it does not take into account feed-food competition, e.g. competition for land between humans and animals. Most LCA studies focus on the total amount of land required to produce one kg ASF. LCA studies do not account for competition for land between humans and animals, or so-called feed-food competition. In other words, they do not include, differences in the consumption of human-edible products by various livestock species or differences in the suitability of land used for feed production as land to cultivate food-crops directly. Given the global constraints on land, it is more efficient to grow food directly for human consumption rather than for livestock. To address the contribution of livestock to a future sustainable food supply, a measure for land use efficiency was developed, called the land use ratio (LUR). The LUR accounts for plant productivity, efficiency of converting human-inedible feed into ASF, and suitability of land for crop cultivation. The LUR also has a life-cycle perspective.

    Results of the LUR illustrated that dairy cows on sandy soil, laying hens, and pig production systems in the Netherlands have a LUR >1.0. In terms of protein produced per m2, therefore, it is more efficient to use these soils for livestock production to produce crops for direct human consumption than to produce feed for livestock. Only dairy cows on peat soil produce human digestible protein (HDP) more efficiently than crops do, because peat is not suitable for crop production. The LUR allows identification of livestock production systems that are able to produce HDP more efficiently than crops do. Livestock systems with a LUR<1.0, such as dairy on peat, have an important role to play in future sustainable nutrition supply.

    Results of the LUR showed that livestock production systems using mainly co-products, food-waste, and biomass from marginal land, can produce human digestible protein more efficiently than crop production systems do. The availability of those leftover streams, however, is limited and, therefore, the amount of ASF produced based only on leftover streams is also limited. Because LUR is a ratio, LUR results do not give an indication of how much ASF can be produced based on livestock systems that feed mainly on leftover streams.

    The third, and last, mitigation strategy, therefore, focused on the amount of ASF that can be consumed by humans, when livestock are fed only on leftover steams, also referred to as “default livestock”. The calculation of the amount of ASF was based on the assumption that a vegan diet was consumed in principle. The resulting co-products and food-waste were fed to pigs and, biomass from grazing land was fed to ruminants. Results showed that in total 21 g animal source protein per person per day could be produced by feeding livestock entirely on leftovers.

    Considering feed-food crops and feeding food-waste made an important contribution to the 21 g of protein that could be produced from default livestock. Considering feed-food crops implies that choices have to be made between different crops, based on their contribution to feed and food production. Oil production from soy cultivation, for example, resulted in the co-product SBM. Results showed that considering feed-food crops can affect the final protein production from pork. The practice of feeding food-waste to livestock is currently prohibited due to problems of food safety but the practice shows potential in extensively reducing the environmental impact of livestock production. Considering feed-food crops and feeding food-waste are examples of mitigation strategies that currently can be implemented to reduce further the environmental impact of the livestock sector.

    On average, it is recommended to consume about 57 g of protein from ASF or plant-origin per person per day. Only ASF from default livestock does not fulfil the current global protein consumption of 32 g per person per day, but about one third of the protein each person needs can be produced without any competition for land between feed and food production. To feed the world more sustainably, by requiring livestock production systems with a LUR <1.0, however, a paradigm shift is needed. Global average consumption of ASF should decrease to about 21 g of protein per person per day. Innovations are needed, moreover, to overcome problems of food safety and technical concerns related to collecting the leftover streams. This applies, in particular to food-waste, which is currently unused in livestock production but which presents a valuable strategy in mitigating environmental impacts caused by livestock production. Livestock systems should change their focus, furthermore, from increasing productivity per animal towards increasing protein production for humans per ha. By using leftover streams optimally, the livestock sector is able to produce a crucial amount of protein, while still avoiding competition for land between feed and food crops. Livestock, therefore, can make an important contribution to the future nutrition supply.

    To tweet or not to tweet : the role of personality in the social networks of great tits : the role of personality in the social networks of great tits
    Snijders, L. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Marc Naguib, co-promotor(en): Kees van Oers. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576940 - 237
    cum laude - parus major - personality - communication between animals - social structure - vocalization - bird song - social behaviour - animal behaviour - behavioural biology - parus major - persoonlijkheid - communicatie tussen dieren - sociale structuur - vocalisatie - vogelzang - sociaal gedrag - diergedrag - gedragsbiologie

    To tweet or not to tweet: The role of personality in the social networks of great tits
    By: Lysanne Snijders

    Project video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zy0HysxhQz0

    When mentioning social networks it is easy to think of online networks for people, such as Facebook and Twitter. But many animals also have social networks. In proximity networks they encounter each other physically and in communication networks they connect to each other by using signals. Their position in such social networks is important. It can influence the likelihood of finding new food, acquiring novel foraging techniques, rising in social status and acquiring a mate. However, having many contacts can also be risky as it increases the likelihood of encountering infectious diseases, social stress or ending up in a fight.
    As social network position can be so significant, it is essential that we know what determines it. A likely key factor is personality. Individuals consistently differ in how risk-prone (pro-active) and risk-averse (re-active) they tend to behave. As making face-to-face contact is not without risk, bolder individuals might have more social contacts.

    An ideal model to study this hypothesis is the great tit. A common garden bird. There are well established methods to quantify personality differences in great tits and with the newest tracking technologies we can now also monitor their face-tot-face contacts. What makes the great tit even more interesting is that they like to breed in nest boxes and so we can also study potential fitness effects of specific network positions. Additionally, great tits are songbirds, which makes them also ideal to answer a second question: Do individuals that are shy to approach others, use communication instead? Since communication is often a less risky connection strategy than face-to-face contact.

    In this PhD thesis I reveal how and when personality explains why some birds are better connected than others. In wild territorial populations pro-active males were better connected to other males and were most likely to approach a rival. In contrast, when removing the risk of fights during male-to-male spatial associations, via a video-playback experiment in captivity, the re-active males appeared to be most social. When confronted with the life-size video image of a novel conspecific, they spent the most time associating with it. When lowering the risks associated with spatial associations the social preferences of re-active individuals might thus increase. No relationship was found between social network position in the wild and reproductive success, an important fitness component.
    Wild male great tits that were less likely to approach a rival, sang more actively at dawn. Dawn song is the peak time for male great tit singing activity and operates as a large communication network. Since a prime function of singing at dawn is territory advertisement, these birds might thus try to prevent rival territory intrusions by singing more fiercely at dawn. No direct links were found between personality and an individual’s place in the communication network, however pro-active birds vocalized most actively during territory intrusions and increased their singing activity significantly during the fertile period of their mate.
    Communication networks and proximity networks can influence each other via song, by attracting or repulsing conspecifics to come close. For example, the vocal response of an intruded male to its rival significantly influenced whether female neighbours would come close to the intrusion site and if male neighbours would stay away.

    What determines the place in a social network? By knowing this we learn more about how groups function and how different social strategies in the same population can co-exist.

    Multi-population genomic prediction
    Wientjes, Y.C.J. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Roel Veerkamp; Mario Calus. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576193 - 267
    cum laude - dairy cattle - genomics - prediction - quantitative trait loci - genetic improvement - breeding value - selective breeding - animal breeding - animal genetics - melkvee - genomica - voorspelling - loci voor kwantitatief kenmerk - genetische verbetering - fokwaarde - selectief fokken - dierveredeling - diergenetica
    Cum laude graduation
    Ecosystem effects of bottom trawl fishing
    Denderen, P.D. van - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Adriaan Rijnsdorp, co-promotor(en): Tobias van Kooten. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573468 - 182
    vis vangen - zeevisserij - boomkorvisserij - vismethoden - ecosystemen - milieueffect - visserijbeheer - benthos - soortenrijkdom - mariene ecologie - fishing - marine fisheries - beam trawling - fishing methods - ecosystems - environmental impact - fishery management - benthos - species richness - marine ecology - cum laude
    cum laude graduation
    The conservation and use of crop genetic resources for food security
    Khoury, C.K. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Paul Struik, co-promotor(en): A. Jarvis. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574427 - 302
    genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - genetische diversiteit - germplasm - landbouwontwikkeling - klimaatadaptatie - wilde verwanten - ex-situ conservering - voedselzekerheid - plant genetic resources - genetic diversity - germplasm - agricultural development - climate adaptation - wild relatives - ex situ conservation - food security - cum laude
    Cum laude graduation
    Among the factors hindering the conservation of crop genetic resources is a lack of essential information regarding this diversity. Questions include: (a) what is the status of diversity in our food systems, and where are the greatest vulnerabilities?, (b) where can genetic diversity be found that can be useful in increasing productivity and mitigating these vulnerabilities?, (c) is this genetic diversity available in the present and in the long term?, and (d) what steps are needed to improve the ability for researchers to access genetic resources critical for present and future crop improvement? This thesis aims to contribute to the knowledge required to answer these questions through an exploration of the need for, potential of, challenges and constraints regarding, and necessary steps to enhance the conservation and use of crop genetic diversity.
    Evolution, role and mechanism of prokaryotic Argonaute proteins
    Swarts, D.C. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): John van der Oost, co-promotor(en): Stan Brouns. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572959 - 228
    eiwitten - eiwittechnologie - rna-interferentie - genexpressie - nucleasen - thermus thermophilus - pyrococcus furiosus - proteins - protein engineering - rna interference - gene expression - nucleases - thermus thermophilus - pyrococcus furiosus - cum laude
    cum laude graduation
    The hybrid nature of pig genomes : unraveling the mosaic haplotype structure in wild and commercial Sus scrofa populations
    Bosse, M. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Martien Groenen, co-promotor(en): Hendrik-Jan Megens; Ole Madsen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573000 - 253
    dieren - varkens - dierveredeling - genomen - hybridisatie - sus scrofa - haplotypen - genomica - populaties - genetische variatie - animals - pigs - animal breeding - genomes - hybridization - sus scrofa - haplotypes - genomics - populations - genetic variation - cum laude
    cum laude graduation
    Tales on insect-flowering plant interactions : the ecological significance of plant responses to herbivores and pollinators
    Lucas Gomes Marques Barbosa, D. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Marcel Dicke, co-promotor(en): Joop van Loon. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572119 - 207
    bloeiende planten - insecten - insect-plant relaties - plant-herbivoor relaties - herbivoren - bestuivers (dieren) - trofische graden - parasitoïden - herbivoor-geinduceerde plantengeuren - flowering plants - insects - insect plant relations - plant-herbivore interactions - herbivores - pollinators - trophic levels - parasitoids - herbivore induced plant volatiles - cum laude
    cum laude graduation
    Animal deliberation : the co-evolution of technology and ethics on the farm
    Driessen, C.P.G. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Michiel Korthals, co-promotor(en): Volkert Beekman. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - 356
    dierethiek - ethiek - veehouderij - varkenshouderij - technologie - boeren - varkens - dierlijke productie - animal ethics - ethics - livestock farming - pig farming - technology - farmers - pigs - animal production - cum laude
    cum laude graduation
    Biogenesis and signalling requirements of plant receptor-like proteins mediating resistance to fungal pathogens
    Liebrand, T.W.H. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Pierre de Wit, co-promotor(en): Matthieu Joosten. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461738622 - 192
    solanum lycopersicum - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - passalora fulva - verticillium dahliae - ziekteresistentie - verdedigingsmechanismen - receptoren - pathogenesis-gerelateerde eiwitten - genetische analyse - genexpressie - solanum lycopersicum - plant pathogenic fungi - passalora fulva - verticillium dahliae - disease resistance - defence mechanisms - receptors - pathogenesis-related proteins - genetic analysis - gene expression - cum laude
    cum laude graduation
    Adaptive & heritable immunity in bacteria : on the regulation and mechanism of CRISPR defense
    Westra, E.R. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): John van der Oost; Willem de Vos, co-promotor(en): Stan Brouns. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461735003 - 254
    bacteriën - immuniteit - immuunsysteem - verdedigingsmechanismen - rna - prokaryoten - bacteria - immunity - immune system - defence mechanisms - rna - prokaryotes - cum laude
    cum laude graduation (with distinction)
    Landscape infrastructure : urbanism beyond engineering
    Bélanger, P. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J. Koh. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461735270 - 441
    landschapsarchitectuur - stedelijke planning - civiele techniek - stedelijke ecologie - urbanisatie - infrastructuur - regionalisme - landscape architecture - urban planning - civil engineering - urban ecology - urbanization - infrastructure - regionalization - cum laude
    As ecology becomes the new engineering, the project of Landscape Infrastructure - a contemporary, synthetic alignment of the disciplines of landscape architecture, civil engineering and urban planning - is proposed here. Predominant challenges facing urban regions today are addressed, including changing climates, resource flows, and population mobilities. Responding to the inertia of land use zoning and overexertion of technological systems at the end of 20th century, the thesis argues for the strategic design of “infrastructural ecologies”, a synthetic landscape of living, biophysical systems that operate as urban infrastructures to shape and direct the future of urban economies into the 21st century. cum laude graduation (with distinction)
    Meiotic recombination and its implications for plant breeding
    Wijnker, T.G. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Hans de Jong; Maarten Koornneef, co-promotor(en): R.H.G. Dirks. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734402 - 254
    meiose - recombinatie - homologe recombinatie - crossing over - genomica - nucleotidenvolgordes - inversie van chromosoom - haploïden - homozygoten - arabidopsis thaliana - solanaceae - plantenveredeling - meiosis - recombination - homologous recombination - crossing over - genomics - nucleotide sequences - chromosome inversion - haploids - homozygotes - arabidopsis thaliana - solanaceae - plant breeding - cum laude
    cum laude graduation (with distinction)
    Fostering argumentation-based computer-supported collaborative learning in higher education
    Noroozi, O. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Martin Mulder, co-promotor(en): Harm Biemans. - [S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734013 - 282
    computerondersteund onderwijs - hoger onderwijs - wetenschappelijke samenwerking - discussie - leren - onderwijsmethoden - studenten - groepen - computer assisted instruction - higher education - scientific cooperation - discussion - learning - teaching methods - students - groups - cum laude
    cum laude graduation (with distinction). In collaborative settings, students of all ages need to learn to clearly explain their informed opinions and give reasons for the way in which they carry out tasks and solve problems. Engaging students in collaborative discussion and argumentation is an educational approach for preparing them to manage today’s complex issues and actively participate in knowledge societies. Despite the fact that argumentation is shaped in social conversation and also in learners’ online exchanges in daily life, learners in academic settings need to be taught to reason and argue in a way that is beneficial for knowledge sharing, domain-specific learning, and knowledge construction. Online support systems for collaboration or Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) environments in which learners argue in teams have been found to support the sharing, constructing, and representing of arguments with the aim of learning. This type of learning arrangement is called Argumentation-Based Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (ABCSCL) and it is seen as a promising environment in which to facilitate collaborative argumentation and learning.
    Global rivers warming up: impacts on cooling water use in the energy sector and freshwater ecosystems
    Vliet, M.T.H. van - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Pavel Kabat, co-promotor(en): Fulco Ludwig. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734242 - 196
    klimaatverandering - oppervlaktewater - zoetwaterecologie - watertemperatuur - rivierafvoer - koelwater - waterorganismen - nadelige gevolgen - climatic change - surface water - freshwater ecology - water temperature - stream flow - cooling water - aquatic organisms - adverse effects - cum laude
    cum laude graduation (with distinction)
    Transnational governance through private authority : the case of the Forest Stewardship Council certification in Russia
    Tysiachniouk, M.S. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol; Gert Spaargaren. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734327 - 352
    bosbouw - certificering - kwaliteitsnormen - bosbeleid - bosbedrijfsvoering - governance - internationale samenwerking - rusland - forestry - certification - quality standards - forest policy - forest management - governance - international cooperation - russia - cum laude
    cum laude graduation (with distinction)
    The politics of democratic governance : the implementation of the Water Framework Directive in the Netherlands
    Behagel, J.H. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Bas Arts, co-promotor(en): Esther Turnhout. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734488 - 223
    kaderrichtlijn water - governance - politieke processen - democratie - besluitvorming - participatie - bestuurskunde - nederland - water framework directive - governance - political processes - democracy - decision making - participation - public administration - netherlands - cum laude
    cum laude graduation (with distinction)
    The role and evolution of fungal effectors in plant pathogenesis
    Jonge, R. de - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Pierre de Wit, co-promotor(en): Bart Thomma. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461733917 - 148
    plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - moleculaire plantenziektekunde - evolutie - gastheer parasiet relaties - pathogenese - genomica - immuniteit - genomen - plant pathogenic fungi - molecular plant pathology - evolution - host parasite relationships - pathogenesis - genomics - immunity - genomes - cum laude
    cum laude graduation (with distinction)
    Strength, structure and stability of polyelectrolyte complex coacervates
    Spruijt, E. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Martien Cohen Stuart, co-promotor(en): Jasper van der Gucht. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461733542 - 291
    elektrolyten - bindingssterkte - elektrische dubbellaag - chemische structuur - moleculaire structuur - oppervlaktespanning - electrolytes - bond strength - electrical double layer - chemical structure - molecular conformation - surface tension - cum laude
    cum laude graduation (with distinction)
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