Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Effects of a modestly lower carbohydrate diet in gestational diabetes : a randomized controlled trial
    Mijatovic, Jovana ; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu ; Buso, Marion E.C. ; Atkinson, Fiona S. ; Ross, Glynis P. ; Markovic, Tania P. ; Brand-Miller, Jennie C. - \ 2020
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 112 (2020)2. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 284 - 292.
    diet - gestational diabetes - ketones - lower carbohydrate - MAMI study - metabolism

    BACKGROUND: Lower carbohydrate diets have the potential to improve glycemia but may increase ketonemia in women with gestational diabetes (GDM). We hypothesized that modestly lower carbohydrate intake would not increase ketonemia. OBJECTIVE: To compare blood ketone concentration, risk of ketonemia, and pregnancy outcomes in women with GDM randomly assigned to a lower carbohydrate diet or routine care. METHODS: Forty-six women aged (mean ± SEM) 33.3 ± 0.6 y and prepregnancy BMI 26.8 ± 0.9 kg/m2 were randomly assigned at 28.5 ± 0.4 wk to a modestly lower carbohydrate diet (MLC, ∼135 g/d carbohydrate) or routine care (RC, ∼200 g/d) for 6 wk. Blood ketones were ascertained by finger prick test strips and 3-d food diaries were collected at baseline and end of the intervention. RESULTS: There were no detectable differences in blood ketones between completers in the MLC group compared with the RC group (0.1 ± 0.0 compared with 0.1 ± 0.0 mmol/L, n = 33, P = 0.31, respectively), even though carbohydrate and total energy intake were significantly lower in the intervention group (carbohydrate 165 ± 7 compared with 190 ± 9 g, P = 0.04; energy 7040 ± 240 compared with 8230 ± 320 kJ, P <0.01, respectively). Only 20% of participants in the MLC group met the target intake compared with 65% in the RC group (P <0.01). There were no differences in birth weight, rate of large-for-gestational-age infants, percent fat mass, or fat-free mass between groups. CONCLUSIONS: An intervention to reduce carbohydrate intake in GDM did not raise ketones to clinical significance, possibly because the target of 135 g/d was difficult to achieve in pregnancy. Feeding studies with food provision may be needed to assess the benefits and risks of low-carbohydrate diets. This trial was registered at www.anzctr.org.au as ACTRN12616000018415.

    ROMAN, Few-Foods-Diet and ADHD in Practice
    Frankena, Klaas - \ 2020
    Wageningen University & Research
    ADHD - nutrition - few-foods - diet - children - ODD - prevention - food-induced
    Data underlying: Retrospective Outcome Monitoring of ADHD and Nutrition (ROMAN): the effectiveness of the few-foods diet in general practice. Frontiers in Psychiatry
    Urinary excretion of advanced glycation end products in dogs and cats
    Palaseweenun, Pornsucha ; Hagen-Plantinga, Esther A. ; Schonewille, Thomas J. ; Koop, Gerrit ; Butre, Claire ; Jonathan, Melliana ; Wierenga, Peter A. ; Hendriks, Wouter H. - \ 2020
    Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition (2020). - ISSN 0931-2439
    advanced glycation end products - cats - diet - dogs - urinary excretion

    The present study was conducted with privately owned dogs and cats to investigate whether a relationship exists between the dietary AGEs and the urinary excretion of AGEs, as indication of possible effective absorption of those compounds in the intestinal tract of pet carnivores. For this purpose, data were collected from both raw fed and dry processed food (DPF) fed to dogs and cats, through spot urine sampling and questionnaires. Raw pet food (RF, low in AGE diets) was fed as a primary food source to 29 dogs and DPF to 28 dogs. Cats were categorized into 3 groups, which were RF (n = 15), DPF (n = 14) and dry and wet processed pet food (DWF, n = 25). Urinary-free carboxymethyllysine (CML), carboxyethyllysine (CEL) and lysinoalanine (LAL) were analysed using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)—mass spectrometry, and were standardized for variable urine concentration by expressing the AGE concentrations as a ratio to urine creatinine (Ucr) concentration (µg/µmol Ucr). Urinary excretion of CML, CEL and LAL in dogs fed with DPF was 2.03, 2.14 and 3 times higher compared to dogs fed with RF (p <.005). Similar to the dogs, a significant difference in CML:Ucr, CEL:Ucr and LAL:Ucr between the three diet groups was observed in cats (p-overall < 0.005, ANOVA), in which the RF fed group excreted less AGEs than the other groups. Linear regression coefficients and SE of CML:Ucr, CEL:Ucr and LAL:Ucr showed that body weight and neuter status were significantly correlated with CML and CEL excretion, but not to LAL excretion. Our results revealed a significant correlation between dietary AGEs and urinary excretion of free CML, CEL and LAL, and also showed that endogenous formation of these AGEs occurs in both dogs and cats under physiological conditions.

    Retrospective Outcome Monitoring of ADHD and Nutrition (ROMAN) : The Effectiveness of the Few-Foods Diet in General Practice
    Pelsser, Lidy ; Frankena, Klaas ; Toorman, Jan ; Rodrigues Pereira, Rob - \ 2020
    Frontiers in Psychiatry 11 (2020). - ISSN 1664-0640
    attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder - children - diet - few-foods - food-induced - nutrition - oppositional defiant disorder - prevention

    Introduction: Double-blind placebo-controlled studies investigating the effect of a few-foods diet (FFD) on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have provided consistent evidence that ADHD can be triggered by foods, indicating the existence of a food-induced ADHD subtype. In 2001 the “few-foods” approach was included in an ADHD treatment protocol. This approach consists of (a) determining, by means of an FFD, whether food is a trigger of ADHD; (b) reintroducing, in FFD responders, foods to assess which foods are incriminated; (c) finally composing a personalised diet eliminating the involved foods only. In the Netherlands the few-foods approach is applied in practice. We aimed to retrospectively assess its effectiveness on ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in real life. Methods: Data from all children who started the few-foods approach in three specialised healthcare facilities during three consecutive months were included. Behavior was assessed at start and end of the 5-week FFD, using the ADHD Rating Scale and a structured psychiatric interview. Clinical responders (behavioral improvements ≥40%) proceeded with the reintroduction phase. Results: Data of 57 children, 27 taking medication and 15 following some elimination diet at start, were available. No differences were noted between parental scores of children with and without medication or some elimination diet at start. 21/27 (78%) children stopped taking medication during the FFD. 34/57 (60%) children were ADHD responders, 20/29 (65%) children meeting ODD criteria were ODD responders. 26/34 (76%) ADHD responders started the reintroduction phase; 14/26 (54%) still participated at six months. Teacher data were available of 18/57 (32%) children. 9/18 (50%) children were ADHD responders. Conclusion: The FFD, if applied by trained specialists, may lead to clinically relevant reduction of ADHD and ODD symptoms in general practice, and a concomitant decrease of ADHD medication. These results corroborate the existence of an ADHD subgroup with food-induced ADHD. Defining and eliminating the incriminated foods, i.e. the underlying causal triggers, may result in secondary prevention of food-induced ADHD. Research into underlying mechanism(s) is of vital importance: finding an easier method or biomarkers for diagnosing food-induced ADHD and ascertaining the incriminated foods may lead to redundancy of the few-foods approach.

    Mediterranean diet intervention alters the gut microbiome in older people reducing frailty and improving health status : The NU-AGE 1-year dietary intervention across five European countries
    Ghosh, Tarini Shankar ; Rampelli, Simone ; Jeffery, Ian B. ; Santoro, Aurelia ; Neto, Marta ; Capri, Miriam ; Giampieri, Enrico ; Jennings, Amy ; Candela, Marco ; Turroni, Silvia ; Zoetendal, Erwin G. ; Hermes, Gerben D.A. ; Elodie, Caumon ; Brugere, Corinne Malpuech ; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle ; Berendsen, Agnes M. ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. De; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Kaluza, Joanna ; Pietruszka, Barbara ; Bielak, Marta Jeruszka ; Comte, Blandine ; Maijo-Ferre, Monica ; Nicoletti, Claudio ; Vos, Willem M. de; Fairweather-Tait, Susan ; Cassidy, Aedin ; Brigidi, Patrizia ; Franceschi, Claudio ; O'Toole, Paul W. - \ 2020
    Gut 69 (2020)7. - ISSN 0017-5749
    ageing - diet - enteric bacterial microflora - inflammation - intestinal bacteria

    Objective: Ageing is accompanied by deterioration of multiple bodily functions and inflammation, which collectively contribute to frailty. We and others have shown that frailty co-varies with alterations in the gut microbiota in a manner accelerated by consumption of a restricted diversity diet. The Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) is associated with health. In the NU-AGE project, we investigated if a 1-year MedDiet intervention could alter the gut microbiota and reduce frailty. Design: We profiled the gut microbiota in 612 non-frail or pre-frail subjects across five European countries (UK, France, Netherlands, Italy and Poland) before and after the administration of a 12-month long MedDiet intervention tailored to elderly subjects (NU-AGE diet). Results: Adherence to the diet was associated with specific microbiome alterations. Taxa enriched by adherence to the diet were positively associated with several markers of lower frailty and improved cognitive function, and negatively associated with inflammatory markers including C-reactive protein and interleukin-17. Analysis of the inferred microbial metabolite profiles indicated that the diet-modulated microbiome change was associated with an increase in short/branch chained fatty acid production and lower production of secondary bile acids, p-cresols, ethanol and carbon dioxide. Microbiome ecosystem network analysis showed that the bacterial taxa that responded positively to the MedDiet intervention occupy keystone interaction positions, whereas frailty-associated taxa are peripheral in the networks. Conclusion: Collectively, our findings support the feasibility of improving the habitual diet to modulate the gut microbiota which in turn has the potential to promote healthier ageing.

    On the scaling of activity in tropical forest mammals
    Cid, Bruno ; Carbone, Chris ; Fernandez, Fernando A.S. ; Jansen, Patrick A. ; Rowcliffe, J.M. ; O'Brien, Timothy ; Akampurira, Emmanuel ; Bitariho, Robert ; Espinosa, Santiago ; Gajapersad, Krishna ; Santos, Thiago M.R. ; Gonçalves, André L.S. ; Kinnaird, Margaret F. ; Lima, Marcela G.M. ; Martin, Emanuel ; Mugerwa, Badru ; Rovero, Francesco ; Salvador, Julia ; Santos, Fernanda ; Spironello, Wilson R. ; Wijntuin, Soraya ; Oliveira-Santos, Luiz Gustavo R. - \ 2020
    Oikos 129 (2020)5. - ISSN 0030-1299 - p. 668 - 676.
    activity behavior - body mass - camera traps - diet - energy budget - predation risk

    Activity range – the amount of time spent active per day – is a fundamental aspect contributing to the optimization process by which animals achieve energetic balance. Based on their size and the nature of their diet, theoretical expectations are that larger carnivores need more time active to fulfil their energetic needs than do smaller ones and also more time active than similar-sized non-carnivores. Despite the relationship between daily activity, individual range and energy acquisition, large-scale relationships between activity range and body mass among wild mammals have never been properly addressed. This study aimed to understand the scaling of activity range with body mass, while controlling for phylogeny and diet. We built simple empirical predictions for the scaling of activity range with body mass for mammals of different trophic guilds and used a phylogenetically controlled mixed model to test these predictions using activity records of 249 mammal populations (128 species) in 19 tropical forests (in 15 countries) obtained using camera traps. Our scaling model predicted a steeper scaling of activity range in carnivores (0.21) with higher levels of activity (higher intercept), and near-zero scaling in herbivores (0.04). Empirical data showed that activity ranges scaled positively with body mass for carnivores (0.061), which also had higher intercept value, but not for herbivores, omnivores and insectivores, in general, corresponding with the predictions. Despite the many factors that shape animal activity at local scales, we found a general pattern showing that large carnivores need more time active in a day to meet their energetic demands.

    Dietary protein intake and kidney function decline after myocardial infarction: the Alpha Omega Cohort
    Esmeijer, Kevin ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Fijter, Johan W. de; Kromhout, Daan ; Hoogeveen, Ellen K. - \ 2020
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 35 (2020)1. - ISSN 0931-0509 - p. 106 - 115.
    diet - kidney function decline - myocardial infarction - protein intake

    BACKGROUND: Post-myocardial infarction (MI) patients have a doubled rate of kidney function decline compared with the general population. We investigated the extent to which high intake of total, animal and plant protein are risk factors for accelerated kidney function decline in older stable post-MI patients. METHODS: We analysed 2255 post-MI patients (aged 60-80 years, 80% men) of the Alpha Omega Cohort. Dietary data were collected with a biomarker-validated 203-item food frequency questionnaire. At baseline and 41 months, we estimated glomerular filtration rate based on the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equations for serum cystatin C [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFRcysC)] alone and both creatinine and cystatin C (eGFRcr-cysC). RESULTS: Mean [standard deviation (SD)] baseline eGFRcysC and eGFRcr-cysC were 82 (20) and 79 (19) mL/min/1.73 m2. Of all patients, 16% were current smokers and 19% had diabetes. Mean (SD) total protein intake was 71 (19) g/day, of which two-thirds was animal and one-third plant protein. After multivariable adjustment, including age, sex, total energy intake, smoking, diabetes, systolic blood pressure, renin-angiotensin system blocking drugs and fat intake, each incremental total daily protein intake of 0.1 g/kg ideal body weight was associated with an additional annual eGFRcysC decline of -0.12 (95% confidence interval -0.19 to -0.04) mL/min/1.73 m2, and was similar for animal and plant protein. Patients with a daily total protein intake of ≥1.20 compared with <0.80 g/kg ideal body weight had a 2-fold faster annual eGFRcysC decline of -1.60 versus -0.84 mL/min/1.73 m2. Taking eGFRcr-cysC as outcome showed similar results. Strong linear associations were confirmed by restricted cubic spline analyses. CONCLUSION: A higher protein intake was significantly associated with a more rapid kidney function decline in post-MI patients.

    Dietary enrichment of edible insects with omega 3 fatty acids
    Oonincx, Dennis G.A.B. ; Laurent, Sophie ; Veenenbos, Margot E. ; Loon, Joop J.A. van - \ 2020
    Insect Science 27 (2020)3. - ISSN 1672-9609 - p. 500 - 509.
    Acheta domesticus - Alphitobius diaperinus - diet - fatty acids - Hermetia illucens

    Edible insects are advocated as sustainable and healthy food and feed. However, commercially produced insects are often low in n-3 fatty acids and have suboptimal n-6/n-3 ratios. A certain amount and proportion of these FAs is required to optimize human health. Flaxseed oil consists primarily (57%) out of alpha-linolenic acid. An experiment was conducted to quantify the effect of flaxseed oil provision on fatty acid composition and to determine the quantity needed to attain a beneficial n-6/n-3 ratio. Three species were used in the experiment: house crickets (Acheta domesticus [L.]), lesser mealworms (Alphitobius diaperinus [Pfanzer]) and black soldier flies (Hermetia illucens [L.]). These were provided with either a control diet or a diet enriched with 1%, 2%, or 4% flaxseed oil during their larval/nymphal stage. Fatty acid profiles of diets and insects were determined via GC-MS. The three species had distinct fatty acid profiles on all four diets, but responded similarly to flaxseed oil addition. For each percent added to the diet, the alpha-linolenic acid content of the insects increased by 2.3%–2.7%. Four percent addition increased the n-3 fatty acid content 10–20 fold in the three species and thereby strongly decreased n-6/n-3 ratios from 18–36 to 0.8–2.4. A ratio below 5 is considered optimal for human health and was achieved by 2% flaxseed oil inclusion for house crickets and lesser mealworms, and at 1% inclusion for black soldier flies. Adding a source of n-3 fatty acids to insect diets can thus improve the nutritional quality of insects.

    Editorial : Diet, Inflammation and Colorectal Cancer
    Gessani, Sandra ; Duijnhoven, Fränzel J. Van; Moreno-Aliaga, Maria Jesus - \ 2019
    Frontiers in Immunology 10 (2019). - ISSN 1664-3224
    colorectal cancer - diet - dietary factors - inflammation - obesity
    Biomarkers of Dietary Omega-6 Fatty Acids and Incident Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality: An Individual-Level Pooled Analysis of 30 Cohort Studies
    Marklund, Matti ; Wu, Jason H.Y. ; Imamura, Fumiaki ; Gobbo, Liana C. Del; Fretts, Amanda ; Goede, Janette De; Shi, Peilin ; Tintle, Nathan ; Wennberg, Maria ; Aslibekyan, Stella ; Chen, Tzu An ; Oliveira Otto, Marcia C. De; Hirakawa, Yoichiro ; Eriksen, Helle Højmark ; Kröger, Janine ; Laguzzi, Federica ; Lankinen, Maria ; Murphy, Rachel A. ; Prem, Kiesha ; Samieri, Cécilia ; Virtanen, Jyrki ; Wood, Alexis C. ; Wong, Kerry ; Yang, Wei Sin ; Zhou, Xia ; Baylin, Ana ; Boer, Jolanda M.A. ; Brouwer, Ingeborg A. ; Campos, Hannia ; Chaves, Paulo H.M. ; Chien, Kuo Liong ; Faire, Ulf De; Djoussé, Luc ; Eiriksdottir, Gudny ; El-Abbadi, Naglaa ; Forouhi, Nita G. ; Michael Gaziano, J. ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Gigante, Bruna ; Giles, Graham ; Guallar, Eliseo ; Gudnason, Vilmundur ; Harris, Tamara ; Harris, William S. ; Helmer, Catherine ; Hellenius, Mai Lis ; Hodge, Allison ; Hu, Frank B. ; Jacques, Paul F. ; Jansson, Jan Håkan ; Kalsbeek, Anya ; Khaw, Kay Tee ; Koh, Woon Puay ; Laakso, Markku ; Leander, Karin ; Lin, Hung Ju ; Lind, Lars ; Luben, Robert ; Luo, Juhua ; Mcknight, Barbara ; Mursu, Jaakko ; Ninomiya, Toshiharu ; Overvad, Kim ; Psaty, Bruce M. ; Rimm, Eric ; Schulze, Matthias B. ; Siscovick, David ; Skjelbo Nielsen, Michael ; Smith, Albert V. ; Steffen, Brian T. ; Steffen, Lyn ; Sun, Qi ; Sundström, Johan ; Tsai, Michael Y. ; Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh ; Uusitupa, Matti I.J. ; Dam, Rob M. van; Veenstra, Jenna ; Verschuren, Monique ; Wareham, Nick ; Willett, Walter ; Woodward, Mark ; Yuan, Jian Min ; Micha, Renata ; Lemaitre, Rozenn N. ; Mozaffarian, Dariush ; Risérus, Ulf - \ 2019
    Circulation 139 (2019)21. - ISSN 0009-7322 - p. 2422 - 2436.
    arachidonic acid - biomarkers - cardiovascular diseases - diet - epidemiology - linoleic acid - primary prevention

    Background: Global dietary recommendations for and cardiovascular effects of linoleic acid, the major dietary omega-6 fatty acid, and its major metabolite, arachidonic acid, remain controversial. To address this uncertainty and inform international recommendations, we evaluated how in vivo circulating and tissue levels of linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA) relate to incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) across multiple international studies. Methods: We performed harmonized, de novo, individual-level analyses in a global consortium of 30 prospective observational studies from 13 countries. Multivariable-adjusted associations of circulating and adipose tissue LA and AA biomarkers with incident total CVD and subtypes (coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, cardiovascular mortality) were investigated according to a prespecified analytic plan. Levels of LA and AA, measured as the percentage of total fatty acids, were evaluated linearly according to their interquintile range (ie, the range between the midpoint of the first and fifth quintiles), and categorically by quintiles. Study-specific results were pooled using inverse-variance-weighted meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was explored by age, sex, race, diabetes mellitus, statin use, aspirin use, omega-3 levels, and fatty acid desaturase 1 genotype (when available). Results: In 30 prospective studies with medians of follow-up ranging 2.5 to 31.9 years, 15 198 incident cardiovascular events occurred among 68 659 participants. Higher levels of LA were significantly associated with lower risks of total CVD, cardiovascular mortality, and ischemic stroke, with hazard ratios per interquintile range of 0.93 (95% CI, 0.88-0.99), 0.78 (0.70-0.85), and 0.88 (0.79-0.98), respectively, and nonsignificantly with lower coronary heart disease risk (0.94; 0.88-1.00). Relationships were similar for LA evaluated across quintiles. AA levels were not associated with higher risk of cardiovascular outcomes; in a comparison of extreme quintiles, higher levels were associated with lower risk of total CVD (0.92; 0.86-0.99). No consistent heterogeneity by population subgroups was identified in the observed relationships. Conclusions: In pooled global analyses, higher in vivo circulating and tissue levels of LA and possibly AA were associated with lower risk of major cardiovascular events. These results support a favorable role for LA in CVD prevention.

    Determining Key Research Areas for Healthier Diets and Sustainable Food Systems in Viet Nam
    Raneri, Jessica E. ; Kennedy, Gina ; Nguyen, Trang ; Wertheim-Heck, S.C.O. ; Haan, Stef de; Do, Ha Thi Phuong ; Nguyen, Phuong Hong ; Thi, Huong Le ; Mai, Truong Tuyet ; Duong, Thi Thanh Thuy ; Hung, Nguyen ; Nguyen, Tuan ; Huynh, Tuyen ; Nodari, Gulia Rota ; Spellman, Olga ; Talsma, Elise F. ; Stoian, Dietmar ; Duong, Minh-Cam ; Tran, Lam Nguyen ; Bene, Christophe - \ 2019
    IFPRI (IFPRI Discussion Paper 1872) - 127 p.
    food systems - diet - nutrition - agriculture
    Vietnamese food systems are undergoing rapid transformation, with important implications for human and environmental health and economic development. Poverty has decreased, and diet quality and under-nutrition have improved significantly since the end of the Doi Moi reform period (1986-1993) as a result of Viet Nam opening its economy and increasing its regional and global trade. Yet poor diet quality is still contributing the triple burden of malnutrition, with 25 percent stunting among children under age 5, 26 percent and 29 percent of women and children, respectively, anemic, and 21 percent of adults overweight. Agricultural production systems have shifted from predominantly diverse smallholder systems to larger more commercialized and specialized systems, especially for crops, while the ‘meatification’ of the Vietnamese diet is generating serious trade-offs between improved nutrition and sustainability of the Vietnamese food systems. The food processing industry has developed rapidly, together with food imports, resulting in new and processed food products penetrating the food retail outlets, trending towards an increase in the Westernized consumption patterns that are shifting nutrition-related problems towards overweight and obesity and, with it, an increase of non-communicable disease-related health risks. While regulatory policies exist across the food system, these are not systematically implemented, making food safety a major concern for consumers and policy makers alike. Where data exists, it is not easy to aggregate with data from across food system dimensions, making it difficult for Viet Nam to make an informed analysis of current and potential food system trade-offs. In our research, we reviewed existing literature and data, and applied a food systems framework to develop an initial food systems profile for Viet Nam and to identify a comprehensive set a of research questions to fill current data gaps identified through the review. Insights on these would provide the comprehensive evidence needed to inform policy makers on how to develop new food systems policies for Viet Nam, and further refine and improve existing policies to achieve better quality diets and more sustainable food systems in Viet Nam. Based on these, we then engaged with stakeholders to develop research priorities in the Viet Nam context and identified 25 priority research questions. This paper aims to stimulate such reflections by clearly outlining key areas for research, government policy, and development programs on priority investment to build the evidence base around inclusive food systems interventions that aim to result in healthier diets and more sustainable food systems for Viet Nam.
    The UroLife study: protocol for a Dutch prospective cohort on lifestyle habits in relation to non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer prognosis and health-related quality of life
    Goeij, Liesbeth de; Westhoff, Ellen ; Witjes, J.A. ; Aben, Katja K. ; Kampman, Ellen ; Kiemeney, Lambertus Alm ; Vrieling, Alina - \ 2019
    BMJ Open 9 (2019)10. - ISSN 2044-6055 - p. e030396 - e030396.
    biomarkers - bladder cancer - cohort - diet - lifestyle - prognosis - quality of life - recurrence - study protocol

    INTRODUCTION: Patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) have a good survival but are at high risk for tumour recurrence and disease progression. It is important to identify lifestyle habits that may reduce the risk of recurrence and progression and improve health-related quality of life (HRQOL). This paper describes the rationale and design of the UroLife study. The main aim of this study is to evaluate whether lifestyle habits are related to prognosis and HRQOL in patients with NMIBC. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The UroLife study is a multicentre prospective cohort study among more than 1100 newly diagnosed patients with NMIBC recruited from 22 hospitals in the Netherlands. At 6 weeks and 3, 15 and 51 months after diagnosis, participants fill out a general questionnaire, and questionnaires about their lifestyle habits and HRQOL. At 3, 15 and 51 months after diagnosis, information about fluid intake and micturition is collected with a 4-day diary. At 3 and 15 months after diagnosis, patients donate blood samples for DNA extraction and (dietary) biomarker analysis. Tumour samples are collected from all patients with T1 disease to assess molecular subtypes. Information about disease characteristics and therapy for the primary tumour and subsequent recurrences is collected from the medical records by the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Statistical analyses will be adjusted for age, gender, tumour characteristics and other known confounders. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol has been approved by the Committee for Human Research region Arnhem-Nijmegen (CMO 2013-494). Patients who agree to participate in the study provide written informed consent. The findings from our study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed scientific journals and presentations at (inter)national scientific meetings. Patients will be informed about the progress and results of this study through biannual newsletters and through the website of the study and of the bladder cancer patient association.

    The Newly Developed Elderly Nutrient-Rich Food Score Is a Useful Tool to Assess Nutrient Density in European Older Adults
    Berendsen, Agnes A.M. ; Kramer, Charlotte S. ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. de - \ 2019
    Frontiers in Nutrition 6 (2019). - ISSN 2296-861X
    diet - diet quality - elderly - nutrient density - nutrient profiling - nutrient-rich food index

    Objective: To develop a nutrient-rich food (NRF) score that captures dietary reference values for older adults and to validate this against a diet index that was specifically designed to assess adherence to dietary guidelines for the older population. Design: A cross-sectional study within the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (DNFCS, n = 735 men and women aged 70–94 years, enrolled between October 2010 and February 2012) and within the NU-AGE study (n = 250 men and women aged 65–79 years, enrolled between April 2012 and March 2013). Dietary intake was assessed by means of two non-consecutive dietary record assisted 24-h recalls and 7-day food records, respectively. Structured questionnaires collected data on lifestyle and socio-economic information. Anthropometrics were measured by trained dieticians or research assistants. We evaluated Elderly NRF (E-NRF) scores against the NU-AGE index, a measure of adherence to European dietary guidelines for the aging population. The E-NRF scores were composed of nutrients that: (1) have been shown to be of inadequate intake in the aging population (>20%), (2) were defined as nutrients of public health relevance, and (3) were associated with relevant health outcomes. Results: The E-NRF score that best predicted the NU-AGE index included seven nutrients to encourage (protein, dietary fiber, folate, vitamin D, calcium, magnesium, potassium) and three nutrients to limit (saturated fat, sodium and mono- and disaccharides) on a 100-kcal basis, the E-NRF7.3 score (model R2 0.27 in DNFCS and 0.41 in NU-AGE). Food groups contributing the most to the individual E-NRF7.3 scores were vegetables, bread, potatoes and milk and milk products. Conclusion: The E-NRF7.3 score is a useful tool for assessing nutrient density of diets within the older population. No index has previously been developed with the aim of evaluating nutrient density of diets and foods specifically capturing dietary reference values for older adults.

    SHARP Indicators Database: Towards a public database for environmental sustainability
    Mertens, E. ; Kaptijn, Gerdine ; Kuijsten, A. ; Zanten, H.H.E. van; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2019
    environment - greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) - land use (LU) - life cycle analyses (LCA) - Europe - food - diet
    In the SHARP-ID, environmental impact assessment was based on attributional life cycle analyses using environmental indicators greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) and land use (LU). Life cycle inventory data of 182 primary products were combined with data on production, trade and transport, and adjusted for consumption amount using conversions factors for production, edible portion, cooking losses and gains, and for food losses and waste in order to derive estimates of GHGE and LU for the foods as eaten.
    High Dietary Intake of Vegetable Protein Is Associated With Lower Prevalence of Renal Function Impairment: Results of the Dutch DIALECT-1 Cohort
    Oosterwijk, Milou M. ; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S. ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Bakker, Stephan J.L. ; Navis, Gerjan ; Binnenmars, S.H. ; Gant, Christina M. ; Laverman, Gozewijn D. - \ 2019
    Kidney International Reports 4 (2019)5. - ISSN 2468-0249 - p. 710 - 719.
    diabetes mellitus type 2 - diet - kidney function - lifestyle

    Introduction: Dietary protein intake may influence development of renal function impairment in diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM). We assessed the association between sources of protein and prevalence of renal function impairment. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses were performed in baseline data of 420 patients of the DIAbetes and LifEstyle Cohort Twente-1 (DIALECT-1)study. Protein intake was assessed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire, modified for accurate assessment of protein intake, including types and sources of protein. Renal function impairment was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)<60 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formula). Results: Among 420 patients with T2DM, 99 renal function impairment cases were identified. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used and adjusted for the main lifestyle and dietary factors. The prevalence ratios in the fully adjusted model were 1 (reference), 0.74 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.44–1.27; P = 0.28)and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.23–0.98; P = 0.04)according to increasing tertiles of vegetable protein intake. For animal protein intake the prevalence ratios were 1 (reference), 1.10 (95% CI: 0.64–1.88; P = 0.74)and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.56–1.99; P = 0.87)according to increasing tertiles of intake. Theoretical replacement models showed that replacing 3 energy percent from animal protein by vegetable protein lowered the prevalence ratio for the association with renal function impairment to 0.20 (95% CI: 0.06–0.63; P = 0.01). Conclusion: In conclusion, we found that higher intake of vegetable protein was associated with a lower prevalence of renal function impairment, and theoretical replacement of animal protein with vegetable protein was inversely associated with renal function impairment among patients with T2DM.

    What are the health effects of sodium?
    Kersten, A.H. - \ 2019
    Wageningen : WURcast
    sodium - salt - nutrition and health - diet - intake
    In this video we explain the health effects of your sodium intake.
    Top-down pressure on a coastal ecosystem by harbor seals
    Aarts, Geert ; Brasseur, Sophie ; Poos, Jan Jaap ; Schop, Jessica ; Kirkwood, Roger ; Kooten, Tobias Van; Mul, Evert ; Reijnders, Peter ; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D. ; Tulp, Ingrid - \ 2019
    Ecosphere 10 (2019)1. - ISSN 2150-8925 - p. e02538 - e02538.
    demersal fish - diet - harbor seal - impact - intertidaL - Phoca vitulina - predation pressure - sealing - Subtidal - top-down regulation - top predator
    Historic hunting has led to severe reductions of many marine mammal species across the globe. After hunting ceased, some populations have recovered to pre-exploitation levels and may have regained their prominent position as top predator in marine ecosystems. Also, the harbor seal population in the international Wadden Sea grew at an exponential rate following a ban on seal hunting in 1960s, and the current number ~38,000 is close to the historic population size. Here we estimate the impact of the harbor seal predation on the fish community in the Wadden Sea and nearby coastal waters. Fish remains in fecal samples and published estimates on the seal’s daily energy requirement were used to estimate prey selection and the magnitude of seal consumption. Estimates on prey abundance were derived from demersal fish surveys, and fish growth was estimated using a Dynamic Energy Budget model. GPS tracking provided information on where seals most likely caught their prey. Harbor seals hauling-out in the Dutch Wadden Sea fed predominantly on demersal fish, for example, flatfish species (flounder, sole, plaice, dab), but also on sandeel, cod, and whiting. Although harbor seals acquire the majority of prey further offshore in the adjacent North Sea, and only spend 14% of their diving time in the Wadden Sea, seal predation was still estimated to cause an average annual mortality of 43% of the remaining fish in the Wadden Sea and 60% in the nearby shallow coastal waters (<20 m). There were however large sources of uncertainty in the estimated impact of seals on fish, including the migration of fish between the North Sea and Wadden Sea, and catchability estimates of the fish survey sampling gear, particularly for sandeel and other pelagic fish species. Our estimate suggested a considerable top-down pressure by harbor seals on demersal fish. However, predation by seals may also alleviate density-dependent competition between the remaining fish, allowing for increased fish growth, and partly compensating for the reduction in fish numbers. This study shows that recovering coastal marine mammal populations could become an important component in the functioning of shallow coastal ecosystems.
    Designing a research infrastructure on dietary intake and its determinants
    Bogaardt, M.J. ; Geelen, A. ; Zimmermann, K. ; Finglas, P. ; Raats, M.M. ; Mikkelsen, B.E. ; Poppe, K.J. ; van't Veer, P. - \ 2018
    Nutrition Bulletin 43 (2018)3. - ISSN 1471-9827 - p. 301 - 309.
    big data - consumers - diet - food - public health - research infrastructure

    Research on dietary intake and its determinants is crucial for an adequate response to the current epidemic of diet-related non-communicable chronic diseases. In order to respond to this challenge, the RICHFIELDS project was tasked with designing a research infrastructure (RI) that connects data on dietary intake of consumers in Europe, and its determinants, collected using apps and wearable sensors, from behavioural laboratories and experimental facilities and from other RIs. The main output of the project, an RI design, describes interfaces (portals) to collect data, a meta-database and a data-model to enable data linkage and sharing. The RICHFIELDS project comprises three phases, each consisting of three work packages, and an overarching methodological support work package. Phase 1 focused on data generated by consumers (e.g. collected by apps and sensors) relating to the purchase, preparation and consumption of food. Phase 2 focused on data generated by organisations such as businesses (e.g. retail data), government (e.g. procurement data) and experimental research facilities (e.g. virtual supermarkets). Phases 1 and 2 provided Phase 3 with insights on data types and design requirements, including the business models, data integration and management systems and governance and ethics. The final design will be used in the coming years to build an RI for the scientific research community, policy makers and businesses in Europe. The RI will boost interdisciplinary multi-stakeholder research through harmonisation and integration of data on food behaviour.

    Soya bean meal increases litter moisture and foot pad dermatitis in maize and wheat based diets for turkeys but maize and non-soya diets lower body weight
    Hocking, P.M. ; Vinco, L.J. ; Veldkamp, T. - \ 2018
    British Poultry Science 59 (2018)2. - ISSN 0007-1668 - p. 227 - 231.
    Cereal - dermatitis - diet - electrolyte balance - feed - feed intake - litter moisture - protein
    1. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to compare the effects of wheat or maize based diets differing in dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) on litter moisture and foot pad dermatitis (FPD) at 4, 8 and 12 weeks of age in heavy-medium turkeys. A second objective was to investigate the effects on foot pad dermatitis of the interaction between dietary composition and artificially increasing litter moisture by adding water to the litter. 2. High DEB diets contained soya as the main protein source whereas low DEB diets did not contain soya bean meal. Diets were formulated to be iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous in each of 3 successive 4-week phases following recommended dietary compositions. DEB concentrations were 330, 290 and 250 mEq/kg in high DEB diets and 230, 200 and 180 mEq/kg in low DEB diets. 3. Litter moisture and mean FPD score were higher in turkeys fed on high DEB diets compared with low DEB diets whereas there was no difference between maize and wheat. 4. Food intake was similar and body weight was lower after litter moisture was artificially raised in the wet compared with the dry litter treatment and there was no interaction with dietary composition. 5. Mean body weight and feed intake were higher in turkeys fed on wheat compared with maize and in high DEB compared with low DEB diets at 12 weeks of age. 6. Lowering dietary DEB for turkeys may improve litter moisture and lower the prevalence of FPD in commercial turkey flocks.
    Multi-objective decision-making for dietary assessment and advice
    Lemmen - Gerdessen, J.C. van - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.G.A.J. Vorst; P. van 't Veer, co-promotor(en): G.D.H. Claassen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437073 - 136
    questionnaires - food - fractionation - modeling - diet - food intake - decision making - diet counseling - vragenlijsten - voedsel - fractionering - modelleren - dieet - voedselopname - besluitvorming - dieetadvisering

    Unhealthy diets contribute substantially to the worldwide burden of non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and diabetes. Globally, non-communicable diseases are the leading cause of death, and numbers are still rising, which makes healthy diets a global priority. In Nutrition Research, two fields are particularly relevant for formulating healthier diets: dietary assessment, which assesses food and nutrient intake in order to investigate the relation between diet and disease, and dietary advice, which translates food and nutrient recommendations into realistic food choices. Both fields face complex decision problems: which foods to include in dietary assessment or advice in order to pursue the multiple objectives of the researcher or fulfil the requirements of the consumer. This thesis connects the disciplines of Nutrition Research and Operations Research in order to contribute to formulating healthier diets.

    In the context of dietary assessment, the thesis proposes a MILP model for the selection of food items for food frequency questionnaires (a crucial tool in dietary assessment) that speeds up the selection process and increases standardisation, transparency, and reproducibility. An extension of this model gives rise to a 0-1 fractional programming problem with more than 200 fractional terms, of which in every feasible solution only a subset is actually defined. The thesis shows how this problem can be reformulated in order to eliminate the undefined fractional terms. The resulting MILP model can solved with standard software.

    In the context of dietary advice, the thesis proposes a diet model in which food and nutrient requirements are formulated via fuzzy sets. With this model, the impact of various achievement functions is demonstrated. The preference structures modelled via these achievement functions represent various ways in which multiple nutritional characteristics of a diet can be aggregated into an overall indicator for diet quality. Furthermore, for Operations Research the thesis provides new insights into a novel preference structure from literature, that combines equity and utilitarianism in a single model.

    Finally, the thesis presents conclusions of the research and a general discussion, which discusses, amongst others, the main modelling choices encountered when using MODM methods for optimising diet quality.

    Summarising, this thesis explores the use of MODM approaches to improve decision-making for dietary assessment and advice. It provides opportunities for better decision-making in research on dietary assessment and advice, and it contributes to model building and solving in Operations Research. Considering the added value for Nutrition Research and the new models and solutions generated, we conclude that the combination of both fields has resulted in synergy between Nutrition Research and Operations Research.

    Changes in body composition as a result of chemotherapy : Comparing women with and without breast cancer
    Berg, Maaike M.G.A. van den - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): E. Kampman; M. Visser, co-promotor(en): R.M. Winkels; J.H.M. de Vries. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436984 - 140
    body composition - neoplasms - cancer - drug therapy - breast cancer - body weight - intake - diet - meta-analysis - toxicity - lichaamssamenstelling - neoplasma's - cancer - geneesmiddelenbehandeling - borstkanker - lichaamsgewicht - opname (intake) - dieet - meta-analyse - toxiciteit

    Because of the improved survival rate, both short term and long term adverse effects of breast cancer treatment have become increasingly important. Body weight and body composition before, during, and after chemotherapy may influence side effects during treatment and survival. The aims of this thesis were to assess among stage I-IIIB breast cancer patients: 1) the association between pre-treatment body composition and dose-limiting toxicities during chemotherapy, 2) potential changes in body weight and body composition during and after chemotherapy compared to changes in age-matched women without cancer in the same time period, and 3) dietary intake during chemotherapy compared to age-matched women without cancer in the same time period.

    Chapter 2 describes the association between pre-treatment body composition and dose-limiting toxicities during chemotherapy. Data from 172 breast cancer patients who participated in the COBRA-study were analysed. Body composition was measured using a total body Dual Energy X-ray Absorption (DEXA) scan. Information regarding dose-limiting toxicities was abstracted from medical records. A higher BMI (kg/m2) and a higher fat mass (kg and percentage) were associated with an increased risk of dose-limiting toxicity, while lean body mass (kg) was not associated with risk of toxicities.

    Chapter 3 presents the findings of a meta-analysis on changes in body weight during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. The meta-analysis showed an overall gain in body weight of 2.7 kg (95% CI: 2.0-3.3) during chemotherapy, with a high degree of heterogeneity (I2= 94.2%). Weight gain in breast cancer patients was more pronounced in papers published before 2000 and studies including cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil as chemotherapy regime.

    Chapter 4 describes changes in body weight and body composition during and after chemotherapy. Data from 145 patients and 121 women of an age-matched comparison group, participating in the COBRA-study were analysed. Body composition was measured using DEXA-scan at three time points during the study period. For the patient group, these tie points were: before start of chemotherapy, shortly after chemotherapy, and 6 months after chemotherapy. For the comparison group these measurements were conducted over a similar time frame: baseline, 6 months after baseline, and 12 months after baseline. In addition, we identified determinants of changes in body weight and body composition.

    Shortly after chemotherapy, patients had a significantly higher body weight, BMI, and lean body mass than women in the comparison group, while fat mass was similar. Six months after chemotherapy no differences in body weight or body composition were observed between the patient and comparison group. A younger age, better appetite during chemotherapy, and an ER-receptor negative tumour were associated with greater changes in body weight over time. A younger age and better appetite during chemotherapy were associated with greater changes in fat mass over time, while the only determinant associated with greater changes in lean body mass over time was a better appetite during chemotherapy.

    Chapter 5 describes the dietary intake and food groups before and during chemotherapy of breast cancer patients compared with women without cancer. In addition we assessed the association between symptoms and energy intake. Data from 117 breast cancer patients and 88 women without breast cancer who participated in the COBRA-study were used. Habitual dietary intake before chemotherapy was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Two 24-hr dietary recalls were used to assess actual dietary intake during chemotherapy for patients and within 6 months for the comparison group. Shortly after the 24-hr dietary recall, participants filled out questionnaires about symptoms. Before chemotherapy, dietary intake was similar for both groups. During chemotherapy, breast cancer patients reported significantly lower total energy, total fat, total protein, and alcohol intake than women without cancer, which could be explained by a lower intake of specific food groups.

    Overall results from this thesis suggest that pre-treatment fat mass is associated with dose-limiting toxicities during chemotherapy. Weight gain during chemotherapy appeared to be more modest than we expected based on literature and changes in body composition during chemotherapy consist mainly of an increase in lean body mass, which is only temporary and returned to baseline within 6 months after chemotherapy. A higher appetite during chemotherapy was associated with changes in body weight and body composition. A younger age at diagnosis was associated with greater changes in body weight and fat mass, but not with changes in lean body mass. In addition, an ER-receptor negative tumour was associated with greater changes in body weight, but not with changes in fat mass or lean body mass. During chemotherapy women with breast cancer have a lower intake of energy, fat, protein and alcohol compared to age-matched women without cancer, which was expressed in a lower intake of specific food groups. The results of this thesis do not suggest that dietary intake is associated with weight gain during chemotherapy.

    On the genetic mechanisms of nutrient-dependent lifespan and reproduction
    Zandveld, Jelle - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): B.J. Zwaan, co-promotor(en): A.J.M. Debets. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436861 - 209
    genetics - lifespan - reproduction - nutrients - drosophila melanogaster - fungi - diet - evolution - genetica - levensduur - voortplanting - voedingsstoffen - drosophila melanogaster - schimmels - dieet - evolutie

    Dietary restriction (DR), a moderate reduction in nutrient intake, improves health or extends lifespan across many species. Moreover, recent insights have shown that also the effects of specific nutrients are of importance for the beneficial effects of DR rather than intake alone. However, we still lack much insight through what mechanisms the lifespan increase through diet changes is exactly mediated.

    To further increase our understanding of the genetic mechanisms of nutrient-dependent lifespan, in Chapter 2, 3, 4, and 5 I employed different methods of genetic interventions (i.e. a genetic knockout, natural genetic variation and experimental evolution) using the model species Drosophila melanogaster and Podospora anserina. To test whether the genetic interventions affected the diet response, a broad range of diets was applied, thereby taking the recent insights of nutritional geometry into account. Furthermore, the response of the fly’s whole-genome transcription to different dietary treatments were assessed in Chapter 6 and 7 to identify and potentially disentangle genetic mechanisms for lifespan from those for reproduction.

    Chapter 2 addressed the effects of a triple knockout in the insulin-IGF signalling (IIS) pathway, namely for three genes encoding insulin-like peptides in Drosophila (dilp2-3,5). The mutant showed a strong elevation of lifespan that was irrespective of food type, but also a strong reduction of the female fly fecundity. In addition, this assay also revealed that the same knockout can yield different interpretations for its function in the fly’s diet response, which was strongly dependent per diet dimension under consideration (i.e. varying yeast, sugar, or its ratio in the diet). This observation set the stage for other experimental chapters in this thesis, where a broad range of diets was applied to depict the exact genotypic effects that are involved in the lifespan response to diet. For example, in Chapter 2, interactive effects were observed between dilp2-3,5 knockout and the lifespan response to dietary sugar, but however, not for the yeast component of the diet.

    In Chapter 3, for the same experimental diets, gene expression responses in dilp2-3,5 knockout flies were measured to describe the general dynamics on the pathway level. Interestingly, expression of the remaining fly head-expressed dilp, dilp6, was elevated on higher yeast levels upon dilp2-3,5 knockout. Therefore, compensatory mechanisms within IIS might still partly mediate the lifespan response to yeast.

    In Chapter 4 the natural genetic variation for the response to DR was explored in wild-derived strains of the fungus Podospora anserina. By applying a broad range of glucose concentrations in a synthetic medium, we constructed reaction norms for 62 natural occurring strains and showed considerable natural variation in the shape of the reaction norms, including the glucose concentration at which lifespan increased and how steeply the fungus’ lifespan responds to diet (the slope S). Furthermore, I identified a significant correlation between a strain’s general lifespan and both parameters, suggesting that the lifespan response to diet partly acts through a mechanism involved in the fungus’ lifespan determination under high nutrient, growth and reproduction permissive, conditions. On moderate glucose restriction levels we showed that a reduced reproduction was not always associated with lifespan extension, which indicates that decoupling of these traits (that often trade-off) can be achieved.

    An evolutionary perspective on diet response and the connection between reproduction and lifespan, two often interconnected traits in lifespan research, was provided in Chapter 5. Here, experimental evolution (EE) was performed in Drosophila melanogaster to test whether improved reproductive capacity (i.e. local adaptation) to three nutritionally distinct diets directly affected the lifespan response. Adaptation to the distinct nutritional conditions, had no consistent effect on the lifespan response to diet. Other life-history traits that I assessed could more consistently be associated with the evolutionary nutritional treatments, which together suggested that the adaptive genetic mechanisms increasing the fly’s reproduction were not necessarily interconnected singly with a change of lifespan, but rather with a change in the whole life-history strategy.

    By exploring the fly’s whole-genome transcription response in a continuously changing environ­ment, Chapter 6 continued on the evolutionary relevance of lifespan responses to diet. This type of fluctuations may better reflect the fly’s natural ecological setting than the continuous diets typically applied in whole-genome transcription laboratory studies. This revealed that flies were able to respond quickly to diet fluctuations throughout lifespan by drastically changing their transcription pattern and, moreover, my results indicated that a large part of the whole-genome transcription response could be attributed to the female fly’s reproduction. Because I measured the response of multiple life-history traits to the fluctuating diet changes, I was able to decouple groups of genes associated with lifespan from those associated with reproduction. This is an important step in the direction of unravelling the genetic architecture that specifically mediates the lifespan response to diet, which can be especially useful in whole-genome transcription studies.

    In Chapter 7, the consistencies between studies for their whole-genome transcription responses upon DR were investigated. This revealed large transcriptomic variations on different regulatory levels, i.e. the level of whole-genome transcription, most significant genes, and also gene ontology. To test whether the observed inconsistent whole-genome transcription responses were primarily a reflection of the fly’s reproduction, such as observed in Chapter 6, a new cohort of flies was subjected to different regimes that resulted in very different age-dependent reproduction patterns. By assessing whole-genome transcription in this cohort at two time points, the gene expression changes reflected the age-dependent reproduction patterns observed, rather than the lifespan phenotypes. Similar to Chapter 6, this again highlighted the importance of measuring multiple life-history traits for associating whole-genome transcription responses to lifespan effects of dietary restriction.

    In Chapter 8 the acquired insights across the experimental chapters were synthesized, discussing the importance of assessing a broad range of nutrients for the interpretation of any genotypic effect, and in addition discussing the value of measuring multiple life-history traits for genetic associations. In this chapter I also suggested directions for future research in Drosophila and Podospora that may be valuable for further unravelling and understanding the mechanisms of diet responses in other organisms, including in humans.

    Condensed Tannins in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Cattle after Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) Intake and Their Possible Relationship with Anthelmintic Effects
    Desrues, Olivier ; Mueller-Harvey, Irene ; Pellikaan, Wilbert F. ; Enemark, Heidi L. ; Thamsborg, Stig M. - \ 2017
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 65 (2017)7. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 1420 - 1427.
    Cooperia oncophora - diet - digesta - feces - helminth parasite - Ostertagia ostertagi - proanthocyanidins
    Condensed tannins' (CTs) fate along the digestive tract of ruminants may account for the variable efficacy of CTs against gastrointestinal nematodes. We analyzed CTs in the digesta of cattle fed sainfoin. With the acetone-butanol-HCl assay, the total CTs concentrations in the digesta were close to those in the diets (6.3 and 1.5% of DM in experiments 1 and 2, respectively); thus, CTs remained potentially largely undegraded/unabsorbed. With the thiolysis assay, CTs concentration was much higher in the abomasum (2.3% of DM; expt 1) compared with the rumen and intestines, along with higher mean size and prodelphinidins percentage, corroborating CTs efficacy reported only against Ostertagia ostertagi in the abomasum. In expt 2, the dietary levels of CTs were probably too low to demonstrate anthelmintic effects in the rumen. Overall, the level of CTs accessible to thiolysis is favored under the acidic conditions of the abomasum, which seems critical for anthelmintic activity.
    Diet-induced phenotypic plasticity during aging
    Rusli, Fenni - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Michael Muller, co-promotor(en): Wilma Steegenga. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578845 - 179
    diet - liver diseases - energy restricted diets - fibroblasts - aging - fatty liver - dieet - leverziekten - energiearme diëten - fibroblasten - verouderen - vetlever

    Increasing life expectancy in the past decades has led to the emergence of age-related chronic diseases and disabilities. A deeper understanding in the molecular events of the aging process is essential to provide evidence-based guidance how lifestyle interventions will be more efficient in delaying age-related disease phenotypes. Calorie restriction (CR) is by far the best nutritional strategy to achieve longevity in animal models. Although potentially also effective for humans, most people experience this rigorous diet as not feasible. To search for a practicable alternative we explored, using a C57BL/6J mice cohort, the effects of intermittent (INT) diet, a weekly alternating diet regimen between 40E% CR and ad libitum medium-fat feeding. We hypothesized that the weekly fluctuating energy availability provides beneficial challenges to the body.

    In this thesis we focused on the effects induced by the INT diet on the liver, the central metabolic organ in the body. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease that develops with age and is considered as the hepatic phenotype of the metabolic syndrome. NAFLD is a disease that develops slowly over the years; its prevalence has been shown to increase at old age (>60 years). In chapter 2 we investigated whether the INT dietary regimen was able to reverse the unfavourable effects of a medium-fat (25%E fat; MF) diet on the liver and its implication on NAFLD development. We showed that, at the age of 12 months, the INT diet prevented NAFLD development. INT-exposed animals retained healthy physiological features as displayed by continuous exposure to CR; maintenance of glucose tolerance, normal insulin levels and low plasma alanine and aspartate aminotransferases. Furthermore, they did not exhibit signs of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, indicated by the reduced hepatic TG levels and morphological observations. The results presented in chapter 3 show that, at the age of 24 months, INT-fed mice displayed normal plasma ALT levels, no liver inflammation or fibrosis. These mice, however, display mild steatosis with IHTG levels significantly lower than the MF-exposed mice. To summarize, long-term exposure to a MF diet seriously impaired metabolic homeostasis and was a risk factor for NAFLD development. Applying every-other-week 40E% CR largely reversed the adverse health effects induced by the MF diet. Although the livers of the INT-exposed mice were still protected for the advanced stages of NAFLD, it is noteworthy that, in the long run, liver fat accumulation still occurred.

    The second part of chapter 3 describes the obesity-counteracting effects of the INT diet. Part of the mice that had been exposed to the MF diet till 12 months of age was switched to the INT diet until the age of 24 months. The switch to the INT diet successfully improved glucose clearance, survival and liver health, but failed to improve IHTG levels. Within the diet switch experiment, we also investigated the plasticity of adaptive response to the switch by means of transcriptome analysis. Most of the genes differentially expressed between the INT- and MF-exposed mice (~95% of 2,667 genes) switched to the INT-expression profile. There was only a small subset of 148 genes which expression levels persistently remained similar to the MF diet-induced expression levels, instead of adapting to INT’s expression profile. Pathway analysis pointed out that this subset of 148 genes contains genes involved in lipid and xenobiotic metabolism, with PXR as the strongest upstream regulator. This suggests that MF-induced deregulated PXR activity persistently affects lipid and xenobiotic metabolism in the liver of the old diet switch mice. Therefore, we suggested that, despite the strong improvement of overall and liver-specific phenotypes, these persistently regulated genes might have potentially adverse effects on health.

    The adaptive response to the diet switch at an old age was further investigated in chapter 4, but then in the reverse order: switching from a healthy to an unhealthy diet. Our results showed that, despite the long-term exposure to CR regimen, mice in the CR-MF group displayed hyperphagia, rapid weight gain, and hepatic steatosis. However, no hepatic fibrosis/injury or alteration in CR-improved survival was observed in the diet switch group. The liver transcriptomic profile of CR-MF group largely shifted to a profile similar to the MF-fed animals but leaving ~22% of the 1578 differentially regulated genes between the CR and MF diet groups comparable with the expression of the life-long CR group. Therefore, although the diet switch was performed at an old age, the CR-MF-exposed mice were still able to rapidly gain weight to similar level as life-long MF mice with the same age, but without developing severe liver pathologies.

    In chapter 5, the data from the different dietary interventions and age time points were combined to further explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the NAFLD development. Hereby, we focussed our analysis on the association with Fgf21, an emerging non-invasive biomarker for NAFLD. We demonstrated that plasma Fgf21 levels strongly reflected liver fat accumulation, confirming its potential as NAFLD marker. Transcriptomics analysis of the liver was performed and revealed that the link between plasma Fgf21 and IHTG levels was associated with differentially regulated PPARα and NRF2 targets during NAFLD. This suggested that the elevated Fgf21 levels in NAFLD was a measure to maintain homeostasis against the adverse effects of lipotoxicity, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress in NAFLD. The PPARα challenge test, which was performed by administrating PPARa agonist Wy-14,643 to the mice, confirmed the dysregulation of PPARα signalling in NAFLD, including the hepatic expression of Fgf21.

    To conclude, the results presented in this thesis adds to our understanding the effects of different diets have on genotype-phenotype relationships, which translate into different health states and are essential for identifying healthy aging strategies. We investigated the role of different dietary regimen on the phenotypes of genetically identical mice, particularly on an intermittent (INT) diet, which alternates weekly between the ad libitum medium-fat (MF) and calorie restriction (CR) diet. We found that the INT dietary regimen provided a remarkable protection against the severe health outcomes of the long-term medium-fat diet consumption, which may improve life quality by reducing the burden of chronic disease. Although it is too early to conclude that the INT dietary regimen (or modulation of the energy intake) is beneficial and safe to be applied in human population, this study is a proof-of-concept of intervening a chronic overnutrition status with a metabolic challenge of energy stress. Further investigation of this novel dietary regimen is needed to allow it to be safely applied in humans. By switching the diets at a defined time point during the study, we demonstrated that, even at middle and old age, the liver is still a highly flexible organ that rapidly adapts its transcriptional program to the different dietary challenges. We also demonstrated that the strong link between the diet-induced NAFLD and Fgf21 denoted a dysregulation of PPARa signalling pathway during the development of the liver disease.

    Linking growing up and getting old : plastic and evolutionary effects of developmental diet on adult phenotypes and gene expression in the fruit fly
    May, C.M. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Bas Zwaan, co-promotor(en): Fons Debets. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577633 - 183
    drosophila melanogaster - gene expression - nutrition - evolution - diet - lifespan - fecundity - biological development - drosophila melanogaster - genexpressie - voeding - evolutie - dieet - levensduur - voortplantingspotentieel - biologische ontwikkeling
    Effectiveness of zinc fortified drinking water on zinc intake, status and morbidity of rural Kenyan pre-school children
    Kujinga-Chopera, P. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Michael Zimmermann, co-promotor(en): Inge Brouwer; D. Moretti. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577572 - 127
    preschool children - drinking water - zinc - fortification - kenya - diarrhoea - nutrient deficiencies - morbidity - childhood diseases - diet - diet studies - peuters en kleuters - drinkwater - zink - fortificatie - kenya - diarree - voedingsstoffentekorten - morbiditeit - kinderziekten - dieet - dieetstudies
    Meten wat jij moet eten
    Luijendijk, Liesbeth ; Feskens, Edith - \ 2016
    diet counseling - nutrition and health - food consumption - gastrointestinal microbiota - intestinal physiology - nutrition physiology - diet

    Wat gezond eten is voor de één, kan voor de ander averechts uitpakken. Voedingonderzoekers zijn op zoek naar de oorzaken van deze individuele verschillen en de consequenties voor het dieet. Uiteindelijk willen ze de consument voorzien van een persoonlijk voedingsadvies.
    What Can Stable Isotope Analysis of Top Predator Tissues Contribute to Monitoring of Tundra Ecosystems?
    Ehrich, Dorothee ; Ims, Rolf A. ; Yoccoz, Nigel G. ; Lecomte, Nicolas ; Killengreen, Siw T. ; Fuglei, Eva ; Rodnikova, Anna Y. ; Ebbinge, Barwolt S. ; Menyushina, Irina E. ; Nolet, Bart A. ; Pokrovsky, Ivan G. ; Popov, Igor Y. ; Schmidt, Niels M. ; Sokolov, Aleksandr A. ; Sokolova, Natalya A. ; Sokolov, Vasily A. - \ 2015
    Ecosystems 18 (2015)3. - ISSN 1432-9840 - p. 404 - 416.
    arctic tundra - diet - ecological indicator - food web - monitoring - predator - stable isotopes - Vulpes lagopus

    Understanding how climate change and increasing human impacts may exert pressure on ecosystems and threaten biodiversity requires efficient monitoring programs. Indicator species have been proposed as useful tools, and predators and their diet may be particularly suitable. The vast and remote arctic tundra represents a good case study as shifts in ecosystem states are presently occurring, and monitoring is a major challenge. Here we assess what stable isotopes reflecting the diet of the arctic fox, a widespread and highly flexible top predator, can contribute to effective monitoring of the vertebrate prey basis of Arctic tundra. We used data collected over 2–5 years from six sites in the Eurasian Arctic and Greenland. Stable isotope signatures of arctic fox winter fur reflected both spatial and temporal variability in the composition of the vertebrate prey basis. Clear contrasts were apparent in the importance of marine resources, as well as of small rodents and their multiannual density fluctuations. Some important resources could however not be separated because of confounding isotopic signatures. Moreover, except for preferred prey, the proportions of prey in the diet may not necessarily reflect the relative importance of species in the community of available prey. Knowing these limitations, we suggest that the arctic fox diet as inferred from stable isotopes could serve as one of several key targets in ecosystem-based monitoring programs.

    ‘Als de basis niet goed is, heeft de rest geen zin’ : Epke Zonderland op congres "Sport en Voeding"
    Tieland, Michael - \ 2015
    nutrition and health - sport performance - diet - nutrients - nutrient requirements - sport
    Food Consumption and its Impact on Cardiovascular Disease: Importance of Solutions Focused on the Globalized Food System : A Report from the Workshop Convened by the World Heart Federation
    Anand, Sonia S. ; Hawkes, Corinna ; Souza, Russell J. De; Mente, Andrew ; Dehghan, Mahshid ; Nugent, Rachel ; Zulyniak, Michael A. ; Weis, Tony ; Bernstein, Adam M. ; Krauss, Ronald M. ; Kromhout, Daan ; Jenkins, David J.A. ; Malik, Vasanti ; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A. ; Mozaffarian, Dariush ; Yusuf, Salim ; Willett, Walter C. ; Popkin, Barry M. - \ 2015
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 66 (2015)14. - ISSN 0735-1097 - p. 1590 - 1614.
    cardiovascular disease - climate change - diet - food consumption - food system - low- and middle-income countries

    Major scholars in the field, on the basis of a 3-day consensus, created an in-depth review of current knowledge on the role of diet in cardiovascular disease (CVD), the changing global food system and global dietary patterns, and potential policy solutions. Evidence from different countries and age/race/ethnicity/socioeconomic groups suggesting the health effects studies of foods, macronutrients, and dietary patterns on CVD appear to be far more consistent though regional knowledge gaps is highlighted. Large gaps in knowledge about the association of macronutrients to CVD in low- and middle-income countries particularly linked with dietary patterns are reviewed. Our understanding of foods and macronutrients in relationship to CVD is broadly clear; however, major gaps exist both in dietary pattern research and ways to change diets and food systems. On the basis of the current evidence, the traditional Mediterranean-type diet, including plant foods and emphasis on plant protein sources provides a well-tested healthy dietary pattern to reduce CVD.

    ‘We moeten hypes blijven ontzenuwen’
    Smit, A. ; Kok, F.J. - \ 2015
    WageningenWorld (2015)4. - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 18 - 21.
    wetenschappers - humane voeding - dieet - voeding en gezondheid - voedselwetenschappen - scientists - human feeding - diet - nutrition and health - food sciences
    Half oktober nam Frans Kok afscheid van Wageningen UR. Hij was er bijna een kwart eeuw hoogleraar en achttien jaar hoofd van de afdeling Humane Voeding. ‘Het wordt ons steeds duidelijker dat de crux van goede voeding niet in individuele stofjes zit, maar in voedingspatronen.’
    Verification of Egg Farming Systems from the Netherlands and New Zealand Using Stable Isotopes
    Rogers, Karyne M. ; Ruth, Saskia Van; Alewijn, Martin ; Philips, Andy ; Rogers, Pam - \ 2015
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 63 (2015)38. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 8372 - 8380.
    authenticity - barn - carbon - diet - egg albumen - free range - isotope - Netherlands - New Zealand - nitrogen - organic - supermarket

    Stable isotopes were used to develop authentication criteria of eggs laid under cage, barn, free range, and organic farming regimens from The Netherlands and New Zealand. A training set of commercial poultry feeds and egg albumen from 49 poultry farms across The Netherlands was used to determine the isotopic variability of organic and conventional feeds and to assess trophic effects of these corresponding feeds and barn, free range, and organic farming regimens on corresponding egg albumen. A further 52 brands of New Zealand eggs were sampled from supermarket shelves in 2008 (18), 2010 (30), and 2014 (4) to characterize and monitor changes in caged, barn, free range, and organic egg farming regimens. Stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes of 49 commercial poultry feeds and their corresponding egg albumens reveals that Dutch poultry are fed exclusively on a plant-based feed and that it is possible to discriminate between conventional and organic egg farming regimens in The Netherlands. Similarly, it is possible to discriminate between New Zealand organic and conventional egg farming regimens, although in the initial screening in 2008, results showed that some organic eggs had isotope values similar to those of conventional eggs, suggesting hens were not exclusively receiving an organic diet. Dutch and New Zealand egg regimens were shown to have a low isotopic correlation between both countries, because of different poultry feed compositions. In New Zealand, both conventional and organic egg whites have higher δ15N values than corresponding Dutch egg whites, due to the use of fishmeal or meat and bone meal (MBM), which is banned in European countries. This study suggests that stable isotopes (specifically nitrogen) show particular promise as a screening and authentication tool for organically farmed eggs. Criteria to assess truthfulness in labeling of organic eggs were developed, and we propose that Dutch organic egg whites should have a minimum δ15N value of 4.8‰ to account for an organic plant derived diet. Monitoring of New Zealand egg isotopes over the past 7 years suggests that organic eggs should have a minimum δ15N value of 6.0‰, and eggs falling below this value should be investigated further by certification authorities.

    Dietary patterns, biomarkers of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality
    Sijtsma, F.P.C. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Daan Kromhout; D.R. Jacobs, co-promotor(en): Sabita Soedamah-Muthu. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575493 - 207
    dieet - hart- en vaatziekten - atherosclerose - prognostische merkers - ziektemerkers - mortaliteit - classificatiesystemen - epidemiologie - longitudinaal onderzoek - diet - cardiovascular diseases - atherosclerosis - prognostic markers - disease markers - mortality - classification systems - epidemiology - longitudinal studies

    Summary belonging to the thesis entitled ‘Dietary patterns, biomarkers of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality’

    The long history of epidemiologic studies on diet and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has traditionally relied on analysis of specific nutrients or foods. Dietary patterns are multiple dietary components operationalized as a single exposure; they reflect the entire diet. In general, two methods are used to define dietary patterns: 1) theoretically, or a priori, defined dietary scores and 2) empirically, or a posteriori, derived dietary patterns. A priori dietary scores were developed to assess diet quality based on adherence to dietary patterns or recommendations. An example of an ‘a posteriori’ approach is factor analysis (e.g. principal components analysis (PCA)). Factor analysis reduces data into patterns based upon intercorrelations between nutrients or foods. The aim of this thesis was to create, examine and compare several dietary patterns and indices and assess these in relation to both early stage markers of CVD (markers of endothelial function and oxidative stress) and to mortality from CVD and all-causes.

    In chapter 2 we described the creation of the A Priori Diet Quality Score, representing overall diet quality in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. The CARDIA study included 5115 black and white men and women, aged 18-30 at baseline (1985-86). Diet was assessed diet at baseline, year 7(1992-93) and 20 (2005-06) examinations. The A Priori Diet Quality Score summed 46 food groups rated by investigators as positive or negative on the basis of hypothesized health effects. In 2652 participants with 3 diet assessments, the mean (±SD) A Priori Diet Quality Score increased from 64.1± 13.0 at year 0 to 71.1 ± 12.6 at year 20, which was primarily attributable to increased age. However, the secular trend, which was estimated from differences of dietary quality scores across time at a fixed age (age matched time trend), decreased. The diet score was higher in whites than in blacks and in women than in men and increased with education, but demographic gaps in the score narrowed over 20 y. Consumption of positively rated food groups tended to increase and negatively rated food groups tended to decrease, and were similar in direction across demographic groups.

    In chapter 3 we used the ‘A Priori Diet Quality Score’ and two dietary patterns derived using principal components analysis (PCA) the ‘Fruit and Vegetables’ dietary pattern and the ‘Meat’ dietary pattern in the CARDIA study. We studied prospective associations of the ‘A Priori Diet Quality Score’, the ‘Fruit and Vegetables’ dietary pattern and the ‘Meat’ dietary pattern with cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs). The ‘Fruit and Vegetables’ dietary pattern was characterized by high intakes of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains and the ‘Meat’ dietary pattern by high intakes of red meat, refined grain, and butter. The ‘A Priori Diet Quality Score’ was related to all CAMs. The ‘Fruit and Vegetables’ dietary pattern was related to E-selectin and sICAM-1 but not to P-selectin and VCAM. The ‘Meat’ dietary pattern was related to all CAMs except VCAM. Strongest associations were for the ‘Meat’ dietary pattern with E-selectin (effect size 28% of an SD (+3.9/13.7 ng/mL)) and P-selectin (effect size 37% of an SD (+4.1/11.2 ng/mL)) and the ‘A Priori Diet Quality Score’ with sICAM-1 (effect size 34% of an SD (-15.1/44.7 ng/mL)) and VCAM (effect size of 26% of an SD (-45.1/170.3 ng/mL)).

    Chapter 4 described prospective associations of the A Priori Diet Quality Score, ‘Fruit and Vegetables’ dietary pattern and ‘Meat’ dietary pattern and a plasma biomarker of lipid peroxidation, F2-isoprostanes also in the CARDIA study. We estimated associations between each dietary pattern and plasma F2-isoprostanes cross-sectionally (at year 20, n=2736) and prospectively (year 0/7 average diet and year 15/20 average F2-isoprostanes, n=2718). In the cross-sectional analysis, the A Priori Diet Quality Score and the ‘Fruit and Vegetables’ dietary pattern were inversely, and the ‘Meat’ dietary pattern was positively, associated with F2-isoprostanes (all p values <0.001). These associations were also statistically significant in prospective analysis.

    In chapter 5 we described a food classification system derived from the Food-based Dietary Guidelines in the Netherlands that can be used to systematically and objectively classify foods in relation to their effects on health. Classification criteria for each food group were developed based on presumed positive, neutral or negative effects on chronic diseases of five nutrients: four that likely increase (saturated fatty acids, mono-trans unsaturated fatty acids, sodium, and added sugar) and one that likely decreases (dietary fiber) the risk of chronic diseases. This classification system also provided a framework to create food-based dietary scores for epidemiologic research on diet and chronic disease relationships.

    Chapter 6 describes the creation of two dietary scores the ‘Dutch Healthy Nutrient and Food Score’ and the ‘Dutch Undesirable Nutrient and Food Score’ based on the food classification system described in chapter 5 in the Alpha Omega Trial. The Alpha Omega Trial is a randomized controlled trial; however the current analyses were done from an observational prospective cohort perspective (with adjustment for intervention groups). We included 4307 cardiac patients aged 60-80 years and monitored mortality for 10 years. Patients in the highest quintile of the ‘Dutch Healthy Nutrient and Food Score’ had 30% (HR 0.70; 95% CI 0.55-0.91) lower CVD and 32% (HR 0.68; 95%CI 0.47-0.99) lower all-cause mortality risk compared to patients in the first quintile. The ‘Dutch Undesirable Nutrient and Food Score’ was unrelated to both CVD and all-cause mortality.

    In Chapter 7 we also created a ‘Dutch Healthy Nutrient and Food Score’ and a ‘Dutch Undesirable Nutrient and Food Score’ in the Zutphen Elderly Study. We assessed the association of these scores with 25 year CVD and all-cause mortality and life-years gained. We divided the men (age 65-84 years) into those with (n=210) and without (n=616) cardiovascular-metabolic diseases at baseline in 1985. During a median follow-up of 10.6 years (IQR 5.8-15.9) 806 participants died, of whom 359 from CVD. Diet scores did not predict death in all men. Among men with cardiovascular-metabolic diseases, ‘Dutch Healthy Nutrient and Food Score’ was associated with lower CVD (HR: 0.57; 95%CI: 0.35-0.93) and all-cause mortality risk (HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44-0.94) comparing highest vs. lowest tertiles of the score. Men with cardiovascular-metabolic diseases in the highest vs. lowest tertile of the ‘Dutch Healthy Nutrient and Food Score’ lived 2.5 year longer. The ‘Dutch Healthy Nutrient and Food Score’ was not associated with CVD and all-cause mortality in men without cardiovascular-metabolic diseases. The ‘Dutch Undesirable Nutrient and Food Score’ was not associated with any of the outcomes.

    In Chapter 8 we summarized the main findings of this thesis and reflected on some methodological considerations. First, we discussed the different approaches to derive dietary scores and patterns and the advantages and disadvantages of these methods. Second, we reflected on important aspects for creating a priori dietary scores and on further research. Finally, the general conclusions and implications were presented.

    From the results presented in this thesis we conclude that adherence to a healthy diet is inversely associated with early stage markers of CVD (markers of endothelial function and oxidative stress), CVD and all-cause mortality. In summary, a healthy diet consists of plenty of vegetables and fruit, legumes, whole grains, nuts and seeds, moderate intake of fish/poultry/lean meats and low fat dairy, and limited intake of processed meats, refined grains, sugar sweetened beverages, ready meals and snacks. However, this thesis also showed that a high quality dietary pattern can be achieved in several different ways, and may differ among populations.

    Effect of dietary protein on lipid and glucose metabolism: implications for metabolic health
    Rietman, A. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Frans Kok; D. Tomé, co-promotor(en): Marco Mensink. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573482 - 160
    voeding en gezondheid - stofwisselingsstoornissen - eiwitinname - dieet - metabolisme - lipiden - glucose - macronutriënten - nutrition and health - metabolic disorders - protein intake - diet - metabolism - lipids - glucose - macronutrients

    Abstract

    Background: Diet is an important factor in the development of the Metabolic Syndrome (Mets) and type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Accumulation of intra hepatic lipid (IHL) can result in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is sometimes considered the hepatic manifestation of Mets. Manipulation of the dietary macronutrient composition – altering either fat or simple carbohydrates – has the potential to change lipid storage in the liver. Protein also has this ability, however human data is scarce. Moreover, high dietary protein intake is linked with an increased type 2 Diabetes risk. Therefore, it is essential to study the metabolic consequences of changes in macronutrient composition focussing on altering dietary protein quantity.

    Objective: In this thesis the effects of dietary protein on metabolic health focusing on lipid and glucose metabolism were investigated in both observational studies as well as in a human dietary intervention trial.

    Methods: In an observational study (n=1283), Fatty Liver Index (FLI) was calculated and related to macronutrient consumption from dietary assessment data. In a controlled dietary intervention, participants (n=27) were assigned to either a control-diet for 4 weeks, or a high-fat, hypercaloric diet, with either a high-protein or a normal-protein content for two weeks, and vice versa. Measurements of IHL (1H-MRS) and blood plasma glucose and lipid concentrations were performed, both in the fasting state and following a meal.

    Results: In the observational study, the prevalence of fatty liver as indicated by an FLI>60, was 22.0%. Compared to persons with a normal FLI score of <30, protein intake was positively related with high FLI score >60 (OR: 1.26 per 1 en%, 95%CI 1.16-1.37). This was in particular the case for protein intake from animal sources. In the dietary intervention study, the high-protein diet compared to the normal-protein diet resulted in lower IHL and plasma TG concentrations (IHL: 0.35 ± 0.04 % vs. 0.51 ± 0.08 %; p=0.08; TG: 0.65 ± 0.03 vs. 0.77 ± 0.05 mmol/L; p=0.07). Furthermore, after the meal challenge the free fatty acids (FFA) response was significant different between all three intervention diets (p=0.03). Moreover, the postprandial glucose response was significantly lower after adaptation to NP compared with HP (p=0.03), without differences in the postprandial insulin responses (p=0.37).

    Conclusions: From data of the intervention study and observational studies reported in this thesis, it can be concluded that dietary protein intake is associated with alterations in metabolic profile, with both favourable and potential unfavorable health outcomes. On the short term increasing dietary protein in healthy subjects improved lipid metabolism, as seen by lower TG and IHL levels, but not glucose metabolism. On the long term, however, a high-protein intake was related to a fatty liver, and associated to insulin resistance.

    Varken is goed als model voor suikerpatiënt
    Sikkema, A. ; Koopmans, S.J. - \ 2015
    Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 10 (2015)1. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 8 - 8.
    varkens - mensen - metabolisme - voeding - suikerziekte - dieet - voedingsonderzoek - pigs - people - metabolism - nutrition - diabetes - diet - nutrition research
    Niet alle dikke mensen zijn ongezond. Dat blijkt uit Wagenings onderzoek dat is gedaan met varkens. Varkens doen het goed als onderzoekmodel om het effect van voeding op onze welvaartsziekten te bepalen. De stofwisseling van mensen en varkens komt namelijk sterk overeen, stelt onderzoeker Sietse Jan Koopmans. Dit artikel gaat hier nader op in.
    Long-lasting effects of Early-life Antibiotic Treatment and routine Animal Handling on Gut Microbiota Composition and Immune System in Pigs
    Schokker, D. ; Zhang, J. ; Vastenhouw, S.A. ; Heilig, G.H.J. ; Smidt, H. ; Rebel, J.M.J. ; Smits, M.A. - \ 2015
    PLoS ONE 10 (2015)2. - ISSN 1932-6203
    large gene lists - intestinal microbiota - bacterial - extraction - expression - disease - health - asthma - young - diet
    Background In intensive pig husbandry systems, antibiotics are frequently administrated during early life stages to prevent respiratory and gastro-intestinal tract infections, often in combination with stressful handlings. The immediate effects of these treatments on microbial colonization and immune development have been described recently. Here we studied whether the early life administration of antibiotics has long-lasting effects on the pig’s intestinal microbial community and on gut functionality. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate the long-lasting effect of early-life treatment, piglets were divided into three different groups receiving the following treatments: 1) no antibiotics and no stress, 2) antibiotics and no stress, and 3) antibiotics and stress. All treatments were applied at day four after birth. Sampling of jejunal content for community scale microbiota analysis, and jejunal and ileal tissue for genome-wide transcription profiling, was performed at day 55 (~8 weeks) and day 176 (~25 weeks) after birth. Antibiotic treatment in combination with or without exposure to stress was found to have long-lasting effects on host intestinal gene expression involved in a multitude of processes, including immune related processes. Conclusions/Significance The results obtained in this study indicate that early life (day 4 after birth) perturbations have long-lasting effects on the gut system, both in gene expression (day 55) as well as on microbiota composition (day 176). At day 55 high variance was observed in the microbiota data, but no significant differences between treatment groups, which is most probably due to the newly acquired microbiota during and right after weaning (day 28). Based on the observed difference in gene expression at day 55, it is hypothesized that due to the difference in immune programming during early life, the systems respond differently to the post-weaning newly acquired microbiota. As a consequence, the gut systems of the treatment groups develop into different homeostasis.
    Understanding the role of oat ß-glucan in oat-based dough systems
    Londono, D.M. ; Gilissen, L.J.W.J. ; Visser, R.G.F. ; Smulders, M.J.M. ; Hamer, R.J. - \ 2015
    Journal of Cereal Science 62 (2015). - ISSN 0733-5210 - p. 1 - 7.
    rheological properties - celiac-disease - bread quality - pentosans - diet - formulations - yeast
    B-glucan is one of the components that differentiate oats from other cereals and that contribute to the health-related value of oats. However, so far oats cannot easily be applied in bread-like products without loss of product quality. Here we have studied how the content and viscosity of oat ß-glucan affect the technological properties of oat dough in both a gluten-free and a gluten-containing system. In both systems, increasing the ß-glucan concentration resulted in an increase of dough stiffness and in a reduction of dough extensibility. ¿-glucan negatively impacted the elastic properties that additional wheat gluten conferred to oat dough. This effect was smaller for medium-viscosity ß-glucan than for high-viscosity ß-glucan. Interestingly, dough made from low ß-glucan flour (
    Mouse gut microbiomics of short chain fatty acid metabolism and mucosal responses
    Hugenholtz, F. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Hauke Smidt; Michiel Kleerebezem. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571792 - 200
    microbiota van het spijsverteringskanaal - slijmvlies - dieet - gastheren (dieren, mensen, planten) - diermodellen - spijsvertering - voedingsvezels - gastrointestinal microbiota - mucosa - diet - hosts - animal models - digestion - dietary fibres

    Summary

    The microbiota of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract plays a key role in the digestion of our food. The human gut microbiota can be studied using in vitro and animal models. In this thesis the mouse model is used to study the microbiota interaction with the diet and the host in different regions along the GI tract. These interacting microbes in the GI tract of humans and other mammals yield a wide range of metabolites, among which the short chain fatty acids (SCFA), in particular butyrate, acetate, and propionate, are the most abundant products of carbohydrate fermentation. Fermentable carbohydrates can modify the composition of the gut microbiota and change the SCFA concentrations in the gut. Opportunities for increasing specific SCFA by targeting their producers with carbohydrates are discussed. Five different fibres – resistant starch, inulin, fructooligosaccharides, arabinoxylan and guar gum – are tested for their modification of the mucosal tissue transcriptome, luminal microbiota composition and SCFA concentrations in the murine colon. The fibres inulin, fructooligosaccharides, arabinoxylan and guar gum led to increased SCFA concentrations and induced similar changes in relative abundance of microbial groups as determined by the MITChip, a phylogenetic microarray targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA of mouse intestinal microorganisms. Furthermore, these four fibres induced regulation of overlapping sets of genes in the mouse intestinal mucosa, where the transcription factor PPARγ was predicted to be a prominent upstream regulator of these processes. Multivariate data integration revealed strong correlations between the expression of genes involved in energy metabolism and the relative abundance of bacteria belonging to Clostridium cluster XIVa. Similar analyses were done for the caeca of the same mice, and were complemented with metatransciptome analyses. To comprehensively analyse RNAseq data of complex natural microbial communities, a de novo metatranscriptome assembly pipeline was developed and applied to unravel the activity profiles of the microbiota residing in the mouse cecum. This revealed distinct contributions of bacterial families to the fermentation of fibres into SCFA, involving the Bifidobacteriaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Clostridiaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Erysipelotrichaceae and Ruminococcaceae in some or all stages of the overall fibre fermentation activity. All families expressed genes encoding enzymes involved in the production of SCFA in different ratios. Specifically, butyrate producing bacteria correlated with a set of host genes involved in processes such as energy metabolism, transcriptional regulation and the mucosal immune system.

    In addition to complex carbohydrates, amino acids derived from dietary proteins can also serve as substrates for SCFA formation, leading to expansion of the fermentation end-product palet by including branched-SCFA. The long-term effects of high protein-diets on microbial community composition and activity were analysed. The caecal microbiota composition was changed by the high dietary protein. Most of the gene functions detected by metatranscriptomics in these caecal samples were assigned to the Lachnospiraceae, Erysipelotrichaceae and Clostridiaceae. High protein diets induced a decrease of Lachnospiraceae activity, but stimulated the activity of the Erysipelotrichaceae, while the Clostridiaceae appeared to express the broadest range of amino acid metabolism associated pathways.

    In conclusion, this thesis describes dietary interventions to modulate the mouse intestinal microbiota and mucosa. The data provides expansion of the knowledge on interactions between the diet, microbiota and host. This information can be used to optimize the design and validation on dietary intervention studies in humans.

    White adipose tissue reference network: a knowledge resource for exploring potential health-relevant relations
    Kelder, T. ; Summer, G. ; Caspers, M. ; Schothorst, E.M. van; Keijer, J. ; Duivenvoorde, Loes ; Klaus, S. ; Volgt, A. ; Bohnert, L. ; Pico, C. ; Palou, A. ; Bonet, M.L. ; Dembinska-Kiec, A. ; Malczewska-Malec, M. ; Kieć-Wilk, Beata ; Bas, J.M. del; Caimari, A. ; Arola, L. ; Erk, M. van; Ommen, Ben van; Radonjic, M. - \ 2015
    Genes & Nutrition 10 (2015)1. - ISSN 1555-8932
    metabolic syndrome - high-fat - transcription factor - biological networks - insulin-secretion - gene-expression - cell biology - short-term - obesity - diet
    Optimal health is maintained by interaction of multiple intrinsic and environmental factors at different levels of complexity-from molecular, to physiological, to social. Understanding and quantification of these interactions will aid design of successful health interventions. We introduce the reference network concept as a platform for multi-level exploration of biological relations relevant for metabolic health, by integration and mining of biological interactions derived from public resources and context-specific experimental data. A White Adipose Tissue Health Reference Network (WATRefNet) was constructed as a resource for discovery and prioritization of mechanism-based biomarkers for white adipose tissue (WAT) health status and the effect of food and drug compounds on WAT health status. The WATRefNet (6,797 nodes and 32,171 edges) is based on (1) experimental data obtained from 10 studies addressing different adiposity states, (2) seven public knowledge bases of molecular interactions, (3) expert's definitions of five physiologically relevant processes key to WAT health, namely WAT expandability, Oxidative capacity, Metabolic state, Oxidative stress and Tissue inflammation, and (4) a collection of relevant biomarkers of these processes identified by BIOCLAIMS ( http://bioclaims.uib.es ). The WATRefNet comprehends multiple layers of biological complexity as it contains various types of nodes and edges that represent different biological levels and interactions. We have validated the reference network by showing overrepresentation with anti-obesity drug targets, pathology-associated genes and differentially expressed genes from an external disease model dataset. The resulting network has been used to extract subnetworks specific to the above-mentioned expert-defined physiological processes. Each of these process-specific signatures represents a mechanistically supported composite biomarker for assessing and quantifying the effect of interventions on a physiological aspect that determines WAT health status. Following this principle, five anti-diabetic drug interventions and one diet intervention were scored for the match of their expression signature to the five biomarker signatures derived from the WATRefNet. This confirmed previous observations of successful intervention by dietary lifestyle and revealed WAT-specific effects of drug interventions. The WATRefNet represents a sustainable knowledge resource for extraction of relevant relationships such as mechanisms of action, nutrient intervention targets and biomarkers and for assessment of health effects for support of health claims made on food products.
    Food culture in the home environment: Family meal practices and values can support healthy eating and self-regulation in young people in four European countries
    Wit, J.B.F. ; Stok, F.M. ; Smolenski, D.J. ; Ridder, D.T.D. de; Vet, E. de; Gaspar, T. ; Johnson, F. ; Nureeva, L. ; Luszczynska, A. - \ 2015
    Applied Psychology : Health and Well-Being 7 (2015)1. - ISSN 1758-0846 - p. 22 - 40.
    childhood overweight - adolescents - obesity - behaviors - attitudes - children - diet - worldwide - quality - weight
    Background: Overweight epidemics, including among children and adolescents, are fuelled by contemporary obesogenic environments. Recent research and theory highlight the importance of socio-cultural factors in mitigating adverse impacts of the abundance of food in high-income countries. The current study examines whether family meal culture shapes young people's eating behaviors and self-regulation. Methods: Young people aged 10–17 years were recruited through schools in four European countries: the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal and the United Kingdom. A total of 2,764 participants (mean age 13.2 years; 49.1% girls) completed a self-report questionnaire in class, providing information on healthy and unhealthy eating, joint family meals and communal meal values and use of eating-related self-regulation strategies. Results: Path analysis found that family meal culture variables were significantly associated with young people's eating behaviors, as was self-regulation. Significant indirect effects of family meal culture were also found, through self-regulation. Conclusions: Results confirm that family meal culture, encompassing values as well as practices, shapes young people's eating behaviors. Findings extend and link previously separate lines of enquiry by showing how food cultures can play out in the home environment. Importantly, the study contributes novel evidence suggesting that self-regulation is shaped by the home environment and mediates its influence.
    Inulin-type fructans modulate intestinal Bifidobacterium species populations and decrease fecal short-chain fatty acids in obese women
    Salazar, N. ; Dewulf, E.M. ; Neyrinck, A.M. ; Bindels, L.B. ; Cani, P.D. ; Mahillon, J. ; Vos, W.M. de; Thissen, J.P. ; Gueimonde, M. ; Reyes-Gavilán, C.G. de los; Delzenne, N.M. - \ 2015
    Clinical Nutrition 34 (2015)3. - ISSN 0261-5614 - p. 501 - 507.
    gradient gel-electrophoresis - protein-coupled receptor - gut microbiota - mice - prebiotics - increases - glucose - diet - pcr - fermentation
    Background & aims : Inulin-type fructans (ITF) prebiotics promote changes in the composition and activity of the gut microbiota. The aim of this study was to determine variations on fecal short chain fatty acids (SCFA) concentration in obese women treated with ITF and to explore associations between Bifidobacterium species, SCFA and host biological markers of metabolism. Methods Samples were obtained in a randomized, double blind, parallel, placebo-controlled trial, with 30 obese women randomly assigned to groups that received either 16 g/day ITF (n = 15) or maltodextrin (n = 15) for 3 months. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of Bifidobacterium spp. was performed in feces by PCR-DGGE and q-PCR, and SCFA profile was analyzed by gas chromatography. Spearman correlation analysis was performed between the different variables analyzed. Results The species Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum and Bifidobacterium adolescentis were significantly increased at the end of the treatment in the prebiotic group (p <0.01) with being B. longum negatively correlated with serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin (p <0.01). Total SCFA, acetate and propionate, that positively correlated with BMI, fasting insulinemia and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) (p <0.05), were significantly lower in prebiotic than in placebo group after the treatment period. Conclusions ITF consumption selectively modulates Bifidobacterium spp. and decreases fecal SCFA concentration in obese women. ITF could lessen metabolic risk factors associated with higher fecal SCFA concentration in obese individuals.
    Data from: The plastic fly: the effect of sustained fluctuations in adult food supply on life history traits
    Heuvel, Joost van den; Zandveld, Jelle ; Mulder, M. ; Brakefield, P.M. ; Kirkwood, T.B.L. ; Shanley, D.P. ; Zwaan, Bas - \ 2014
    Wageningen University & Research
    ageing - resource allocation - lifespan - life history - phenotypic plasticity - weight - diet - drosophila melanogaster - reproduction
    Many adult traits in Drosophila melanogaster show phenotypic plasticity, and the effects of diet on traits such as lifespan and reproduction are well explored. Although plasticity in response to food is still present in older flies, it is unknown how sustained environmental variation affects life-history traits. Here, we explore how such life-long fluctuations of food supply affect weight and survival in groups of flies and affect weight, survival and reproduction in individual flies. In both experiments, we kept adults on constant high or low food and compared these to flies that experienced fluctuations of food either once or twice a week. For these ‘yoyo’ groups, the initial food level and the duration of the dietary variation differed during adulthood, creating four ‘yoyo’ fly groups. In groups of flies, survival and weight were affected by adult food. However, for individuals, survival and reproduction, but not weight, were affected by adult food, indicating that single and group housing of female flies affects life-history trajectories. Remarkably, both the manner and extent to which life-history traits varied in relation to food depended on whether flies initially experienced high or low food after eclosion. We therefore conclude that the expression of life-history traits in adult life is affected not only by adult plasticity, but also by early adult life experiences. This is an important but often overlooked factor in studies of life-history evolution and may explain variation in life-history experiments.
    The Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES) project-design, population and data harmonization of a large-scale, international study
    Boffetta, P. ; Bobak, M. ; Borsch-Supan, A. ; Brenner, H. ; Eriksson, S. ; Grodstein, F. ; Jansen, E. ; Jenab, M. ; Juerges, H. ; Kampman, E. ; Kee, F. ; Kuulasmaa, K. ; Park, Y. ; Tjonneland, A. ; Duijn, C. van; Wilsgaard, T. ; Wolk, A. ; Trichopoulos, D. ; Bamia, C. ; Trichopoulou, A. - \ 2014
    European Journal of Epidemiology 29 (2014)12. - ISSN 0393-2990 - p. 929 - 936.
    osteoporotic fractures - cardiovascular-disease - life-style - epidemiology - mortality - women - diet - consumption - disability - cancer
    There is a public health demand to prevent health conditions which lead to increased morbidity and mortality among the rapidly-increasing elderly population. Data for the incidence of such conditions exist in cohort studies worldwide, which, however, differ in various aspects. The Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES) project aims at harmonizing data from existing major longitudinal studies for the elderly whilst focussing on cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, cancer, fractures and cognitive impairment in order to estimate their prevalence, incidence and cause-specific mortality, and identify lifestyle, socioeconomic, and genetic determinants and biomarkers for the incidence of and mortality from these conditions. A survey instrument assessing ageing-related conditions of the elderly will be also developed. Fourteen cohort studies participate in CHANCES with 683,228 elderly (and 150,210 deaths), from 23 European and three non-European countries. So far, 287 variables on health conditions and a variety of exposures, including biomarkers and genetic data have been harmonized. Different research hypotheses are investigated with meta-analyses. The results which will be produced can help international organizations, governments and policy-makers to better understand the broader implications and consequences of ageing and thus make informed decisions.
    LDL-cholesterol-lowering effect of plant sterols and stanols across different dose ranges: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled studies
    Ras, R.T. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Trautwein, E.A. - \ 2014
    The British journal of nutrition 112 (2014)2. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 214 - 219.
    placebo-controlled trials - serum-lipids - cardiovascular-disease - enriched margarines - efficacy - consumption - management - spreads - safety - diet
    Phytosterols (PS, comprising plant sterols and plant stanols) have been proven to lower LDL-cholesterol concentrations. The dose-response relationship for this effect has been evaluated in several meta-analyses by calculating averages for different dose ranges or by applying continuous dose-response functions. Both approaches have advantages and disadvantages. So far, the calculation of averages for different dose ranges has not been done for plant sterols and stanols separately. The objective of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the combined and separate effects of plant sterols and stanols when classified into different dose ranges. Studies were searched and selected based on predefined criteria. Relevant data were extracted. Average LDL-cholesterol effects were calculated when studies were categorised by dose, according to random-effects models while using the variance as weighing factor. This was done for plant sterols and stanols combined and separately. In total, 124 studies (201 strata) were included. Plant sterols and stanols were administered in 129 and fifty-nine strata, respectively; the remaining used a mix of both. The average PS dose was 2.1 (range 0.2-9.0) g/d. PS intakes of 0.6-3.3 g/d were found to gradually reduce LDL-cholesterol concentrations by, on average, 6-12%. When plant sterols and stanols were analysed separately, clear and comparable dose-response relationships were observed. Studies carried out with PS doses exceeding 4 g/d were not pooled, as these were scarce and scattered across a wide range of doses. In conclusion, the LDL-cholesterol-lowering effect of both plant sterols and stanols continues to increase up to intakes of approximately 3 g/d to an average effect of 12 %.
    Of Monkeys and Men: A Metabolomic Analysis of Static and Dynamic Urinary Metabolic Phenotypes in Two Species
    Saccenti, E. ; Tenori, L. ; Verbruggen, P. ; Timmerman, M.E. ; Bouwman, J. ; Greef, J. de; Luchinat, C. ; Smilde, A.K. - \ 2014
    PLoS ONE 9 (2014)9. - ISSN 1932-6203
    multilevel component analysis - time - creatinine - evolution - pathways - humans - diet
    Background Metabolomics has attracted the interest of the medical community for its potential in predicting early derangements from a healthy to a diseased metabolic phenotype. One key issue is the diversity observed in metabolic profiles of different healthy individuals, commonly attributed to the variation of intrinsic (such as (epi)genetic variation, gut microbiota, etc.) and extrinsic factors (such as dietary habits, life-style and environmental conditions). Understanding the relative contributions of these factors is essential to establish the robustness of the healthy individual metabolic phenotype. Methods To assess the relative contribution of intrinsic and extrinsic factors we compared multilevel analysis results obtained from subjects of Homo sapiens and Macaca mulatta, the latter kept in a controlled environment with a standardized diet by making use of previously published data and results. Results We observed similarities for the two species and found the diversity of urinary metabolic phenotypes as identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy could be ascribed to the complex interplay of intrinsic factors and, to a lesser extent, of extrinsic factors in particular minimizing the role played by diet in shaping the metabolic phenotype. Moreover, we show that despite the standardization of diet as the most relevant extrinsic factor, a clear individual and discriminative metabolic fingerprint also exists for monkeys. We investigate the metabolic phenotype both at the static (i.e., at the level of the average metabolite concentration) and at the dynamic level (i.e., concerning their variation over time), and we show that these two components sum up to the overall phenotype with different relative contributions of about 1/4 and 3/4, respectively, for both species. Finally, we show that the great degree diversity observed in the urinary metabolic phenotype of both species can be attributed to differences in both the static and dynamic part of their phenotype
    Early Changes in Microbial Colonization Selectively Modulate Intestinal Enzymes, but Not Inducible Heat Shock Proteins in Young Adult Swine
    Arnal, M.E. ; Zhang, J. ; Messori, S. ; Bosi, P. ; Smidt, H. ; Lallès, J.P. - \ 2014
    PLoS ONE 9 (2014)5. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 14 p.
    alkaline-phosphatase - epithelial-cells - gut microbiota - gastrointestinal-tract - gene-expression - messenger-rna - piglets - growth - diet - rat
    Metabolic diseases and obesity are developing worldwide in a context of plethoric intake of high energy diets. The intestine may play a pivotal role due to diet-induced alterations in microbiota composition and increased permeability to bacterial lipopolysaccharide inducing metabolic inflammation. Early programming of metabolic disorders appearing in later life is also suspected, but data on the intestine are lacking. Therefore, we hypothesized that early disturbances in microbial colonization have short- and long-lasting consequences on selected intestinal components including key digestive enzymes and protective inducible heat shock proteins (HSP). The hypothesis was tested in swine offspring born to control mothers (n = 12) or mothers treated with the antibiotic amoxicillin around parturition (n = 11), and slaughtered serially at 14, 28 and 42 days of age to assess short-term effects. To evaluate long-term consequences, young adult offspring from the same litters were offered a normal or a fat-enriched diet for 4 weeks between 140 and 169 days of age and were then slaughtered. Amoxicillin treatment transiently modified both mother and offspring microbiota. This was associated with early but transient reduction in ileal alkaline phosphatase, HSP70 (but not HSP27) and crypt depth, suggesting a milder or delayed intestinal response to bacteria in offspring born to antibiotic-treated mothers. More importantly, we disclosed long-term consequences of this treatment on jejunal alkaline phosphatase (reduced) and jejunal and ileal dipeptidylpeptidase IV (increased and decreased, respectively) of offspring born to antibiotic-treated dams. Significant interactions between early antibiotic treatment and later diet were observed for jejunal alkaline phosphatase and sucrase. By contrast, inducible HSPs were not affected. In conclusion, our data suggest that early changes in bacterial colonization not only modulate intestinal architecture and function transiently, but also exert site- and sometimes diet-specific long-term effects on key components of intestinal homeostasis.
    A cow-level association of ruminal pH on body condition score, serum beta-hydroxybutyrate and postpartum disorders in Thai dairy cattle
    Inchaisri, C. ; Chanpongsang, S. ; Noordhuizen, J. ; Hogeveen, H. - \ 2014
    Animal Science journal 85 (2014)9. - ISSN 1344-3941 - p. 861 - 867.
    metabolic-acidosis - milk-yield - herds - sara - insemination - diet
    Subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy cows occurs when ruminal pH is below about 5.5. However, the exact threshold level of ruminal pH affecting cow health is still in debate. This investigation was carried out in 505 cows within 31 farms. The postpartum disorders, including dystocia, retained placenta, anestrus, cystic ovary, metritis, clinical mastitis and lameness, were analyzed. Ruminal pH, serum beta-hydroxy butyrate (SBHB), serum urea nitrogen and body condition score (BCS) were measured once during the 3 to 6 weeks postpartum, while BCS was determined once more at 1 week before calving. Ruminal pH was determinded by ruminocentesis technique. The ruminal pH was evaluated to study the association with BCS, SBHB and postpartum disorders using linear regression in a generalized linear mixed model with farm as a random effect. The results show that low ruminal pH was associated with dystocia, metritis and lameness. Moreover, a low ruminal pH can be found in cows with a high loss of BCS after calving and also in cows with low SBHB postpartum. These findings confirmed the feasibility of the ruminocentesis technique and the association of low ruminal pH on various postpartum disorders at the individual cow level. However, the consequences of low ruminal pH on dairy cow health still needs more exploration for a better understanding of the physiological mechanisms.
    The Dutch Healthy Diet Index : development, evaluation, and application
    Lee, L. van - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Edith Feskens, co-promotor(en): Anouk Geelen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570962 - 169
    dieet - dieetrichtlijnen - gezondheid - gezondheidsindicatoren - dieetonderzoeken - voedselconsumptie - voedingsgedrag - diet - dietary guidelines - health - health indicators - dietary surveys - food consumption - feeding behaviour

    The Dutch Healthy Diet index – Development, Evaluation, and Application

    Linde van Lee

    Abstract

    Background: Dietary indices evaluate the conformity of an individual’s diet with pre-defined standards. Generally, dietary guidelines are used for this purpose. As no index based on the current dietary guidelines was available in the Netherlands, the aim of the present thesis was to develop, evaluate, and apply a dietary index for use in the country.

    Methods and results: The Dutch Healthy Diet index (DHD-index) was developed on the basis of the 2006 Dutch dietary guidelines using data relating to 749 young adults who completed two 24-hour recalls in the Dutch national food consumption survey 2003. The index comprises ten components on physical activity, vegetables, fruit, dietary fibre, saturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, consumption occasions with acidic drinks and foods, sodium, and alcohol. Scores for each component range between 0 (no adherence) and 10 (complete adherence) points. The DHD-index was inversely associated with energy intake and positively associated with most micronutrient intakes when adjusted for energy intake. We compared the DHD-index score based on two 24-hour recalls with the index based on the food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) of 121 adults from the European Food Consumption Validation study. We revealed an acceptable correlation (r=0.48) and absolute agreement between the indices based on the two methods. The prospective relationship with mortality outcomes was studied in 3593 of the Rotterdam Study participants who were followed for 20 years. The DHD-index per 10 points increment was associated with a 9% (95% CI 0.87-0.96) risk reduction for all-cause mortality, and non-significantly associated with risk reductions for cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, and stroke mortality. Among women, shared dinners were associated with lower DHD-index scores for that day than solo dinners in 1740 participants who contributed multiple 24-hour recalls in the Nutrition Questionnaires plus study. Among men and women, dinners shared with family members were associated with a higher DHD-index score on that day than dinners shared with others. Furthermore, in a subsample of 1235 participants in the Nutrition Questionnaires plus study, we evaluated the DHD-index based on the newly developed 34-item DHD-FFQ, a short questionnaire to assess diet quality in time-limited settings. The DHD-index based on the DHD-FFQ showed an acceptable correlation (r=0.56) with the index based on a 180-item FFQ, but showed a large variation in bias at individual level.

    Conclusions: The DHD-index based on an FFQ, on multiple 24-hour recalls, or on the DHD-FFQ was considered a valid tool to rank participants according to their diet quality. The DHD-index was therefore considered useful to monitor populations, study diet–disease associations, and identify subpopulations at risk of poor diet quality.

    Towards healthy diets for parents: effectiveness of a counselling intervention
    Hooft Van Huysduynen, E.J.C. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees van Woerkum, co-promotor(en): Jeanne de Vries. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571532 - 114
    ouders - gezondheid - voeding en gezondheid - voeding - dieetadvisering - dieet - counseling - voedingsgedrag - parents - health - nutrition and health - nutrition - diet counseling - diet - counselling - feeding behaviour

    Towards Healthy Diets for parents: efectiveness of a counselling intervention

    Eveline J.C. Hooft van Huysduynen

    Abstract

    Introduction and Objective: As parents’ modelling of dietary behaviour is one of the factors influencing children’s diets, improving parents’ diets is expected to result in improved dietary intake of their children. This thesis describes research that was conducted to develop and evaluate a counselling intervention to improve parental adherence to the Dutch dietary guidelines.

    Methods: A counselling intervention was developed, which was underpinned with the theory of planned behaviour and the transtheoretical model. In 20 weeks, five face-to-face counselling sessions were provided by a registered dietician who used motivational interviewing to improve parental adherence to the Dutch dietary guidelines. In addition, parents received three individually tailored email messages. During the counselling, the dietary guidelines and additional eating behaviours, that were hypothesized to affect diet quality, were addressed. The intervention was evaluated in a randomised controlled trial with 92 parents receiving the counselling and 94 parents as controls. Effects on dietary intake, biomarkers, intermediate markers of health and children’s dietary intake were evaluated. With mediation analyses, it was investigated if changes in dietary intake were established via changes in behavioural determinants. Thereby, it was also examined if spot urine samples could be used to replace 24 h urine samples for evaluating changes in sodium and potassium intake.

    Results: The intervention group increased their adherence to the dietary guidelines, as assessed with the Dutch Healthy Diet-index (ranging from 0 to 100 points), by 6.7 points more than the control group did. This improvement was achieved by small increases in the scores of seven out of ten index components. The most substantial changes were shown in fruit and fish intakes of which increases in fish intake were reflected in changes in fatty acid profiles derived from blood plasma. Also a small decrease in waist circumference was observed. Based on parental reports, the children in the intervention group increased their intakes of fruit, vegetables and fish more than the children in the control group. Improvements in parental fruit intake were mediated by changes in the behavioural determinants attitude and habit strength. Decreases in snack intake were mediated by changes in self-identity as a healthy eater. Although the results of a study in young Caucasian women showed that spot urine can be used to rank individuals for their ratios of sodium to potassium, no intervention effects on these ratios were observed.

    Conclusion: This thesis provides empirical knowledge on potential effective elements for counselling interventions aiming at improving the dietary pattern as a whole of parents and provides knowledge on methods to evaluate changes in dietary intake.

    Unravelling of the health effects of polyphenols is a complex puzzle complicated by metabolism
    Hollman, P.C.H. - \ 2014
    Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 559 (2014)2014. - ISSN 0003-9861 - p. 100 - 105.
    cardiovascular-disease mortality - flavonoid intake - blood-pressure - prospective cohort - adhesion molecule - vascular function - heart-disease - cancer-risk - diet - consumption
    Plant metabolism creates complex mixtures of polyphenols in plant foods. Epidemiology and human trials reduced this complexity, by studying specific foods; subclasses of polyphenols; individual polyphenols, or total antioxidant capacity (TAC). This implies the following assumptions: (1) a limited number of potent polyphenols exists; (2) well-defined natural potent mixtures of polyphenols exist; (3) polyphenols share a common biological activity (e.g. antioxidant activity). To find potent polyphenols (1st assumption), in vitro screening has been widely applied, but most published results are of limited use because metabolism, changing biological activity profoundly, has frequently not been considered. The abundant anecdotal evidence for natural potent mixtures of polyphenols (2nd assumption) on the internet is very hard to verify. Additionally, cross-cultural studies have revealed the potency of e.g. cocoa. Polyphenols share the antioxidant phenolic group which inspired researchers to measure their antioxidant activity, thus greatly reducing complexity (3rd assumption). Unfortunately, the elegant antioxidant hypothesis has to be rejected, because poor absorption and extensive metabolism annihilate any contribution to the endogenous body antioxidants. In conclusion, the above assumptions are hard to verify, and no quick answers are to be expected. Future research should focus on structure–activity relations at nanomolar levels and explore metabolomics.
    The effect of steam pelleting of a dry dog food on the Maillard reaction
    Rooijen, C. van; Bosch, G. ; Wierenga, P.A. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Poel, A.F.B. van der - \ 2014
    Animal Feed Science and Technology 198 (2014). - ISSN 0377-8401 - p. 238 - 247.
    glycation end-products - physical quality - nutritive-value - animal feed - lysine - diet - digestibility - absorption - components - proteins
    During processing of pet foods, the Maillard reaction (MR) can occur, which reduces the bioavailability of essential amino acids like lysine and results in the formation of advanced Maillard reaction products (MRPs). This study examined the effect of conditioning temperature (65 and 90 °C) and die hole length (ø 5 × 45, 65, and 80 mm) during pelleting processing of a standard dry dog food on selected indicators of the MR (total lysine, reactive lysine, fructoselysine, ¿-N-carboxymethyllysine, (5-hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural, lysinoalanine), browning development and CIE-Lab color. Steam pelleting variables did not cause a significant loss of lysine or change in color and absorbance values. Analyzing the unprocessed ingredient mix suggests that the choice of the ingredients used in the ingredient mix, rather than the pelleting process applied, is responsible for the RL/TL ratio observed in the dry standard dog food used in this study. MRP content increased during steam pelleting (fructoselysine: 366.2 to 538.8 mg/kg DM; ¿-N-carboxymethyllysine: 12.6 to 14.8 mg/kg DM; lysinoalanine: 5.7 to 7.7 mg/kg DM; P <0.05). Increasing conditioning temperature from 65 to 90 °C increased fructoselysine (475.9 to 601.6 mg/kg DM; P <0.01) and ¿-N-carboxymethyllysine (14.3 to 15.1 mg/kg DM; P = 0.003). An increased die hole length of 80 mm decreased fructoselysine content compared to 45 and 65 mm (461.3 vs. 573.3 and 581.6 mg/kg DM; P <0.01) but increased lysinoalanine content (8.8 vs. 7.4 and 6.8 mg/kg DM; P = 0.002). Analyzing total and reactive lysine and absorbance values are not accurate enough to predict the MR and formation of MRPs during processing.
    Efficacy of dimethylglycine as a feed additive to improve broiler production
    Kalmar, I.D. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Vanrompay, D. ; Maenner, K. ; Zentek, J. ; Iben, C. ; Leitgeb, R. ; Schiavone, A. ; Prola, L. ; Janssens, G. - \ 2014
    Livestock Science 164 (2014). - ISSN 1871-1413 - p. 81 - 86.
    amino-acids - n,n-dimethylglycine - supplementation - digestibility - performance - absorption - choline - betaine - diet
    Dimethylglycine (DMG) is a naturally occurring glycine derivative, which is useful as additive to broiler diets as it improves nutrient digestibility and reduces the development of broiler ascites syndrome. This study evaluated the efficacy of dietary DMG to enhance performance of broiler chickens. Three trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with 1 g Na DMG/kg on growth performance and carcass characteristics. In Trial 1, the effect of sex was also assessed in a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. In Trials 1 (Germany), 2 (Austria), and 3 (Italy), each treatment consisted of 6, 12, and 11 replicate pens with 20, 15, and 16 one-day-old broiler chickens per pen, respectively. Dietary DMG supplementation resulted in improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) in the starter phase by 8.8% (P=0.004), 6.4% (P=0.001), and 4.8% (P=0.006) compared with the control diet in Trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The overall FCR improved in broiler chickens fed the diets supplemented with DMG by 3.8% and 4.1% in Trials 1 (P=0.007) and 3 (P=0.006), respectively. In addition, final body weight increased by 5.5% (P=0.001) in Trial 2 and production value improved by 6.8% (P=0.015) in Trial 1 by dietary DMG supplementation. Mortality in all trials was similar between dietary treatments. In all 3 trials, cold carcass weight and total meat yield were as well similar between broiler chickens fed the control and DMG diets. In Trial 1, dietary DMG had no effect on breast meat yield in male broiler chickens, but it increased breast meat yield in female broiler chickens (diet×sex, P=0.004). Organoleptic quality of roasted breast meat assessed only in Trial 2 was not affected by dietary treatments. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of DMG at 1 g Na DMG/kg can considerably improve s production performance in broiler chickens.
    Development of gut microbiota in pigs and the effect of diet, antibiotics and other environmental factors
    Zhang, J. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Hauke Smidt; Willem de Vos. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570924 - 245
    varkens - darmmicro-organismen - microbiota van het spijsverteringskanaal - antibiotica - dieet - microbiologie - pigs - intestinal microorganisms - gastrointestinal microbiota - antibiotics - diet - microbiology

    The intestinal tract of humans and animals is colonized by trillions of microorganisms that constitute a community or ecosystem known as the gut microbiota. The gut microbiota undergoes remarkable alterations during early age, reaches a relative stable state in adulthood, and is driven by internal and external factors such as genotype of the host, diet and antibiotics. The objective of this research was to determine the effects of antibiotic treatment, microbial exposure and diet on the development of intestinal microbiota, focusing on the pig as an important production animal as well as a model for human. To achieve this objective, a series of intervention experiments were performed both in piglets and adult pigs.

    To determine the impact of antibiotic treatment on the development of intestinal microbiota of piglets, two experiments were performed. The first experiment aimed to determine the effect of perinatal maternal antibiotic treatment on the intestinal microbiota of piglets. In this experiment, the sows received amoxicillin orally around parturition, and their offspring was serially sacrificed up to 42 days of age for analysis of ileal and colonic microbiota. It was observed that amoxicillin treatment drastically impacted the sows’ faecal microbiota, and furthermore influenced specific microbial groups in the ileum and colon of the piglets before and after weaning. These findings indicated that maternal amoxicillin treatment may indirectly affect the gut microbiota of offspring through disturbing the maternal microbiota and the transfer of maternal microbiota to the offspring. In a second experiment, we determined the effect of early antibiotic treatment on intestinal microbial colonization and immune development of piglets. Additionally, the effect of stress factors associated with routine farm practice was investigated. Antibiotic treatment affected the composition and diversity of jejunal microbiota, and reduced the expression of a large number of genes involved in immune-related processes. The cumulative effect of management procedures on top of the use of an antibiotic was limited. This study reinforced the notion that the early phase of life is critical for intestinal immune development, also under regular production circumstances.

    Apart from antibiotic treatment, the effect of early microbial association on the development of intestinal microbiota and immune system of piglets was also studied in this thesis. One group of caesarean derived piglets was inoculated with a mixture of three microbial species (Lactobacillus amylovorus, Clostridium glycolicum, and Parabacteroides sp. ASF519) at day 1 and 2 after birth (the simple microbial association group), whereas a second group of piglets was inoculated with the above mixture at day 1 and 2 after birth as well as diluted adult sow faeces at day 3 and 4 after birth as the complex microbial association (CA) group. CA caused an increase of faecal microbial diversity and accelerated the faecal microbiota to develop into a stable and diverse microbiota. CA significantly affected luminal microbial composition and gene expression in jejunal and ileal mucosa, albeit in different ways. In the pig ileum, CA led to an increased relative abundance of microbial groups known to have beneficial effects, whereas it reduced the relative contribution of potential pathobionts. CA also induced the enrichment of immune-related gene sets in the ileal mucosa.

    Another research goal of this thesis was to determine the influence of diet on the microbiota in the large intestine of adult pigs. To this end, the effect of resistance starch (RS) was evaluated in two studies. In the first study, pigs were either assigned to an RS diet or a digestible starch (DS) diet for two weeks. Samples from along the intestine were collected for measuring luminal microbiota composition, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations and the expression of host genes involved in SCFA uptake, SCFA signalling, and satiety regulation in mucosal tissue. In both the caecum and colon, differences in microbiota composition and SCFA concentrations were observed between DS- and RS-fed pigs. Caecal tissue expression of genes encoding monocarboxylate transporter 1 and glucagon was induced by RS. Based on these results, an additional experiment was performed. In this study, ten pigs, fitted with a cannula in the proximal colon for repeated collection of tissue biopsies and luminal content, were fed a DS diet, or a diet high in RS (34%) for two consecutive periods of 14 days in a crossover design. RS increased the relative abundance of several butyrate-producing microbial groups and reduced that of potentially pathogenic members of the genus Leptospira and the phylum of Proteobacteria. Concentrations of acetate, propionate and butyrate in carotid plasma were significantly higher after RS consumption. Upon RS feeding, oxidative metabolic pathways, such as TCA cycle and beta-oxidation, were induced, whereas many immune response pathways, including adaptive and innate immune system, as well as cell division were suppressed. The nuclear receptor PPARG was identified as a potential key upstream regulator.

    In conclusion, this thesis provides direct evidence that maternal antibiotic treatment, early antibiotic admistration and microbial exposure affect the development of intestinal microbiota of the piglets. Moreover, both early antibiotic admistration and microbial exposure affected piglet mucosal tissue gene expression. These findings reinforce the notion that the early phase of life is critical for the development of intestinal microbiota and immune system. Furthermore, it is proposed that manipulation of the microbial association at early age may be a way of supporting functional gut development. In addition to the above discussed early life envents, a diet with RS can also affect the microbiota in the large intestine of adult pigs. This thesis provides an enhanced understanding of the interaction between diet, microbiota and host in a number of complementary pig models and revealed the impact of antibiotics in early life microbial colonization. The gained insight is expected to be instrumental in improving sustainable pig management. Moreover, it may also be useful in understanding similar processes in the human gut.

    How Norms Work: Self-Identification, Attitude, and Self-Efficacy Mediate the Relation between Descriptive Social Norms and Vegetable Intake
    Stok, F.M. ; Verkooijen, K.T. ; Ridder, D.T.D. de; Wit, J.B.F. ; Vet, E. de - \ 2014
    Applied Psychology : Health and Well-Being 6 (2014)2. - ISSN 1758-0846 - p. 230 - 250.
    planned behavior - identity - consumption - information - obesity - fruit - diet
    Background: The current studies aim to show that descriptive social norms influence vegetable intake and to investigate three potentially underlying processes (self-identification, attitude, and self-efficacy). Methods: In two studies, descriptive social norms regarding vegetable intake were manipulated (majority vs. minority norm). Study 1 investigated both the relation between baseline vegetable intake and self-identification, attitude, and self-efficacy, as well as the effect of the norm manipulation on vegetable intake over a one-week period. Study 2 investigated potential mediation of the effect of the manipulation on vegetable intake intentions through self-identification, attitude, and self-efficacy. Results: Study 1 showed that the proposed mediators were related to a baseline measure of vegetable intake. Moreover, in participants identifying strongly with the norm referent group, majority norms led to higher vegetable consumption than minority norms. Study 2 showed that the direct effect of the social norm manipulation on vegetable intake intentions was partly mediated by self-identification, attitude, and self-efficacy. Conclusions: These studies shed first light on processes underlying the effect of descriptive social norms on health behavior. A norm describing the behavior of a salient social group leads people to identify more with, have more positive attitudes toward, and feel more self-efficacious regarding that behavior.
    Verification of fresh grass feeding, pasture grazing and organic farming by cows farm milk fatty acid profile
    Capuano, E. ; Veer, G. van der; Boerrigter-Eenling, G.R. ; Elgersma, A. ; Rademaker, J. ; Sterian, A. ; Ruth, S.M. van - \ 2014
    Food Chemistry 164 (2014). - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 234 - 241.
    near-infrared spectroscopy - stable-isotope - linoleic-acid - cutting date - diet - authentication - transition - systems - origin
    The present study investigated the use of fatty acid (FA) profiling in combination with chemometric modelling to verify claims for cow milk in terms of fresh grass feeding, pasture grazing and organic/biodynamic farming. The FA profile was determined for 113 tank milk samples collected in the Netherlands from 30 farms over four different months, and used to develop classification models based on the PLS-DA algorithm. Milk from cows with daily rations of fresh grass could be successfully distinguished from milk from cows with no fresh grass in their diet. Milk from cows at pasture could easily be distinguished from milk from stabled cows without fresh grass in the diet, but the correct prediction of milk from stabled cows fed fresh grass indoors proved difficult. The FA profile of organic/biodynamic milk was different compared to conventional milk but an unequivocal discrimination was not possible either in summer or in winter.
    Diet, lifestyle and type 2 diabetes in China
    He, Y. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Edith Feskens, co-promotor(en): -- Guansheng Ma; Xiaomei Yang. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739216 - 161
    dieet - levensstijl - diabetes type 2 - china - volwassenen - diet - lifestyle - type 2 diabetes - china - adults

    Background

    Over the past two decades, China has been undergoing rapid socio-economic and nutrition transitions. Along with these transitions, chronic non-communicable diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, are becoming serious public health problems. However, only few studies on determinants of type 2 diabetes, such as fetal exposure, dietary patterns, physical activity, and obesity, have been carried out in China.

    Method

    The 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey (CNNHS), which is a nationally representative cross-sectional survey, was the source of data for this study. Body weight, height, and fasting blood glucose levels were measured by trained technicians and persons whose fasting glucose was >5.5 mmol/l were given an oral glucose tolerance test. Information on food intake was collected using the 24h recall method for three consecutive days. The amounts of cooking oil and condiments consumed during the three survey days were obtained using a food weighing method. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to investigate the usual diet of persons aged above 14 years in the year before the study. Information on physical activity was collected by trained investigators using a 1-year recall physical activity questionnaire.

    Result

    Central obesity is a better predictor of the presence of glucose tolerance abnormalities than BMI. The optimal cut-off value for waist to height ratio (WHtR) was 0.5, and the prevalenceratio (PR) for this cut-off was 2.85 (95% CI 2.54, 3.21) for men and 3.10 (95% CI 2.74, 3.51) for women.

    Dietary patterns and are associated with the presence of glucose tolerance abnormalities in China. Persons in the ‘Green Water’ dietary pattern had the lowest prevalence of glucose tolerance abnormality (3.9%). Persons in the ‘Yellow Earth’ dietary pattern (PR 1.22, CI: 1.04–1.43) and the ‘New Affluence’ dietary pattern(PR 2.05 CI: 1.76–2.37) had significantly higher prevalence rates than the ‘Green Water’ dietary pattern.

    A high fat/protein–low carbohydrate diet score was associated with a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the Chinese population. The odds ratio comparing the highest with the lowest quintile was 2.75 (95% CI: 2.09–3.61). The odds ratio was 1.87 (95% CI: 1.35–2.58) after further adjustment for socioeconomic status and physical activity.

    The ‘Green Water’dietary pattern was related to the lowest prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) (15.9%). Compared to the ‘Green Water’ dietary pattern, the ‘Yellow Earth’and the ‘Western/New Affluence’dietary patterns resulted in an odds ratio of1.66(95% CI: 1.40–1.96)and 1.37 (95% CI: 1.13–1.67),respectively. Physical activity showed a significant interaction with the dietary patterns in relation to MS risk (P for interaction = 0.008). Participants with a combination of sedentary activity and a ‘Yellow Earth’ or a ‘Western/New Affluence’ dietary patternboth had more than three times (95% CI: 2.8–6.1) higher odds of MS than active persons with a ‘Green Water’dietary pattern.

    In areas severely affected by famine in 1959–1961, fetal-exposed persons had an increased risk of hyperglycemia compared to non-exposed persons (OR=3.92; 95% CI: 1.64–9.39; P=0.002). Also, in severely affected famine areas, fetal-exposed persons who followed a ‘Western/New Affluence’dietary pattern (OR=7.63; 95% CI: 2.41–24.1; P=0.0005) or had a high economic status in later life experienced a substantially elevated risk of hyperglycemia (OR=6.20; 95% CI: 2.08-18.5; P=0.001).

    Conclusion

    The findings in this thesis indicate that early life environment, central obesity, dietary pattern, and physical activity are associated with the risk of diabetes and metabolic syndrome in the general Chinese population. Keeping body weight in the normal range, improving diet quality, and promoting physical activity would be benefit for Chinese population to prevent diabetes.

    N -(carboxymethyl)lysine: A Review on Analytical Methods, Formation, and Occurrence in Processed Food, and Health Impact
    Nguyen, Ha T. ; Fels, H.J. van der; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van - \ 2014
    Food Reviews International 30 (2014)1. - ISSN 8755-9129 - p. 36 - 52.
    glycation end-products - n-epsilon-carboxymethyllysine - performance liquid-chromatography - community-dwelling women - maillard reaction - lipid-peroxidation - protein glycation - milk-products - treated foods - diet
    Foods are often heat processed and may contain advanced glycation end products (AGE). One of the most widely studied AGE is Ne-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML); nevertheless, knowledge on dietary CML is fragmentary. This study aimed to review current scientific knowledge on analytical methods to determine CML contents in food, chemical pathways of CML formation in food, occurrence of CML in food, and health implications of dietary exposure to CML. Chemical analyses of CML in food products are carried out by immunochemical assays and instrumental methods, but the former method may interfere with the food matrix. CML is formed in food through various chemical pathways, depending on food ingredients and processing conditions. The compound is present in many cooked foods, with relatively high concentrations in carbohydrate- rich foods and dairy products. Dietary CML is very likely to impair human health, but full cause-effect evidence is not available yet. More studies on metabolic effects and impact of food-derived CML on human health should be performed. Food production should be optimized to minimize CML concentrations, while maintaining acceptable microbiological safety and organoleptic properties of the final food product. To this end, more insights into effects of food composition and processing conditions on CML formation are necessary.
    Refers to: Absence of homogenization might explain the benefits of raw cow's milk : Correspondence
    Neerven, R.J.J. van; Knol, E.F. ; Heck, J.M. ; Savelkoul, H.F.J. - \ 2013
    Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 131 (2013)3. - ISSN 0091-6749 - p. 927 - 928.
    piama birth cohort - asthma - schoolchildren - consumption - atopy - risk - diet - fat
    Dietary determinants, inflammation, and type 2 diabetes: insights from observational studies
    Woudenbergh, G.J. van - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Edith Feskens; E.E. Blaak, co-promotor(en): Anneleen Kuijsten. - Wageningen : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461737175 - 171
    diabetes type 2 - ontsteking - dieet - type 2 diabetes - inflammation - diet

    Background

    Incidence of type 2 diabetes has rapidly increased during the last decades. It is a chronic disease caused by impaired insulin action and insulin secretion. Potentially, the majority of the new cases are due to changes in lifestyle, including unfavourable changes in diet. Lifestyle interventions promoting a healthy diet and physical activity indeed showed that diet has a role in the development of type 2 diabetes. However, firm conclusions about the role of most dietary factors and their association with type 2 diabetes cannot be drawn yet.

    Evidence for an association between a dietary factor and type 2 diabetes is strengthened when a potential pathway is elucidated through which a dietary factor can be linked to type 2 diabetes. Chronic low-grade inflammation may be one of these pathways. Elevated concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) and pro-inflammatory cytokines, like TNF-α and IL-6, have been associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes, at least through a connection with overweight and abdominal obesity. Whether chronic low-grade inflammation is an intermediate in the association between dietary factors and risk of type 2 diabetes is not often studied so far.

    Objectives

    The first objective of this thesis was to study the role of selected dietary factors, i.e., fatty acids, fish, tea, meat, glycemic index (GI), and glycemic load (GL), on the development of type 2 diabetes in observational studies. The second objective was to study the extent to which chronic low-grade inflammation is a pathway through which diet can affect the processes leading to type 2 diabetes.

    Methods

    Data were used from several ongoing prospective cohort studies, i.e., CODAM study, Rotterdam study, EPIC-InterAct study, and Hoorn study. In these studies, information about diet was collected with food frequency questionnaires.

    As a reflection of dietary fatty acid composition, the association between serum fatty acids in cholesteryl esters and glucose metabolism status was studied cross-sectionally in the CODAM study (n= 471). The prospective associations between fish (i.e., total, lean, fatty), meat (i.e., unprocessed red meat, processed red meat, poultry), GI, and GL and risk of type 2 diabetes were studied in the Rotterdam study (n= ≈4,400; nincident cases= ≈460). The EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study was used to investigate the prospective association between intake of tea and risk of type 2 diabetes (nsubcohort= 16,154; nincident cases= 11,541; eight European countries).

    To investigate the second objective, the mediating role of CRP in the association between meat, GI, or GL and risk of type 2 diabetes was studied. Furthermore, the cross-sectional associations between a literature-based index that reflects the inflammatory potential of the diet, the Adapted Dietary Inflammatory Index (ADII), and markers of glucose metabolism were investigated in CODAM and Hoorn studies (n= 1,034). In the Rotterdam study, a dietary pattern that relates to CRP was constructed and related to risk of type 2 diabetes.

    Results

    Intake of lean fish (Relative Risk (RR)≥23 vs. 0 g/day= 1.30 [95%Confindence Interval (95%CI) 1.01, 1.68]) and intake of processed meat (RR>30 vs. 0 g/day= 1.73 [95%CI 1.16, 2.57]) were associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes. The intake of tea was associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes (RR≥4 vs. 0 cups/day= 0.84 [95%CI 0.81, 1.00]). No statistically significant associations were observed for the other dietary factors, i.e., proportions of saturated, mono-unsaturated, trans, and poly-unsaturated fatty acids in cholesteryl esters, intake of fatty fish, intake of red meat, intake of poultry, GI, and GL. Our findings showed that the mediating role of CRP in the association between intake of meat, GI, or GL and risk of type 2 diabetes was small. However, the total dietary inflammatory potential of the diet, as estimated by ADII and a pro-inflammatory dietary pattern, were associated with insulin resistance or risk of type 2 diabetes, respectively.

    Conclusion

    The findings in this thesis together with results from other studies indicate that high intake of tea and low intake of processed meat can help lower the risk of type 2 diabetes. The findings also suggest that some diets can affect the development of type 2 diabetes through harmful effects on chronic low-grade inflammation. Which combinations of dietary factors cause the pro-inflammatory properties of these diets remains to be determined.

    Molecular signatures for the dynamic process of establishing intestinal host-microbial homeostasis: potential for disease diagnostics?
    Aidy, S.F. El; Kleerebezem, M. - \ 2013
    Current Opinion in Gastroenterology 29 (2013)6. - ISSN 0267-1379 - p. 621 - 627.
    inflammatory-bowel-disease - gut microbiota - gene-expression - immune-system - health - diet - mucosa - twins - mice - conventionalisation
    Purpose of review: The dynamic interplay of the intestinal microbiota and host has been the focus of many studies because of its impact on the health status in human life. Recent reports on the time-resolved immune and metabolic interactions between the host and microbiota, as well as the molecular signatures that mark this communication during the process of establishing a host–microbial relationship, are addressed here. Recent findings: During microbial colonization, the progressive impact of de-novo introduction of the gut microbiota on the host's physiology is tightly controlled by highly intertwined regulatory networks and achieves an efficient and balanced interplay between the host and its developing microbial community. Recent findings from germ-free mouse models have unravelled core transcriptional, metabolic and microbial signatures, which are proposed to orchestrate the molecular responses during the establishment of the multifaceted state of intestinal host–microbe homeostasis. Summary: Exploring the time-resolved dynamics of the host responses to the newly colonizing gut microbiota provides mechanistically critical understanding of the sequential host–microbe response cascades that lead to a homeostatic relationship. Thereby, these approaches can provide novel diagnostic tools and therapeutic targets, or either of the two, in humans for specific disorders associated with intestinal dysbiosis and loss of homeostasis
    Harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena in the Eastern Scheldt: A resident Stock or trapped by a storm surge barrier?
    Jansen, O.E. ; Aarts, G.M. ; Reijnders, P.J.H. - \ 2013
    PLoS ONE 8 (2013)3. - ISSN 1932-6203
    sea-level rise - stable-isotope analysis - food-web - feeding ecology - carbon isotopes - marine mammals - north-sea - nitrogen - diet - delta-c-13
    Coastal protection measures are planned and executed worldwide to combat the effects of global warming and climate change, in particular the acceleration of sea level rise, higher storm surge flooding and extensive coastal inundation. The extent to which these defensive measures may impact coastal and estuarine ecosystems is still poorly understood. Since the building of a storm surge barrier, movement of harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena in and out of the Eastern Scheldt tidal bay (SW-Netherlands) may be limited. To measure residency, porpoises stranded along the Dutch North Sea coast between 2006 and 2008 were sampled for muscle (n = 102) and bone tissue (n = 118), of which 9 muscle (8.8%) and 12 bone samples (10.2%) were collected from animals stranded within the Eastern Scheldt. Stable carbon (d13C) was analysed to get insight into the habitat use and residency of porpoises in the Eastern Scheldt. Our data showed significantly higher d13C values in the muscle of porpoises stranded within the Eastern Scheldt (µ = -17.7‰, SD = 0.4‰) compared to animals stranded along the Dutch coast (µ = -18.3‰, SD = 0.5‰). This suggests that most porpoises stranded in the Eastern Scheldt foraged there for a longer period. The distinct d13C signature of animals from the Eastern Scheldt was not observed in bone tissue, suggesting a relatively recent shift in habitat use rather than life-long residency of porpoises within the Eastern Scheldt. The high number of strandings within the Eastern Scheldt suggests a higher mortality rate compared to the Dutch coastal zone. Our study indicates that along with other changes in the physical environment, the storm surge barrier may play an important role in determining the residency of porpoises in the Eastern Scheldt, and that the area might act as an ecological trap for porpoises entering it.
    Plastic in North Sea Fish
    Foekema, E.M. ; Gruijter, C. de; Mergia, M.T. ; Franeker, J.A. van; Murk, A.J. ; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2013
    Environmental Science and Technology 47 (2013)15. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 8818 - 8824.
    marine-environment - stomach contents - coastal waters - debris - accumulation - ingestion - microplastics - diet - food - l.
    To quantify the occurrence of ingested plastic in fish species caught at different geographical positions in the North Sea, and to test whether the fish condition is affected by ingestion of plastics, 1203 individual fish of seven common North Sea species were investigated: herring, gray gurnard, whiting, horse mackerel, haddock, atlantic mackerel, and cod. Plastic particles were found in 2.6% of the examined fish and in five of the seven species. No plastics were found in gray gurnard and mackerel. In most cases, only one particle was found per fish, ranging in size from 0.04 to 4.8 mm. Only particles larger than 0.2 mm, being the diameter of the sieve used, were considered for the data analyses, resulting in a median particle size of 0.8 mm. The frequency of fish with plastic was significantly higher (5.4%) in the southern North Sea, than in the northern North Sea above 55°N (1.2%). The highest frequency (>33%) was found in cod from the English Channel. In addition, small fibers were initially detected in most of the samples, but their abundance sharply decreased when working under special clean air conditions. Therefore, these fibers were considered to be artifacts related to air born contamination and were excluded from the analyses. No relationship was found between the condition factor (size–weight relationship) of the fish and the presence of ingested plastic particles.
    Replacement of meat and dairy by plant-derived foods: estimated effects on land use, iron and SFA intakes in young Dutch adult females
    Temme, E.H.M. ; Voet, H. van der; Thissen, J.T.N.M. ; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J. ; Donkersgoed, G. van; Nonhebel, S. - \ 2013
    Public Health Nutrition 16 (2013)10. - ISSN 1368-9800 - p. 1900 - 1907.
    consumption patterns - life-style - climate-change - consumers - health - diet - requirements - perspectives - vegetarians - energy
    Objective: Reduction in the current high levels of meat and dairy consumption may contribute to environmental as well as human health. Since meat is a major source of Fe, effects on Fe intake need to be evaluated, especially in groups vulnerable to negative Fe status. In the present study we evaluated the effects of replacing meat and dairy foods with plant-based products on environmental sustainability (land requirement) and health (SFA and Fe intakes) in women. Design: Data on land requirements were derived from existing calculation methods. Food composition data were derived from the Dutch Food Composition Table 2006. Data were linked to the food consumption of young Dutch women. Land requirements and nutrient intakes were evaluated at baseline and in two scenarios in which 30% (Scenario_30 %) or 100% (Scenario_100 %) of the dairy and meat consumption was randomly replaced by the same amount of plant-based dairy- and meat-replacing foods. Setting: The Netherlands. Subjects: Three hundred and ninety-eight young Dutch females. Results: Replacement of meat and dairy by plant-based foods benefited the environment by decreasing land use. The intake of SFA decreased considerably compared with the baseline situation. On average, total Fe intake increased by 2?5 mg/d, although most of the Fe intake was from a less bioavailable source. Conclusions: Replacement of meat and dairy foods by plant-based foods reduced land use for consumption and SFA intake of young Dutch females and did no compromise total Fe intake.
    Viability of small seeds found in feces of the Central American tapir on Barro Colorado Island, Panama
    Capece, P.I. ; Aliaga-Rossel, E. ; Jansen, P.A. - \ 2013
    Integrative Zoology 8 (2013)1. - ISSN 1749-4877 - p. 57 - 62.
    bairds tapir - french-guiana - rain-forest - habitat use - costa-rica - dispersal - diet - ecology - brazil - conservation
    Tapirs are known as effective dispersers of large-seeded tree species, but their role in dispersing small-seeded plant species has yet to be established. Tapir feces have been reported to contain large numbers of small seeds, but whether these are viable has rarely been evaluated. We determined the abundance and viability of small seeds in feces of Central American tapir (Tapirus bairdii) on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. A total of 72 fecal samples were collected opportunistically from 4 tapir latrine sites. Seeds were manually extracted from feces and classified by size. Seed viability was estimated by opening each seed and examining for the presence of at least 1 intact firm white endosperm. In total, we obtained 8166 seeds of at least 16 plant species. Small-seeded species dominated, with 96% of all seeds found measuring
    Estimating the Economic Value of Narwhal and Beluga Hunts in Hudson Bay, Nunavut
    Hoover, C. ; Bailey, M.L. ; Higdon, J. ; Ferguson, S.H. ; Sumaila, R. - \ 2013
    Arctic 66 (2013)1. - ISSN 0004-0843 - p. 1 - 16.
    inuit - growth - foods - diet
    Hunting of narwhal (Monodon monoceros) and beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) in Hudson Bay is an important activity, providing food and income in northern communities, yet few studies detail the economic aspects of these hunts. We outline the uses of narwhal and beluga and estimate the revenues, costs, and economic use value associated with the hunt on the basis of the harvests in 2007. We also explore the effects of cost sharing and inclusion of opportunity cost of labour on model outputs. For the communities participating in each hunt, the average economic use value was negative (-$9399) for beluga and positive ($133 278) for narwhal. The corresponding per capita value estimates were -$1 for beluga and $44 for narwhal. Including the effects of cost sharing with one other hunting activity in the model increased the economic use values to $266 504 for beluga and $321 500 for narwhal. Narwhals provide a higher value per whale, in addition to a higher per capita total economic value to the community, compared to belugas because resources are shared among fewer communities. However, the beluga hunt overall provides greater revenue because more belugas are harvested. In keeping with literature on other hunting activities in the Arctic, our results indicate that the value of whales to communities is largely due to their food value.
    Lifestyle factors and risk of cardiovascular diseases
    Hoevenaar-Blom, M.P. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Daan Kromhout, co-promotor(en): W.M.M. Verschuren; A.M.W. Spijkerman. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461735072 - 119
    hart- en vaatziekten - levensstijl - risicofactoren - dieet - lichamelijke activiteit - slaap - cardiovascular diseases - lifestyle - risk factors - diet - physical activity - sleep

    Background

    Evidence is accumulating that lifestyle factors influence the incidence of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular diseases (CVD). A healthy diet, being physically active, moderate alcohol consumption and not smoking are associated with a lower CVD risk. In addition to these lifestyle factors, recent research suggests that poor sleep may also be a risk factor of CVD. In this thesis, we focussed on a Mediterranean style diet, specific leisure time physical activities, and sleep duration and quality as risk factors for CVD.

    Methods

    Our analyses are based on the prospective Doetinchem Cohort Study (N ~ 3 400), the Monitoring Project on Risk Factors for Chronic Diseases (MORGEN) Study (N ~ 20 400) and the Dutch contribution to the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-NL) (N ~ 34 700). These studies included men and women aged 20-65 years when examined between 1993 and 1997. Diet was assessed with the validated EPIC food frequency questionnaire and operationalized with the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS, range: 0-9). Physical activity was estimated with the validated EPIC physical activity questionnaire, with an emphasis on different leisure time activities. In addition, information was collected on duration and quality of sleep by two questions. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality were ascertained through linkage with national registers. Multivariable Cox models were used to estimate the strength of the associations and 95% confidence intervals.

    Results

    During 12 years of follow-up, 206 CVD cases occurred in the Doetinchem Cohort Study, 1 486 cases in the MORGEN Study and 4 881 cases in the EPIC-NL Study. In the study on diet, a two unit increment in MDS was associated with a 22% lower risk of fatal CVD, and a 5% lower risk of total CVD. For specific CVDs, a 14% lower risk of myocardial infarction, a 12% lower risk of stroke, and a 26% lower risk of pulmonary embolism was observed. The MDS was not related to incident angina pectoris, transient ischemic attack and peripheral arterial disease. The use of multiple measurements of the MDS increased the strength of the associations with CVD and narrowed the confidence intervals. For leisure time physical activity, we showed that cycling was associated with an 18% lower risk of total CVD, sports with a 26% lower risk, and those who both cycled and performed sports had a 34% lower risk. Walking and gardening were not associated with CVD risk. Short sleep duration was associated with a 15% higher risk of total CVD, whereas long sleep duration and sleep quality separately were not associated. Short sleepers with a poor sleep quality had a 63% higher risk of total CVD compared to those with a normal sleep duration and good sleep quality. Finally, the combination of a healthy diet, sufficient physical activity, moderate alcohol consumption and non-smoking was associated with a 57% lower risk of composite CVD and a 67% lower risk of fatal CVD. The addition of sufficient sleep duration to these four traditional healthy lifestyle factors resulted in a 65% lower risk of composite CVD and an 83% lower risk of fatal CVD.

    Conclusions

    In this thesis, we showed that the strength of the association between dietary patterns and CVD incidence is likely underestimated because most studies used only the baseline measurement of diet. Furthermore, leisure time physical activities should be of at least moderate intensity to contribute to lower CVD risk. We also observed that sufficient sleep is a factor that should be taken into consideration in the prevention of CVD, in combination with a healthy diet, sufficient physical activity, moderate alcohol consumption and not smoking. Our results underscore the importance of a healthy lifestyle for CVD prevention.


    The effect of plant sterols on serum triglyceride concentrations is dependent on baseline concentrations: a pooled analysis of 12 randomised controlled trials
    Demonty, I. ; Ras, R.T. ; Knaap, H.C.M. van der; Meijer, L. ; Zock, P.L. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Trautwein, E.A. - \ 2013
    European Journal of Nutrition 52 (2013)1. - ISSN 1436-6207 - p. 153 - 160.
    ldl-cholesterol concentrations - mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects - density-lipoprotein cholesterol - enriched spread - cardiovascular-disease - phytosterol intake - clinical-trials - plasma-lipids - fat spreads - diet
    Purpose - Plant sterols (PS) are well known for their low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-lowering effect. Until recently, they were believed to have little or no impact on blood triglycerides (TG). However, studies taken individually were possibly lacking statistical power to detect modest TG decreases. This study was performed to quantify the TG-lowering effect of PS by pooling individual subject data from 12 randomised controlled trials that investigated the effects of PS on blood lipids. Methods - The main outcome variable was the control-adjusted PS effect on relative (%) and absolute (mmol/L) changes in TG. The relative and absolute changes in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were also assessed. Differences in changes of serum lipid concentrations between PS and control treatments were estimated by an ANCOVA using a random effect model which included PS intake (active or control), study and predefined subject characteristics. Results - The twelve randomised controlled trials included in total 935 hypercholesterolaemic subjects not preselected based on their baseline TG concentrations. In most studies, the PS dose ranged between 1.6 and 2.5 g/day. PS intake significantly lowered serum TG by 6.0% (95% CI: -10.7, -1.2) or 0.12 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.20, -0.04). No significant interaction was observed between PS intake and baseline TG concentrations on relative changes, but, on absolute changes, interaction was significant with larger TG decreases observed with higher TG concentrations at baseline. No effects were observed on HDL-C concentrations. Conclusions - These results show that PS exert a modest TG-lowering effect which is dependent on baseline concentrations.
    Analysis of breath by proton transfer reaction time of flight mass spectrometry in rats with steatohepatitis induced by high-fat diet
    Aprea, Eugenio ; Morisco, Filomena ; Biasioli, Franco ; Vitaglione, Paola ; Cappellin, Luca ; Soukoulis, Christos ; Lembo, Vincenzo ; Gasperi, Flavia ; Argenio, Giuseppe D'; Fogliano, Vincenzo ; Caporaso, Nicola - \ 2012
    Journal of Mass Spectrometry 47 (2012)9. - ISSN 1076-5174 - p. 1098 - 1103.
    breath analysis - diet - direct injection mass spectrometry - NAFLD - volatile organic compounds

    Breath testing has been largely used as a diagnostic tool, but the difficulties in data interpretation and sample collection have limited its application. We developed a fast (< 20 s), on-line, non-invasive method for the collection and analysis of exhaled breath in awake rats based on proton transfer reaction time of flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) and applied it to investigate possible relationships between pathologies induced by dietary regime and breath composition. As a case study, we investigated rats with dietary induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and modifications induced by coffee addition to the diet. We considered two different diets (standard and high fat) complemented with two different drinking possibilities (water or decaffeinated coffee) for a total of four groups with four rats each. Several spectrometric peaks were reliable markers for both dietary fat content and coffee supplementation. The high resolution and accuracy of PTR-ToF-MS allowed the identification of related compounds such as methanol, dimethyl sulphide, dimethyl sulphone and ammonia. In conclusion, the rapid and minimally invasive breath analysis of awake rats permitted the identification of markers related to diet and specific pathologic conditions and provided a useful tool for broader metabolic investigations.

    Foraging black-browed albatrosses target waters overlaying moraine banks-a consequence of upward benthic-pelagic coupling?
    Wakefield, E.D. ; Phillips, R.A. ; Belchier, M. ; Aarts, G. ; Mackenzie, M. ; McConnell, B.J. - \ 2012
    Antarctic Science 24 (2012)3. - ISSN 0954-1020 - p. 269 - 280.
    south-georgia - shag rocks - shelf - segregation - seabirds - ocean - diet - sea - chrysostoma - strategies
    Wide-ranging, surface-feeding pelagic seabirds are the most numerous functional group of birds in the Southern Ocean. The mesoscale habitat use of these birds is increasingly being quantified by relating their movements to remotely sensed, near surface properties of the ocean. However, prey availability at the sea surface may also be determined by habitat characteristics not measurable from space. For instance, benthic-pelagic coupling, which occurs when seabed processes affect productivity in the epipelagic zone, can link benthic habitat type to availability of surface prey. We combined acoustically derived maps of the substrate of the South Georgia shelf with GPS tracking to quantify the sub-mesoscale habitat use of breeding black-browed albatrosses. We show that albatrosses preferentially used waters overlaying glacial moraine banks near the shelf edge and that this was unrelated to the presence of trawlers targeting mackerel icefish, which are also associated with these features. Stomach temperature profiles suggest that albatrosses primarily caught krill and fish over the banks.We hypothesize that black-browed albatrosses target waters overlaying moraine banks due to upward benthic-pelagic coupling, mediated by an increase in abundance of zooplankton such as Antarctic krill. Our findings suggest that the potential effects of such processes on pelagic seabird distribution warrant wider investigation.
    Natural born indicators: Great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo (Aves: Phalacrocoracidae) as monitors of river discharge influence on estuarine ichthyofauna
    Dias, E. ; Morais, P. ; Leopold, M.F. ; Campos, J. ; Antunes, C. - \ 2012
    Journal of Sea Research 73 (2012). - ISSN 1385-1101 - p. 101 - 108.
    double-crested cormorants - australian estuary - fish farm - food-web - diet - seabirds - variability - recruitment - management - abundance
    The ecological traits of piscivorous marine birds have been acknowledged to reflect ecosystem changes. We used the great cormorant as our indicator species in the Minho estuary (NW-Iberian Peninsula, Europe) to assess the temporal variation of their diet and the factors that could influence that variation. Pellets were collected in a night roost, located centrally in the estuary, during two consecutive wintering periods (2005–2006 and 2006–2007). The great cormorant population showed a high degree of feeding plasticity and most of the variation in cormorants' diet was attributed to river discharge fluctuations. Overall, during periods of increased river discharge, marine and marine opportunistic species disappeared from diet, whereas freshwater species increased. The cormorants in this study were using a roost in the middle of the estuary, so they were facing a changing food base over time, in accordance to variation in river discharges. The birds did not keep their diet constant but rather took what became locally available, notwithstanding their broad foraging range. Therefore, we suggest that great cormorants may be considered good samplers of local ichthyofauna and thus, temporal variation in the local prey can be followed by analyzing cormorants' diet.
    Environmental manipulation for edible insect procurement: a historical perspective
    Itterbeeck, J. Van; Huis, A. van - \ 2012
    Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 8 (2012). - ISSN 1746-4269
    hunter-gatherers - new-guinea - food - diet - minilivestock - knowledge - amazonia - papua
    Throughout history humans have manipulated their natural environment for an increased predictability and availability of plant and animal resources. Research on prehistoric diets increasingly includes small game, but edible insects receive minimal attention. Using the anthropological and archaeological literature we show and hypothesize about the existence of such environmental manipulations related to the procurement of edible insects. As examples we use eggs of aquatic Hemiptera in Mexico which are semi-cultivated by water management and by providing egg laying sites; palm weevil larvae in the Amazon Basin, tropical Africa, and New Guinea of which the collection is facilitated by manipulating host tree distribution and abundance and which are semi-cultivated by deliberately cutting palm trees at a chosen time at a chosen location; and arboreal, foliage consuming caterpillars in sub-Saharan Africa for which the collection is facilitated by manipulating host tree distribution and abundance, shifting cultivation, fire regimes, host tree preservation, and manually introducing caterpillars to a designated area. These manipulations improve insect exploitation by increasing their predictability and availability, and most likely have an ancient origin.
    Murine Gut Microbiota Is Defined by Host Genetics and Modulates Variation of Metabolic Traits
    McKnite, A.M. ; Lu, L. ; Williams, E. ; Bastiaansen, J.W.M. - \ 2012
    PLoS ONE 7 (2012)6. - ISSN 1932-6203
    chain fatty-acids - genome-wide association - inbred mouse strains - innate immunity - induced obesity - mice - diet - expression - weight - loci
    The gastrointestinal tract harbors a complex and diverse microbiota that has an important role in host metabolism. Microbial diversity is influenced by a combination of environmental and host genetic factors and is associated with several polygenic diseases. In this study we combined next-generation sequencing, genetic mapping, and a set of physiological traits of the BXD mouse population to explore genetic factors that explain differences in gut microbiota and its impact on metabolic traits. Molecular profiling of the gut microbiota revealed important quantitative differences in microbial composition among BXD strains. These differences in gut microbial composition are influenced by host-genetics, which is complex and involves many loci. Linkage analysis defined Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) restricted to a particular taxon, branch or that influenced the variation of taxa across phyla. Gene expression within the gastrointestinal tract and sequence analysis of the parental genomes in the QTL regions uncovered candidate genes with potential to alter gut immunological profiles and impact the balance between gut microbial communities. A QTL region on Chr 4 that overlaps several interferon genes modulates the population of Bacteroides, and potentially Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes–the predominant BXD gut phyla. Irak4, a signaling molecule in the Toll-like receptor pathways is a candidate for the QTL on Chr15 that modulates Rikenellaceae, whereas Tgfb3, a cytokine modulating the barrier function of the intestine and tolerance to commensal bacteria, overlaps a QTL on Chr 12 that influence Prevotellaceae. Relationships between gut microflora, morphological and metabolic traits were uncovered, some potentially a result of common genetic sources of variation.
    Grinding performance of wheat, maize and soybeans in a multicracker system
    Thomas, M. ; Vrij, M. ; Zandstra, T. ; Poel, A.F.B. van der - \ 2012
    Animal Feed Science and Technology 175 (2012)3-4. - ISSN 0377-8401 - p. 182 - 192.
    particle-size - barley - digestibility - diet - pigs
    This manuscript presents the effects of a recent technology for particle size reduction using a new approach in which the cracking action of two rows of discs is used. Wheat, maize and full fat soybeans were ground by a multicracker system to study the effects of disc type (ceramic versus steel discs), disc speed in revolutions per minute (2650 versus 3800 rpm), throughput (3.43 versus 6.70 metric t/h) and the gap between the discs (0.11 versus 1.04 mm). Mean particle size, width of the particle size distribution curve and total and specific mechanical energy consumption were the dependent variables under investigation. Maize, soybeans and wheat had different grinding characteristics (P
    Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of aggressive and non-aggressive urothelial cell carcinomas in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition
    Ros, M. ; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B. ; Kampman, E. ; Büchner, F.L. ; Aben, K.K. ; Egevad, L. ; Overvad, K. ; Tjonneland, A. ; Roswall, N. ; Clavel-Chapelon, F. ; Boutron-Ruault, M.C. ; Moiros, S. ; Kaaks, R. ; Teucher, B. ; Weikert, S. ; Ruesten, A.V. ; Trichopoulou, A. ; Naska, A. ; Benetou, V. ; Saieva, C. ; Pala, V. ; Ricceri, F. ; Tumino, R. ; Mattiello, A. ; Peeters, P.H.M. ; Gils, C.H. van; Gram, I.T. ; Engeset, D. ; Chirlaque, M.D. ; Ardanazx, E. ; Rodriguez, L. - \ 2012
    European Journal of Cancer 48 (2012)17. - ISSN 0959-8049 - p. 3267 - 3277.
    bladder-cancer - vitamin-c - prospective cohort - carotenoids - smoking - diet - carcinogenesis - prevention - nutrient - folate
    Background - Many epidemiological studies have examined fruit and vegetable consumption in relation to the risk of urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) of the bladder, but results are inconsistent. The association between fruit and vegetable consumption and UCC risk may vary by bladder tumour aggressiveness. Therefore, we examined the relation between fruit and vegetable consumption and the risk of aggressive and non-aggressive UCC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods - After 8.9 years of follow-up, 947 UCC were diagnosed among 468,656 EPIC participants. Of these, 421 could be classified as aggressive UCC and 433 as non-aggressive UCC cases. At recruitment, fruit and vegetable consumption was assessed by validated dietary questionnaires. Multivariable hazard ratios were estimated using Cox regression stratified by age, sex and center and adjusted for smoking status, duration and intensity of smoking, and energy intake. Results - Total consumption of fruits and vegetables was not associated with aggressive UCC nor with non-aggressive UCC. A 25 g/day increase in leafy vegetables and grapes consumption was associated with a reduced risk of non-aggressive UCC (hazard ratio (HR) 0.88; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78–1.00 and HR 0.87; 95% CI 0.77–0.98, respectively), while the intake of root vegetables was inversely associated with risk of aggressive UCC (HR 0.87; 95% CI 0.77–0.98). Conclusion - Our study did not confirm a protective effect of total fruit and/or vegetable consumption on aggressive or non-aggressive UCC. High consumption of certain types of vegetables and of fruits may reduce the risk of aggressive or non-aggressive UCC; however chance findings cannot be excluded.
    Red meat and colon cancer : how dietary heme initiates hyperproliferation
    IJssennagger, N. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Michael Muller, co-promotor(en): Roelof van der Meer. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461733931 - 160
    vlees - karteldarmkanker - haem - weefselproliferatie - dieet - colorectaal kanker - darmmicro-organismen - darmslijmvlies - meat - colon cancer - haem - tissue proliferation - diet - colorectal cancer - intestinal microorganisms - intestinal mucosa

    Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths in Western countries. The risk to develop colorectal cancer is associated with the intake of red meat. Red meat contains the porphyrin pigment heme. Heme is an irritant for the colonic wall and it is previously shown that the addition of heme to the diet of rats induces hyperproliferation. Hyperproliferation increases the risk of endogenous mutations, which subsequently increases the risk to develop colon cancer. The aim of this thesis was to elucidate the diet-modulated signaling from an injured surface epithelium to the proliferative stem cells in the crypt to initiate compensatory hyperproliferation.

    In chapter 2 we showed that when heme is added to the diet of mice, there is an increased cytotoxicity of the colonic contents. Heme-fed mice showed decreased apoptosis and increased compensatory epithelial hyperproliferation resulting in hyperplasia. Gene expression levels of mouse colon after heme feeding were analyzed by microarrays and showed 3,710 differentially expressed genes (q<0.01) of which many were involved in proliferation and stress response. Stainings for the enzyme Heme oxygenase-1 and expression levels of heme- and stress-related genes showed that heme affected the epithelial surface cells, but that heme did not reach the crypt cells. Heme caused injury of the surface epithelial cells, and as proliferation originates from the stem cells in the crypts this implied that there must be a signaling mechanism from the injured surface to the stem cells in the crypts to start the hyperproliferation. In chapter 2 several surface to crypt signaling molecules were identified. Heme downregulated inhibitors of proliferation, such as Wnt inhibitory factor 1, Indian hedgehog and Bone morphogenetic protein 2. Furthermore, heme downregulated the cytokine Interleukin-15. Heme upregulated the expression of the growth factors Amphiregulin, Epiregulin and of Cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA in the surface. However, their protein/metabolite levels were not increased as heme induced surface-specific inhibition of translation by increasing the levels of the translation inhibitor 4E-BP1. We concluded that heme induced colonic hyperproliferation and hyperplasia by downregulating the surface to crypt signaling of feedback inhibitors of proliferation.

    Besides many proliferation and stress-related genes, many PPARα target genes were upregulated upon heme feeding. As PPARα is proposed to protect against oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, we hypothesized in chapter 3 that absence of PPARα leads to more colonic surface injury, which subsequently leads to increased compensatory hyperproliferation in colonic crypts upon heme-feeding. This hypothesis was tested using wild-type and PPARα knockout mice receiving a heme diet. Proliferation levels and gene expression profiles were determined. Heme induced luminal cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation to the same extent in wild-type and PPARα knockout mice. We showed that PPARα does not play a role in the heme-induced hyperproliferation, as heme induced hyperproliferation both in wild-type as well as in PPARα knockout mice. Stainings for alkaline phosphatase activity and expression levels of Vanin-1 and Nrf2-targets indicated a compromised antioxidant defense in the heme-fed PPARα knockout mice. We concluded that PPARα plays a protective role in colon against oxidative stress, but PPARα does not mediate heme-induced hyperproliferation. This implied that oxidative stress of surface cells is not the main determinant of heme-induced hyperproliferation and hyperplasia.

    Heme was shown to increase both reactive oxygen species as well as cytotoxicity of the colonic contents of mice. So far, the time dependency of the heme-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxic stress on the initiation of hyperproliferation was not studied. Therefore, in chapter 4 the effects of dietary heme on the colonic mucosa after 2, 4, 7 and 14 days of heme feeding were determined. This study showed that the effects of dietary heme on the colonic mucosa can be separated in acute and delayed effects. Acutely, heme increased oxidative stress which caused an increase in lipid peroxidation products. Besides, there was an acute activation of PPARα target genes, most probable induced by the generated oxidized lipids. Nrf2 target genes were activated acutely which played a role in the protection against oxidative stress. Delayed effects which occurred after day 4 of heme feeding, were increased luminal cytotoxicity and the induction of hyperproliferation. This suggested that the cytotoxicity, rather than oxidative stress, induced hyperproliferation. Remarkably, the surface epithelial cells sensed heme after day 4, although heme was present in the colon several hours after ingestion of the heme diet. This suggested that the mucus barrier played a role in the protection of the surface epithelium the first days of heme feeding.

    As the colon is densely populated by bacteria, the microbiota might play a role in modulating the surface to crypt signaling inducing hyperproliferation. To explore the role of the colonic microbiota we simultaneously investigated the effects of dietary heme on colonic microbiota and on the host mucosa of mice (chapter 5). Using 16S rRNA phylogenetic microarrays, it was determined that heme increased Bacteroidetes and decreased Firmicutes in colonic contents. This shift in the microbiota was most likely caused by a selective susceptibility of Gram-positive bacteria to heme cytotoxic fecal water. This susceptibility was not observed for Gram-negative bacteria and allowed the expansion of the Gram-negative community. The increased amount of Gram-negative bacteria, which likely caused an increased mucosal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), did not elicit a detectable immune reaction in the host mucosa. The absence of an immune reaction might be influenced by the strong upregulation of Secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor (Slpi) at gene and protein level, which is known to suppress excessive immune reactions. We showed that there was no functional change in the sensing of the bacteria by the mucosa, as changes in inflammation pathways and Toll- like receptor signaling were not detected. In conclusion, the change in microbiota did not cause the observed hyperproliferation and hyperplasia via inflammation pathways.

    In the study described in chapter 6 we investigated whether microbiota play a causal role in the heme-induced hyperproliferation. In this study mice received a control or a heme diet with or without broad spectrum antibiotics (Abx). Similar to previous experiments, heme induced epithelial hyperproliferation. Interestingly, when heme was administered together with Abx there was no induction of hyperproliferation. Heme induced oxidative stress in the heme group as well as in the heme plus Abx group. Cytotoxicity was also induced in both heme groups. As bacteria were decreased by 100 to 1000 fold in abundance upon Abx treatment it is unlikely that bacteria play a major role in the formation of the cytotoxic factor. Whole genome transcriptomics showed that Abx blocked the heme-induced differential expression of oncogenes, tumor suppressors and cell turnover genes. Moreover, Abx blocked the mucosal sensing of luminal cytotoxicity indicating that Abx increased the mucus barrier. Abx eliminated mucin-degrading bacteria, such as Akkermansia, and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) that produce sulfide. In-vitro studies showed that sulfide is more potent than N-acetylcysteine and cysteine in splitting disulfide bonds, indicating that SRB generated sulfide can denature mucins and thus open the mucus barrier. This study showed that the microbiota plays an important facilitating role in the heme-induced hyperproliferation and hyperplasia by breaking the mucus barrier and thereby decreasing the protection against luminal irritants such as the toxic heme metabolite.

    Zinc intake and dietary pattern in Jiangsu Province, China: consequences of nutrition transition
    Qin, Y. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Frans Kok; Michael Zimmermann, co-promotor(en): Alida Melse-Boonstra; J.K. Zhao. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461733740 - 133
    zink - voedingstoestand - fortificatie - dieet - hypertensie - obesitas - china - zinc - nutritional state - fortification - diet - hypertension - obesity - china

    Background: Jiangsu Province is an economically booming area in East China, where soil zinc concentrations are low. Nutrition transition to a dietary pattern with more animal source foods may have improved zinc intake in this area. However, such a transition may also have increased the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as hypertension and obesity. Investigation of dietary patterns in relation to undernutrition and overnutrition could help to better address both problems.

    Objectives: The first aim of this thesis was to assess zinc status in Jiangsu Province using dietary zinc intake, serum zinc and stunting as indicators, as well to investigate the potential of biofortified rice to improve zinc intake. The second aim was to investigate the association between dietary patterns and high blood pressure, taking obesity into account.

    Methods:Data from the 2002 National Nutrition and Health Survey in Jiangsu Province were used to assess zinc intake in the population aged 4-89 years (n=3,867). Primary school children (n=2,268) were selected from three counties in the Province with relatively low soil zinc for assessment of stunting. Serum zinc was measured among children in the county where stunting was highest (n=297). Thirteen women were recruited in the same county for three test rounds with rice meals (zinc biofortified rice, zinc extruded fortified rice and control rice). Fractional zinc absorption (FAZ) was measured with the use of the double isotope tracer ratio method. Effect of biofortified rice with zinc, at a level of 2.7 and 3.8 mg/100g, on zinc intake was simulated in adults (n=2.819). For adults, four distinct dietary patterns were identified, named “traditional”, “Macho”, “sweet tooth” and “healthy” pattern. Associations were assessed between the four dietary patterns and blood pressure in adults (n=2,518) by using Poisson regression analysis.

    Results:The overall prevalence of insufficient intake of zinc was 22.9%, with a higher prevalence in children (64.6%) and adolescents (64.9%), and in those with low socio-economic status (27.3%). Around 4% of the primary school children were stunted, and the prevalence of zinc deficiency measured by serum and hair zinc was 0.7%, and 15.2%, respectively. Biofortified 70Zn enriched rice with an intrinsic label was found to have higher fractional zinc absorption (FAZ) than extrinsically labeled fortified extruded rice. However, FAZ could not be accurately quantified because we could not determine the exact amount of isotope infused to subjects due to adhesion of zinc to the vial. When simulating zinc intake by replacing normal rice with zinc biofortified rice with either 2.7 and 3.8 mg/100g of zinc, the prevalence of insufficient zinc intake decreased from 15.4% to 6.5% and 4.4%, respectively. The “traditional” dietary pattern in Jiangsu Province was most strongly associated with high blood pressure (P for trend = 0.005). This pattern is characterized primarily by consumption of rice and fresh vegetable; secondary of pork and fish; and lastly of root vegetable and wheat flour, but also by high salt intake. Subjects with overweight and obesity were more likely to have high blood pressure than those with normal weight.

    Conclusion: Children and adolescents had low dietary zinc intake, in Jiangsu Province, where the soil is also deficient in zinc. However, these findings did not match with the low prevalence of stunting and zinc deficiency based on serum zinc concentrations in primary school children from three rural areas of the Province. Zinc appears to be better absorbed from biofortified rice than from control rice or from extruded fortified rice, which needs further investigation. Simulated zinc intake from biofortified rice with zinc at a level of 2.7 mg/kg has the potential to significantly improve zinc intake, especially in the “traditional” dietary pattern. However, this pattern is also related to high blood pressure, which may be due to high salt intake. High blood pressure is also positively and independently related to obesity. Nutrition education is required to improve knowledge and awareness of healthy diets in Jiangsu Province.

    Dietary protein and blood pressure : epidemiological studies
    Altorf-van der Kuil, W. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Pieter van 't Veer, co-promotor(en): Marianne Geleijnse; Marielle Engberink. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461733078 - 203
    voedingseiwit - bloeddruk - epidemiologische onderzoeken - eiwitinname - dieet - dietary protein - blood pressure - epidemiological surveys - protein intake - diet


    Background
    Elevated blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Diet and lifestyle have a substantial impact on blood pressure, but the role of protein intake is not yet clear. This thesis focuses on total dietary protein, types of protein (i.e. plant and animal), protein from specific sources (i.e. dairy, meat, and grain), and specific amino acids in relation to blood pressure levels and incident hypertension.

    Methods
    The associations of dietary protein, protein types, and protein from specific sources with population blood pressure levels were cross sectionally examined in 20,820 Dutch adults aged 25 to 65 y (MORGEN Study). The relation with risk of hypertension was examined in 3,588 of these adults with 15 years of follow-up (Doetinchem Study) and in 2,241 older Dutch adults (≥55y) with 6 years of follow-up (Rotterdam Study). In the latter cohort we also examined the relation of specific amino acids (i.e. glutamic acid, arginine, lysine, cysteine, tyrosine, and essential amino acids) with blood pressure levels and risk of hypertension. As an ancillary Study, a fully controlled randomized cross over trial with different protein-rich diets was conducted to obtain objective biomarkers for dietary protein types that may be used in future epidemiological studies. Finally, we performed several meta-analyses to summarize our findings for dietary protein and protein types in relation to blood pressure and incident hypertension, combined with data from the literature.

    Results
    The epidemiological studies presented in this thesis and a meta analysis of observational studies showed no associations of total protein and animal protein with blood pressure or incident hypertension. A meta analysis of 14 randomized controlled trials, however, showed a pooled blood pressure effect of protein supplementation (weighed mean contrast in intake of 41 g/d) of 2.1 mmHg systolic (95%-CI: 2.9 to 1.4) when compared to carbohydrate intake. In the epidemiological studies in this thesis plant protein was significantly inversely associated to blood pressure levels ( 1.8/ 1.0 mmHg with 14 grams higher energy adjusted intake), but not with incident hypertension (all HR per SD ~1.00). Meta-analyses of cross sectional studies showed a small differential association of plant and animal protein with blood pressure (-0.52 mmHg per SD of dietary plant protein versus +0.03 mmHg per SD of animal protein), but this association was not present in meta-analyses of prospective studies and trials. The epidemiological analyses on meat protein and dairy protein in this thesis revealed no consistent associations with blood pressure or incident hypertension. Grain protein was inversely associated with diastolic (but not systolic) blood pressure, and with borderline significant lower risk of hypertension in a general Dutch population (HR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.73 to 1.00), but this association was absent in older adults. No associations with blood pressure or incident hypertension were found for amino acid intakes. Finally, we identified a combination of 3 urinary amino acids as a potential biomarker for meat protein intake and a combination of 7 plasma amino acids as a potential biomarker for grain protein intake

    Conclusion
    Results from this thesis suggest a small beneficial effect of protein on blood pressure if consumed instead of carbohydrates. Plant protein, e.g. from grain, may be more beneficial to blood pressure than animal protein but data are too limited to draw firm conclusions. After validation, future epidemiological studies could make use of biomarkers as more robust estimates for protein from specific sources and amino acid intakes. Randomized controlled trials are warranted to examine the blood pressure effect of specific types of protein, reflecting habitual intakes in western societies, compared to different types of carbohydrate. At present, a prudent diet for the prevention of hypertension with adequate amounts of dietary protein, preferable from plant sources, is recommended.

    Feeding ecology of harbour porpoises: stable isotope anlaysis of carbon and nitrogen in muscle and bone
    Jansen, O.E. ; Aarts, G.M. ; Das, K. ; Lepoint, G. ; Michel, L. ; Reijnders, P.J.H. - \ 2012
    Marine Biology Research 8 (2012)9. - ISSN 1745-1000 - p. 829 - 841.
    phocoena-phocoena l - southern north-sea - marine mammals - food-web - stomach contents - adjacent waters - animal-tissues - diet - delta-c-13 - collagen
    Harbour porpoises are the most common small cetaceans in the North Sea and Dutch coastal waters. To study their trophic level and feeding location, stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios (d13C and d15N) were analysed in muscle and bone samples collected from 157 porpoises stranded along the Dutch coast (2006–2008). In addition, samples from 30 prey species were analysed. Prey samples showed high d15N values in species of higher trophic level. In addition, geographic differences in isotopic composition were found, with higher d15N and d13C values in prey from more southern, coastal and estuarine areas. Based on muscle d15N values, we found neonatal enrichment and that larger porpoises, in particular males, seem to feed on lower trophic level species, compared to smaller individuals. Also bone d15N values show that larger animals had fed on lower trophic levels in distant times. Porpoises from the Eastern Scheldt reveal distinct d13C values in muscle, but not in bone. This shows that these animals had foraged in the Eastern Scheldt for a longer time period but were not born there. Seasonal variation in bone d15N and d13C values revealed two distinct groups of porpoises along the Dutch coast, a winter group (mainly males) that migrated from neighbouring regions and a Dutch subpopulation in summer. These results furthered our insight about shifts in trophic level and feeding location of harbour porpoises from the southern North Sea over time
    Mapping the diverse functions of dietary fatty acids via target gene regulation
    Georgiadi, A. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Michael Muller; Sander Kersten. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732804 - 200
    vetzuren - dieet - genregulatie - nutrigenomica - fatty acids - diet - gene regulation - nutrigenomics

    Dietary fat is a strong predictor of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome. A great number of epidemiological and observational studies clearly show that in addition to the amount of fat consumed in a diet, fat composition is an equally important factor in the development of chronic diseases. Evidence abounds indicating that adherence to a diet with high content of polyunsaturated (PUFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) such as the Mediterranean diet has substantial health benefits, while diets with high content of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) such as the Western type diet increase the risk for the development of several chronic diseases.

    Nutritional genomics or nutrigenomics investigates the interaction between nutrients and genes at the molecular level, by using genomic tools. Within the field of nutrigenomics, dietary fatty acids and their metabolites are seen as signaling molecules that target specific cellular response systems. Dietary fatty acids have been reported to bind physically to PPARs, a family of ligand activated transcription factors, that play a major role in metabolic homeostasis. Three PPAR isotypes have been identified, PPARα, PPARβ/δ and PPARγ. Their expression and target genes vary among different tissues and cell types.

    After a meal triglycerides are packed into chylomicrons in the small intestine and via the lymph system, they reach the blood and the peripheral tissues. Triglyceride chylomicrons deliver free fatty acids to the organs after being lipolylised by lipoprotein lipase (LPL), which is anchored to the capillary endothelium. Among different organs, heart and liver show the highest uptake of dietary triglycerides, postprandialy. However, opposite to the liver, heart is a constant working muscle, which covers its demands on energy mainly by fatty acids, delivered to the heart via hydrolysis of circulating triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Unbalanced fatty acid uptake and fatty acid oxidation is common in cardiac diseases, such as cardiac failure, myocardial ischemia and diabetes. Heart is characterized by decreased lipid storage capacity, therefore chronic elevated levels of lipids uptake and intracellular storage is considered harmful and may lead to lipotoxic cardiomyopathy.

    Our first aim was to explore the whole genome effects of individual dietary fatty acids in the intact heart via transcriptional profiling. By conducting these experiments in wild-type and PPARα−/− mice, we aimed to determine the specific contribution of PPARα, which has been previously described as a master regulator of lipid homeostasis in the heart. We took advantage of a unique experimental model, where mice were given a single oral bolus of synthetic triglycerides composed of a single fatty acid. We sacrificed the mice 6hours after the oral gavage and we compared the effects of different fatty acids on gene expression by microarray analysis in the total heart. Many genes were regulated by one particular treatment only and among those most of them showed large functional divergence. Although, the majority of genes responding to fatty acid treatment were regulated in a PPARα-dependent manner, emphasizing the importance of PPARα in mediating transcriptional regulation by fatty acids in the heart, we observed a substantial number of genes regulated in a PPARα- independent manner. Finally, we observed that deletion and activation of PPARα had a major effect on expression of numerous genes involved in metabolism and immunity.

    We identified response to oxidative stress as the top upregulated process activated by all administered fatty acids in the heart. High rates of mitochondria oxidation, due to increased supply of substrate after the oral gavage are coupled with enzymatic and non- enzymatic mechanisms aiming to counterbalance the production of highly reactive secondary products of the respiratory chain, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the heart. Under conditions such as chronic high fat diet or insulin resistance, increased lipid influx in combination with uncontrolled production of ROS and lipid intermediates may result in mitochondrial malfunctioning and lipid accumulation. Myocardial lipotoxicity refers to the accumulation of intramyocardial lipids and is associated with contractile dysfunction and even myocytes death. We found Angptl4 to be the top upregulated gene, in all groups that received the fatty acids oral gavage. Angptl4 has been described as a target gene of PPARs and an endogenous inhibitor of the triglyceride hydrolyzing enzyme lipoprotein lipase (LPL), which catalyzes uptake of circulating lipids into tissues. We were able to show that the strong upregulation of Angptl4 by dietary fatty acids is mediated by PPARβ/δ and is part of a feedback mechanism aimed at protecting the heart against lipid overload and consequently fatty acid–induced oxidative stress, one of the hallmarks of lipotoxic cardiomyopathy.

    Angptl4 has been shown to have a potent inhibitory effect in LPL activity and subsequent reduction in uptake of lipids by several tissues and cell types, including macrophages. Furthermore, Angptl4 was shown to prevent the formation of foam cells in mesenteric lymph nodes upon high fat feeding. Accordingly, we hypothesized that Angptl4 may affect atherosclerosis development by reducing foam cell formation. Thus, our second aim was to investigate the role of Angptl4 on atherosclerosis development. We studied Angptl4 expression in atherosclerotic lesions and macrophages and determined the effect of Angptl4 transgenic overexpression in atherosclerosis prone ApoE3Leiden (E3L) mice fed a Western diet containing 0.4% cholesterol. We observed a decrease in atherosclerosis in Angptl4 overexpressing mice on an ApoE3L background. This effect was independent of the plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Importantly, Angptl4Tg.E3L exhibited a less pro- inflammatory phenotype with decreased accumulation of monocytes/macrophages in the atherosclerotic plaque, suggesting an anti-inflammatory role of Angptl4 in atherosclerosis development.

    Finally, we set out to identify transcriptional targets of fatty acids in macrophages, as part of a general goal to elucidate mechanisms through which fatty acids exhibit a direct role in modulating inflammatory processes in macrophages. We identified Hig-2 to be strongly upregulated by all treatments. We found expression of Hig-2 to be the highest in peritoneal macrophages and white adipose tissue. Chronic high fat feeding increased Hig-2 expression levels in adipose tissue but not in liver. Immunohistochemistry indicated colocalization of Hig-2 with Cd68 in infiltrating macrophages as part of crown-like structures. Based on these findings we propose that Hig-2 has a specific role in macrophages and may function as an interesting target in the study of obese adipose tissue.

    In conclusion, this thesis contributes new information on gene regulation by dietary PUFA in the mammalian heart and provides mechanistic insight on their previous reported beneficial effects. Furthermore, we reveal a novel protective role of Angptl4 in atherosclerosis development. We propose that this effect is mediated by a mechanism, which is independent of inhibition of LPL-mediated systemic lipid clearance and it is probably related to the effect of Angptl4 on macrophage oxLDL uptake and chemotaxis. Finally, in the present thesis we start up an effort to identify fatty acid target genes in macrophages, which open new future research paths.

    How science thinks and practice acts: bridging the gap in weight management interventions for adolescents
    Swan, E.C. ; Bouwman, L.I. ; Roos, N.M. de; Koelen, M. - \ 2012
    Family Practice 29 (2012)1. - ISSN 0263-2136 - p. i117 - i125.
    primary-care - obese adolescents - overweight adolescents - health-promotion - body-composition - controlled-trial - children - program - nutrition - diet
    Background. Adolescent obesity calls for evidence-based treatment approaches given its long-term physical and psychosocial consequences. However, research shows there are many problems in the translation of scientific evidence into practice. Objective. The aim of this study was to develop science- and practice-based recommendations for the planning of future adolescent weight management interventions. Methods. We performed (i) literature reviews on intervention studies targeting treatment of obesity in adolescents and Dutch clinical guidelines for obesity as well as practice-based documents and grey literature on treating obesity and delivering health programs for adolescents and (ii) semi-structured interviews with eight clinicians and four non-clinicians working in obesity treatment, management and prevention to explore perspectives on treating adolescent obesity and using evidence in practice. Results. After merging the results from the literature reviews and interviews, four issues emerged: (i) little reporting on theoretical models used in intervention studies, Dutch clinical guidelines and semi-structured interviews; (ii) inconsistency on age-specific considerations for treating obesity in adolescents in intervention studies and Dutch clinical guidelines; (iii) inconsistency on addressing the social nature of obesity in intervention studies and Dutch clinical guidelines and (iv) how professional responsibility should be divided is unclear from intervention studies, Dutch clinical guidelines and semi-structured interviews. Conclusions. Joined action of science and practice is required for future interventions. Future interventions should include topics relevant to the stage of adolescence and give greater focus to the complex social nature of obesity. Lastly, practitioners can generate more practice-based evidence by starting their own practice-based research
    Predicting urinary creatinine excretion and its usefulness to identify incomplete 24h urine collections
    Keyzer, W. de; Huybrechts, I. ; Dekkers, A.L.M. ; Geelen, A. ; Crispim, S.P. ; Hulshof, P.J.M. ; Andersen, L.F. ; Rehurkova, I. ; Ruprich, J. ; Volatier, J.L. ; Maele, G. van; Slimani, N. ; Veer, P. van 't; Boer, E. de; Henauw, S. de - \ 2012
    The British journal of nutrition 108 (2012)6. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1118 - 1125.
    4-aminobenzoic acid - european centers - completeness - potassium - diet - validation - stability - recalls - protein - sodium
    Studies using 24 h urine collections need to incorporate ways to validate the completeness of the urine samples. Models to predict urinary creatinine excretion (UCE) have been developed for this purpose; however, information on their usefulness to identify incomplete urine collections is limited. We aimed to develop a model for predicting UCE and to assess the performance of a creatinine index using para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) as a reference. Data were taken from the European Food Consumption Validation study comprising two non-consecutive 24 h urine collections from 600 subjects in five European countries. Data from one collection were used to build a multiple linear regression model to predict UCE, and data from the other collection were used for performance testing of a creatinine index-based strategy to identify incomplete collections. Multiple linear regression (n 458) of UCE showed a significant positive association for body weight (ß = 0·07), the interaction term sex × weight (ß = 0·09, reference women) and protein intake (ß = 0·02). A significant negative association was found for age (ß = - 0·09) and sex (ß = - 3·14, reference women). An index of observed-to-predicted creatinine resulted in a sensitivity to identify incomplete collections of 0·06 (95 % CI 0·01, 0·20) and 0·11 (95 % CI 0·03, 0·22) in men and women, respectively. Specificity was 0·97 (95 % CI 0·97, 0·98) in men and 0·98 (95 % CI 0·98, 0·99) in women. The present study shows that UCE can be predicted from weight, age and sex. However, the results revealed that a creatinine index based on these predictions is not sufficiently sensitive to exclude incomplete 24 h urine collections.
    Characterization of milk fatty acids based on genetic and herd parameters
    Heck, J.M.L. ; Valenberg, H.J.F. van; Bovenhuis, H. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Hooijdonk, A.C.M. van - \ 2012
    Journal of Dairy Research 79 (2012)1. - ISSN 0022-0299 - p. 39 - 46.
    bovine-milk - dairy-cows - mammary-gland - methane production - lactation stage - linseed oil - odd-chain - concentrate - diet - supplementation
    The objective of this study was to characterize the fatty acids (FA) in milk based on genetic and herd parameters to investigate the origin of the different FA in milk. Milk samples of 1912 Dutch Holstein-Friesian cows were analysed for 39 different FA including odd and branched-chain fatty acids. The proportion of variation caused by genetic and herd effects was calculated. In addition, genetic and herd correlations among the fatty acids were estimated and a clustering technique was used to visualise these correlations. The results indicated that in Dutch milk C12:0 is not completely synthesised de novo but also partly blood derived. It was suggested that C20:0 in milk is formed from the action of elongase enzymes on C18:0 and that the odd-chain FA C5:0-C13:0 and a part of C15:0 and C17:0 are synthesised de novo while the other part of C15:0 and C17:0 is blood derived. Furthermore, this work gives an overview of the opportunities to change the concentration of individual FA both by breeding and feeding. It is clearly shown that the extent to which the individual FA can be changed varies greatly and is dependent on the origin of the different FA in milk.
    Impacts of fast food and food retail environment on overweight and obesity in China: a multilevel latent class cluster approach
    Zhang XiaoYong, Xiaoyong ; Lans, I.A. van der; Dagevos, H. - \ 2012
    Public Health Nutrition 15 (2012)1. - ISSN 1368-9800 - p. 88 - 96.
    neighborhood - consumption - nutrition - risk - overnutrition - perspective - adults - health - diet
    Objective To simultaneously identify consumer segments based on individual-level consumption and community-level food retail environment data and to investigate whether the segments are associated with BMI and dietary knowledge in China. Design A multilevel latent class cluster model was applied to identify consumer segments based not only on their individual preferences for fast food, salty snack foods, and soft drinks and sugared fruit drinks, but also on the food retail environment at the community level. Setting The data came from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) conducted in 2006 and two questionnaires for adults and communities were used. Subjects A total sample of 9788 adults living in 218 communities participated in the CHNS. Results We successfully identified four consumer segments. These four segments were embedded in two types of food retail environment: the saturated food retail environment and the deprived food retail environment. A three-factor solution was found for consumers’ dietary knowledge. The four consumer segments were highly associated with consumers’ dietary knowledge and a number of sociodemographic variables. Conclusions The widespread discussion about the relationships between fast-food consumption and overweight/obesity is irrelevant for Chinese segments that do not have access to fast food. Factors that are most associated with segments with a higher BMI are consumers’ (incorrect) dietary knowledge, the food retail environment and sociodemographics. The results provide valuable insight for policy interventions on reducing overweight/obesity in China. This study also indicates that despite the breathtaking changes in modern China, the impact of ‘obesogenic’ environments should not be assessed too strictly from a ‘Western’ perspective.
    Smoking and alcohol drinking increased the risk of esophageal cancer among Chinese men but not women in a high-risk population
    Wu, M. ; Zhao, J.K. ; Zhang, Z.F. ; Han, R.Q. ; Yang, J. ; Zhou, J.Y. ; Wang, X.S. ; Zhang, X.F. ; Liu, A.M. ; Veer, P. van 't; Kok, F.J. ; Kampman, E. - \ 2011
    Cancer Causes and Control 22 (2011)4. - ISSN 0957-5243 - p. 649 - 657.
    green tea drinking - jiangsu province - tobacco smoking - squamous-cell - areas - cessation - shanghai - cohort - diet
    Although the association for esophageal cancer with tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking has been well established, the risk appears to be less strong in China. To provide more evidence on the effect of smoking and alcohol consumption with esophageal cancer in China, particularly among Chinese women, a population-based case-control study has been conducted in Jiangsu, China, from 2003 to 2007. A total of 1,520 cases and 3,879 controls were recruited. Unconditional multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied. Results showed that the odds ratio (OR) and confidence interval (CI) for ever smoking and alcohol drinking were 1.57 (95% CI: 1.34-1.83) and 1.50 (95% CI: 1.29-1.74). Dose-response relationships were observed with increased intensity and longer duration of smoking/drinking. Risk of smoking and alcohol drinking at the highest joint level was 7.32 (95% CI: 4.58-11.7), when compared to those never smoked and never drank alcohol. Stratifying by genders, smoking and alcohol drinking increased the risk among men with an OR of 1.74 (95% CI: 1.44-2.09) and 1.76 (95% CI: 1.48-2.09); however, neither smoking nor alcohol consumption showed a significant association among women. In conclusion, smoking and alcohol drinking were associated with esophageal cancer risk among Chinese men, but not among Chinese women.
    No consistent association between consumption of energy-dense snack foods and annual weight and waist circumference changes in Dutch adults
    Hendriksen, M.A.H. ; Boer, J.M.A. ; Huaidong, D.U. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; A, D. van der - \ 2011
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 94 (2011)1. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 19 - 25.
    body-mass index - frequency questionnaire - relative validity - obesity - nutrition - patterns - children - women - diet - men
    Background: There is conflicting evidence regarding an association between the consumption of energy-dense snack (EDS) foods and the development of overweight. Objective: In the current study, we examined whether there was an association between the intake of EDS foods and annual weight and waist circumference changes in normal-weight and overweight Dutch adults. Design: The study population included 9383 men and women from the MORGEN-EPIC (Monitoring Project on Risk Factors for Chronic Diseases in the Netherlands-European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study, which is a population-based cohort study in 3 towns in the Netherlands (Amsterdam, Maastricht, and Doetinchem), who had a body mass index (in kg/m(2))
    Effects of forage type, forage to concentrate ratio, and crushed linseed supplementation on milk fatty acid profile in lactating dairy cows
    Sterk, A.R. ; Johansson, B.E.O. ; Taweel, H.Z.H. ; Murphy, M. ; Vuuren, A.M. van; Hendriks, W.H. ; Dijkstra, J. - \ 2011
    Journal of Dairy Science 94 (2011)12. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 6078 - 6091.
    conjugated linoleic acids - sunflower oil - feed-intake - fish-oil - diet - biohydrogenation - rumen - silage - responses - trans-10
    The effects of an increasing proportion of crushed linseed (CL) in combination with varying forage type (grass or corn silage) and forage to concentrate ratio (F:C), and their interactions on milk fatty acid (FA) profile of high-producing dairy cows was studied using a 3-factor Box-Behnken design. Sixteen Holstein and 20 Swedish Red cows were blocked according to breed, parity, and milk yield, and randomly assigned to 4 groups. Groups were fed different treatment diets formulated from combinations of the 3 main factors each containing 3 levels. Forage type (fraction of total forage dry matter, DM) included 20, 50, and 80% grass silage, with the remainder being corn silage. The F:C (DM basis) were 35:65, 50:50, and 65:35, and CL was supplied at 1, 3, and 5% of diet DM. Starch and neutral detergent fiber content (DM basis) of the treatment diets ranged from 117 to 209 g/kg and 311 to 388 g/kg, respectively. Thirteen treatment diets were formulated according to the Box-Behnken design. During 4 experimental periods of 21 d each, all treatment diets were fed, including a repetition of the center point treatment (50% grass silage, 50:50 F:C, 3% CL) during every period. Intake, production performance, and milk FA profile were measured, and response surface equations were derived for these variables. Shifting from 80% grass silage to 80% corn silage in the diet linearly increased dry matter intake (DMI), net energy for lactation (NEL) intake, cis-9,cis-12-C18:2 (C18:2n-6) intake, and milk yield, and linearly decreased cis-9,cis-12,cis-15-C18:3 (C18:3n-3) intake and milk fat content. Shifting from a high forage to a high concentrate diet linearly increased DMI, NEL intake, C18:2n-6 intake, and milk yield, and decreased milk fat content. Supplementation of CL linearly increased C18:3n-3 intake, but had no effect on DMI, NEL intake, milk yield, or milk fat content. Shifting from 80% grass silage to 80% corn silage linearly increased proportions of trans-10-C18:1 and C18:2n-6 in milk fat, whereas the proportions of trans-11,cis-15-C18:2 and C18:3n-3 linearly decreased. Significant interactions between CL supplementation and F:C were found for proportions of trans-10-C18:1, trans-15-C18:1, cis-15-C18:1, trans-11,cis-15-C18:2, and C18:3n-3 in milk fat, with the highest levels achieved when the diet contained 5% CL and a 35:65 F:C ratio. The effect of supplementing CL on several milk FA proportions, including C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3, depends significantly on the F:C ratio and forage type in the basal diet.
    Modifiable risk factors and colorectal adenomas among those at high risk of colorectal cancer
    Botma, A. - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ellen Kampman; H.F.A. Vasen, co-promotor(en): F.M. Nagengast. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461730435 - 127
    colorectaal kanker - risicofactoren - adenoom - quetelet index - tabak roken - alcoholinname - dieet - epidemiologische onderzoeken - cohortstudies - colorectal cancer - risk factors - adenoma - body mass index - tobacco smoking - alcohol intake - diet - epidemiological surveys - cohort studies

    Epidemiological studies have identified several modifiable risk factors for colorectal neoplasms in the general population. However, associations between modifiable risk factors, including body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption and dietary patterns, and colorectal neoplasms in two groups at high risk of colorectal cancer, Lynch syndrome patients and sporadic adenoma patients, have been sparsely studied.

    This thesis presents two cohort studies, one of 486 Lynch syndrome patients (the GEOLynch cohort study) and one including data from 565 persons with sporadic adenomas (the POLIEP follow-up study), in which we assessed whether a high BMI, smoking, high alcohol consumption and specific dietary patterns influenced colorectal adenoma development. We also assessed whether the association between BMI and recurrence of sporadic adenomas was modified by polymorphisms in the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) genes.

    First, we observed that excess body weight increased the risk of incident colorectal adenomas in men with Lynch syndrome. Secondly, we showed that current smoking increased the risk of colorectal adenomas in Lynch syndrome in both sexes. Former smokers still showed an elevated risk, but lower than current smokers. Number of years smoked, among ever smokers, was positively associated with colorectal adenomas. A clear association with alcohol consumption was not observed. Thirdly, we identified four dietary patterns in the Lynch syndrome cohort; i) ‘Prudent’, ii) ‘Meat’, iii) ‘Snack’, vi) ‘Cosmopolitan’. The ‘Snack’ pattern was associated with increased adenoma occurrence. The other patterns showed Hazard Ratios in the expected directions based on similar studies in the general population but these were not statistically significantly associated with adenoma occurrence. Additionally, among 565 sporadic adenoma patients, we found that BMI was not associated with adenoma recurrence (n=165), nor with recurrence of advanced adenomas (n=37) after a median of 4.7 years of follow-up. Variation in IGF-axis genes (rs1520220 in IGF1 and rs3213221 in IGF2) influenced the likelihood of colorectal adenoma recurrence. Furthermore, we observed that the association between BMI and adenoma recurrence was modified by variation in the IGF2 gene (rs1004446 and rs1003483). Finally, the three dietary patterns identified (‘Low meat’, ‘Cosmopolitan’, or ‘Refined foods’) among the sporadic adenoma patients did not show marked associations with adenoma recurrence, although the ‘Low meat’ pattern might reduce the risk of advanced recurrences. No significant associations were seen for smoking and alcohol consumption.

    Overall, the results of our Lynch syndrome cohort suggest that modifiable risk factors, e.g. high BMI and smoking, influence colorectal adenoma development in Lynch syndrome patients. On the other hand, these risk factors do not appear to influence recurrence of sporadic colorectal adenomas.

    I. Technical assessment for first generation green biorefinery (GBR) using mass and energy balances: Scenarios for an Irish GBR blueprint
    O'Keeffe, S. ; Schulte, R.P.O. ; Sanders, J.P.M. ; Struik, P.C. - \ 2011
    Biomass and Bioenergy 35 (2011)1. - ISSN 0961-9534 - p. 4712 - 4723.
    silage effluent - grass-silage - aerobic treatment - finishing pigs - biomass - fermentation - additives - cattle - acid - diet
    “Green biorefinery” (GBR) could be an alternative option for using grassland biomass. GBR involves applying technology to chemically and physically fractionate (split) biomass such as grass and grass silage into marketable products. From the grass fibre fraction insulation materials can be produced. From the grass juice fraction, proteinaceous products for animal feed and lactic acid (LA) for plastic production (polylactic acid – PLA) can be produced. This paper is the first part in the analysis to develop a blueprint for a first generation Irish GBR system. The focus of this paper is on the technical aspects of developing three GBR system models and subsequent scenario analyses. The three GBR system models were a combination of feedstock system and biorefinery technology; Grass/silage–basic technology (GS), Silage–basic technology (S) and Silage–High Tech (AT). The models, which were integrated mass and energy balances, were then assessed at the three different input volumes, to generate nine scenarios. The scenarios which required further economic analysis in a companion paper to determine their overall feasibility (technical and economic) in the development of blueprint for a first generation Irish GBR system were identified. From the technical analysis outlined in this paper six scenarios were identified which require further economic analysis. These were scenarios generated for the GS, S and AT GBR systems, at two input volume rates
    Cadmium Accumulation in Small Mammals: Species Traits, Soil Properties, and Spatial Habitat Use
    Brink, N.W. van den; Lammertsma, D.R. ; Dimmers, W.J. ; Boerwinkel, M.C. - \ 2011
    Environmental Science and Technology 45 (2011)17. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 7497 - 7502.
    mice apodemus-sylvaticus - heavy-metal concentrations - river floodplains - food-web - earthworms - lead - diet - bioaccumulation - stressors - pollution
    In this study, the impact of species-specific spatial habitat use, diet preferences, and soil concentrations and properties on the accumulation of cadmium in small mammals was investigated. The results show that for the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus), a mobile species with a large range in diet composition, accumulation of cadmium was not related to local soil concentrations or soil properties, but to diet preferences. For the common vole (Microtus arvalis), a nonmobile, specific feeding species, accumulation of cadmium was related to local soil concentrations or properties. For the bank vole (Myodes glareolus), a species with a smaller home range than the wood mouse but a broader diet spectrum than the common vole, both local soil properties and diet appeared to affect the cadmium accumulation in the kidneys. The results of this field study show that species-specific traits of small mammals are important determinants of accumulation of cadmium on a local scale. For site-specific assessment of risks of contaminants, such information is essential in order to understand exposure dynamics
    'Dieet oorzaak gedragsproblemen kinderen'
    Savelkoul, H.F.J. - \ 2011
    Kennis Online 8 (2011)okt. - p. 9 - 9.
    gedragsstoornissen - kinderen - voedselallergieën - dieet - voeding en gezondheid - hyperactiviteit - voedselconsumptie - immuunsysteem - behaviour disorders - children - food allergies - diet - nutrition and health - hyperactivity - food consumption - immune system
    Wat kinderen alles bij elkaar eten heeft invloed op autisme, ADHD en andere gedragsstoornissen. Dat zegt immunoloog Huub Savelkoul. Volgens Savelkoul hebben kinderen met gedragsproblemen vaker last van voedselallergie. Hij zoekt nu naar de oorzaak van dat verband.
    Estimation of micronutrient intake distributions: development of methods to support food and nutrition policy making
    Verkaik-Kloosterman, J. - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Pieter van 't Veer, co-promotor(en): M.C. Ocké. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085859451 - 192
    sporenelementen - vitaminen - voedingsstoffenopname (mens en dier) - dieet - beleid inzake voedsel - volksgezondheid - fortificatie - voedselsupplementen - trace elements - vitamins - nutrient intake - diet - food policy - public health - fortification - food supplements


    Introduction
    Adequate and safe micronutrient intake is important. Both insufficient and excessive intakes should be prevented as these can be associated with negative health effects. Therefore, the population intake distribution will ideally lay between insufficient and excessive intakes. For the development and evaluation of nutrition and food policy a good estimation of dietary micronutrient intake is of great importance.

    Aim
    Three challenges were addressed to improve the estimation of population micronutrient intake distributions: 1) how to estimate current habitual micronutrient intake when (detailed) data are lacking or data from different sources should be combined, 2) how to predict future intakes in order to support policy making, and 3) how to estimate a maximum safe fortification level per food item. The aim of this PhD-thesis is to further develop and apply statistical models which can cope with these challenges.

    Methods & Results
    Data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Surveys (DNFCSs) were used to develop and apply statistical models which can cope with the defined challenges. In addition, data from the Dutch food composition database (NEVO) and the Dutch dietary supplement database (NES) were used.

    Three main methodological improvements have been made. First, the combination of a deterministic approach with probabilistic approaches to be able to take into account uncertainty and variability were needed. This method was applied to estimate habitual iodine and salt intake distributions. From DNFCSs no detailed information was available on the discretionary use of (iodized) salt and no up to date information was available on the use of iodized salt in industrially processed foods. Estimates of the proportion of the population discretionarily using (iodized) salt and the proportion of industrially processed foods applying iodized salt were obtained from other data sources. The model accurately estimates habitual iodine and salt intake distributions when compared with studies measuring urinary iodine and sodium excretion. Additionally a framework was developed to simulate the habitual intake distribution for potential scenarios of future fortification strategies. Within this framework, deterministic and probabilistic approaches were combined when uncertainty or variability had to be taken into account. This framework was illustrated by the estimation of habitual folate-equivalent intake for different scenarios of mandatory or voluntary fortification with folic acid. Further this framework was applied to estimate the habitual iodine intake for several potential changes in the Dutch iodine policy and also for several scenarios of salt reduction strategies.

    A second methodological improvement was the development of a new statistical model to estimate habitual total micronutrient intake aggregated from food and dietary supplements. Within this 3-part model, habitual intake is estimated separately for a) intake from food for non-users of dietary supplements, b) intake from food for users of dietary supplements, and c) intake from dietary supplements for users only. Habitual total intake for the whole population was obtained by combination of the three separate habitual intake distributions (‘first shrink then add’). This 3-part model was illustrated by vitamin D intake for young children. With a more simple ‘first add then shrink’ approach the estimation of habitual total vitamin D intake distribution may give inconsistent results for the distribution of intake from foods and dietary supplements combined as compared to the intake from food only. In addition, this more simple approach may not be able to cope with multi modal distributions. With the newly developed model this inconsistency problem was solved and the multi-modal shape of the distribution as observed in the ‘raw’ data was preserved.

    Third, a model calculating the maximum safe fortification level per 100 kcal of a food was developed for the Dutch situation. By considering the tolerable upper intake level and reasonable high micronutrient intakes from food and dietary supplements, the ‘free space’ for voluntary fortification was calculated. This amount was divided over the amount of energy intake that can and may be fortified. The model was applied to derive safe maximum fortification levels for vitamin A, D, and folic acid. Based on these results the risk manager decided to legally allow voluntary fortification with vitamin D and folic acid up to a maximum level of 4.5 and 100 μg/100 kcal respectively.

    Conclusion
    The methodological improvements have resulted in higher accuracy for estimations of habitual intake distributions, which are essential for nutritional and food policy making. Furthermore, scenario analyses provide (under specific conditions) quantitative insight into proposed changes or areas such as maximum safe fortification levels. Several results and methods described are currently being used in research to assist Dutch and European food and nutrition policy making, which shows these methodologies are of immediate value to the practice of policy development and support.

    The etiology of esophageal cancer in high- and low- risk areas of Jiangsu province, China
    Wu, M. - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ellen Kampman; Pieter van 't Veer, co-promotor(en): J.K. Zhao. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085858775 - 219
    slokdarmziekten - slokdarm - neoplasma's - tabak roken - alcoholinname - dieet - overerving - gevalsanalyse - china - oesophageal diseases - oesophagus - neoplasms - tobacco smoking - alcohol intake - diet - inheritance - case studies - china

    [Background]Esophageal cancer (EC) remains one of the most common and fatal malignancies worldwide. The geographic variation in EC occurrence is striking, and China is an area with one of the highest incidences of EC. A number of epidemiological studies have been conducted toward EC in the past decades, results suggested that tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, unhealthy dietary factors and chronic injuries of the esophageal mucosa are important in the development of this disease. Genetic polymorphisms in enzymes involved in metabolism of carcinogens may also influence individual susceptibility. However, the effects of major lifestyle and hereditary risk factors on the development of EC remain poorly understood in China. Moreover, little attention has been paid to the etiological heterogeneity between similar areas with great risk gradient.

    [Methods]From 2003 to 2007, a large population-based case-control study of EC has been conducted in a selected high-risk area and a selected low-risk area of Jiangsu Province, one of the highest cancer incidence areas in China. In total, 1,520 cases and 3,879 controls were recruited. In this thesis, we evaluated the role of major lifestyle factors such as tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and dietary factors, as well as inherited determinants including family history of cancer and genetic polymorphisms of alcohol-metabolizing related genes on the risk of EC. In addition, we investigated how much of the risk gradient between two areas could be explained by variation in the distributions of major risk factors.

    [Results] Tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking moderately increased the risk of EC, while the positive associations were only found among men but not among women. Dietary factors were observed to play important roles in the development of EC. Specific dietary habits i.e., fast eating speed, and hot eating and/or drinking substantially elevated EC risk and could explain more than 20% of EC cases each. High intake of salty foods and fried foods, low consumption of raw garlic were also observed to increase the risk of EC. In addition to environmental and lifestyle factors, we confirmed that a positive family history can significantly increase EC risk, and found the inheritance may modify the effect of some unhealthy lifestyles. Moreover, we further explored the relationship between EC and single nucleotide polymorphismsof ADH1B, ADH1C and ALDH2 genes. Results showed that the slow metabolizing ADH1B G allele, ADH1C G allele and ALDH2 A allele significantly increased EC risk among moderate-to-heavy alcohol drinkers, and a significant interaction was observed between ALDH2 gene and alcohol consumption. Lastly, we found that more than 60% of EC cases could be attributable to major lifestyle risk factors in the study population; furthermore, dissimilar distribution of several lifestyle factors, together with variations of hereditary factors may be largely responsible for the incidence difference between two study areas.

    [Conclusion]The findings in this thesis confirm that unhealthy lifestyles including smoking, alcohol drinking and some dietary factors are the predominant risk factors of EC in China, and a large proportion of incidence difference between regions at varying risk could be attributed to the different prevalence of lifestyle factors. As most of the identified risk factors are modifiable, these could be translated into risk reduction prevention programs in China, and a substantial proportion of new EC cases are expected to be prevented by eliminating or avoiding these risk factors in the population.

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) alters its feeding niche in response to changing food resources: direct observations in simulated ponds
    Rahman, M.M. ; Kadowaki, S. ; Balcombe, S.R. ; Wahab, M.A. - \ 2010
    Ecological Research 25 (2010)2. - ISSN 0912-3814 - p. 303 - 309.
    polyculture ponds - fish - growth - diet - preference
    We used customized fish tanks as model fish ponds to observe grazing, swimming, and conspecific social behavior of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) under variable food-resource conditions to assess alterations in feeding niche. Different food and feeding situations were created by using only pond water or pond water plus pond bottom sediment or pond water plus pond bottom sediment and artificial feeding. All tanks were fertilized twice, prior to stocking and 2 weeks later after starting the experiment to stimulate natural food production. Common carp preferred artificial feed over benthic macroinvertebrates, followed by zooplankton. Common carp did not prefer any group of phytoplankton in any treatment. Common carp was mainly benthic in habitat choice, feeding on benthic macroinvertebrates when only plankton and benthic macroinvertebrates were available in the system. In the absence of benthic macroinvertebrates, their feeding niche shifted from near the bottom of the tanks to the water column where they spent 85% of the total time and fed principally on zooplankton. Common carp readily switched to artificial feed when available, which led to better growth. Common carp preferred to graze individually. Behavioral observations of common carp in tanks yielded new information that assists our understanding of their ecological niche. This knowledge could be potentially used to further the development of common carp aquaculture.
    Onderzoek verband nutriëntendichtheid en gezondheid
    Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2010
    VoedingsMagazine 23 (2010)4. - ISSN 0922-8012 - p. 13 - 13.
    voedingsstoffenbalans - voedingsstoffen - voedingsstoffenbehoeften - energiebehoefte - voedingswaarde - dieet - voeding en gezondheid - nutrient balance - nutrients - nutrient requirements - power requirement - nutritive value - diet - nutrition and health
    Gastcolumn van Prof. dr. Edith Feskens, hoogleraar Voeding en Metabool Syndroom aan Wageningen Universiteit. De energiedichtheid van onze voeding is belangrijk, omdat een te hoge calorie inneming gecombineerd met lage fysieke activiteit de oorzaak is van de huidige obesitasepidemie. Maar ook de nutriëntendichtheid is belangrijk.
    Nutritional constraints and possibilities for pig production on small-holders farms in Central Vietnam
    Pham, K.T. ; Hoang, N.D. ; Duc, N.L. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2010
    Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 23 (2010)2. - ISSN 1011-2367 - p. 253 - 262.
    solomon-islands - dairy farms - reproduction - district - weight - kenya - diet
    This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional situation of pigs kept in three ecological zones of central Vietnam: Upland, Lowland and Coastal Area. An interview-based questionnaire was made and surveys were conducted in 27 villages and data were collected from 1,200 participating households. The current study showed that amounts of feed and crude protein content in the diets for fattening pigs and sows are deficient for all three regions. Amounts of feed as DM (kg/d) fed to growing pigs of 20-50 kg BW was deficient by 0.54 kg (29%) in Lowland, 0.53 kg (28.6%) in the Coastal area and 0.42 kg (22.4%) in Upland. The deficiency in CP in the diets of growing pigs in this period (20-50 kg) was largest at 20.7 g/d (62.1%) in Lowland, following by 22.1 g/d (66.4%) in Coastal and 23.2 g/d (69.7%) in Upland. Amount of feed as DM (kg/d) fed to growing pigs of 50-90 kg BW had a deficiency of 1.26 (48.9%), 1.25 (51.2%) and 1.14 (51.5%) kg/d in Lowland, Coastal and Upland, respectively. The deficiencies in crude protein in the growing diet during this period in Lowland, Coastal and Upland regions were 27 g/d (68.3%), 29 g/d (71.9%) and 30 g/d (74.6%), respectively. The deficiency in DM intake (kg/d) of pregnant sows in the Lowland area was 0.3 kg (15%), 0.33 kg (16%) in the Coastal area and 0.47 kg (23.5%) in the Upland area. Crude protein content in the diet of pregnant sows raised in Lowland was 8 g/d (32.0%) deficient, in the Coastal region the deficiency was 11 g/d (42.7%) and in Upland this deficiency was 15 g/d (61.2%). The deficiency in DM intake (kg/d) of lactating sows raised in Lowland was 1.47 kg (31.1%), in the Coastal area this was 1.69 kg (39.2%) and in Upland it was most deficient at 2.46 kg (57.1%). The lack of crude protein content in the diets of sows raised in Lowland was 45 g/d (63.4%), in the Coastal region it was 46 g/d (65%), and in Upland it was 55 g/d (78.9%). The low input of feed in these areas is especially due to low quality and to the insufficient intake of nutrients by the pig. As a result, production and income of farmers are low.
    Effect of kibble size, shape and additives on plaque in cats
    Clarke, D.E. ; Servet, E. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Thomas, D.G. ; Weidgraaf, K. ; Biourge, V.C. - \ 2010
    Journal of Veterinary Dentistry 27 (2010)2. - ISSN 0898-7564 - p. 84 - 89.
    ascorbic-acid depletion - periodontal-disease - calculus - health - supplementation - diet - dogs
    Forty mixed-breed cats completed a parallel-group, clinical study to compare supragingival plaque accumulation using a triangular or rectangular shaped dry-expanded diet, with or without an anti-calculus agent (sodium tripolyphosphate) or an anti-plaque agent (plaquereducing nutrient). The cats were divided into 4 equal groups based on plaque scores. Results showed that coating the kibble with sodium tripolyphosphate had no effect on plaque accumulation. Increasing the surface area and volume and changing the shape of the kibble was associated with a reduction in plaque accumulation, and coating the kibble with a plaque-reducing nutrient further reduced plaque accumulation. The importance of a combination of both mechanical abrasion (chewing) and chemical interference (plaque-reducing nutrient) was demonstrated in this study.
    Intra-lake stable isotope ratio variation in selected fish species and their possible carbon sources in Lake Kyoga (Uganda): implications for aquatic food web studies
    Mbabazi, D. ; Makanga, B. ; Orach-Meza, F. ; Hecky, R.E. ; Balirwa, J.S. ; Ogutu-Ohwayo, R. ; Verburg, P.H. ; Chapman, L. ; Muhumuza, E. - \ 2010
    African Journal of Ecology 48 (2010)3. - ISSN 0141-6707 - p. 667 - 675.
    trophic structure - east-africa - mwanza gulf - nitrogen - diet - delta-n-15 - victoria - ecosystem - specialization - delta-c-13
    The stable isotopes of nitrogen (delta 15N) and carbon (delta 13C) provide powerful tools for quantifying trophic relationships and carbon flow to consumers in food webs; however, the isotopic signatures of organisms vary within a lake. Assessment of carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures in a suite of plants, invertebrates, and fishes in Lake Kyoga, indicated significant variation between two sites for delta 13C (paired t = 6.305; df = 14, P <0.001 and delta 15N paired t = 1.292; df = 14; P <0.05). The fish fauna in Bukungu was generally more 13C enriched (mean delta 13C = -16.37 +/- 1.64 parts per thousand) than in Iyingo (mean delta 13C = -20.80 +/- 2.41 parts per thousand) but more delta 15N depleted (mean delta 15N = 5.57 +/- 0.71 parts per thousand) than in Iyingo (mean delta 15N = 6.92 +/- 0.83 parts per thousand). The simultaneous shifts in phytoplankton and consumer signatures confirmed phytoplankton as the major source of carbon for the food chain leading to fish. Limited sampling coverage within lakes may affect lake wide stable isotope signatures, and the same error is transferred into trophic position estimation. Consideration of potential intra-lake spatial variability in isotope ratios and size is essential in evaluating the spatial and trophic structure of fish assemblages.Resume Les isotopes stables d'azote (delta 15N) et de carbone (delta 13C) sont des outils interessants pour quantifier les relations trophiques et le flux de carbone vers les consommateurs de chaines alimentaires; cependant, la signature isotopique des organismes varie au sein d'un meme lac. L'evaluation des signatures isotopiques du carbone et de l'azote dans une suite de plantes, d'invertebres et de poissons du lac Kyoga indiquait une variation significative entre deux sites pour delta 13C (test t apparie = 6.305; df = 14; P <0.05). La faune piscicole de Bukungu etait generalement plus enrichie en delta 13C (moyenne de delta 13C = -16.37 +/- 1.64 parts per thousand) qu'a Iyingo (moyenne de delta 13C = -20.80 +/- 2.41 parts per thousand) mais plus depourvue de delta 15N (moyenne de delta 15N = 5.57 +/- 0.71 parts per thousand) qu'Inyingo (moyenne de delta 15N = 6.92 +/- 0.83 parts per thousand). Les glissements simultanes des signatures du phytoplancton et des consommateurs confirmaient que le phytoplancton est la source principale de carbone de la chaine alimentaire qui aboutit aux poissons. Une couverture limitee de l'echantillonnage dans les lacs peut affecter la signature des isotopes stables de tout le lac, et cette meme erreur est reportee dans l'estimation de la situation trophique. Il est essentiel de tenir compte de la variabilite spatiale possible des taux et de la taille des isotopes dans les lacs lorsque l'on evalue la structure spatiale et trophique des assemblages de poissons.
    Estimate of total salt intake in two regions of Belgium through analysis of sodium in 24-h urine samples
    Vandevijvere, S. ; Keyzer, W. de; Chapelle, J.P. ; Jeanne, D. ; Mouillet, G. ; Huybrechts, I. ; Hulshof, P.J.M. ; Oyen, H. van - \ 2010
    European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 64 (2010). - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 1260 - 1265.
    cardiovascular-disease - risk - completeness - creatinine - excretion - diet
    Objectives: To evaluate total salt intake in the adult population through an analysis of sodium in 24-h urine samples in two regions of Belgium. Methods: Urine samples were collected over 24¿h from participants and they had to complete a specific questionnaire about salt intake afterwards. Sodium and creatinine concentrations were analysed in these samples. Subjects: The target population comprised adults aged 45–65 years in the region of Ghent and Liege. A total of 123 and 157 volunteers from Ghent and Liege, respectively, were included in the study. Results: The mean creatinine level in Flanders (n=114) amounted to 0.173±0.035¿mmol/kg/day, whereas in the Walloon region (n=135) it amounted to 0.161±0.036¿mmol/kg/day, after the exclusion of subjects with incomplete urine collection. Intake of sodium in Flanders (n=114) was 4.29±1.29¿g/day, whereas in the Walloon region (n=135) it was 3.94±1.44¿g/day. In both regions, sodium intake in men was higher than in women. Conclusion: Salt intake was more or less twice as high as the recommended intake. Salt intake as estimated from 24-h urine collections is substantially higher than that previously calculated on the basis of food consumption data. A salt reduction programme for Belgium is primordial
    Experience-based behavioral and chemosensory changes in the generalist insect herbivore Helicoverpa armigera exposed to two deterrent plant chemicals
    Zhou, D. ; Loon, J.J.A. van; Wang, C.Z. - \ 2010
    Journal of Comparative Physiology A-Sensory Neural and Behavioral Physiology 196 (2010)11. - ISSN 0340-7594 - p. 791 - 799.
    pieris-rapae larvae - bitter taste stimuli - host-plant - feeding deterrents - sensitivity changes - h-assulta - caterpillars - responses - diet - consumption
    Behavioral and electrophysiological responses of larvae of the polyphagous moth species Helicoverpa armigera to two plant-derived allelochemicals were studied, both in larvae that had been reared on a diet devoid of these compounds and in larvae previously exposed to these compounds. In dual-choice cotton leaf disk and pepper fruit disk arena assays, caterpillars reared on a normal artificial diet were strongly deterred by strychnine and strophanthin- K. However, caterpillars reared on an artificial diet containing strychnine were insensitive to strychnine and strophanthin-K. Similarly, caterpillars reared on an artificial diet containing strophanthin-K were also desensitized to both deterrent chemicals. Electrophysiological tests revealed that the deterrent-sensitive neurons in taste sensilla on the maxillae of caterpillars reared on each deterrent- containing diet displayed reduced sensitivity to the two chemicals compared with the caterpillars reared on normal diets. We conclude that the experience-dependent behavioral plasticity was partly based on the reduced sensitivity of taste receptor neurons and that the desensitization of taste receptor neurons contributed to the crosshabituation to the two chemicals.
    Challenges of molecular nutrition research 6: the nutritional phenotype database to store, share and evaluate nutritional systems biology studies
    Ommen, B. van; Bouwman, J.H. ; Dragsted, L.O. ; Drevon, C.A. ; Elliott, R. ; Groot, P.J. de; Kaput, J. ; Mathers, J.C. ; Müller, M.R. ; Pepping, F. ; Saito, J. ; Scalbert, A. ; Radonjic, M. ; Rocca-Serra, P. ; Travis, A. ; Wopereis, S. ; Evelo, C. - \ 2010
    Genes & Nutrition 5 (2010)3. - ISSN 1555-8932 - p. 189 - 203.
    gene-expression - metabolic phenotypes - association - framework - services - network - complex - health - diet
    The challenge of modern nutrition and health research is to identify food-based strategies promoting life-long optimal health and well-being. This research is complex because it exploits a multitude of bioactive compounds acting on an extensive network of interacting processes. Whereas nutrition research can profit enormously from the revolution in ‘omics’ technologies, it has discipline-specific requirements for analytical and bioinformatic procedures. In addition to measurements of the parameters of interest (measures of health), extensive description of the subjects of study and foods or diets consumed is central for describing the nutritional phenotype. We propose and pursue an infrastructural activity of constructing the “Nutritional Phenotype database” (dbNP). When fully developed, dbNP will be a research and collaboration tool and a publicly available data and knowledge repository. Creation and implementation of the dbNP will maximize benefits to the research community by enabling integration and interrogation of data from multiple studies, from different research groups, different countries and different-omics levels. The dbNP is designed to facilitate storage of biologically relevant, pre-processed-omics data, as well as study descriptive and study participant phenotype data. It is also important to enable the combination of this information at different levels (e.g. to facilitate linkage of data describing participant phenotype, genotype and food intake with information on study design and-omics measurements, and to combine all of this with existing knowledge). The biological information stored in the database (i.e. genetics, transcriptomics, proteomics, biomarkers, metabolomics, functional assays, food intake and food composition) is tailored to nutrition research and embedded in an environment of standard procedures and protocols, annotations, modular data-basing, networking and integrated bioinformatics. The dbNP is an evolving enterprise, which is only sustainable if it is accepted and adopted by the wider nutrition and health research community as an open source, pre-competitive and publicly available resource where many partners both can contribute and profit from its developments. We introduce the Nutrigenomics Organisation (NuGO, http://www.nugo.org) as a membership association responsible for establishing and curating the dbNP. Within NuGO, all efforts related to dbNP (i.e. usage, coordination, integration, facilitation and maintenance) will be directed towards a sustainable and federated infrastructure
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