Effects of a modestly lower carbohydrate diet in gestational diabetes : a randomized controlled trial
Mijatovic, Jovana ; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu ; Buso, Marion E.C. ; Atkinson, Fiona S. ; Ross, Glynis P. ; Markovic, Tania P. ; Brand-Miller, Jennie C. - \ 2020
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 112 (2020)2. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 284 - 292.
diet - gestational diabetes - ketones - lower carbohydrate - MAMI study - metabolism
BACKGROUND: Lower carbohydrate diets have the potential to improve glycemia but may increase ketonemia in women with gestational diabetes (GDM). We hypothesized that modestly lower carbohydrate intake would not increase ketonemia. OBJECTIVE: To compare blood ketone concentration, risk of ketonemia, and pregnancy outcomes in women with GDM randomly assigned to a lower carbohydrate diet or routine care. METHODS: Forty-six women aged (mean ± SEM) 33.3 ± 0.6 y and prepregnancy BMI 26.8 ± 0.9 kg/m2 were randomly assigned at 28.5 ± 0.4 wk to a modestly lower carbohydrate diet (MLC, ∼135 g/d carbohydrate) or routine care (RC, ∼200 g/d) for 6 wk. Blood ketones were ascertained by finger prick test strips and 3-d food diaries were collected at baseline and end of the intervention. RESULTS: There were no detectable differences in blood ketones between completers in the MLC group compared with the RC group (0.1 ± 0.0 compared with 0.1 ± 0.0 mmol/L, n = 33, P = 0.31, respectively), even though carbohydrate and total energy intake were significantly lower in the intervention group (carbohydrate 165 ± 7 compared with 190 ± 9 g, P = 0.04; energy 7040 ± 240 compared with 8230 ± 320 kJ, P <0.01, respectively). Only 20% of participants in the MLC group met the target intake compared with 65% in the RC group (P <0.01). There were no differences in birth weight, rate of large-for-gestational-age infants, percent fat mass, or fat-free mass between groups. CONCLUSIONS: An intervention to reduce carbohydrate intake in GDM did not raise ketones to clinical significance, possibly because the target of 135 g/d was difficult to achieve in pregnancy. Feeding studies with food provision may be needed to assess the benefits and risks of low-carbohydrate diets. This trial was registered at www.anzctr.org.au as ACTRN12616000018415.
ROMAN, Few-Foods-Diet and ADHD in Practice
Frankena, Klaas - \ 2020
Wageningen University & Research
ADHD - nutrition - few-foods - diet - children - ODD - prevention - food-induced
Data underlying: Retrospective Outcome Monitoring of ADHD and Nutrition (ROMAN): the effectiveness of the few-foods diet in general practice. Frontiers in Psychiatry
Urinary excretion of advanced glycation end products in dogs and cats
Palaseweenun, Pornsucha ; Hagen-Plantinga, Esther A. ; Schonewille, Thomas J. ; Koop, Gerrit ; Butre, Claire ; Jonathan, Melliana ; Wierenga, Peter A. ; Hendriks, Wouter H. - \ 2020
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition (2020). - ISSN 0931-2439
advanced glycation end products - cats - diet - dogs - urinary excretion
The present study was conducted with privately owned dogs and cats to investigate whether a relationship exists between the dietary AGEs and the urinary excretion of AGEs, as indication of possible effective absorption of those compounds in the intestinal tract of pet carnivores. For this purpose, data were collected from both raw fed and dry processed food (DPF) fed to dogs and cats, through spot urine sampling and questionnaires. Raw pet food (RF, low in AGE diets) was fed as a primary food source to 29 dogs and DPF to 28 dogs. Cats were categorized into 3 groups, which were RF (n = 15), DPF (n = 14) and dry and wet processed pet food (DWF, n = 25). Urinary-free carboxymethyllysine (CML), carboxyethyllysine (CEL) and lysinoalanine (LAL) were analysed using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)—mass spectrometry, and were standardized for variable urine concentration by expressing the AGE concentrations as a ratio to urine creatinine (Ucr) concentration (µg/µmol Ucr). Urinary excretion of CML, CEL and LAL in dogs fed with DPF was 2.03, 2.14 and 3 times higher compared to dogs fed with RF (p <.005). Similar to the dogs, a significant difference in CML:Ucr, CEL:Ucr and LAL:Ucr between the three diet groups was observed in cats (p-overall < 0.005, ANOVA), in which the RF fed group excreted less AGEs than the other groups. Linear regression coefficients and SE of CML:Ucr, CEL:Ucr and LAL:Ucr showed that body weight and neuter status were significantly correlated with CML and CEL excretion, but not to LAL excretion. Our results revealed a significant correlation between dietary AGEs and urinary excretion of free CML, CEL and LAL, and also showed that endogenous formation of these AGEs occurs in both dogs and cats under physiological conditions.
Retrospective Outcome Monitoring of ADHD and Nutrition (ROMAN) : The Effectiveness of the Few-Foods Diet in General Practice
Pelsser, Lidy ; Frankena, Klaas ; Toorman, Jan ; Rodrigues Pereira, Rob - \ 2020
Frontiers in Psychiatry 11 (2020). - ISSN 1664-0640
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder - children - diet - few-foods - food-induced - nutrition - oppositional defiant disorder - prevention
Introduction: Double-blind placebo-controlled studies investigating the effect of a few-foods diet (FFD) on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have provided consistent evidence that ADHD can be triggered by foods, indicating the existence of a food-induced ADHD subtype. In 2001 the “few-foods” approach was included in an ADHD treatment protocol. This approach consists of (a) determining, by means of an FFD, whether food is a trigger of ADHD; (b) reintroducing, in FFD responders, foods to assess which foods are incriminated; (c) finally composing a personalised diet eliminating the involved foods only. In the Netherlands the few-foods approach is applied in practice. We aimed to retrospectively assess its effectiveness on ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in real life. Methods: Data from all children who started the few-foods approach in three specialised healthcare facilities during three consecutive months were included. Behavior was assessed at start and end of the 5-week FFD, using the ADHD Rating Scale and a structured psychiatric interview. Clinical responders (behavioral improvements ≥40%) proceeded with the reintroduction phase. Results: Data of 57 children, 27 taking medication and 15 following some elimination diet at start, were available. No differences were noted between parental scores of children with and without medication or some elimination diet at start. 21/27 (78%) children stopped taking medication during the FFD. 34/57 (60%) children were ADHD responders, 20/29 (65%) children meeting ODD criteria were ODD responders. 26/34 (76%) ADHD responders started the reintroduction phase; 14/26 (54%) still participated at six months. Teacher data were available of 18/57 (32%) children. 9/18 (50%) children were ADHD responders. Conclusion: The FFD, if applied by trained specialists, may lead to clinically relevant reduction of ADHD and ODD symptoms in general practice, and a concomitant decrease of ADHD medication. These results corroborate the existence of an ADHD subgroup with food-induced ADHD. Defining and eliminating the incriminated foods, i.e. the underlying causal triggers, may result in secondary prevention of food-induced ADHD. Research into underlying mechanism(s) is of vital importance: finding an easier method or biomarkers for diagnosing food-induced ADHD and ascertaining the incriminated foods may lead to redundancy of the few-foods approach.
Mediterranean diet intervention alters the gut microbiome in older people reducing frailty and improving health status : The NU-AGE 1-year dietary intervention across five European countries
Ghosh, Tarini Shankar ; Rampelli, Simone ; Jeffery, Ian B. ; Santoro, Aurelia ; Neto, Marta ; Capri, Miriam ; Giampieri, Enrico ; Jennings, Amy ; Candela, Marco ; Turroni, Silvia ; Zoetendal, Erwin G. ; Hermes, Gerben D.A. ; Elodie, Caumon ; Brugere, Corinne Malpuech ; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle ; Berendsen, Agnes M. ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. De; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Kaluza, Joanna ; Pietruszka, Barbara ; Bielak, Marta Jeruszka ; Comte, Blandine ; Maijo-Ferre, Monica ; Nicoletti, Claudio ; Vos, Willem M. de; Fairweather-Tait, Susan ; Cassidy, Aedin ; Brigidi, Patrizia ; Franceschi, Claudio ; O'Toole, Paul W. - \ 2020
Gut 69 (2020)7. - ISSN 0017-5749
ageing - diet - enteric bacterial microflora - inflammation - intestinal bacteria
Objective: Ageing is accompanied by deterioration of multiple bodily functions and inflammation, which collectively contribute to frailty. We and others have shown that frailty co-varies with alterations in the gut microbiota in a manner accelerated by consumption of a restricted diversity diet. The Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) is associated with health. In the NU-AGE project, we investigated if a 1-year MedDiet intervention could alter the gut microbiota and reduce frailty. Design: We profiled the gut microbiota in 612 non-frail or pre-frail subjects across five European countries (UK, France, Netherlands, Italy and Poland) before and after the administration of a 12-month long MedDiet intervention tailored to elderly subjects (NU-AGE diet). Results: Adherence to the diet was associated with specific microbiome alterations. Taxa enriched by adherence to the diet were positively associated with several markers of lower frailty and improved cognitive function, and negatively associated with inflammatory markers including C-reactive protein and interleukin-17. Analysis of the inferred microbial metabolite profiles indicated that the diet-modulated microbiome change was associated with an increase in short/branch chained fatty acid production and lower production of secondary bile acids, p-cresols, ethanol and carbon dioxide. Microbiome ecosystem network analysis showed that the bacterial taxa that responded positively to the MedDiet intervention occupy keystone interaction positions, whereas frailty-associated taxa are peripheral in the networks. Conclusion: Collectively, our findings support the feasibility of improving the habitual diet to modulate the gut microbiota which in turn has the potential to promote healthier ageing.
On the scaling of activity in tropical forest mammals
Cid, Bruno ; Carbone, Chris ; Fernandez, Fernando A.S. ; Jansen, Patrick A. ; Rowcliffe, J.M. ; O'Brien, Timothy ; Akampurira, Emmanuel ; Bitariho, Robert ; Espinosa, Santiago ; Gajapersad, Krishna ; Santos, Thiago M.R. ; Gonçalves, André L.S. ; Kinnaird, Margaret F. ; Lima, Marcela G.M. ; Martin, Emanuel ; Mugerwa, Badru ; Rovero, Francesco ; Salvador, Julia ; Santos, Fernanda ; Spironello, Wilson R. ; Wijntuin, Soraya ; Oliveira-Santos, Luiz Gustavo R. - \ 2020
Oikos 129 (2020)5. - ISSN 0030-1299 - p. 668 - 676.
activity behavior - body mass - camera traps - diet - energy budget - predation risk
Activity range – the amount of time spent active per day – is a fundamental aspect contributing to the optimization process by which animals achieve energetic balance. Based on their size and the nature of their diet, theoretical expectations are that larger carnivores need more time active to fulfil their energetic needs than do smaller ones and also more time active than similar-sized non-carnivores. Despite the relationship between daily activity, individual range and energy acquisition, large-scale relationships between activity range and body mass among wild mammals have never been properly addressed. This study aimed to understand the scaling of activity range with body mass, while controlling for phylogeny and diet. We built simple empirical predictions for the scaling of activity range with body mass for mammals of different trophic guilds and used a phylogenetically controlled mixed model to test these predictions using activity records of 249 mammal populations (128 species) in 19 tropical forests (in 15 countries) obtained using camera traps. Our scaling model predicted a steeper scaling of activity range in carnivores (0.21) with higher levels of activity (higher intercept), and near-zero scaling in herbivores (0.04). Empirical data showed that activity ranges scaled positively with body mass for carnivores (0.061), which also had higher intercept value, but not for herbivores, omnivores and insectivores, in general, corresponding with the predictions. Despite the many factors that shape animal activity at local scales, we found a general pattern showing that large carnivores need more time active in a day to meet their energetic demands.
Dietary protein intake and kidney function decline after myocardial infarction: the Alpha Omega Cohort
Esmeijer, Kevin ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Fijter, Johan W. de; Kromhout, Daan ; Hoogeveen, Ellen K. - \ 2020
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 35 (2020)1. - ISSN 0931-0509 - p. 106 - 115.
diet - kidney function decline - myocardial infarction - protein intake
BACKGROUND: Post-myocardial infarction (MI) patients have a doubled rate of kidney function decline compared with the general population. We investigated the extent to which high intake of total, animal and plant protein are risk factors for accelerated kidney function decline in older stable post-MI patients. METHODS: We analysed 2255 post-MI patients (aged 60-80 years, 80% men) of the Alpha Omega Cohort. Dietary data were collected with a biomarker-validated 203-item food frequency questionnaire. At baseline and 41 months, we estimated glomerular filtration rate based on the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equations for serum cystatin C [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFRcysC)] alone and both creatinine and cystatin C (eGFRcr-cysC). RESULTS: Mean [standard deviation (SD)] baseline eGFRcysC and eGFRcr-cysC were 82 (20) and 79 (19) mL/min/1.73 m2. Of all patients, 16% were current smokers and 19% had diabetes. Mean (SD) total protein intake was 71 (19) g/day, of which two-thirds was animal and one-third plant protein. After multivariable adjustment, including age, sex, total energy intake, smoking, diabetes, systolic blood pressure, renin-angiotensin system blocking drugs and fat intake, each incremental total daily protein intake of 0.1 g/kg ideal body weight was associated with an additional annual eGFRcysC decline of -0.12 (95% confidence interval -0.19 to -0.04) mL/min/1.73 m2, and was similar for animal and plant protein. Patients with a daily total protein intake of ≥1.20 compared with <0.80 g/kg ideal body weight had a 2-fold faster annual eGFRcysC decline of -1.60 versus -0.84 mL/min/1.73 m2. Taking eGFRcr-cysC as outcome showed similar results. Strong linear associations were confirmed by restricted cubic spline analyses. CONCLUSION: A higher protein intake was significantly associated with a more rapid kidney function decline in post-MI patients.
Dietary enrichment of edible insects with omega 3 fatty acids
Oonincx, Dennis G.A.B. ; Laurent, Sophie ; Veenenbos, Margot E. ; Loon, Joop J.A. van - \ 2020
Insect Science 27 (2020)3. - ISSN 1672-9609 - p. 500 - 509.
Acheta domesticus - Alphitobius diaperinus - diet - fatty acids - Hermetia illucens
Edible insects are advocated as sustainable and healthy food and feed. However, commercially produced insects are often low in n-3 fatty acids and have suboptimal n-6/n-3 ratios. A certain amount and proportion of these FAs is required to optimize human health. Flaxseed oil consists primarily (57%) out of alpha-linolenic acid. An experiment was conducted to quantify the effect of flaxseed oil provision on fatty acid composition and to determine the quantity needed to attain a beneficial n-6/n-3 ratio. Three species were used in the experiment: house crickets (Acheta domesticus [L.]), lesser mealworms (Alphitobius diaperinus [Pfanzer]) and black soldier flies (Hermetia illucens [L.]). These were provided with either a control diet or a diet enriched with 1%, 2%, or 4% flaxseed oil during their larval/nymphal stage. Fatty acid profiles of diets and insects were determined via GC-MS. The three species had distinct fatty acid profiles on all four diets, but responded similarly to flaxseed oil addition. For each percent added to the diet, the alpha-linolenic acid content of the insects increased by 2.3%–2.7%. Four percent addition increased the n-3 fatty acid content 10–20 fold in the three species and thereby strongly decreased n-6/n-3 ratios from 18–36 to 0.8–2.4. A ratio below 5 is considered optimal for human health and was achieved by 2% flaxseed oil inclusion for house crickets and lesser mealworms, and at 1% inclusion for black soldier flies. Adding a source of n-3 fatty acids to insect diets can thus improve the nutritional quality of insects.
Editorial : Diet, Inflammation and Colorectal Cancer
Gessani, Sandra ; Duijnhoven, Fränzel J. Van; Moreno-Aliaga, Maria Jesus - \ 2019
Frontiers in Immunology 10 (2019). - ISSN 1664-3224
colorectal cancer - diet - dietary factors - inflammation - obesity
Biomarkers of Dietary Omega-6 Fatty Acids and Incident Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality: An Individual-Level Pooled Analysis of 30 Cohort Studies
Marklund, Matti ; Wu, Jason H.Y. ; Imamura, Fumiaki ; Gobbo, Liana C. Del; Fretts, Amanda ; Goede, Janette De; Shi, Peilin ; Tintle, Nathan ; Wennberg, Maria ; Aslibekyan, Stella ; Chen, Tzu An ; Oliveira Otto, Marcia C. De; Hirakawa, Yoichiro ; Eriksen, Helle Højmark ; Kröger, Janine ; Laguzzi, Federica ; Lankinen, Maria ; Murphy, Rachel A. ; Prem, Kiesha ; Samieri, Cécilia ; Virtanen, Jyrki ; Wood, Alexis C. ; Wong, Kerry ; Yang, Wei Sin ; Zhou, Xia ; Baylin, Ana ; Boer, Jolanda M.A. ; Brouwer, Ingeborg A. ; Campos, Hannia ; Chaves, Paulo H.M. ; Chien, Kuo Liong ; Faire, Ulf De; Djoussé, Luc ; Eiriksdottir, Gudny ; El-Abbadi, Naglaa ; Forouhi, Nita G. ; Michael Gaziano, J. ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Gigante, Bruna ; Giles, Graham ; Guallar, Eliseo ; Gudnason, Vilmundur ; Harris, Tamara ; Harris, William S. ; Helmer, Catherine ; Hellenius, Mai Lis ; Hodge, Allison ; Hu, Frank B. ; Jacques, Paul F. ; Jansson, Jan Håkan ; Kalsbeek, Anya ; Khaw, Kay Tee ; Koh, Woon Puay ; Laakso, Markku ; Leander, Karin ; Lin, Hung Ju ; Lind, Lars ; Luben, Robert ; Luo, Juhua ; Mcknight, Barbara ; Mursu, Jaakko ; Ninomiya, Toshiharu ; Overvad, Kim ; Psaty, Bruce M. ; Rimm, Eric ; Schulze, Matthias B. ; Siscovick, David ; Skjelbo Nielsen, Michael ; Smith, Albert V. ; Steffen, Brian T. ; Steffen, Lyn ; Sun, Qi ; Sundström, Johan ; Tsai, Michael Y. ; Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh ; Uusitupa, Matti I.J. ; Dam, Rob M. van; Veenstra, Jenna ; Verschuren, Monique ; Wareham, Nick ; Willett, Walter ; Woodward, Mark ; Yuan, Jian Min ; Micha, Renata ; Lemaitre, Rozenn N. ; Mozaffarian, Dariush ; Risérus, Ulf - \ 2019
Circulation 139 (2019)21. - ISSN 0009-7322 - p. 2422 - 2436.
arachidonic acid - biomarkers - cardiovascular diseases - diet - epidemiology - linoleic acid - primary prevention
Background: Global dietary recommendations for and cardiovascular effects of linoleic acid, the major dietary omega-6 fatty acid, and its major metabolite, arachidonic acid, remain controversial. To address this uncertainty and inform international recommendations, we evaluated how in vivo circulating and tissue levels of linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA) relate to incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) across multiple international studies. Methods: We performed harmonized, de novo, individual-level analyses in a global consortium of 30 prospective observational studies from 13 countries. Multivariable-adjusted associations of circulating and adipose tissue LA and AA biomarkers with incident total CVD and subtypes (coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, cardiovascular mortality) were investigated according to a prespecified analytic plan. Levels of LA and AA, measured as the percentage of total fatty acids, were evaluated linearly according to their interquintile range (ie, the range between the midpoint of the first and fifth quintiles), and categorically by quintiles. Study-specific results were pooled using inverse-variance-weighted meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was explored by age, sex, race, diabetes mellitus, statin use, aspirin use, omega-3 levels, and fatty acid desaturase 1 genotype (when available). Results: In 30 prospective studies with medians of follow-up ranging 2.5 to 31.9 years, 15 198 incident cardiovascular events occurred among 68 659 participants. Higher levels of LA were significantly associated with lower risks of total CVD, cardiovascular mortality, and ischemic stroke, with hazard ratios per interquintile range of 0.93 (95% CI, 0.88-0.99), 0.78 (0.70-0.85), and 0.88 (0.79-0.98), respectively, and nonsignificantly with lower coronary heart disease risk (0.94; 0.88-1.00). Relationships were similar for LA evaluated across quintiles. AA levels were not associated with higher risk of cardiovascular outcomes; in a comparison of extreme quintiles, higher levels were associated with lower risk of total CVD (0.92; 0.86-0.99). No consistent heterogeneity by population subgroups was identified in the observed relationships. Conclusions: In pooled global analyses, higher in vivo circulating and tissue levels of LA and possibly AA were associated with lower risk of major cardiovascular events. These results support a favorable role for LA in CVD prevention.
Determining Key Research Areas for Healthier Diets and Sustainable Food Systems in Viet Nam
Raneri, Jessica E. ; Kennedy, Gina ; Nguyen, Trang ; Wertheim-Heck, S.C.O. ; Haan, Stef de; Do, Ha Thi Phuong ; Nguyen, Phuong Hong ; Thi, Huong Le ; Mai, Truong Tuyet ; Duong, Thi Thanh Thuy ; Hung, Nguyen ; Nguyen, Tuan ; Huynh, Tuyen ; Nodari, Gulia Rota ; Spellman, Olga ; Talsma, Elise F. ; Stoian, Dietmar ; Duong, Minh-Cam ; Tran, Lam Nguyen ; Bene, Christophe - \ 2019
IFPRI (IFPRI Discussion Paper 1872) - 127 p.
food systems - diet - nutrition - agriculture
Vietnamese food systems are undergoing rapid transformation, with important implications for human and environmental health and economic development. Poverty has decreased, and diet quality and under-nutrition have improved significantly since the end of the Doi Moi reform period (1986-1993) as a result of Viet Nam opening its economy and increasing its regional and global trade. Yet poor diet quality is still contributing the triple burden of malnutrition, with 25 percent stunting among children under age 5, 26 percent and 29 percent of women and children, respectively, anemic, and 21 percent of adults overweight. Agricultural production systems have shifted from predominantly diverse smallholder systems to larger more commercialized and specialized systems, especially for crops, while the ‘meatification’ of the Vietnamese diet is generating serious trade-offs between improved nutrition and sustainability of the Vietnamese food systems. The food processing industry has developed rapidly, together with food imports, resulting in new and processed food products penetrating the food retail outlets, trending towards an increase in the Westernized consumption patterns that are shifting nutrition-related problems towards overweight and obesity and, with it, an increase of non-communicable disease-related health risks. While regulatory policies exist across the food system, these are not systematically implemented, making food safety a major concern for consumers and policy makers alike. Where data exists, it is not easy to aggregate with data from across food system dimensions, making it difficult for Viet Nam to make an informed analysis of current and potential food system trade-offs. In our research, we reviewed existing literature and data, and applied a food systems framework to develop an initial food systems profile for Viet Nam and to identify a comprehensive set a of research questions to fill current data gaps identified through the review. Insights on these would provide the comprehensive evidence needed to inform policy makers on how to develop new food systems policies for Viet Nam, and further refine and improve existing policies to achieve better quality diets and more sustainable food systems in Viet Nam. Based on these, we then engaged with stakeholders to develop research priorities in the Viet Nam context and identified 25 priority research questions. This paper aims to stimulate such reflections by clearly outlining key areas for research, government policy, and development programs on priority investment to build the evidence base around inclusive food systems interventions that aim to result in healthier diets and more sustainable food systems for Viet Nam.
The UroLife study: protocol for a Dutch prospective cohort on lifestyle habits in relation to non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer prognosis and health-related quality of life
Goeij, Liesbeth de; Westhoff, Ellen ; Witjes, J.A. ; Aben, Katja K. ; Kampman, Ellen ; Kiemeney, Lambertus Alm ; Vrieling, Alina - \ 2019
BMJ Open 9 (2019)10. - ISSN 2044-6055 - p. e030396 - e030396.
biomarkers - bladder cancer - cohort - diet - lifestyle - prognosis - quality of life - recurrence - study protocol
INTRODUCTION: Patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) have a good survival but are at high risk for tumour recurrence and disease progression. It is important to identify lifestyle habits that may reduce the risk of recurrence and progression and improve health-related quality of life (HRQOL). This paper describes the rationale and design of the UroLife study. The main aim of this study is to evaluate whether lifestyle habits are related to prognosis and HRQOL in patients with NMIBC. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The UroLife study is a multicentre prospective cohort study among more than 1100 newly diagnosed patients with NMIBC recruited from 22 hospitals in the Netherlands. At 6 weeks and 3, 15 and 51 months after diagnosis, participants fill out a general questionnaire, and questionnaires about their lifestyle habits and HRQOL. At 3, 15 and 51 months after diagnosis, information about fluid intake and micturition is collected with a 4-day diary. At 3 and 15 months after diagnosis, patients donate blood samples for DNA extraction and (dietary) biomarker analysis. Tumour samples are collected from all patients with T1 disease to assess molecular subtypes. Information about disease characteristics and therapy for the primary tumour and subsequent recurrences is collected from the medical records by the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Statistical analyses will be adjusted for age, gender, tumour characteristics and other known confounders. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol has been approved by the Committee for Human Research region Arnhem-Nijmegen (CMO 2013-494). Patients who agree to participate in the study provide written informed consent. The findings from our study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed scientific journals and presentations at (inter)national scientific meetings. Patients will be informed about the progress and results of this study through biannual newsletters and through the website of the study and of the bladder cancer patient association.
The Newly Developed Elderly Nutrient-Rich Food Score Is a Useful Tool to Assess Nutrient Density in European Older Adults
Berendsen, Agnes A.M. ; Kramer, Charlotte S. ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. de - \ 2019
Frontiers in Nutrition 6 (2019). - ISSN 2296-861X
diet - diet quality - elderly - nutrient density - nutrient profiling - nutrient-rich food index
Objective: To develop a nutrient-rich food (NRF) score that captures dietary reference values for older adults and to validate this against a diet index that was specifically designed to assess adherence to dietary guidelines for the older population. Design: A cross-sectional study within the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (DNFCS, n = 735 men and women aged 70–94 years, enrolled between October 2010 and February 2012) and within the NU-AGE study (n = 250 men and women aged 65–79 years, enrolled between April 2012 and March 2013). Dietary intake was assessed by means of two non-consecutive dietary record assisted 24-h recalls and 7-day food records, respectively. Structured questionnaires collected data on lifestyle and socio-economic information. Anthropometrics were measured by trained dieticians or research assistants. We evaluated Elderly NRF (E-NRF) scores against the NU-AGE index, a measure of adherence to European dietary guidelines for the aging population. The E-NRF scores were composed of nutrients that: (1) have been shown to be of inadequate intake in the aging population (>20%), (2) were defined as nutrients of public health relevance, and (3) were associated with relevant health outcomes. Results: The E-NRF score that best predicted the NU-AGE index included seven nutrients to encourage (protein, dietary fiber, folate, vitamin D, calcium, magnesium, potassium) and three nutrients to limit (saturated fat, sodium and mono- and disaccharides) on a 100-kcal basis, the E-NRF7.3 score (model R2 0.27 in DNFCS and 0.41 in NU-AGE). Food groups contributing the most to the individual E-NRF7.3 scores were vegetables, bread, potatoes and milk and milk products. Conclusion: The E-NRF7.3 score is a useful tool for assessing nutrient density of diets within the older population. No index has previously been developed with the aim of evaluating nutrient density of diets and foods specifically capturing dietary reference values for older adults.
SHARP Indicators Database: Towards a public database for environmental sustainability
Mertens, E. ; Kaptijn, Gerdine ; Kuijsten, A. ; Zanten, H.H.E. van; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2019
environment - greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) - land use (LU) - life cycle analyses (LCA) - Europe - food - diet
In the SHARP-ID, environmental impact assessment was based on attributional life cycle analyses using environmental indicators greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) and land use (LU). Life cycle inventory data of 182 primary products were combined with data on production, trade and transport, and adjusted for consumption amount using conversions factors for production, edible portion, cooking losses and gains, and for food losses and waste in order to derive estimates of GHGE and LU for the foods as eaten.
High Dietary Intake of Vegetable Protein Is Associated With Lower Prevalence of Renal Function Impairment: Results of the Dutch DIALECT-1 Cohort
Oosterwijk, Milou M. ; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S. ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Bakker, Stephan J.L. ; Navis, Gerjan ; Binnenmars, S.H. ; Gant, Christina M. ; Laverman, Gozewijn D. - \ 2019
Kidney International Reports 4 (2019)5. - ISSN 2468-0249 - p. 710 - 719.
diabetes mellitus type 2 - diet - kidney function - lifestyle
Introduction: Dietary protein intake may influence development of renal function impairment in diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM). We assessed the association between sources of protein and prevalence of renal function impairment. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses were performed in baseline data of 420 patients of the DIAbetes and LifEstyle Cohort Twente-1 (DIALECT-1)study. Protein intake was assessed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire, modified for accurate assessment of protein intake, including types and sources of protein. Renal function impairment was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)<60 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formula). Results: Among 420 patients with T2DM, 99 renal function impairment cases were identified. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used and adjusted for the main lifestyle and dietary factors. The prevalence ratios in the fully adjusted model were 1 (reference), 0.74 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.44–1.27; P = 0.28)and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.23–0.98; P = 0.04)according to increasing tertiles of vegetable protein intake. For animal protein intake the prevalence ratios were 1 (reference), 1.10 (95% CI: 0.64–1.88; P = 0.74)and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.56–1.99; P = 0.87)according to increasing tertiles of intake. Theoretical replacement models showed that replacing 3 energy percent from animal protein by vegetable protein lowered the prevalence ratio for the association with renal function impairment to 0.20 (95% CI: 0.06–0.63; P = 0.01). Conclusion: In conclusion, we found that higher intake of vegetable protein was associated with a lower prevalence of renal function impairment, and theoretical replacement of animal protein with vegetable protein was inversely associated with renal function impairment among patients with T2DM.
What are the health effects of sodium?
Kersten, A.H. - \ 2019
Wageningen : WURcast
sodium - salt - nutrition and health - diet - intake
In this video we explain the health effects of your sodium intake.
Top-down pressure on a coastal ecosystem by harbor seals
Aarts, Geert ; Brasseur, Sophie ; Poos, Jan Jaap ; Schop, Jessica ; Kirkwood, Roger ; Kooten, Tobias Van; Mul, Evert ; Reijnders, Peter ; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D. ; Tulp, Ingrid - \ 2019
Ecosphere 10 (2019)1. - ISSN 2150-8925 - p. e02538 - e02538.
demersal fish - diet - harbor seal - impact - intertidaL - Phoca vitulina - predation pressure - sealing - Subtidal - top-down regulation - top predator
Historic hunting has led to severe reductions of many marine mammal species across the globe. After hunting ceased, some populations have recovered to pre-exploitation levels and may have regained their prominent position as top predator in marine ecosystems. Also, the harbor seal population in the international Wadden Sea grew at an exponential rate following a ban on seal hunting in 1960s, and the current number ~38,000 is close to the historic population size. Here we estimate the impact of the harbor seal predation on the fish community in the Wadden Sea and nearby coastal waters. Fish remains in fecal samples and published estimates on the seal’s daily energy requirement were used to estimate prey selection and the magnitude of seal consumption. Estimates on prey abundance were derived from demersal fish surveys, and fish growth was estimated using a Dynamic Energy Budget model. GPS tracking provided information on where seals most likely caught their prey. Harbor seals hauling-out in the Dutch Wadden Sea fed predominantly on demersal fish, for example, flatfish species (flounder, sole, plaice, dab), but also on sandeel, cod, and whiting. Although harbor seals acquire the majority of prey further offshore in the adjacent North Sea, and only spend 14% of their diving time in the Wadden Sea, seal predation was still estimated to cause an average annual mortality of 43% of the remaining fish in the Wadden Sea and 60% in the nearby shallow coastal waters (<20 m). There were however large sources of uncertainty in the estimated impact of seals on fish, including the migration of fish between the North Sea and Wadden Sea, and catchability estimates of the fish survey sampling gear, particularly for sandeel and other pelagic fish species. Our estimate suggested a considerable top-down pressure by harbor seals on demersal fish. However, predation by seals may also alleviate density-dependent competition between the remaining fish, allowing for increased fish growth, and partly compensating for the reduction in fish numbers. This study shows that recovering coastal marine mammal populations could become an important component in the functioning of shallow coastal ecosystems.
Designing a research infrastructure on dietary intake and its determinants
Bogaardt, M.J. ; Geelen, A. ; Zimmermann, K. ; Finglas, P. ; Raats, M.M. ; Mikkelsen, B.E. ; Poppe, K.J. ; van't Veer, P. - \ 2018
Nutrition Bulletin 43 (2018)3. - ISSN 1471-9827 - p. 301 - 309.
big data - consumers - diet - food - public health - research infrastructure
Research on dietary intake and its determinants is crucial for an adequate response to the current epidemic of diet-related non-communicable chronic diseases. In order to respond to this challenge, the RICHFIELDS project was tasked with designing a research infrastructure (RI) that connects data on dietary intake of consumers in Europe, and its determinants, collected using apps and wearable sensors, from behavioural laboratories and experimental facilities and from other RIs. The main output of the project, an RI design, describes interfaces (portals) to collect data, a meta-database and a data-model to enable data linkage and sharing. The RICHFIELDS project comprises three phases, each consisting of three work packages, and an overarching methodological support work package. Phase 1 focused on data generated by consumers (e.g. collected by apps and sensors) relating to the purchase, preparation and consumption of food. Phase 2 focused on data generated by organisations such as businesses (e.g. retail data), government (e.g. procurement data) and experimental research facilities (e.g. virtual supermarkets). Phases 1 and 2 provided Phase 3 with insights on data types and design requirements, including the business models, data integration and management systems and governance and ethics. The final design will be used in the coming years to build an RI for the scientific research community, policy makers and businesses in Europe. The RI will boost interdisciplinary multi-stakeholder research through harmonisation and integration of data on food behaviour.
Soya bean meal increases litter moisture and foot pad dermatitis in maize and wheat based diets for turkeys but maize and non-soya diets lower body weight
Hocking, P.M. ; Vinco, L.J. ; Veldkamp, T. - \ 2018
British Poultry Science 59 (2018)2. - ISSN 0007-1668 - p. 227 - 231.
Cereal - dermatitis - diet - electrolyte balance - feed - feed intake - litter moisture - protein
1. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to compare the effects of wheat or maize based diets differing in dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) on litter moisture and foot pad dermatitis (FPD) at 4, 8 and 12 weeks of age in heavy-medium turkeys. A second objective was to investigate the effects on foot pad dermatitis of the interaction between dietary composition and artificially increasing litter moisture by adding water to the litter. 2. High DEB diets contained soya as the main protein source whereas low DEB diets did not contain soya bean meal. Diets were formulated to be iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous in each of 3 successive 4-week phases following recommended dietary compositions. DEB concentrations were 330, 290 and 250 mEq/kg in high DEB diets and 230, 200 and 180 mEq/kg in low DEB diets. 3. Litter moisture and mean FPD score were higher in turkeys fed on high DEB diets compared with low DEB diets whereas there was no difference between maize and wheat. 4. Food intake was similar and body weight was lower after litter moisture was artificially raised in the wet compared with the dry litter treatment and there was no interaction with dietary composition. 5. Mean body weight and feed intake were higher in turkeys fed on wheat compared with maize and in high DEB compared with low DEB diets at 12 weeks of age. 6. Lowering dietary DEB for turkeys may improve litter moisture and lower the prevalence of FPD in commercial turkey flocks.
Multi-objective decision-making for dietary assessment and advice
Lemmen - Gerdessen, J.C. van - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.G.A.J. Vorst; P. van 't Veer, co-promotor(en): G.D.H. Claassen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437073 - 136
questionnaires - food - fractionation - modeling - diet - food intake - decision making - diet counseling - vragenlijsten - voedsel - fractionering - modelleren - dieet - voedselopname - besluitvorming - dieetadvisering
Unhealthy diets contribute substantially to the worldwide burden of non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and diabetes. Globally, non-communicable diseases are the leading cause of death, and numbers are still rising, which makes healthy diets a global priority. In Nutrition Research, two fields are particularly relevant for formulating healthier diets: dietary assessment, which assesses food and nutrient intake in order to investigate the relation between diet and disease, and dietary advice, which translates food and nutrient recommendations into realistic food choices. Both fields face complex decision problems: which foods to include in dietary assessment or advice in order to pursue the multiple objectives of the researcher or fulfil the requirements of the consumer. This thesis connects the disciplines of Nutrition Research and Operations Research in order to contribute to formulating healthier diets.
In the context of dietary assessment, the thesis proposes a MILP model for the selection of food items for food frequency questionnaires (a crucial tool in dietary assessment) that speeds up the selection process and increases standardisation, transparency, and reproducibility. An extension of this model gives rise to a 0-1 fractional programming problem with more than 200 fractional terms, of which in every feasible solution only a subset is actually defined. The thesis shows how this problem can be reformulated in order to eliminate the undefined fractional terms. The resulting MILP model can solved with standard software.
In the context of dietary advice, the thesis proposes a diet model in which food and nutrient requirements are formulated via fuzzy sets. With this model, the impact of various achievement functions is demonstrated. The preference structures modelled via these achievement functions represent various ways in which multiple nutritional characteristics of a diet can be aggregated into an overall indicator for diet quality. Furthermore, for Operations Research the thesis provides new insights into a novel preference structure from literature, that combines equity and utilitarianism in a single model.
Finally, the thesis presents conclusions of the research and a general discussion, which discusses, amongst others, the main modelling choices encountered when using MODM methods for optimising diet quality.
Summarising, this thesis explores the use of MODM approaches to improve decision-making for dietary assessment and advice. It provides opportunities for better decision-making in research on dietary assessment and advice, and it contributes to model building and solving in Operations Research. Considering the added value for Nutrition Research and the new models and solutions generated, we conclude that the combination of both fields has resulted in synergy between Nutrition Research and Operations Research.