Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

    We have a manual that explains all the features 

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    Het nieuwe meten
    Ramaker, R. ; Khoury, C.K. - \ 2015
    Resource: nieuwssite voor studenten en medewerkers van Wageningen UR 9 (2015)15. - ISSN 1389-7756 - p. 18 - 19.
    publicaties - publiceren - publiciteit - verspreiding van onderzoek - statistiek - onderzoekers - publications - publishing - publicity - diffusion of research - statistics - research workers
    Al decennialang wordt wetenschappelijke kwaliteit en invloed op dezelfde manier gemeten. Maar deugt die methode nog wel in een wereld die door digitalisering en social media ingrijpend is veranderd? Altmetrics biedt een alternatief.
    Internationaal kennisplatform opmaat naar duurzame biologische tuinbouw : Project Netwerk Biogreenhouse
    Arkesteijn, M. ; Meijer, R.J.M. - \ 2014
    Onder Glas 11 (2014)10. - p. 19 - 19.
    glastuinbouw - biologische landbouw - cultuurmethoden - kasgewassen - kennisoverdracht - verspreiding van onderzoek - doelstellingen - projecten - greenhouse horticulture - organic farming - cultural methods - greenhouse crops - knowledge transfer - diffusion of research - objectives - projects
    Halverwege 2012 werd Netwerk Biogreenhouse in het leven geroepen. Het project is nu halverwege de looptijd van vier jaar. Doel van dit internationaal kennisplatform is om alle beschikbare kennis te bundelen, afstemmen van onderzoek op het gebied van bedekte biologische teelten en het beïnvloeden van de Europese innovatie-agenda.
    Onderzoek WUR-PPO verandert
    Dolmans, N.G.M. ; Hiemstra, J.A. - \ 2014
    Boom in business 5 (2014)3. - ISSN 2211-9884 - p. 28 - 33.
    landbouwkundig onderzoek - houtachtige planten - productschappen - kennisoverdracht - verspreiding van onderzoek - modificatie - inventarisaties - agricultural research - woody plants - product boards - knowledge transfer - diffusion of research - modification - inventories
    Overzicht onderzoeksprojecten van het onderzoeksteam Bomen van Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving.
    Bundeling onderzoek biologische teelten krijgt steeds meer vorm (interview met Rob Meijer)
    Velden, P. van; Meijer, R.J.M. - \ 2013
    Onder Glas 10 (2013)9. - p. 39 - 39.
    glastuinbouw - biologische landbouw - cultuurmethoden - kasgewassen - kennisoverdracht - verspreiding van onderzoek - doelstellingen - greenhouse horticulture - organic farming - cultural methods - greenhouse crops - knowledge transfer - diffusion of research - objectives
    Eind oktober komen ze weer bij elkaar in Avignon, onderzoekers en adviseurs uit heel Europa en Canada die zich bezig houden met bedekte biologische teelten. Hun doel is onderzoek op elkaar af te stemmen en de Europese innovatieagenda te beïnvloeden. Dat is hard nodig, vindt onderzoeker Rob Meijer. Hij is ook voorzitter.
    'Gaat de onderzoekskraan dicht, dan staat sector over enkele jaren droog'(interview met Sjaak Bakker)
    Staalduinen, J. van; Bakker, J.C. - \ 2013
    Onder Glas 10 (2013)9. - p. 30 - 31.
    glastuinbouw - landbouwkundig onderzoek - financieren - toegepast onderzoek - innovaties - beleid - verspreiding van onderzoek - technologieoverdracht - greenhouse horticulture - agricultural research - financing - applied research - innovations - policy - diffusion of research - technology transfer
    Nu het Productschap Tuinbouw is weggesaneerd, is het ook gedaan met de collectieve financiering van onderzoek. Volgens Sjaak Bakker, business unit manager van Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw, dient de sector haar eigen bijdrage aan strategisch toegepast onderzoek snel op de rit te krijgen. Lukt dat niet, dan zullen ook de subsidiestromen vanuit Den Haag en Brussel opdrogen. Dat kan onherstelbare schade aanrichten. Vooralsnog blijft hij optimistisch.
    Ervaringen over onderzoeksamenwerking gedeeld (interview met Marloes Kraan)
    Kraan, M.L. - \ 2013
    Visserijnieuws 33 (2013)22. - ISSN 1380-5061 - p. 6 - 7.
    visserij - verspreiding van onderzoek - kennisoverdracht - europa - canada - fisheries - diffusion of research - knowledge transfer - europe - canada
    De Nederlandse vissers Johan Baaij (TH 10) rn Rene Sperling (OD 6) brachten in mei 2013 samen met twee Italiaanse en Spaanse vissers en onderzoekers en Marloes Kraan van IARES een werkbezoek aan de Canadese oostkust. Het betrof een uitwisseling in het kader van de zogeheten Europese GAP2-project over onderzoekssamenwerking. Met als doel: ervaringen delen over praktijkonderzoek in de visserij. De Europese delegatie was te gast bij de Canadian Fisheries Research Network (CFRN).
    Kennis, Innovatie en Voedselzekerheid: Een reflectie op topsectoren, kennisarrangementen en ontwikkelingssamenwerking
    Kupper, H.A.E. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Wageningen University, Leerstoelgroep Educatie- en competentiestudies - 30
    overheidsbeleid - publiek-private samenwerking - onderzoeksinstituten - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - voedselzekerheid - innovaties - kennis - kennisoverdracht - verspreiding van onderzoek - Nederland - government policy - public-private cooperation - research institutes - development cooperation - food security - innovations - knowledge - knowledge transfer - diffusion of research - Netherlands
    In the Dutch government's new top sector policy a leading role for directing research efforts by public research institutes will be played by business. This also counts for research projects in developing countries. In recent studies, the Centre for Development Innovation (CDI) described how knowledge institutes in the Netherlands and in developing countries have been co-operating in development projects. Case studies have been described concerning food security in African countries showing diverse roles knowledge institutes can play to secure the production, supply and marketing of food. In addition to the studies, a policy brief has been presented by CDI with a number of policy recommendations.
    Veel boeren benutten kennis uit onderzoek
    Beers, P.J. - \ 2012
    Syscope Magazine 2012 (2012)30. - p. 8 - 9.
    kennisoverdracht - kennisvalorisatie - verspreiding van onderzoek - kennis - biologische landbouw - akkerbouw - onkruidbestrijding - publiek-private samenwerking - Nederland - knowledge transfer - knowledge exploitation - diffusion of research - knowledge - organic farming - arable farming - weed control - public-private cooperation - Netherlands
    Is te achterhalen hoeveel onderzoekskennis boeren daadwerkelijk benutten? Ja, laat recent onderzoek zien. Er is zelfs uit op te maken hoe onderzoekers boeren kunnen stimuleren om hun kennis te combineren met eigen ideeën, zodat ze nieuwe toepassingen vinden voor hun eigen bedrijf.
    Evaluatie van de nota Duurzame gewasbescherming; Deelrapport Kennisontwikkeling en -verspreiding
    Wal, A.J. van der; Velenturf, A. ; Spruijt, J. ; Mulder, H. - \ 2011
    Culemborg : CLM Onderzoek en Advies BV / Wur-PPO (CLM rapport 767 - 2011) - 183
    geïntegreerde plagenbestrijding - gewasbescherming - pesticiden - milieueffect - kennisoverdracht - landbouwkundig onderzoek - verspreiding van onderzoek - geïntegreerde bestrijding - nederland - integrated pest management - plant protection - pesticides - environmental impact - knowledge transfer - agricultural research - diffusion of research - integrated control - netherlands
    Dit rapport beschrijft de resultaten van de evaluatie van de ontwikkeling en verspreiding van kennis over geïntegreerde gewasbescherming, in de periode 2000-2010. Deze evaluatie is uitgevoerd door het CLM in samenwerking met WUR-PPO en vormt een onderdeel van de Eindevaluatie Duurzame Gewasbescherming (EDG). In de evaluatie van kennisontwikkeling en –verspreiding van geïntegreerde gewasbescherming staan twee vragen centraal. Welk onderzoek is uitgevoerd naar nieuwe of verbeterde teeltsystemen en welke nieuwe of verbeterde teeltsystemen heeft dit opgeleverd? In welke mate heeft het toepassen van nieuwe of verbeterde teeltsystemen tot verbeterd bedrijfsmanagement geleid en in welke mate heeft dit toepassen effect gehad op reductie van milieueffecten?
    Visie op doorwerking van kennis uit onderzoek in de praktijk van het bedrijfsleven : achtergrond bij methode en aanpak voor het meten van doorwerking van kennis uit onderzoeksprojecten
    Kupper, H.A.E. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit, Educatie en Competentie Studies - 11
    kennisvalorisatie - kennis - kennisoverdracht - verspreiding van onderzoek - publiek-private samenwerking - methodologie - Nederland - knowledge exploitation - knowledge - knowledge transfer - diffusion of research - public-private cooperation - methodology - Netherlands
    Voortbrengingsketens die willen innoveren hebben behoefte aan goed georganiseerde kennisketens. Het creëren, ontwikkelen en gebruiken van kennis van essentieel belang. Deze kennisprocessen dragen bij aan duurzaamheid en innovatie in de economische sectoren. Het in gang zetten en uitvoeren van de verschillende kennisprocessen is doorgaans verdeeld over de praktijkwereld en de onderzoekswereld. Praktijk en onderzoek hebben elk hun eigen kijk op en kennis van de werkelijkheid. In dit document behorend bij de handleiding willen we meer duidelijkheid verschaffen over de visie, concepten en uitgangspunten die we gebruikt hebben voor het ontwikkelen van de methode. Ons vertrekpunt bij het beantwoorden van de vraag naar kennisbenutting en –doorwerking is de overweging dat kennis nut heeft voor een gebruiker indien de gebruiker betekenis kan geven aan de kennis in zijn praktijkcontext.
    Het meten van doorwerking van kennis uit onderzoeksprojecten : achtergrond van de methode en handleiding bij de aanpak
    Kupper, H.A.E. ; Beers, P.J. ; Wink, M. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR, leerstoelgroep Educatie en Competentie Studies - 20
    kennisvalorisatie - kennis - kennisoverdracht - verspreiding van onderzoek - publiek-private samenwerking - methodologie - biologische landbouw - Nederland - knowledge exploitation - knowledge - knowledge transfer - diffusion of research - public-private cooperation - methodology - organic farming - Netherlands
    productie- en dienstenketens is het creëren, ontwikkelen en gebruiken van kennis van essentieel belang. Deze kennisprocessen dragen bij aan duurzaamheid en innovatie in economische sectoren. Het in gang zetten en uitvoeren van de verschillende kennisprocessen in maatschappelijke sectoren is verdeeld over de praktijkwereld (bedrijfsleven), de onderzoekswereld (kennisinstellingen) en de beleidswereld (overheid). Het ministerie van EL&I verstrekt regelmatig opdrachten om nieuwe kennis te creëren of om bestaande kennis verder te ontwikkelen. Het inzicht in het nut ervan is echter gebrekkig. Er zijn ook geen methoden beschikbaar om systematisch en betrouwbaar het gebruik van de ontwikkelde kennis te evalueren en vast te stellen of deze kennis heeft bijgedragen aan het bereiken van beleidsdoelen; dus of er doorwerking van kennis is. Daarom heeft het ministerie van EL&I opdracht gegeven om een methode te ontwikkelen waarmee kennisdoorwerking gemeten kan worden. Deze brochure bevat achtergronden en de handleiding bij het gebruik van de methode.
    Seminar duurzame glastuinbouw : ontwerp en analyse
    Meeteren, U. van - \ 2011
    glastuinbouw - kennisoverdracht - verspreiding van onderzoek - agrarisch onderwijs - kwekers - strategisch management - innovaties - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - greenhouse horticulture - knowledge transfer - diffusion of research - agricultural education - growers - strategic management - innovations - sustainability
    Het seminar ‘Ontwerp en analyse duurzame glastuinbouw’ heeft tot doel om kennisuitwisseling tot stand te brengen tussen wetenschap, onderwijs en praktijk. Studenten en docenten van mbo, hbo en Wageningen Universiteit en ondernemers nemen er aan deel. Het is een integratie van academisch onderzoek, beroepsonderwijs en de praktijk.
    Lunchlezingen Centre for Marine Policy
    Verroen, S.L. - \ 2011
    marien milieu - kennisoverdracht - verspreiding van onderzoek - informatieverspreiding - communicatie - marine environment - knowledge transfer - diffusion of research - diffusion of information - communication
    Doelstelling van het project is om onderzoek, praktijk en onderwijs op het gebied van gebruik en beheer van de zee bij elkaar te brengen d.m.v. een informele lezingcyclus.
    Winkel voor nimby's
    Meerstadt, N.S. - \ 2010
    Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 4 (2010)21. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 18 - 19.
    verspreiding van onderzoek - wetenschappelijk onderzoek - wetenschap - diffusion of research - scientific research - science
    Met je voeten in de klei, onderzoek in de haarvaten van de maatschappij. Wat Wageningen UR wil, doet de Wetenschapswinkel al vijfentwintig jaar: Wageningse wetenschap naar de maatschappij brengen. Maar niet volgens het principe u-vraagt-wij-draaien. Al is dat voor een klant soms even slikken.
    Special: Kennisbasis
    Bakema, F. ; Hogendorf, S.J. - \ 2009
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR (Kennis.Online )
    overheidsbeleid - kennis - verspreiding van onderzoek - onderzoeksprojecten - bereikt resultaat - landinrichting - klimaatverandering - voedselveiligheid - gezondheidsvoedsel - verandering - duurzame ontwikkeling - ketenmanagement - duurzame landbouw - government policy - knowledge - diffusion of research - research projects - achievement - land development - climatic change - food safety - health foods - change - sustainable development - supply chain management - sustainable agriculture
    Verslag van de kennisbasisdag van 12 mei 2009 en de belangrijkste onderzoeksresultaten uit 2008
    Bioconnect; vernieuwend, succesrijk, spraakmakend
    Steverink, M.H.A. - \ 2009
    biologische landbouw - verspreiding van onderzoek - netwerken (activiteit) - samenwerking - kennisoverdracht - organic farming - diffusion of research - networking - cooperation - knowledge transfer
    In deze brochure wordt het kennisnetwerk Bioconnect beschreven: het ontstaan, de werkwijze van Bioconnect en de resultaten. De onderzoekers en deelnemers komen aan het woord. Het basisprincipe van Bioconnect - ondernemers sturen het onderzoek aan - wordt goed uitgelegd. Een belangrijk hoofdstuk gaat over ketenpartners die deelnemen. Innovatie komt pas goed tot haar recht als alle betrokkenen goed samenwerken.
    Wandelingen door het kennislandschap : ervaringen met samenwerking tussen Beleidsondersteunend Onderzoek en Groen Onderwijs
    Potters, J.I. ; Beuze, M. de; Geerling-Eiff, F.A. ; Kupper, H.A.E. ; Wals, A.E.J. - \ 2008
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - 90
    agrarisch onderwijs - samenwerking - kennisoverdracht - verspreiding van onderzoek - proefprojecten - natuur- en milieueducatie - agricultural education - cooperation - knowledge transfer - diffusion of research - pilot projects - nature and environmental education
    Het is de wens van LNV dat onderzoekskennis beter benut wordt in het groene onderwijs. Om hieraan tegemoet te komen hebben een aantal clusterleiders van Wageningen UR het initiatief genomen een Taskforce BO-GO in het leven te roepen. Deze Taskforce heeft in 2007 het project ‘Versterking kenniscirculatie tussen Beleidsondersteunend Onderzoek en Groen Onderwijs – Pilots 2007’ gestart. In het afgelopen jaar zijn in alle clusters van het beleidsondersteunend onderzoek (BO), dat Wageningen UR uitvoert in opdracht van het ministerie van Landbouw Natuur en Voedselkwaliteit (LNV), pilots gestart om de samenwerking met het groene onderwijs (GO) te initiëren en te versterken.
    Van 'kennis op de plank' naar 'Kennissen in beweging!' : onderwijsdag ondernemerschap, Dronten, 18 november 2008
    Hamers-van den Berkmortel, N.W.T.H. van den; Beldman, A.C.G. ; Kortstee, H.J.M. ; Oosterhoff, W. ; Vrolijk, M. - \ 2008
    [Wageningen] : Wageningen UR - 36
    onderwijs - onderwijsonderzoek - ondernemerschap - kennis - verspreiding van onderzoek - informatieverspreiding - kennisoverdracht - education - educational research - entrepreneurship - knowledge - diffusion of research - diffusion of information - knowledge transfer
    De brochure Onderwijsdag Ondernemerschap 2008 is een bundeling van alle posters met resultaten van onderzoek en onderwijsontwikkeling die tijdens deze door LNV gefinancierde onderwijsdag van het project Ondernemerschap van Onderzoek naar Onderwijs zijn gepresenteerd. In dat programma vindt kennisontwikkeling op het gebied van ondernemerschap plaats in nauwe samenwerking met overheid, ondernemers en het onderwijs. De afgelopen periode is er vanuit het programma juist veel aandacht geweest om de kennis beter te laten benutten Deze brochure is zelf een goed voorbeeld geworden van een nauwe samenwerking tussen onderzoek en onderwijs
    Wat maakt hulpmiddelen voor kennisoverdracht succesvol?
    Sterk, Barbara - \ 2008
    knowledge - diffusion of research - diffusion of information - resources - communication - interpretation - land use planning - knowledge transfer - environmental psychology
    Open dag met internationaal tintje : onderzoek
    Krikke, A.T. - \ 2008
    BloembollenVisie 2008 (2008)138. - ISSN 1571-5558 - p. 20 - 21.
    bloembollen - sierplanten - onderzoeksinstituten - verspreiding van onderzoek - innovaties - broeien - plantenziekten - onkruidbestrijding - gewasbescherming - open dagen - voorlichting - informatieverspreiding - kennisoverdracht - ornamental bulbs - ornamental plants - research institutes - diffusion of research - innovations - scalding - plant diseases - weed control - plant protection - open days - extension - diffusion of information - knowledge transfer
    Op 24 april 2008 organiseert PPO een speciale open dag die ondernemers uit de bloembollen- en vaste plantenketen een gevarieerd programma biedt met de nieuwste innovaties. 's Ochtends komen praktijkgerichte verhalen van bedrijfsleven en kennisinstellingen aan bod. De middag is een kennismarkt: bedrijven tonen hun laatste innovaties voor de sector, er zijn posters met informatie van internationale kennisinstellingen en PPO presenteert recente informatie uit het praktijkonderzoek
    Kijk in de kas: een interactieve leeromgeving voor telers (interview met Fokke Buwalda)
    Arkesteijn, M. ; Buwalda, F. - \ 2008
    Onder Glas 5 (2008)1. - p. 36 - 37.
    tuinbouwbedrijven - kassen - teelt onder bescherming - onderzoek - verspreiding van onderzoek - informatieverspreiding - computers - glastuinbouw - kennisoverdracht - computernetwerken - market gardens - greenhouses - protected cultivation - research - diffusion of research - diffusion of information - computers - greenhouse horticulture - knowledge transfer - computer networks
    De webportal Kijk in de Kas is een interactief instrument om praktijk- en onderzoekskennis uit te wisselen. Teler kunnen een virtueel kijkje nemen bij vijf collega's. Klimaatmodel KASPRO rekent mee en produceert mooie plaatjes. De betrokken onderzoekers en telers geven via weblogs hun commentaar. Ze streven op deze manier naar een betere koppeling van onderzoek en praktijk op het gebied van de energiebesparing
    De Wageningse Experience Box : leren van elkaar
    Coppens, L.W.C.A. ; Top, J.L. - \ 2007
    Agro Informatica 20 (2007)2. - ISSN 0925-4455 - p. 6 - 7.
    innovaties - verspreiding van onderzoek - bedrijfsvoering - ondernemerschap - ketenmanagement - agro-industriële ketens - kennisoverdracht - innovations - diffusion of research - management - entrepreneurship - supply chain management - agro-industrial chains - knowledge transfer
    In de afgelopen jaren is een groot aantal innovatieprojecten uitgevoerd op het gebied van agrologistieke ketens. Deze projecten, waarin onderzoeksinstellingen en bedrijven samenwerkten, hebben veel kennis opgeleverd, hetgeen heeft geleid tot vernieuwing bij de bedrijven van direct betrokkenen. Het zou goed zijn als de geleerde lessen ook beschikbaar komen voor andere geïnteresseerde partijen. Met dat doel is de ontwikkeling van Wageningen Experience Box gestart om de specifieke kennis en ervaring, opgedaan in projecten, te delen met deze geïnteresseerden
    Tevens zal dit onderzoek een belangrijke bijdrage leveren aan... ; over het politiek maatschappelijke 'nut' van sociaal wetenschappelijk onderzoek
    Duineveld, M. ; Kuijer, G.A.H.J. - \ 2007
    Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit, Leerstoelgroep Sociaal-ruimtelijke Analyse - ISBN 9789085851608 - 23
    sociale wetenschappen - politiek - onderzoek - verspreiding van onderzoek - onderzoeksbeleid - overheidsbeleid - sociale verandering - gebruik van ruimte - sociaal onderzoek - social sciences - politics - research - diffusion of research - research policy - government policy - social change - space utilization - social research
    Een Wageningse essay over het maatschappelijk belang van sociaal-wetenschappelijk onderzoek. Gesteld wordt: "Om verschillende redenen kan het van belang zijn om rekening te houden met de belevingswerelden van betrokkenen. Ten eerste vanuit het oogpunt van rechtvaardigheid: het is onjuist om geen rekening te houden met mensen die wel te maken krijgen met beleid dat (soms drastische) gevolgen heeft voor deze mensen. Ten tweede vanuit het oogpunt van efficiëntie: als een planproces resulteert in een plan waarin betrokkenen zich kunnen vinden zal de kans op weerstand tegen uitvoering van het plan waarschijnlijk minder zijn. Ten derde vanuit het oogpunt van haalbaarheid: vaak zal medewerking van verschillende betrokkenen (zoals grondeigenaren) vereist zijn om plannen te kunnen uitvoeren”
    Convergence of Sciences: the management of agricultural research for the small scale farmers in Benin and Ghana
    Hounkonnou, D. ; Kossou, D.K. ; Kuyper, T.W. ; Leeuwis, C. ; Richards, P. ; Röling, N.G. ; Sakyi-Dawson, O. ; Huis, A. van - \ 2006
    NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 53 (2006)3/4. - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 343 - 367.
    verspreiding van onderzoek - onderzoeksimplementatie - organisatie van onderzoek - benin - ghana - diffusion of research - implementation of research - organization of research - benin - ghana - resource-poor farmers
    The Convergence of Sciences programme (CoS) addresses the sub-optimal impact of science on the livelihoods of resource-poor farmers in West Africa, particularly in Benin and Ghana where it operates. CoS aims to develop insights into the pathways through which investment in science and technology can improve rural lives. To this end, CoS features participatory experimental and action research by eight PhD students, who each develop technologies and institutional arrangements with groups of farmers. The ninth PhD student carries out comparative `research on agricultural research¿. The current article deals with a higher aggregation level than the individual project: the management of the programme as a whole. How did CoS try to zero in on the small windows of opportunity West African farmers face? How did it manage the ensuing issues of trans-disciplinarity, and of interaction among students, (social and natural science) supervisors, and other key stakeholders? How does it face up to the issues that arise with respect to scaling up? One of the most interesting aspects of CoS is that it not only deals with technical innovation within the constraining institutional and policy framework conditions, but also experiments with incipient ideas about how to stretch them.
    Innovatieprocessen in de praktijk : vorming van socio-technische netwerken
    Buurma, J.S. ; Buck, A.J. de; Klein Swormink, B.W. ; Stokkers, R. ; Munneke, F.J. - \ 2006
    Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 6, Beleid ) - ISBN 9789086150779 - 51
    innovaties - verspreiding van onderzoek - technologieoverdracht - innovations - diffusion of research - technology transfer
    Dit rapport beschrijft de ervaringen die zijn opgedaan met de vorming van socio-technische netwerken rond geïntegreerde plaagbeheersing in chrysanten enerzijds en voorkómen van bodemverdichting in de biologische akkerbouw/groenteteelt anderzijds. Bij toetsing in de praktijk is een samenhangend geheel van concepten enprocedures voor de vorming van socio-technische netwerken ontstaan. De betreffende concepten en procedures zijn in dit rapport beschreven, samen met het procesverloop in de cases van chrysanten en vaste rijpaarden. Het rapport mondt uit in een stappenplan voor de vorming van socio-technische netwerken. De vorming van socio-technische netwerken blijkt een goede werkwijze om innovatieve oplossingen voor slepende problemen te vinden en te realiseren
    Kenniscirculatie
    Vogelezang, J. - \ 2005
    Syscope Magazine 2005 (2005)6. - p. 30 - 30.
    innovaties - netwerken (activiteit) - verspreiding van onderzoek - kennisoverdracht - geïntegreerde bedrijfssystemen - innovations - networking - diffusion of research - knowledge transfer - integrated farming systems
    De Systeeminnovatieprogramma’s werken hard aan het bevorderen van kenniscirculatie. Naar ondernemers en andere belanghebbenden, maar ook naar toekomstige ondernemers door de samenwerking te zoeken met het groene onderwijs. Een aantal werkvormen en initiatieven bespreken we hier.
    Ondersteunen van innovatie in de brede praktijk
    Sukkel, W. ; Paassen, R.A.F. van; Roestel, A.J.J. van; Alebeek, F.A.N. van - \ 2005
    Syscope Magazine 2005 (2005)6. - p. 26 - 29.
    ondernemerschap - innovaties - verspreiding van onderzoek - ondersteuningssystemen - kennisoverdracht - netwerken - geïntegreerde bedrijfssystemen - entrepreneurship - innovations - diffusion of research - support systems - knowledge transfer - networks - integrated farming systems
    Praktijknetwerken ondersteunen het doorvoeren van innovaties in de praktijk. In deze samenwerkingsprojecten van ondernemers, Wageningen UR en adviesorganisaties wordt de beschikbare kennis uit onderzoek en advies gekoppeld aan de innovatieve kracht van ondernemers. Zo doen ondernemers ervaring op met het toepassen van nieuwe kennis en innovaties. In samenwerking met de zakelijke partners en andere belanghebbenden wordt deze kennis en innovaties vervolgens verder in de brede praktijk verspreid
    Convergence of sciences: Creating innovation systems with African farmers
    Huis, A. van - \ 2005
    Accra, Ghana : Combert Impression Ltd - 200
    boeren - innovatie adoptie - landbouwkundig onderzoek - verspreiding van onderzoek - afrika - kennis van boeren - farmers - innovation adoption - agricultural research - diffusion of research - africa - farmers' knowledge
    Intrinsieke weerbaarheid van gewasbeschermings- en teeltsystemen; themanummer Bodemweerbaarheid
    Molendijk, L.P.G. - \ 2005
    Gewasbescherming 36 (2005)5. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 191 - 192.
    gewasbescherming - bodem - weerstand - intrinsieke factor - beleid - onderzoek - verspreiding van onderzoek - onderzoeksinstituten - overheidsonderzoek - pesticiden - chemische bestrijding - antagonisten - predatoren - endofyten - genen - bodemtypen (naar textuur) - organische stof - voedingsstoffenbeschikbaarheid - ziektebestrijdende teeltmaatregelen - plant protection - soil - resistance - intrinsic factor - policy - research - diffusion of research - research institutes - government research - pesticides - chemical control - antagonists - predators - endophytes - genes - soil types (textural) - organic matter - nutrient availability - cultural control
    Inleidend artikel op het LNV onderzoek gewasbescherming deelprogramma 397.1. Bij de start van het LNV gewasbeschermingsprogramma in 2002 was de LNV nota 'zicht op gezonde teelt' leidend voor het gewasbeschermingsbeleid. Dit beleidsvoornemen vertaalde zich in een gewasbeschermingsbeleid met minimale, c.q. geen, inzet van chemische gewasbeschermingsmiddelen. Uitgangspunt daarbij is dat gewasbeschermings- en teeltsystemen een bepaald niveau van intrinsieke weerbaarheid hebben, dat preventief werkt tegen ziekten en plagen. Deze intrinsieke weerbaarheid moet worden bevorderd en zoveel mogelijk worden benut
    Ketenomkering in kennisland
    Wals, A.E.J. ; Lans, T. ; Buurma, J.P. - \ 2005
    Gewasbescherming 36 (2005)suppl. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 7 - 9.
    kennis - verspreiding van onderzoek - netwerken (activiteit) - onderzoeksinstituten - technologieoverdracht - informatieverspreiding - onderzoeksimplementatie - onderzoek - onderwijs - particuliere sector - relaties - knowledge - diffusion of research - networking - research institutes - technology transfer - diffusion of information - implementation of research - research - education - private sector - relationships
    Themavoordracht waarin twee manieren van kennismobiliteit worden besproken: de doorstromingsrelatie, waarbij kennis wordt gezien als product en doorstroomt van onderzoeksinstituten naar onderwijs en de netwerkrelatie, waarbij kennis wordt gezien als proces tussen onderzoek, onderwijs en bedrijfsleven
    Werkgebieden Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving : Wat doet PPO voor de biologische sectoren?
    Beuze, M. de - \ 2004
    Ekoland 24 (2004)10. - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 26 - 27.
    landbouwkundig onderzoek - biologische landbouw - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - akkerbouw - tuinbouw - onderzoeksinstituten - organisatie van onderzoek - onderzoeksbeleid - universitair onderzoek - toegepast onderzoek - verspreiding van onderzoek - agricultural research - organic farming - sustainability - arable farming - horticulture - research institutes - organization of research - research policy - university research - applied research - diffusion of research
    Beschrijving van de organisatie van het PPO, de speerpunten in het onderzoek, en projecten waarin PPO participeert, samen met voorlichting en praktijkbedrijven. Door het uitvoeren van dit onderzoek en door kennisoverdracht fungeert PPO als schakel tussen wetenschap en praktijk. Een belangrijk deel van het onderzoek is gericht op allerlei aspecten van biologische teelt- en productiemethoden. Het nieuwste onderzoek houdt zich bezig met duurzame bedrijfssystemen in de toekomst (sluiting van kringlopen; ruimtelijke inpassing; sociaal-culturele integratie)
    Een biologisch bosje bloemen voor iedere dag van het jaar
    Weening, K. - \ 2003
    IBL nieuws 2003 (2003)3. - p. 2 - 2.
    biologische landbouw - verspreiding van onderzoek - onderzoek - organic farming - diffusion of research - research
    In dit nummer: Een biologisch bosje bloemen; Biologische zelfzuivelaars maken keten helder; Een kleinere beker biologische melk; ‘Investeer in relatie met beleidsmedewerker’; Te weinig bekend over het overwaaien van genen; Santana en Topaz leveren hoge productie; ‘Ik leer precies wat ik wilde weten’; Nieuw: IBL Actueel
    The VEL and VANLA environmental co-operatives as field laboratories
    Stuiver, M. ; Ploeg, J.D. van der; Leeuwis, C. - \ 2003
    Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science 51 (2003)1-2. - ISSN 0028-2928 - p. 27 - 39.
    coöperatieve activiteiten - milieubescherming - voedingsstoffen - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - melkveehouderij - nederland - verspreiding van onderzoek - boeren - kennis - friese wouden - cooperative activities - environmental protection - nutrients - diffusion of research - farmers - farm management - dairy farming - knowledge - netherlands - friese wouden
    This article describes the Nutrient Management Project of the environmental co-operatives VEL and VANLA as a field laboratory. A field laboratory is defined as a heterogeneous collection of inter-linked scientific studies performed by several actors within a specific field, but – as in normal laboratories – with some protection against outside interference and disturbance. The Nutrient Management Project of VEL and VANLA demonstrates several characteristics of field laboratories. Firstly, in the project, dairy farmers and scientists carry out joint research using different sources of knowledge. Secondly, apart from research the actors are engaged in changing the location, thereby developing new knowledge and practices. In the case of VEL and VANLA this means developing the fields and farms towards sustainability. Thirdly, the actors thoughtfully experiment with several research methodologies to gain understanding on a variety of issues. So within the field laboratory of VEL and VANLA there is heterogeneity in themes, disciplines and methodologies. Simultaneously a systems perspective is created as an interpretative scheme that links up all the different activities. Finally, within VEL and VANLA, alignment among practices, research and the institutional context is essential for the continuation of the research activities.
    Economie van voedselveiligheid
    Velthuis, A.G.J. ; Huirne, R.B.M. ; Hogeveen, H. ; Meuwissen, M.P.M. ; Wilpshaar, H. - \ 2002
    Voedingsmiddelentechnologie 35 (2002)21. - ISSN 0042-7934 - p. 17 - 19.
    voedselveiligheid - kosten-batenanalyse - economische analyse - risicoschatting - informatieverspreiding - verspreiding van onderzoek - economische aspecten - food safety - cost benefit analysis - economic analysis - risk assessment - diffusion of information - diffusion of research - economic aspects
    Het creëren van een veilig voedselaanbod op een economisch verantwoorde wijze. Verschillende aspecten in dit verband zoals de rol van informatievoorziening en de kosten-baten analyse zijn toegelicht. Het economische aspect is wereldwijd nog nauwelijks bekeken
    Waiboerhoeve Proefbedrijf Varkens officieel geopend
    Beek, G. van - \ 2001
    Praktijkkompas. Varkens 15 (2001)5. - ISSN 1570-8578 - p. 1 - 2.
    proefbedrijven - voorlichting - varkens - varkenshouderij - conferenties - onderzoeksinstituten - verspreiding van onderzoek - pilot farms - extension - pigs - pig farming - conferences - research institutes - diffusion of research
    Op 11 oktober 2001 opende LNV-minister Brinkhorst officieel het nieuwe proefbedrijf varkens van PV en ID in Lelystad.
    Gammakennis voor de groene ruimte; evaluatie van onderzoeksprogramma 314 Mens en draagvlak in de groene ruimte
    Cox, D.O. ; Neven, M.G.G. ; Volker, C.M. - \ 2001
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 239) - 267
    beleid - landgebruik - kennis - informatie - bedrijfsvoering - verspreiding van onderzoek - besluitvorming - sociale interactie - plattelandsontwikkeling - participatie - nederland - policy - land use - knowledge - information - management - diffusion of research - decision making - social interaction - rural development - participation - netherlands
    Voor een evaluatie van programma 314 zijn drie onderzoeksvragen geformuleerd. 1 Welke prestaties heeft programma 314 geleverd en welke leerpunten kunnen worden opgetekend voor programma 376 (Mens, economie en groene ruimte)? 2 Wat is de doorwerking geweest van kennisproducten in de voorbereiding, besluitvorming en uitvoering van het beleid voor de groene ruimte en hoe kan deze doorwerking op middellange termijn vergroot worden? 3 Wat is de toekomstige vraag naar gammaonderzoek voor de groene ruimte en in welke richtingen moeten de investeringen in onderzoek gaan? Dit rapport bundelt een aantal producten uit het evaluatieproject: onderzoeksverslagen over de aanbodkant (vraag 1), de doorwerking van onderzoek naar de praktijk (vraag 2) en de behoefte aan gammakennis aan de vraagkant (vraag 3). Tevens omvat het twee adviezen die zijn uitgebracht over korte- en middellangetermijnonderzoek en een notitie met aanbevelingen voor onderzoekers en het onderzoeksmanagement van Alterra en LEI.
    PR KennisDataBank op internet geopend
    Dijksterhuis, P. ; Nijssen, K. - \ 2000
    Praktijkonderzoek Rundvee, Schapen en Paarden. Praktijkonderzoek 13 (2000)1. - ISSN 1386-8470 - p. 12 - 13.
    informatieverspreiding - informatie - kennis - zoötechniek - verspreiding van onderzoek - databanken - internet - diffusion of information - information - knowledge - zootechny - diffusion of research - databases - internet
    De kennisdatabank bevat een schat aan informatie. U vindt er uitgebreide beschrijvingen van de resultaten van onderzoek, weergegeven in artikelen en complete publicaties. Ook korte tips die het PR uitgeeft zijn in de databank opgenomen
    Mixed farming : scope and constraints in West African savanna
    Slingerland, M. - \ 2000
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): H. van Keulen. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058082428 - 289
    bedrijfssystemen - gemengde landbouw - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - landgebruik - vee - trekdieren - technologieoverdracht - savannen - west-afrika - dierlijke trekkracht - verspreiding van onderzoek - landbouwvoorlichting - farming systems - mixed farming - natural resources - land use - livestock - draught animals - technology transfer - savannas - west africa - animal power - diffusion of research - agricultural extension

    Since colonial times the crop livestock integration concept has been a leading development model in francophone West Africa. So far, it has failed in certain aspects, such as cultivation of fodder crops, intensification of cereal production through animal traction, and sedentarisation of mobile livestock keepers. Three major flaws in the concept have been identified, that are partly responsible for the reported failure: neglect of the farm (household) context, neglect of the financing role of livestock, neglect of competition for land and labour. Whether crop livestock integration can remain the leading development model in a situation of high population growth, has been explored through the following research question:

    "Is crop livestock integration or mixed farming a suitable model for farming systems development, leading to guaranteed food security and socio-economic survival for all social entities of the rapidly increasing population in Sahelian countries, without endangering their resource basis?"

    The context

    Physical context

    In the study area, the village Kaïbo Sud V5, Province Zoundwéogo, Burkina Faso, resources and their use appeared to be heterogeneous. Scenario studies with SHARES, a model at the level of Kaïbo Sud V5, and HOREB, a model at the level of an average farm in Zoundwéogo province, indicated that self-sufficiency in grain can not be achieved under currently applied crop and animal production technology in average rainfall years. External inputs in the form of inorganic fertiliser and/or concentrate feed for livestock are needed to compensate unavoidable nutrient losses, and a cart is needed to allow intensive management of crop residues and manure.

    Agricultural knowledge system

    In Burkina Faso, policy makers, research and extension appear to follow the transfer of technology model, a top-down approach leading to development of technologies that are not necessarily addressing farmers' needs. Research is either curiosity-driven or guided by objectives of policy makers. Extension only reaches a limited number of farmers, hence the progressive farmers approach dominates their relations. Farmers generally adopt proposed technologies, either because they have the means to introduce the innovations or because the proposed innovation suits them best. Only farmers that adopted technologies were contacted subsequently, and in turn, those farmers actively asked research and extension for solutions to their problems. Only when they were recognised as a constituency of the policy makers, they could influence the research agenda. Resource-poor farmers and mobile livestock keepers are neither recognised as a constituency nor possessed the means to innovate, hence they hardly benefit from research and extension.

    Farming systems development

    A framework situating discrete farming systems in the development perspective of mixed farming, has been designed. The framework ranges from separate specialised low external input (LEIA) systems, through integrated and mixed farming systems without or with external inputs, to specialised high external inputs (HEIA) farming systems. Observed farming systems in Burkina Faso could be classified within the proposed framework. Policy makers, driven by the objective to settle and control mobile herdsmen and to constrain crop producers to permanent fields, aimed at mixed farming systems for everyone. The recent sustainability debate appears to support their promotion of mixed (LEIA) farming systems because they are assumed to reduce nutrient losses. Mobile Fulani herdsmen engage in crop production only, when forced by circumstances, such as drought or animal diseases, leading to severe losses in livestock, making continuation of their former way of life impossible. Mixed farming is a poverty-induced option for them and therefore not attractive. For Mossi crop producers, on the contrary, wealth is the drive towards mixed farming, cattle being needed to support the associated technologies, such as animal traction and use of manure. Resource-poor farmers going into mixed farming have to apply labour-intensive techniques (their only resource) and, because of their low purchasing power, they cannot afford external inputs and have no option but to (over) exploit the environment. High external input (HEIA) farming should avoid pollution of the environment.

    Ecologically, both HEIA and LEIA can have negative effects on natural resource quality. Socio-economically, high agricultural production per unit area, based on the use of external inputs will lead to larger scale production and lower prices. Resource-poor farmers cannot follow this development and run the risk of being expelled from farming. Economically, HEIA farming is only sustainable when cash crops are cultivated or when high prices can be guaranteed. Around cities, capital intensive production systems can exist, because of the high purchasing power of the urban population and because of the short producer-consumer lines. In rural areas, farming systems that do not rely on high-quality infrastructure and use labour-intensive techniques, achieving moderate production levels are most suitable, guaranteeing local self-sufficiency in food. Production for export should be based on industrially organised systems using high levels of external inputs and capital. To aim at a variety of farming systems, each addressing specific societal needs, seems a more suitable strategy than to aim at the mixed farming system proposed in the model.

    Financing role of livestock

    In the mixed farming model, the role of livestock was limited to the supply of manure and animal power for crop production, and to value crop residues. For farmers in Burkina Faso and elsewhere in West Africa, livestock plays an important role as capital asset, to cover (emergency) cash needs. In farming systems where crop production depends on erratic rainfall, as in West Africa, livestock can be used to transfer surpluses from years with abundant rainfall to years with deficiencies. Livestock production was negatively affected by this buffer function, because emergency (premature) sales are associated with losses due to foregone offspring and foregone live weight. Emergency sales further restricted revenues, when livestock had to be sold in periods with low market prices. Sales of livestock for financing purposes also negatively affected performance of the farming system as a whole, in terms of foregone manure and animal traction, limiting crop production.

    For financing, farmers preferred livestock to other means, even though taking a loan with a savings and credit co-operative was cheaper. Accessibility, security, liquidity and profitability were all more favourable for livestock than for any of the alternatives examined. The fact that a pledge of 150 % of the credit is needed for a loan from a co-operative, was a major constraint for resource-poor farmers. Financing through livestock was therefore more attractive than taking a loan with a co-operative or any other source.

    Animal traction

    Animal traction has been presented as a key element of crop livestock integration. It appears to be associated with larger farm sizes, larger areas of cash crop and higher livestock numbers, hence with wealthier farmers. In Zoundwéogo province and Kaïbo village, animal traction could develop as there were sufficient animals to serve all households and to cultivate total current crop area. Additional efforts should be made to increase training of bullocks and transfer of bullocks from Fulani livestock keepers to Mossi crop producers is needed. Bullocks appeared too weak for the tasks asked from them, resulting in short working days of 2-3 hours. Output per animal might be increased through introduction of heavier animal breeds or additional animal feeding. Timeliness of seeding and weeding might also be improved by using additional bullocks. The scope for improvement is limited as any solution depends on purchasing power of the farmer and availability of inputs.

    Natural resource basis

    Mossi and Fulani herds appeared to use the village territory in different ways, dictated by animal species, production objectives and season. Current high population growth leads to an expanded area under crops, for food production, and consequently reduced grazing area in the rainy season. Crop residue management, as proposed in the crop livestock integration model, leads to increased control over this feed resource by Mossi crop producers. As a result, room for the traditional feeding strategy, applied by Fulani and consisting of mobility and tracking changes in vegetation, becomes limited. The quantity (area) of animal feed becomes limiting, especially in the rainy season. In the post-harvest, dry season, both quantity and quality of animal feed becomes limiting because crop residues are no longer available and their animals thus have to rely on low quality grasses from the natural vegetation. Options for Fulani herds were further restricted by excluding them from the use of village wells in the dry season. Fulani have either to leave the village territory more often and for longer periods, or to accept lower animal production. When Mossi specialised crop producers become mixed farmers, the number of animals in their system increases. When Fulani become mixed farmers, their livestock will reside more permanently on the village territory. Larger livestock numbers and smaller grazing area increase risks of degradation, especially because specialist feeders such as goats and sheep will be forced to accept a more general diet, resulting in diet overlap between formerly complementary feeders. Population growth and subsequent urbanisation has been shown to lead to increased demands for firewood that has to be provided from village territories. Degradation of the natural resources in village territories and a decrease in feed resources for browsers can be the result.

    Conclusion

    The crop livestock integration model, and especially the mixed farming model, has only limited applicability as goal for farming systems development. In Burkina Faso, the majority of the farming population consists of resource-poor farmers, incapable to adopt technologies associated with mixed farming, because they lack the purchasing power to acquire ploughs, draught bullocks, inorganic fertilisers, etc. Mixed farming as a comprehensive development model therefore fails, although several of its components are (at least partially) adopted by a variety of farmers. The concept of restricted nutrient losses through intensive management of manure and crop residues appeared, for instance, valid, but, because of unavoidable losses during (re-)cycling, external inputs are needed to guarantee sufficient food production for the rapidly growing population. Moreover, exchange of crop residues and manure between specialised farming systems, has the same potential for nutrient cycling as mixed farming, but may be preferred because of advantages associated with labour distribution. Constraints for farming system development, especially for crop farmers, can be alleviated by creation of an optimal farm environment, such as a sound financial infrastructure, an agricultural knowledge system addressing farmers needs, a professional infrastructure to provide inputs and to guarantee marketing of outputs, fair farm-gate prices for agricultural products, etc. Attractive prices for meat and milk, infrastructure for veterinary care, grazing rights protected by law and limiting crop production in designated grazing areas and corridors, etc. are needed to facilitate mobile animal production. Technology development should already take its impact on the environment into account. Research and extension should stimulate participation of resource-poor farmers and mobile livestock keepers in technology development and support development of a range of farming systems, in terms of inputs and outputs, because together they can address the variety of societal needs.

    Effecten van bodembeheer en bodemgebruik op de risico's van bodemverontreiniging; 'van proces naar DSS'; beschikbare kennis, kennisleemtes en beoogd onderzoek bij DLO tussen 1998 en 2001
    Japenga, J. ; Boels, D. ; Brus, D.J. ; Dolfing, J. ; Harmsen, J. ; Kros, J. ; Vries, W. de - \ 1998
    Wageningen : DLO-Staring Centrum - 64
    bodembeheer - landgebruik - bodemverontreiniging - milieubescherming - verspreiding van onderzoek - inventarisaties - soil management - land use - soil pollution - environmental protection - diffusion of research - inventories
    Dit rapport geeft een beschrijving van het onderzoek dat wordt verricht en nog zal worden verricht in het kader van het DWK-onderzoeksprogramma Bodemkwaliteit. Kennisleemten worden gesignaleerd en mogelijkheden om hierin te voorzien worden beschreven.Het rapport is gestructureerd conform de vier onderzoeksthema's van het programma. Uitgaande van probleeminventarisatie mondt het onderzoek via onderzoek naar bodemprocessen, risicobeoordeling en 'groene' saneringsmethoden uiteindelijk uit in het ontwerpen van beslissingondersteunende instrumenten ten behoeve van het beleid.
    Kennis voor een beter afvalsysteem in Kimberley, Zuid-Afrika : bestaande kennis aan de Landbouwuniversiteit en benodigde kennis voor onderzoek
    Reeze, B. ; Wiel, R. van de; Litjens, M. - \ 1997
    Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel (Adviesbrief / Landbouwuniversiteit, Wetenschapswinkel 142)
    afvalverwijdering - huisvuilverwijdering - vuilnis - sorteren - afval - vaste afvalstoffen - huishoudens - gezondheidstechniek - stedelijke gebieden - hygiëne - verzamelen - verspreiding van onderzoek - informatieverspreiding - adviserende ambtenaren - consulenten - deskundigen - zuid-afrika - waste disposal - municipal refuse disposal - refuse - sorting - wastes - solid wastes - households - public health engineering - urban areas - hygiene - collection - diffusion of research - diffusion of information - advisory officers - consultants - experts - south africa
    Kenniscentrum Wageningen: het gaat ervan komen. Samenvoeging LUW en onderzoekinstituten.
    Vries, A.Ph. de - \ 1997
    Agrarisch Onderwijs 39 (1997)18. - ISSN 0925-837X - p. 13 - 16.
    hogere agrarische scholen - universiteiten - fusies - concentratie van de productie - onderzoek - samenwerking - verspreiding van onderzoek - informatieverspreiding - kennis - symbolen - informatie - communicatie - onderzoeksinstituten - proefstations - wetenschappelijk onderzoek - wetenschap - wetenschappelijke samenwerking - veluwe - gelderland - agricultural colleges - universities - mergers - concentration of production - research - cooperation - diffusion of research - diffusion of information - knowledge - symbols - information - communication - research institutes - experimental stations - scientific research - science - scientific cooperation - veluwe - gelderland
    De samenvoeging van de Landbouwuniversiteit en de instituten van de Directie Landbouwkundig Onderzoek (DLO), enkele kleinere kennisinstellingen, alsmede delen van het praktijkonderzoek tot een Kenniscentrum Wageningen
    Doing it together : technology as practice in the New Zealand dairy sector
    Paine, M.S. - \ 1997
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): N.G. Röling. - S.l. : Paine - ISBN 9789054857327 - 222
    melkproducten - zuivelindustrie - technologie - aangepaste technologie - verspreiding van onderzoek - informatieverspreiding - expertsystemen - landbouw - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - nieuw-zeeland - kunstmatige intelligentie - milk products - dairy industry - technology - appropriate technology - diffusion of research - diffusion of information - expert systems - agriculture - farm management - new zealand - artificial intelligence

    The economic reforms in New Zealand (NZ) that introduced free market policies following the election of the 1984 Labour Government led to a rapid and extensive reduction in subsidies to agriculture. Over a period of ten years fertiliser subsidies and price support schemes were removed, the government extension service was privatised, and research organisations were restructured to function on a contestable funding basis. The NZ government pursued a policy of joint investment in technology development with the productive sectors benefitting by the development outcomes. These changes provoked debate among science policy-makers and science managers about the way research companies and commercial organisations could collaborate in research and development programmes. The research reported in this thesis responded to a need to progress understanding of the linkage activities currently operating in the NZ dairy sector and thereby assist science policy and science managers operating in the sector to improve linkages with commercial organisations. Specifically, how do organisations and actors link their activities to evolve technology for use in the NZ dairy sector, and how can an understanding of these linkage activities inform technology managers in the NZ dairy sector? The dairy sector was selected as a context with a reasonable likelihood of observing collaboration in technology management.

    A case study research design was used to investigate three programmes that involved some form of collaboration between government research and commercial organisations in joint development work. These programmes included: development and marketing of a device (CIDR); developing a sector-wide quality management system (SAMM); developing resource management methods for farming (SSGP). The Grounded Theory methodology was used to study each programme. In particular, this research followed the Glasarian school of Grounded Theory that emphasises the emergence of theoretical perspectives using the constant comparative method of data gathering and analysis. A procedure for questioning and comparison of field data guides the analyst to build and compare theory with other perspectives offered in the literature.

    The organisation theory literature has dealt extensively with issues of collaboration and technology management. This literature was reviewed with a view to an agricultural context. Two particularly informative perspectives were identified: Agricultural Knowledge Systems (AKS); and the Interplay Model. The AKS perspective sensitised the analyst to a constructivist view - theatres of innovation where actors and organisations negotiate and socially construct their knowledge with respect to their problem context. The Interplay Model emphasised that the emergent properties of collaborative relations among research and commercial entities were primarily a function of activities performed in practices. A specialised notion of practice is used in the model, whereby practice is a way of doing, that if asked, actors would explain their activities in terms of, 'the way things are done around here.' Practices, operating in theatres of innovation, are performed intentionally by actors. The above perspectives were combined by the analyst to investigate case study data in terms of activities performed in what was viewed as theatres of innovation.

    The CIDR (Controlled Intravaginal Drug Release) case study documents in four chronological stages the emergence of synchronising technology for managing dairy cow reproduction. Early development efforts were concerned with developing a device, whereas later activities focused on building protocols for treatment. The alignment of activities performed by those actors working on the programme was achieved in several ways. As actors worked together they acquired windows of insight into the practices performed by other actors. When these practices were interwoven with the delivery of professional services, trust and respect were required for the programme workers to collaborate. The Intellectual Property Rights emerging from the programme developments were periodically reviewed and renegotiated by appealing to the notion of a family or club that had a membership of actors from several organisations. The identity of the club provided opportunity to build innovative strategies for performing new development and marketing activities. The CIDR is depicted as contributing towards an emerging practice in the case study, in as much as the device formed part of an expanding scope of development that encompassed several dairy cow synchronising devices, protocols and concepts. Developers used these devices and protocols to embody the rules of synchronising practice. The practice of synchronising enabled developers to cross boundaries that might otherwise be imposed by organisations seeking to lay an independent claim to intellectual property rights. The continuity of emergence in the case of CIDR was worked out by the actors in a process of muddling through. By reflecting on their activities actors learned from past errors and redirecting their intentions accordingly.

    The SAMM (Seasonal Approach to Managing Mastitis) case study investigated how a sector wide intervention, operating under free market policies, worked towards mastitis management in the national herd. A series of interventions had been operating in the sector prior to the introduction of SAMM. Indeed, these earlier interventions assisted to 'prepare the way' for the SAMM, in that actors that performed different tasks in relation to managing mastitis in the sector were attuned to problems of mastitis and had developed tools and routines to cope with these problems. However, no specific organisation or profession claimed mastitis management as their domain of work, allowing the formation of a committee (NMAC) that fostered interactive activity to overcome problems of mastitis. The NMAC provided an interface for practices involved in developing interventions. Furthermore, the NMAC used the SAMM to embody the rules of mastitis management, that enabled farmers and others to act on mastitis in a way specific to their farm enterprise. The activities of the NMAC itself constituted a type of practice, referred to as mediating practice. The mediating practice of the NMAC constructed strategies to foster collaboration among organisations and actors. These organisations and actors learnt by reflecting on past errors and combining their experiences in the committee, that itself received institutional support. The dairy companies, who process milk into diverse milk products for export, were members of the NMAC and came to play an increasingly important role in the working out of mastitis management. The dairy companies used pricing policies for raw milk and the provision of information to support their farmer suppliers reduce the level of mastitis in their herds. In the case of SAMM problems were an emergent property of practice. Again the activities of actors were depicted as a muddling towards improved mastitis management, with changes in intervention programmes being wrought out of reflection on past errors. The mediating practice worked towards the facilitation of improved conditions for working on mastitis management, and for actors to learn and improve management strategies.

    The final case study investigated a Sustainability Study Group Programme (SSGP) that was following a participatory approach among farmers, environmentalists and researchers to work out an alignment of resource management and farm production goals. A pair of actors from farming and research backgrounds developed the SSGP and were referred to as programme leaders. These programme leaders encouraged other participants, who worked in farming, resource management and research activities, to join SSGP. Over an 18 month period the activities of the programme evolved methods for farming that helped align production and resource management goals, albeit, with considerable uncertainty about the programme purpose, or prerequisites for collective activity. A crisis of conflict between environmental and farm production aims catalysed a comprehensive effort to redefine the programme purposes. These efforts involved the building of shared needs, working from the needs of farmers, but encompassing the needs of environmentalists and researchers. The activities that redefined the programme purpose and workplans introduced a new. style of interactive work, whereby farmers, environmentalists and researchers were advocating one anothers'work to those outside the programme. The way actors represented the programme to others fostered an emerging integrity that evolved from the work performed in the programme. This emerging integrity enabled the use of more sophisticated forms of reflection on action, whereby actors were judging and positioning the work of one another in the overall programme.

    Part of the aspirations of policy-makers who advocated the reforms in NZ was to enhance the linkage between science and commercial institutions. This thesis did not set out to evaluate the reforms, so much as to identify new opportunities for collaboration in free market settings. Recommendations to actors and organisations, operating in free market contexts for innovation, are restricted to situations similar to the NZ dairy sector where a vertically integrated market channel is accompanied by sector programmes for young entrants to farming and coordinated information support services to farmers. Notwithstanding this qualification, it appears an appreciation of the way actors work together may assist programme managers in theatres of innovation and the management of technology. In particular, how these activities are coordinated and emerge as refined strategies for acting on problems and issues that are themselves emerging out of collective work. This thesis concludes that there is a need for further development of methodologies that can enhance analysts' abilities to observe activities in participatory working contexts. These methodologies ought to equip field analysts and programme managers who are grappling with contemporary issues of technology management in their conventional work.

    Kennis op bedrijfsniveau
    Jahae, I.A.M.A. ; Reinhard, A.J. ; Rutten, J.M. - \ 1996
    Den Haag : LEI-DLO (Onderzoekverslag / Landbouw-Economisch Instituut (LEI-DLO), Afdeling Structuuronderzoek 149) - ISBN 9789052423579 - 69
    landbouw - melkvee - melkveehouderij - informatieverspreiding - verspreiding van onderzoek - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - informatie - nederland - groenten - glastuinbouw - agriculture - dairy cattle - dairy farming - diffusion of information - diffusion of research - farm management - information - netherlands - vegetables - greenhouse horticulture
    Improving network performance.
    Engel, P.G.H. - \ 1995
    LEISA : ILEIA newsletter for low-external-input and sustainable agriculture 11 (1995)2. - ISSN 1569-8424 - p. 14 - 15.
    informatieverspreiding - verspreiding van onderzoek - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - verbetering - informatie - innovaties - intermenselijke relaties - modernisering - relaties - onderzoek - technologieoverdracht - landbouwvoorlichting - diffusion of information - diffusion of research - farm management - improvement - information - innovations - interpersonal relations - modernization - relationships - research - technology transfer - agricultural extension
    Rapid (or Relaxed) Appraisal of Agricultural Knowledge Systems (RAAKS) is a participatory action-research methodology to improve networking among people and organisations relevant to agricultural innovation. It is put into practice in a programme in 6 Central American countries aiming at improving the relevance and impact of research and extension for small grain producers
    Landbouwonderwijs en landbouwkennisnetwerk in perspectief.
    Grooters, J.W. - \ 1994
    Wageningen : Landbouwuniversiteit Wageningen (Studies van agrarisch onderwijs 27) - ISBN 9789067543484 - 157
    agrarisch onderwijs - informatietechnologie - landbouw - verspreiding van onderzoek - informatieverspreiding - informatie - nederland - landbouwvoorlichting - agricultural education - information technology - agriculture - diffusion of research - diffusion of information - information - netherlands - agricultural extension
    Of computers, myths and modelling : the social construction of diversity, knowledge, information, and communication technologies in Dutch horticulture and agricultural extension
    Leeuwis, C. - \ 1993
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): N.G. Röling; N.E. Long. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789054851974 - 469
    landbouw - computers - minicomputers - microcomputers - gegevensverwerking - planning - automatisering - verspreiding van onderzoek - informatieverspreiding - nederland - landbouwvoorlichting - machines - agriculture - computers - minicomputers - microcomputers - data processing - planning - automation - diffusion of research - diffusion of information - netherlands - agricultural extension - machines - cum laude

    Introductory chapters
    In this book two lines of argumentation are developed in relation to what agro-informaticians often describe as 'the limited adoption of Management Supporting Systems in primary agricultural production'. Although -conceptually speaking- the distinction is somewhat problematic, I will speak of a 'theoretical' and a 'practical' line. Figure 1.1 in chapter I shows how these lines of argumentation are interwoven throughout the book.

    Chapter I is a general introduction to the nature and scope of this book, and provides also some guidance to readers from different audiences. Moreover, and anticipating my later theoretical argument, it makes clear that I distance myself from both realist positions at the ontological level, and from positivism at the epistemological level. Instead, I adopt a constructivist stance, which posits that our understanding of the world is inherently socially constructed. Naturally, this holds for my own understanding of the world as well. Hence, preceding more detailed accounts in relation to specific case-studies, chapter 1 also touches on some broader social dimensions of this research that clarify in the context of which 'negotiation processes' this study was shaped, and which interests, projects, feelings, etc. of the researcher were of importance.

    In chapter 2, 1 attempt to 'set the scene' by problematizing currently proposed solutions to the limited adoption of Management Supporting Systems (from now on MSS) by farmers and horticulturists. Drawing upon recent theoretical and empirical insights, I conclude that current problem definitions and solutions rest on inadequate unilinear models of, on the one hand, farm development and, on the other, knowledge generation, exchange and utilization.

    In my practical line of argumentation, my elaborations lead me to identify five practical contributions that extension science and rural development sociology may provide to practitioners in the field of agro-informatics. Hence, I commit myself to providing such contributions in relation to: (1) the generation of relevant classifications of farmers and horticulturists; (2) the development of criteria for the design of MSS that facilitate integration of scientific and other types of knowledge; (3) the assessment of potential contributions of extension workers to the use and development of MSS; (4) the provision of inductive methodologies for identifying relevant information needs; and (5) an appraisal of the types of user-research and user-influence that can be suitably incorporated into methods for MSS-development.

    In relation to the theoretical line of argumentation, I conclude that a theoretical framework for understanding the use and development of MSS will have to meet two important criteria. First, it needs to allow us to understand interactions in which MSS play a role in the (historical) context of a complex social setting in which a variety social actors are actively engaged. Second, it should help us to conceptualize the social dimensions of knowledge, information, communication and rationality, Furthermore, I propose that management supporting systems or information technologies are best conceptualized as computer-based communication technologies (CT).

    Part I: Theoretical explorations
    Chapters 3, 4, 5 and 6 constitute Part I of the book. In search of a theoretical framework that meets the above formulated criteria, various disciplines and fields of study are explored in chapters 3, 4 and 5.

    In chapter 3, it is argued that the dominant conceptualizations; in computer science fail to meet the two criteria. The same holds for the field of information systems research. Despite important differences, neither the first, second or third wave approaches of management and organization theory, nor hard, soft, critical or autopoietic systems thinkers, provide fully satisfactory conceptualizations. In one way or another, most approaches appear to include elements of determinism, and fail to conceptualize actors as active and historicallysituated agents. Similarly, even if many approaches transcend overtly simplistic 'mechanical' conceptualizations of information, they tend to emphasize the subjective rather than the social dimensions of knowledge and information. That is, due to a focus on the individual, many approaches fail to capture the political, normative and ideological dimensions of knowledge and information. Nevertheless, critical and autopoietic systems thinkers especially, provide some inspiring theoretical concepts and ideas that must somehow be incorporated into a conceptualization of CT-use and development (these include ideas concerning validity claims and the social nature of rationality, the historical and recursive nature of structure, and the concepts of thrownness, blindness and discontinuity).

    In chapter 4, 1 discuss several frequently used approaches in communication science and extension science. In essence, my elaborations lead me to draw similar conclusions with respect to the two criteria formulated as those arrived at in chapter 3. Even if extension scientists are increasingly aware that extension processes need to be studied in a 'multi- actor' context, this assessment has apparently not yet resulted in the development of conceptualizations that are in line with it. That is, the social dimensions of knowledge, information, communication and rationality are insufficiently explicated, and extension scientists often remain to have a rather passive conceptualization of human action. In relation to this, I argue that although extension scientists provide an interesting framework for describing different types of anticipation problems that occur in relation to CT-use and development, the 'diagnostic value' of such descriptions is limited as long as an understanding of why and how such problems emerge is lacking. Thus, I propose that there is a need to enrich both communication science and extension science with sociological conceptualizations of human action, communication, knowledge, information and rationality. Hence, I reject claims made by authors who -on the basis of a sharp distinction between 'knowledge for action' and 'knowledge for understanding'- argue that studies aimed at generating 'knowledge for understanding' are almost inherently of little use to practitioners.

    Although it appears in chapter 5 that an actor-oriented sociology of rural development provides promising conceptualizations of the social actor, human action, knowledge and ignorance, I argue that there are weaknesses as well. The approach generates a number of important analytical concepts, but it is often unclear how they are to be theoretically connected. Moreover, the conceptualization of social structure leans towards 'actor voluntarism'. Another issue is that actor-oriented sociologists have so far insufficiently reflected on their own role in the production of social change, so that in its present form the approach has little to offer practitioners.

    In a search for more comprehensive frameworks, I follow suggestions made by some authors in previous chapters, and continue chapter 5 with an evaluation of the prospects of Habermas' theory of communicative action, and Giddens' theory of structuration. Even if Habermas' framework is becoming increasingly popular among extension scientists, I conclude that it fails to meet the two criteria formulated, and thus that it is unsuitable for both improving our understanding of the use and development of CT in agriculture, and more generally- for helping extension scientists to deal with 'multi-actor' intervention contexts. In contrast, a constructivist interpretation of Giddens' theory seems to meet the criteria much better. Giddens proposes that all social interaction has a communicative dimension and that the production of meaning (and therefore the production of knowledge and information) is inherently connected with the operation of power and normative sanctions. Furthermore, Giddens' theory demonstrates how actors are actively involved in (re)producing social structure. Also, it allows me to identify mutual knowledge (as inherently connected with mutual ignorance) as the key modality of structure, and therefore as underlying the existence of structural properties and the operation of power in society. In all, I conclude that Giddens' theory offers a much more promising and/or systematic insight into the interrelations between action, structure, knowledge, communication and rationality than the other sociological approaches discussed.

    In chapter 6, I attempt to clear the ground for more empirical forms of investigation. Building on the insights arrived at in the theoretical explorations, I formulate a set of interrelated preliminary theoretical propositions with respect to how the use and development of CT should be understood. Most importantly, it is proposed that CT-mediated communications must be looked at as politically and normatively laden negotiation processes, which are inherently connected with the (re)production of structural properties in society. The social 'codes' incorporated into such technologies are both constraining and enabling and can be renegotiated and creatively dealt with so that largely unintended consequences can easily emerge. Moreover, such technologies are best understood as playing a -never fully neutralrole in actors' reflexive monitoring of action, rather than in processes of 'rational decision making'.

    Building upon the theoretical explorations, I present the overall 'theoretical' problem statement as:
    To what extent do anticipation problems originate from: (a) the social nature of CT-development processes, and (b) insufficient recognition of the social dimensions of knowledge, information, communication and rationality.

    At the 'practical' level we must add the question of how an understanding of such social dimensions can help to improve the anticipatory nature of communication technologies. Inspired by the theoretical framework adopted, I thereby translate earlier defined envisaged practical contributions into more specific guiding questions. I also formulate additional questions aimed at gaining an understanding of the role of the social scientific researcher in processes of social change.

    Following this, I introduce a variety of methodological guidelines that follow from my theoretical approach. Here, it is argued that empirical studies must focus on day-to-day social practices at social interfaces. These practices must be studied in a context-sensitive manner, whereby attention must be given to actors' diverging interpretations, projects, rationalizations, and attempts to create space for manoeuvre. Furthermore, I adopt a casestudy approach.

    Finally, I argue that the consequences of my (meta-)theoretical framework are mainly methodological, for it proposes that a more down to earth understanding of social life must be rooted in the experiences and life-worlds of the actors that are studied. Thus, I argue that only if the methodological guidelines indeed help to increase both our understanding of the use and development of communication technologies, and our capacity to make practical contributions, can we conclude that (elements of) the theoretical framework, and/or (some of) the preliminary theoretical propositions are plausible and relevant.

    Part II: Empirical investigations
    Chapters 7, 8, 9 and 10 constitute Part II of the book. First, I elaborate in chapter 7 on the 'structural setting' in which the case-studies presented later must be understood. I critically discuss: (a) the institutional efforts to stimulate the use and development of CT in primary agricultural production; (b) current evaluations of the present state of the art in this respect; and (c) dominant methods for the development of CT in agriculture. Furthermore, I express my theoretical reservations with respect to both the frequently made distinction between 'structured', 'semi-structured' and 'ill -structured' problems, and the classifications of different types of CT that are based on this differentiation. As an alternative, I propose a classification of CT which is based on two theoretically-inspired distinctions, namely: (a) the separation between what I call the 'external' and 'internal' CT-design, and (b) a differentiation between various types of (normatively and/or politically laden) models that are more or less implicitly incorporated. In the closing section of chapter 7, I make an attempt to theorize the broader (macro) context by drawing upon Knorr-Cetina's notion of summary representations. First, I identify a 'web' of interrelated summary representations (in the form of classifications) that agro-informaticians frequently draw upon. Then, I make plausible: (a) that these classifications have historical, political, normative and ideological connotations; (b) that they are drawn upon in particular social practices; and (c) that they consequently underlie a number of important structural properties of the domain of agroinformatics. Finally, I illustrate that the above-mentioned classifications are inherently connected with actively and intentionally constructed areas of ignorance, and hence, that selfreferential processes occur in the domain of agro-informatics.

    In chapter 8, I present a case-study on the use of CT that provides dairy farmers and extension workers with a large number of parameters and norms relating to the performance of particular farms. In this study, I operationalize diversity among farmers in terms of styles of farming. By means of both quantitative and qualitative analysis, I show that farmers belonging to different styles tend to differ with respect to: (a) the parameters and norms that they focus on; (b) the goals that they formulate vis-à-vis the norms; and (c) the types of comparisons that they make with the help of the CT. Also, it appears that there are plausible connections between the specific ways of dealing with the CT, the different knowledge networks that farmers are part of, and the specific strategic notions that underlie the different farming styles. Moreover, I elaborate briefly on the way extension workers use the CT, and on some contradictions in their evaluation of farms and farmers belonging to different styles.

    In the concluding section of chapter 8, 1 reflect on theoretical issues and on the three practical contributions that I wanted to deliver, and which guided the selection of the case. Most importantly, I arrive at the following conclusions. First, I conclude that extension workers may facilitate farmers' learning on the basis of CT, but that in this process they bring in a different (rather than different levels of ) expertise and analytical capacity. Second, I argue that increasing standardization and formalization of agricultural knowledge into more and more complex models underlying CT, poses serious risks. In relation to this, I conclude that the prospects of bringing about a much needed integration of knowledge from different epistemic communities are rather limited in the internal design of a CT, and that such integration is more realistically achieved by means of an adequate external design. Third, I assess that the type of CT under consideration can be particularly useful in providing an agenda for discussion, that the quality of such discussions can be especially high in farmers' study clubs, and that -in the light of diversity- the provision of normative parameters in such discussions is confusing, and therefore of limited value. Fourth, I argue that existing methods for identifying 'homogeneous' target-categories rest on inadequate theoretical models, and fail to grasp the social dimensions of making such classifications. Although the classification into styles of farming proves more insightful than current classifications, there are grounds for arguing that classifications starting from different dimensions could have increased my capacity to make practical contributions in relation to the use and development of CT. Finally, I analyze why carrying out this case-study did not contribute much to social change, and develop conditions that must be met in the next case-study in order to be more effective in this respect.

    Chapter 9 provides a qualitative analysis of enterprise registration and comparison practices among cucumber growers. The diversity observed in relation to these practices, leads me to develop several classifications of cucumber growers. Further qualitative analysis shows that each practice-based classification of diversity helps to both reveal the social dimensions of enterprise registration and comparison practices, and generate concrete design-criteria that any CT aimed at supporting these practices should have to meet. In relation to these criteria, I evaluate the prospects of one postal package and two CT-based packages that were actually designed to support enterprise registration and comparison activities. I conclude that the three packages are characterized by meaningful differences, and that the relative success of the packages can indeed be plausibly explained with reference to the design-criteria formulated.

    In the concluding section of chapter 9, 1 reflect on theoretical issues and on the four practical contributions that I wanted to deliver, and which guided the selection of the case. Most importantly, I arrive at the following conclusions. First, I conclude that the making of several classifications of diversity on the basis of knowledge-related practices has helped to generate a sharper insight into different rationalities, knowledge networks, communication patterns and CT-use, than appeared possible with the help of the single classification into styles of farming presented in chapter 8. Moreover, the exploration of several classifications provided more insight into how diversity is socially constructed. Second, on the basis of a comparison of the CT discussed in chapters 8 and 9, 1 conclude that as the complexity of a CT increases, the more both the anticipation of diversity and the integration of knowledge from different epistemic communities depend on an adequate external design. Third, it emerges that CT themselves can -in time and space- play a role in facilitating the integration of knowledge from different epistemic communities. In order to achieve this, it is important to design CT in such a way that they can serve as an agenda for discussion, and facilitate (joint) processes of learning. Moreover, the case-study illustrates that such learning processes may constitute a process of 'structural change'. Fourth, the conclusion drawn in chapter 8 with respect to the role of extension workers is reinforced. Fifth, the study indicates that information needs emerge in a continuous and often routine-like process of learning. In relation to this, information needs are not only diverse, but also socially constructed, and often subject to rapid change. Therefore, my earlier plea to use inductive rather than deductive methods for the identification of such needs is reinforced. Moreover, I argue that it is more useful to identify knowledge and information-related practices and types of information requirements rather than specific information needs. Finally, 1 argue that in this case-study the activities of the researcher did indeed lead to a large number and variety of practical conclusions, and an impact of these on the actual course of CT-development events. 1 suggest that this phenomenon can be attributed to: (a) the fact that growers and researcher enrolled each other, whereby the latter became involved in an existing local project; (b) the political commitment of the researcher; (c) the fact that the practical problem statement was formulated by the growers; (d) the research methodology adopted; and (e) the institutional arrangements under which the study took place.

    In chapter 10, I try to reconstruct the development histories of two CT-based packages that were designed to support enterprise registration and comparison activities. By doing so, I hope to gain insight both into why and how anticipation problems emerge, and into how software developers, growers, social scientists and extension workers may contribute to the development of adequate CT. On the basis of the reconstructions arrived at, I draw the following conclusions. First, CT-development processes emerge as complex arenas of negotiation and enrolment, in which cooperation and conflict need to be examined in the (historical) context of diverging and changing interests, resource bases, normative convictions, theoretical beliefs, spatial characteristics, etc. That is, CT-development processes are inherently social in nature, and are likely to constitute interface situations. Within and through these processes actors attempt to create longer term outcomes or structural properties, whereby they are often confronted with unintended consequences of their own and other actors' previous actions, and compelled to adapt initial goals, change routes, create new coalitions, etc. Second, CT-development processes can at the same time be fruitfully considered as being inherently social processes of learning. Third, in relation to the prospects of soft systems methodologies for enhancing such learning processes, the case- study indicates that efforts to create a negotiated 'consensus' may have counterproductive consequences when boundaries are chosen in such a way that actors with too widely diverging goals, interests, convictions, etc., are included. This seems to hold especially during the early stages of innovation processes. Fourth, even if -in practice- there appears to be only a gradual difference between project-oriented CT-development methods and prototyping, the use of planned approaches towards CT-development may at times obstruct rather than stimulate the development of an appropriate innovation in that the procedures adopted prevent the rapid inclusion of learning experiences. Finally, I argue that, if CT-development processes are learning processes, it makes sense to organize them as such as well. Thus, I set out to develop a 'learning-oriented' method for CT-development which incorporates methods that originate from actor-oriented sociology, extension science and prototyping approaches. The method that I propose is not so much aimed at realizing particular predefined goals by means of formal planning, but rather to test the feasibility and desirability of particular ideas, and adapt these where necessary. To this end, the method is designed as an open-ended procedure in which interveners, social scientists and various categories of prospective beneficiaries have different learning responsibilities.

    Part III: Discussion and conclusions
    In the concluding chapter, the theoretical line of argumentation is rounded off with, on the one hand, a reflection of the overall 'theoretical' problem statement, and on the other, some more specific conclusions in relation to the various fields of study that were covered in Part I of the book. In essence, I conclude that it has become plausible that a lack of correspondence between, on the one hand, the various models that are (more or less implicitly) incorporated in CT-design, and on the other, the models that are actually drawn upon in the context in which such CT are supposed to be used, indeed originates from both the social nature of CT-development processes, and insufficient recognition of the social dimensions of knowledge, information, rationality and communication among those that develop CT. The practical line of argumentation is brought to an end with the formulation of recommendations for practitioners in relation to the five practical contributions that I envisaged to make by means of my study.

    Eventually, I conclude that a constructivist actor-oriented 'communication paradigm' constitutes an attractive perspective for both understanding and improving CT-development interventions in agriculture and horticulture.

    Landbouwonderwijs moet imago in kennisnetwerk verbeteren. Huidige beleid is doodlopend spoor.
    Grooters, J.W. - \ 1993
    Agrarisch Onderwijs 35 (1993)18. - ISSN 0925-837X - p. 10 - 13.
    onderwijsplanning - onderwijsbeleid - onderzoek - hogere agrarische scholen - universiteiten - landbouw - verspreiding van onderzoek - informatieverspreiding - technologieoverdracht - scholen - samenwerking - relaties - organisaties - wetenschappelijk onderzoek - wetenschap - landbouwvoorlichting - educational planning - educational policy - research - agricultural colleges - universities - agriculture - diffusion of research - diffusion of information - technology transfer - schools - cooperation - relationships - organizations - scientific research - science - agricultural extension
    Het landbouwonderwijs en het BOVO-vierluik. Onderzoek naar samenhang landbouwkennissystemen.
    Grooters, W. - \ 1992
    Agrarisch Onderwijs 34 (1992)6. - ISSN 0925-837X - p. 20 - 22.
    landbouwindustrie - industrie - landbouw - overheidsorganisaties - landbouwministeries - natuurbescherming - visserij - agrarisch onderwijs - regering - overheidsbeleid - bedrijfsvoering - economie - voorlichting - bedrijven - organisatie van onderzoek - onderzoeksbeleid - verspreiding van onderzoek - informatieverspreiding - informatiesystemen - communicatie - informatie - organisaties - instellingen - wetenschap - associaties - agribusiness - industry - agriculture - government organizations - ministries of agriculture - nature conservation - fisheries - agricultural education - government - government policy - management - economics - extension - businesses - organization of research - research policy - diffusion of research - diffusion of information - information systems - communication - information - organizations - institutions - science - associations
    Onderzoek naar de informatiebehoeften van agrarische ondernemersDetermination of information needs of farmers
    Krikke, A.T. - \ 1991
    In: Jaarboek 1987-1992 : verslagen van in 1987-1992 afgesloten onderzoekprojecten op Regionale Onderzoek Centra en het PAGV Lelystad : Proefstation voor de Akkerbouw en de Groenteteelt in de Vollegrond (Publikatie / Proefstation voor de Akkerbouw en de Groenteteelt in de Vollegrond, Regionale Onderzoekcentra no. 38-64) - p. 241 - 244.
    informatieverspreiding - verspreiding van onderzoek - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - landbouwvoorlichting - diffusion of information - diffusion of research - farm management - agricultural extension
    Bepaling van de informatiebehoeften van agrarische ondernemers : een verkenning van de theorie
    Raven, P.W.J. ; Drenth, H. ; Janssens, S.R.M. - \ 1991
    Lelystad : Proefstation voor de Akkerbouw en de Groenteteelt in de Vollegrond (Verslag / Proefstation voor de Akkerbouw en de Groenteteelt in de Vollegrond nr. 129) - 155
    informatieverspreiding - verspreiding van onderzoek - voorlichting - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - methodologie - nederland - landbouwvoorlichting - diffusion of information - diffusion of research - extension - farm management - methodology - netherlands - agricultural extension
    Rapport van de Werkgroep Informatievoorziening Landinrichtingsprojecten
    Anonymous, - \ 1991
    Utrecht etc. : Landinrichtingsdienst [etc.] (Informatieblad / Landinrichtingsdienst 28)
    plattelandsplanning - plattelandsontwikkeling - landgebruik - bedrijfsvoering - bodemkarteringen - kaarten - verspreiding van onderzoek - informatieverspreiding - landbouwgrond - landschap - nederland - rural planning - rural development - land use - management - soil surveys - maps - diffusion of research - diffusion of information - agricultural land - landscape - netherlands
    Kwaliteitsprogramma agrarische produkten, beleidsplan informatievoorziening residuen : managementrapport
    Klaveren, J.D. van; Vos, G. ; Vries, P.H.U. de; Kloet, D. ; Bakker, J.P.G. - \ 1991
    Wageningen : RIKILT (Rapport / RIKILT - DLO 91.23) - 28
    voedingsmiddelen - voedselproducten - landbouwproducten - kwaliteit - prestatieniveau - gewasbescherming - pesticiden - pesticidenresiduen - persistentie - verspreiding van onderzoek - informatieverspreiding - foods - food products - agricultural products - quality - performance - plant protection - pesticides - pesticide residues - persistence - diffusion of research - diffusion of information
    In samenwerking tussen overheid (LNV en WVC) en agrarisch bedrijfsleven wordt een Kwaliteitsprogramma Agrarisch Produkten opgezet. Dit programma beoogt een bijdrage te leveren aan de bewaking en beheersing van residuen in de agrarische produktieketen. De kern van het programma wordt gevormd door de monitoringprogramma's die op residu-gebied worden uitgevoerd door overheid en bedrijfsleven. De faciliteiten ten behoeve van een centrale gegevensverzameling en -verwerking worden gerealiseerd en ter beschikking gesteld door het Ministerie van LNV, dat tevens de programmacoordinatie verzorgt. Voor het ontwerpen van een systeem voor de gegevensverwerking werd In opdracht van de directeur VKA, een projektteam ingesteld, bestaande uit medewerkers van LNV/NKA en LNV/RIKILT. De methodische begeleiding werd verzorgd door O&E.
    Het technologisch Europa: geschift : beschouwingen over de Europese Technologische Gemeenschap
    Tromm, J.J.M. - \ 1991
    Wageningen : Landbouwuniversiteit Wageningen - 34
    samenwerking - verspreiding van onderzoek - informatieverspreiding - internationale handel - economisch beleid - handelspolitiek - landen van de europese unie - wetenschap - wetenschappelijke samenwerking - openbare redes - cooperation - diffusion of research - diffusion of information - international trade - economic policy - trade policy - european union countries - science - scientific cooperation - public speeches
    Proceedings of the European Seminar on knowledge management and information technology.
    Kuiper, D. ; Röling, N.G. - \ 1991
    Wageningen : Agricultural University - ISBN 9789072525116 - 294
    landbouw - automatisering - communicatie - informatieverspreiding - verspreiding van onderzoek - informatie - informatiesystemen - informatietechnologie - bedrijfsvoering - agriculture - automation - communication - diffusion of information - diffusion of research - information - information systems - information technology - management
    Abonneedag 1990 : assortimentsverbreding vollegrondsgroenten
    Anonymous, - \ 1990
    Lelystad : PAGV - 38
    verspreiding van onderzoek - groenteteelt - nederland - diffusion of research - vegetable growing - netherlands
    Abonneedag 1990 : bouwplanverbreding akkerbouw
    Anonymous, - \ 1990
    Lelystad : PAGV - 30
    verspreiding van onderzoek - akkerbouw - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - nederland - diffusion of research - arable farming - farm management - netherlands
    Gewasmiddag kool d.d. 15 september 1989
    Anonymous, - \ 1989
    Lelystad : PAGV
    verspreiding van onderzoek - informatieverspreiding - koolsoorten - nederland - diffusion of research - diffusion of information - cabbages - netherlands
    Complexen en netwerken, hun betekenis voor de toeristisch-recreatieve sector.
    Dietvorst, A.G.J. - \ 1989
    Vrijetijd en samenleving 7 (1989). - ISSN 0167-966X - p. 95 - 114.
    informatieverspreiding - verspreiding van onderzoek - vakanties - colleges (hoorcolleges) - vrije tijd - vrijetijdsactiviteiten - wiskundige modellen - planning - recreatie - toerisme - diffusion of information - diffusion of research - holidays - lectures - leisure - leisure activities - mathematical models - planning - recreation - tourism
    Rede uitgesproken op 21 september 1989 bij aanvaarding van het ambt van buitengewoon hoogleraar recreatiekunde aan de LUW. Ingegaan wordt op gevolgen van de toenemende diversiteit in de toeristisch-recreatieve sector. Om hier zo adequaat mogelijk op in te kunnen spelen zouden complexen van voorzieningen en bedrijven gevormd moeten worden. Stimulerende planning lijkt een mogelijke oplossing voor de totstandkoming van dergelijke complexen
    Complexen en netwerken: hun betekenis voor de toeristisch-recreatieve sector.
    Dietvorst, A.G.J. - \ 1989
    Wageningen : Landbouwuniversiteit Wageningen - 39
    openluchtrecreatie - vrije tijd - recreatie - vrijetijdsactiviteiten - organisatie van onderzoek - onderzoeksbeleid - verspreiding van onderzoek - informatieverspreiding - nederland - wetenschap - openbare redes - outdoor recreation - leisure - recreation - leisure activities - organization of research - research policy - diffusion of research - diffusion of information - netherlands - science - public speeches
    De kwaliteit van het toeristisch-recreatief produkt wordt o.m. bepaald door de wijze waarop een voorziening of bedrijf is ingepast in een toeristisch-recreatief complex. Kenmerkend voor zo'n complex is dat de onderlinge elementen t.o.v. elkaar bepaalde posities innemen als ondergeschikt, versterkend etc.
    Inleidingen op de contactdag Industriegroenten d.d. 23 februari 1988
    Dekker, P. ; Snoek, N.J. - \ 1988
    Lelystad : PAGV [etc.] - 100
    verspreiding van onderzoek - vollegrondsgroenten - diffusion of research - field vegetables
    Hoe schrijf ik een wetenschappelijke tekst? : een handleiding om scripties, verslagen, dissertaties, rapporten en beleidsnota's te schrijven
    Lamers, H.A.J.M. - \ 1983
    Muiderberg : Continho - ISBN 9789062835287 - 203
    rapporten - schrijven - gegevens verzamelen - literatuur - onderzoek - verspreiding van onderzoek - informatieverspreiding - wetenschap - grammatica - reports - writing - data collection - literature - research - diffusion of research - diffusion of information - science - grammar
    Hoe schrijf ik een wetenschappelijke tekst? Een handleiding om scripties, verslagen, dissertaties, rapporten en beleidsnota's te schrijven
    Lamers, H.A.J.M. - \ 1979
    Muiderberg : Coutinho - ISBN 9789062835287 - 153
    rapporten - schrijven - gegevens verzamelen - literatuur - onderzoek - verspreiding van onderzoek - informatieverspreiding - wetenschap - grammatica - reports - writing - data collection - literature - research - diffusion of research - diffusion of information - science - grammar
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