Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    How oro-sensory exposure and eating rate affect satiation and associated endocrine responses-a randomized trial
    Lasschuijt, Marlou ; Mars, Monica ; Graaf, Cees de; Smeets, Paul A.M. - \ 2020
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 111 (2020)6. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 1137 - 1149.
    cephalic phase - eating behavior - eating rate - ghrelin - human - insulin - oro-sensory exposure - pancreatic polypeptide - satiation

    BACKGROUND: Longer oral processing decreases food intake. This can be attributed to greater oro-sensory exposure (OSE) and a lower eating rate (ER). How these factors contribute to food intake, and the underlying physiological mechanisms, remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the independent and simultaneous effects of OSE and ER on satiation and associated endocrine responses. METHODS: Forty participants in study 1 [mean ± SD age: 24 ± 4 y; BMI (in kg/m2): 22 ± 2] and 20 in study 2 (mean ± SD age: 23 ± 3 y; BMI: 23 ± 2) participated in a 2 × 2 randomized trial. In both studies, participants ate chocolate custard with added caramel sauce (low OSE) or caramel fudge (high OSE) and with short (fast ER) or long breaks (slow ER) in between bites, until fullness. In study 2, endocrine responses were measured during the meal. RESULTS: In study 1, participants ate (mean ± SEM) 42 ± 15 g less in the slow- than in the fast-ER condition, only within the high-OSE condition (P = 0.04). In study 2, participants ate 66 ± 21 g less in the high- than in the low-OSE condition and there were no intake differences between slow and fast ER (P = 0.35). Eight minutes after starting to eat, insulin concentrations increased by 42%-65% in all treatments compared with the control. At the end of the meal, insulin concentrations were 81% higher in the high-OSE, slow-ER than in the low-OSE, fast-ER condition (P = 0.049). Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) increased by 62%, 5 min after meal onset in the low-OSE, fast-ER condition (P = 0.005). Ghrelin concentrations did not change. CONCLUSIONS: Greater OSE increases insulin responsiveness. In contrast, PP responses are stronger when OSE is reduced and ER is fast. Insulin and PP responses may mediate the independent effects of OSE and ER on food intake. These may be beneficial eating strategies, particularly for type 2 diabetic patients, to control food intake and maintain glucose homeostasis.This trial was registered at as NL6544.

    A maternal Western diet during gestation and lactation modifies offspring’s microbiota activity, blood lipid levels, cognitive responses, and hippocampal neurogenesis in Yucatan pigs
    Val-Laillet, David ; Besson, M. ; Guérin, S. ; Coquery, N. ; Randuineau, G. ; Kanzari, A. ; Quesnel, H. ; Bonhomme, N. ; Bolhuis, J.E. ; Kemp, B. ; Blat, S. ; Huërou-Luron, I. Le; Clouard, C.M. - \ 2017
    FASEB Journal 31 (2017)5. - ISSN 0892-6638 - p. 2037 - 2049.
    early nutrition - development - eating behavior - metabolism - brain
    A suboptimal early nutritional environment (i.e., excess of energy, sugar, and fat intake) can increase susceptibility to diseases and neurocognitive disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate in nonobese Yucatan minipigs (Sus scrofa) the impact of maternal diet [standard (SD) vs. Western (WD) diet] during gestation and 25 d of lactation on milk composition, blood metabolism, and microbiota activity of sows (n = 17) and their piglets (n = 65), and on spatial cognition (n = 51), hippocampal plasticity (n = 17), and food preferences/motivation (n = 51) in the progeny. Milk dry matter and lipid content, as well as plasma total cholesterol and free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations (P < 0.05) were higher in WD than in SD sows. Microbiota activity decreased in both WD sows and 100-d-old piglets (P < 0.05 or P < 0.10, depending on short-chain FAs [SCFAs]). At weaning [postnatal day (PND) 25], WD piglets had increased blood triglyceride and FFA levels (P < 0.01). Both SD and WD piglets consumed more of a known SD than an unknown high-fat/-sucrose (HFS) diet (P < 0.0001), but were quicker to obtain HFS rewards compared with SD rewards (P < 0.01). WD piglets had higher working memory (P = 0.015) and reference memory (P < 0.001) scores, which may reflect better cognitive abilities in the task context and a higher motivation for the food rewards. WD piglets had a smaller hippocampal granular cell layer (P = 0.03) and decreased neurogenesis (P < 0.005), but increased cell proliferation (P < 0.001). A maternal WD during gestation and lactation, even in the absence of obesity, has significant consequences for piglets’ blood lipid levels, microbiota activity, gut–brain axis, and neurocognitive abilities after weaning.—Val-Laillet, D., Besson, M., Guérin, S., Coquery, N., Randuineau, G., Kanzari, A., Quesnel, H., Bonhomme, N., Bolhuis, J. E., Kemp, B., Blat, S., Le Huërou-Luron, I., Clouard, C. A maternal Western diet during gestation and lactation modifies offspring’s microbiota activity, blood lipid levels, cognitive responses, and hippocampal neurogenesis in Yucatan pigs.
    Taste matters-effects of bypassing oral stimulation on hormone and appetite responses
    Spetter, M.S. ; Mars, M. ; Viergever, M.A. ; Graaf, C. de; Smeets, P.A.M. - \ 2014
    Physiology and Behavior 137 (2014). - ISSN 0031-9384 - p. 9 - 17.
    cephalic phase responses - placebo-controlled trial - sensory-specific satiety - plasma ghrelin levels - food-intake - eating behavior - short-term - circulating ghrelin - energy-intake - c-peptide
    The interaction between oral and gastric signals is an important part of food intake regulation. Previous studies suggest that bypassing oral stimulation diminishes the suppression of hunger and increases gastric emptying rate. However, the role of appetite hormones, like cholecystokinin-8 and ghrelin, in this process is still unclear. Our objective was to determine the contributions of gastric and oral stimulation to subsequent appetite and hormone responses and their effect on ad libitum intake. Fourteen healthy male subjects (age 24.6 ± 3.8y, BMI 22.3 ± 1.6 kg/m2) completed a randomized, single-blinded, cross-over experiment with 3 treatment-sessions: 1) Stomach distention: naso-gastric infusion of 500 mL/0 kJ water, 2) Stomach distention with caloric content: naso-gastric infusion of 500 mL/1770 kJ chocolate milk, and 3) Stomach distention with caloric content and oral exposure: oral administration of 500 mL/1770 kJ chocolate milk. Changes in appetite ratings and plasma glucose, insulin, cholecystokinin-8, and active and total ghrelin concentrations were measured at fixed time-points up to 30 min after infusion or oral administration. Subsequently, subjects consumed an ad libitum buffet meal. Oral administration reduced appetite ratings more than both naso-gastric infusions (P <0.0001). Gastric infusion of a caloric load increased insulin and cholecystokinin-8 and decreased total ghrelin concentrations more than ingestion (all P <0.0001). No differences in active ghrelin response were observed between conditions. Ad libitum intake did not differ between oral and gastric administration of chocolate milk (P > 0.05). Thus, gastric infusion of nutrients induces greater appetite hormone responses than ingestion does. These data provide novel and additional evidence that bypassing oral stimulation not only affects the appetite profile but also increases anorexigenic hormone responses, probably driven in part by faster gastric emptying. This confirms the idea that learned associations between sensory characteristics and associated metabolic consequences serve to adapt hormone responses to nutrient content. These findings underscore the importance of oral stimulation in the regulation of food intake.
    It is not just a meal, it is an emotional experience – A segmentation of older persons based on the emotions that they associate with mealtimes
    Uijl, L.C. den; Jager, G. ; Graaf, C. de; Waddell, W.J. ; Kremer, S. - \ 2014
    Appetite 83 (2014). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 287 - 296.
    food neophobia - olfactory impairment - eating behavior - consumer - questionnaire - spendthrifts - tightwads - choice - attitudes - motives
    Worldwide, the group of older persons is growing fast. To aid this important group in their food and meal requirements, a deeper insight into the expectations and experiences of these persons regarding their mealtimes and snack times is needed. In the current study, we aim to identify consumer segments within the group of vital community-dwelling older persons on the basis of the emotions they associate with their mealtimes and snack times (from now on referred to as mealtimes). Participants (n¿=¿392, mean age 65.8 (years)¿±¿5.9 (SD)) completed an online survey. The survey consisted of three questionnaires: emotions associated with mealtimes, functionality of mealtimes, and psychographic characteristics (health and taste attitudes, food fussiness, and food neophobia). Consumer segments were identified and characterised based on the emotions that the respondents reported to experience at mealtimes, using a hierarchical cluster analysis. Clusters were described using variables previously not included in the cluster analysis, such as functionality of mealtimes and psychographic characteristics. Four consumer segments were identified: Pleasurable averages, Adventurous arousals, Convivial indulgers, and Indifferent restrictives. These segments differed significantly in their emotional associations with mealtimes both in valence and level of arousal. The present study provides actionable insights for the development of products and communication strategies tailored to the needs of vital community-dwelling older persons.
    Predicting feather damage in laying hens during the laying period. Is it the past or is it the present?
    Haas, E.N. de; Bolhuis, J.E. ; Jong, I.C. de; Kemp, B. ; Janczak, A.M. ; Rodenburg, T.B. - \ 2014
    Applied Animal Behaviour Science 160 (2014). - ISSN 0168-1591 - p. 75 - 85.
    domestic chicks - alternative systems - tonic immobility - stocking density - eating behavior - genetic lines - flock size - open-field - pecking - fear
    Feather damage due to severe feather pecking (SFP) in laying hens is most severe during the laying period. However, SFP can develop at an early age and is influenced by early rearing conditions. In this study we assessed the risk factors during the rearing and laying period for feather damage at 40 weeks of age, in ISA brown and Dekalb White laying hens. Variables related to housing conditions during the rearing and laying period, and variables related to fearfulness (response to novel object, stationary person, and social isolation) and feather pecking (SFP, feather damage and feather eating) were tested to affect feather damage at 40 weeks of age. Feather damage on the neck, back and belly region was assessed on 50 hens, resulting in a total body score, and averaged per flock (based on Welfare Quality ®, 2009). First, analysis was conducted by a two-way ANOVA to assess separate factors to influence feather damage at 40 weeks of age. Hereafter, the final GLM for predicting feather damage at 40 weeks of age included only variables which had P <0.1 in the two-way ANOVA. Risk factors during the rearing period were high levels of SFP at five weeks of age and elevated fear of humans (explained variance 29% and 5.3%, resp.). Risk factors during the laying period were a large group size (explained variance: 1%), distance to stationary person (explained variance: 16%), floor housing compared to aviary housing (1.27 ± 0.18 vs. 0.75 ± 0.07, explained variance: 21%) and a standard management compared to adjusted management such as a radio, pecking blocks, round drinkers and/or roosters (0.98 ± 0.31 vs. 0.51 ± 0.04, explained variance: 26%). Approximately 49% of the laying flocks and 60% of the rearing flocks in this study showed high SFP or severe feather damage. This high incidence emphasizes the severity of the problem and the importance of finding a solution. The results of this study may aid in providing practical solutions to this serious animal welfare problem.
    Food preference and intake in response to ambient odours in overweight and normal-weight females
    Zoon, H.F.A. ; He, W. ; Wijk, R.A. de; Graaf, C. de; Boesveldt, S. - \ 2014
    Physiology and Behavior 133 (2014). - ISSN 0031-9384 - p. 190 - 196.
    cephalic phase responses - cue exposure - unrestrained eaters - eating behavior - external cues - appetite - humans - perception - obesity - brain
    In our food abundant environment, food cues play an important role in the regulation of energy intake. Odours can be considered as external cues that can signal energy content in the anticipatory phase of eating. This study aims to determine whether exposure to olfactory cues associated with energy dense foods leads to increased food intake and greater preference for energy-dense foods. In addition, we assessed whether BMI and hunger state modulated this effect. Twenty-five overweight (mean BMI: 31.3 kg/m2, S.E.: 0.6) and 25 normal-weight (mean BMI: 21.9 kg/m2, S.E.: 0.4) females, matched on age and restraint score, participated. In 6 separate sessions they were exposed to odours of three different categories (signalling non-food, high-energy food and low-energy food) in two motivational states (hungry and satiated). After 10 min of exposure food preference was assessed with a computerized two-item forced choice task and after 20 min a Bogus Taste Test was used to determine energy intake (kcal and g). In a hungry state, the participants ate more (p <.001) and preferred high-energy products significantly more often (p <.001) when compared to the satiated state. A trend finding for the interaction between hunger and BMI suggested that the food preference of overweight participants was less affected by their internal state (p = .068). Neither energy intake (kcal: p = .553; g: p = .683) nor food preference (p = .280) was influenced by ambient exposure to odours signalling different categories. Future studies need to explore whether food odours can indeed induce overeating. More insight is needed regarding the possible influence of context (e.g. short exposure duration, large variety of food) and personality traits (e.g. restraint, impulsive) on odour-induced overeating.
    Dinner Rituals That Correlate with Child and Adult BMI
    Wansink, B. ; Kleef, E. van - \ 2014
    Obesity 22 (2014)5. - ISSN 1930-7381 - p. E91 - E95.
    family meals - diet quality - eating behavior - food-intake - adolescents - patterns - television - illusions - program
    Objective: What predicts whether a child will be at risk for obesity? Whereas past research has focused on foods, eating habits, feeding styles, and family meal patterns, this study departs from a food-centric approach to examine how various dinner rituals might influence the BMIs of children and adults. Methods: In this study of 190 parents (BMI529.167.2) and 148 children (BMI520.364.4), the relationship between their BMIs and everyday family dinner rituals was examined using both correlation and regression analysis (controlled for educational level of parents). Results: Families who frequently ate dinner in the kitchen or dining room had significantly lower BMIs for both adults (r520.31) and children (r520.24) compared to families who ate elsewhere. Additionally, helping cook dinner was associated with higher BMI for girls (r50.26), and remaining at the table until everyone is finished with eating was associated with lower BMI for boys (r520.31). Conclusions: Dinner tables may be one place where social support and family involvement meet—both of which relate to the BMI of children as well as parents. Family meals and their rituals might be an underappreciated battleground to fight obesity.
    The Sum of lts Parts-Effects of Gastric Distention, Nutrient Content and Sensory Stimulation on Brain Activation
    Spetter, M.S. ; Graaf, C. de; Mars, M. ; Viergever, M.A. ; Smeets, P.A.M. - \ 2014
    PLoS ONE 9 (2014)3. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 10 p.
    body-weight regulation - food-intake - feeding-behavior - eating behavior - human amygdala - appetite - humans - satiety - taste - fat
    During food consumption the brain integrates multiple interrelated neural and hormonal signals involved in the regulation of food intake. Factors influencing the decision to stop eating include the foods' sensory properties, macronutrient content, and volume, which in turn affect gastric distention and appetite hormone responses. So far, the contributions of gastric distention and oral stimulation by food on brain activation have not been studied. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of gastric distention with an intra-gastric load and the additional effect of oral stimulation on brain activity after food administration. Our secondary objective was to study the correlations between hormone responses and appetite-related ratings and brain activation. Fourteen men completed three functional magnetic resonance imaging sessions during which they either received a naso-gastric infusion of water (stomach distention), naso-gastric infusion of chocolate milk (stomach distention + nutrients), or ingested chocolate-milk (stomach distention + nutrients + oral exposure). Appetite ratings and blood parameters were measured at several time points. During gastric infusion, brain activation was observed in the midbrain, amygdala, hypothalamus, and hippocampus for both chocolate milk and water, i.e., irrespective of nutrient content. The thalamus, amygdala, putamen and precuneus were activated more after ingestion than after gastric infusion of chocolate milk, whereas infusion evoked greater activation in the hippocampus and anterior cingulate. Moreover, areas involved in gustation and reward were activated more after oral stimulation. Only insulin responses following naso-gastric infusion of chocolate milk correlated with brain activation, namely in the putamen and insula. In conclusion, we show that normal (oral) food ingestion evokes greater activation than gastric infusion in stomach distention and food intake-related brain areas. This provides neural evidence for the importance of sensory stimulation in the process of satiation.
    The prevention and control of feather pecking in laying hens: identifying the underlying principles
    Rodenburg, T.B. ; Krimpen, M.M. van; Jong, I.C. de; Haas, E.N. de; Kops, M.S. ; Riedstra, B.J. ; Nordquist, R.E. ; Wagenaar, J.P. ; Bestman, M.W.P. ; Nicol, C.J. - \ 2013
    Worlds Poultry Science Journal 69 (2013)2. - ISSN 0043-9339 - p. 361 - 374.
    nonstarch polysaccharide concentration - gallus-gallus-domesticus - heart-rate-variability - open-field response - rhode-island red - tonic immobility - nutrient dilution - manual restraint - eating behavior - different ages
    Feather pecking (FP) in laying hens remains an important economic and welfare issue. This paper reviews the literature on causes of FP in laying hens. With the ban on conventional cages in the EU from 2012 and the expected future ban on beak trimming in many European countries, addressing this welfare issue has become more pressing than ever. The aim of this review paper is to provide a detailed overview of underlying principles of FP. FP is affected by many different factors and any approach to prevent or reduce FP in commercial flocks should acknowledge that fact and use a multifactorial approach to address this issue. Two forms of FP can be distinguished: gentle FP and severe FP. Severe FP causes the most welfare issues in commercial flocks. Severe FP is clearly related to feeding and foraging behaviour and its development seems to be enhanced in conditions where birds have difficulty in coping with environmental stressors. Stimulating feeding and foraging behaviour by providing high-fibre diets and suitable litter from an early age onwards, and controlling fear and stress levels through genetic selection, reducing maternal stress and improving the stockmanship skills of the farmer, together offer the best prospect for preventing or controlling FP.
    Potential benefits of satiety to the consumer: scientific considerations
    Hetherington, M.M. ; Cunningham, K. ; Dye, L. ; Gibson, E.L. ; Gregersen, N.T. ; Halford, J.C.G. ; Lawton, C.L. ; Lluch, A. ; Mela, D.J. ; Trijp, J.C.M. van - \ 2013
    Nutrition Research Reviews 26 (2013). - ISSN 0954-4224 - p. 22 - 38.
    low-calorie diet - high-protein-diet - body-weight loss - disentangling food reward - sensory-specific satiety - glucagon-like peptide-1 - cognitive performance - energy-intake - appetite sensations - eating behavior
    Foods and dietary patterns that enhance satiety may provide benefit to consumers. The aim of the present review was to describe, consider and evaluate research on potential benefits of enhanced satiety. The proposal that enhanced satiety could only benefit consumers by a direct effect on food intake should be rejected. Instead, it is proposed that there is a variety of routes through which enhanced satiety could (indirectly) benefit dietary control or weight-management goals. The review highlights specific potential benefits of satiety, including: providing appetite control strategies for consumers generally and for those who are highly responsive to food cues; offering pleasure and satisfaction associated with low-energy/healthier versions of foods without feeling ‘deprived’; reducing dysphoric mood associated with hunger especially during energy restriction; and improved compliance with healthy eating or weight-management efforts. There is convincing evidence of short-term satiety benefits, but only probable evidence for longer-term benefits to hunger management, possible evidence of benefits to mood and cognition, inadequate evidence that satiety enhancement can promote weight loss, and no evidence on which consumers would benefit most from satiety enhancement. The appetite-reducing effects of specific foods or diets will be much more subtle than those of pharmaceutical compounds in managing hunger; nevertheless, the experience of pharmacology in producing weight loss via effects on appetite suggests that there is potential benefit of satiety enhancement from foods incorporated into the diet to the consumer.
    Effects of Oral and Gastric Stimulation on Appetite and Energy Intake
    Wijlens, G.M. ; Erkner, A. ; Alexander, E.A. ; Mars, M. ; Smeets, P.A.M. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2012
    Obesity 20 (2012)11. - ISSN 1930-7381 - p. 2226 - 2232.
    sugar-sweetened beverages - postprandial lipid-metabolism - libitum food-intake - eating behavior - ghrelin concentrations - liquid food - body-weight - fat - satiety - humans
    Appetite is regulated by many factors, including oro-sensory and gastric signals. There are many studies on contributions of and possible interaction between sensory and gastric stimulation, but there are few studies in humans using simultaneous oral and gastric stimulation. We investigated the effect of simultaneous, but independently manipulated, oral and gastric stimulation on appetite ratings and energy intake. We hypothesized that compared with no stimulation, oral and gastric stimulation would equally and additively decrease appetite ratings and energy intake. Healthy men (n = 26, 21 ± 2 years, BMI 22 ± 3 kg/m2) participated in a randomized crossover trial with four experimental conditions and a control condition. Experimental conditions consisted of oral stimulation, with either 1 or 8 min modified sham feeding (MSF), and gastric stimulation, with either 100 or 800 ml intragastrically infused liquid (isocaloric, 99 kcal, 100 ml/min). The control condition consisted of no oral or gastric stimulation. Outcome measures were energy intake 30 min after the treatment and appetite ratings. Compared with the control condition, energy intake decreased significantly after the 8 min/100 ml (19% lower, P = 0.001) and 8 min/800 ml conditions (15% lower, P = 0.02), but not after the 1 min/100 ml (14% lower, P = 0.06) and 1 min/800 ml conditions (10% lower, P = 0.39). There was no interaction of oral and gastric stimulation on energy intake. Hunger and fullness differed across all conditions (P = 0.01). In conclusion, duration of oral exposure was at least as important in decreasing energy intake as gastric filling volume. Oral and gastric stimulation did not additively decrease energy intake. Longer oro-sensory stimulation, therefore, may be an important contributor to a lower energy intake.
    Intake during repeated exposure to low- and high-energy-dense yogurts by different means of consumption
    Hogenkamp, P.S. ; Mars, M. ; Stafleu, A. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2010
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 91 (2010)4. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 841 - 847.
    food-intake - eating behavior - young-children - satiety - compensation - satiation - carbohydrate - appetite - stimuli - humans
    Background: An important question in the regulation of energy intake is whether dietary learning of energy content depends on the food's characteristics, such as texture. Texture might affect the duration of sensory exposure and eating rate. Objective: The objective was to investigate whether a long sensory exposure, due to differences in means of consumption and in viscosity, enhances learned associations between sensory signals and metabolic consequences and hence facilitates energy intake compensation. Design: A total of 105 healthy young adults with a mean (±SD) age of 22 ± 3 y and a body mass index (in kg/m2) of 21.6 ± 1.7 participated in a parallel intervention in 3 groups: liquid yogurt with a straw (liquid/straw; n = 34), liquid yogurt with a spoon (liquid/spoon; n = 36), or semisolid yogurt with a spoon (semisolid/spoon; n = 35). Novel flavored yogurts were offered ad libitum for breakfast in 2 energy densities: low (215 kJ/100 g) and high (600 kJ/100 g). Subjects were repeatedly exposed to the yogurt products (10 times), and yogurt intake was measured. Results: Intakes (P = 0.01) and eating rates (P = 0.01) were highest in the liquid/straw group. Average intakes over 10 exposures were 575 ± 260 g for liquid/straw, 475 ± 192 g for liquid/spoon, and 470 ± 223 g for semisolid/spoon; average eating rates were 132 ± 83 g/min for liquid/straw, 106 ± 53 g/min for liquid/spoon, and 105 ± 88 g/min for semisolid/spoon. No significant interaction for intake between intervention group, energy density, and repeated exposure was observed, and intakes of the low- and high-energy-dense yogurts did not change over time in any of the intervention groups. Conclusions: We observed no energy intake compensation after repeated exposure to yogurt products. Differences in ad libitum yogurt intake could be explained by eating rate, which was affected by the different means of consumption. This trial was registered with the Dutch trial registration at as NTR1853.
    Effect of viscosity on appetite and gastro-intestinal hormones
    Zijlstra, N. ; Mars, M. ; Wijk, R.A. de; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S. ; Holst, J.J. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2009
    Physiology and Behavior 97 (2009)1. - ISSN 0031-9384 - p. 68 - 75.
    food-intake - physical state - eating behavior - meal viscosity - body-weight - satiety - humans - carbohydrate - liquid - hunger
    In previous studies we showed that higher viscosity resulted in lower ad libitum intake and that eating rate is an important factor. In this study we aimed to explore the effect of viscosity on the gastro-intestinal hormones ghrelin, CCK-8 and GLP-1. Thirty-two subjects (22 ± 2 y, BMI 21.9 ± 2.2 kg/m2) participated in this cross-over study. Subjects received a fixed amount of a chocolate flavored milk-based liquid or semi-solid product similar in energy density and macronutrient composition. Before intake and 15, 30, 60 and 90 min thereafter, appetite was rated and blood was drawn to determine glucose, CCK-8, active ghrelin, desacyl ghrelin and GLP-1 concentrations. After the last blood withdrawal, subjects were offered a chocolate cake meal to consume ad libitum. In the appetite ratings we observed a small effect showing that the semi-solid product is apparently considered as more satisfying than the liquid. There was a significant product effect for fullness (p 0.03), desire to eat (p 0.04), appetite something sweet (p 0.002) and prospective consumption (p 0.0009). We observed no clear effect of viscosity on gastro-intestinal hormones. Only for desacyl ghrelin there was a significant product effect (p 0.004). Concentrations were consistently higher after intake of the semi-solid product. Ad libitum intake of the chocolate cake was 102 ± 55 g after the liquid and 96 ± 46 g after the semi-solid product (ns). The results of our study show a similar response of the gastro-intestinal hormones CCK-8, ghrelin and GLP-1 after a fixed preload of a liquid and semi-solid product similar in energy- and macronutrient composition.
    Discrepancy between snack choice intentions and behavior
    Weijzen, P.L.G. ; Graaf, C. de; Dijksterhuis, G.B. - \ 2008
    Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 40 (2008)5. - ISSN 1499-4046 - p. 311 - 316.
    planned behavior - vegetable consumption - eating behavior - self-efficacy - decisions - attitudes - healthy - humans
    Objective To investigate dietary constructs that affect the discrepancy between intentioned and actual snack choice. Design Participants indicated their intentioned snack choice from a set of 4 snacks (2 healthful, 2 unhealthful). One week later, they actually chose a snack from the same set. Within 1 week after the actual choice, they completed a questionnaire that evaluated several dietary constructs. Setting Worksite cafeterias. Participants Office employees in the Netherlands (N = 585, 65% male, mean age 39.6 years [standard deviation = 9.2], 83% highly educated). Main Outcome Measures Snack choice intentions and actual snack choices (healthful vs unhealthful). Demographic and dietary constructs. Analysis Student t tests, chi-square tests, and logistic regression (P <.05). Results Forty-nine percent of the participants (n = 285) intended to choose a healthful snack. Of this group, 27% (n = 78) chose an unhealthful snack instead. Ninety-two percent (n = 276) of the unhealthful intenders did indeed choose an unhealthful snack. None of the dietary constructs significantly predicted the failure to enact a healthful snack choice intention. Conclusions and Implications Although a substantial discrepancy between healthful intentions and actual snack choice was demonstrated, the evaluated constructs do not adequately measure the psychological process by which intention is converted into practice. Further studies are required to further investigate this process.
    Effect of satiety on brain activation during chocolate tasting in men and women
    Smeets, P.A.M. ; Graaf, C. de; Stafleu, A. ; Osch, M.J.P. ; Nievelstein, R.A.J. ; Grond, J. van der - \ 2006
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 83 (2006)6. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 1297 - 1305.
    human orbitofrontal cortex - sensory-specific satiety - gender-differences - liquid food - eating behavior - sex-differences - stimuli - appetite - humans - fmri
    Background:The brain plays a crucial role in the decision to eat, integrating multiple hormonal and neural signals. A key factor controlling food intake is selective satiety, ie, the phenomenon that the motivation to eat more of a food decreases more than does the motivation to eat foods not eaten. Objective:We investigated the effect of satiation with chocolate on the brain activation associated with chocolate taste in men and women. Design:Twelve men and 12 women participated. Subjects fasted overnight and were scanned by use of functional magnetic resonance imaging while tasting chocolate milk, before and after eating chocolate until they were satiated. Results:In men, chocolate satiation was associated with increased taste activation in the ventral striatum, insula, and orbitofrontal and medial orbitofrontal cortex and with decreased taste activation in somatosensory areas. Women showed increased taste activation in the precentral gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, and putamen and decreased taste activation in the hypothalamus and amygdala. Sex differences in the effect of chocolate satiation were found in the hypothalamus, ventral striatum, and medial prefrontal cortex (all P <0.005). Conclusions:Our results indicate that men and women differ in their response to satiation and suggest that the regulation of food intake by the brain may vary between the sexes. Therefore, sex differences are a covariate of interest in studies of the brain's responses to food.
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