Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Scenario analysis of rainwater harvesting and use on a large scale–assessment of runoff, storage and economic performance for the case study Amsterdam Airport Schiphol
    Kuller, Martijn ; Dolman, N.J. ; Vreeburg, J.H.G. ; Spiller, Marc - \ 2017
    Urban Water Journal 14 (2017)3. - ISSN 1573-062X - p. 237 - 246.
    airport - economic viability - quantitative scenario analysis - Rainwater harvesting - sustainable urban water management

    Research on rainwater harvesting mainly focuses on a building scale. Scant information is available about its performance on a large scale. This study aims to determine the potential for, and economic viability of meeting non-potable water demand by rainwater harvesting for a large scale case (21.5 km2): Amsterdam Airport Schiphol. A dynamic model was developed to analyse scenarios of varying rainfall, catchment surfaces and storage capacity. Four potential system configurations of catchments and non-potable uses were analysed for their economic performance with different water prices and storage options. This study found that, given sufficient storage and catchment size, all non-potable water demand of Schiphol can be supplied, reducing drinking water demand by up to 58%. Diminishing returns for adding storage and catchment to the system make full supply inefficient. Current water charges make most large scale system configurations not viable due to high investment costs for supply networks and storage infrastructure.

    Meer, I.M. van der - \ 2016
    European Union
    taraxacum kok-saghyz - rubber plants - rubber - plant breeding - economic viability - agro-industrial chains - research projects - biobased economy - biobased materials - taraxacum kok-saghyz - rubberplanten - rubber - plantenveredeling - economische haalbaarheid - agro-industriële ketens - onderzoeksprojecten - biobased economy - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen
    Dandelion Rubber and Inulin
    Valorization and Exploitation for Europe',
    a demonstration project, that supports the
    development of the production chain of natural
    rubber and inulin from Russian dandelion. The
    objective of the project is to set up a European
    chain for the production and processing of
    natural rubber and inulin. This will enable the
    EU to become less dependent on the import of
    natural rubber and at the same time to respond
    to the threat of a global rubber shortage.
    North-Sea-Weed-Chain: sustainable seaweed from the North Sea; an exploration of the value chain
    Groenendijk, F.C. ; Bikker, P. ; Blaauw, R. ; Brandenburg, W.A. ; Burg, S.W.K. van den; Harmsen, P.F.H. ; Jak, R.G. ; Kamermans, P. ; Krimpen, M.M. van; Prins, H. ; Stuiver, M. ; Werf, A.K. van der; Scholl, M.M. ; Wald, J. - \ 2016
    IMARES (Report / IMARES C055/16) - 94
    seaweeds - seaweed culture - seaweed products - feasibility studies - economic viability - public-private cooperation - economic cooperation - projects - biobased economy - zeewieren - zeewierenteelt - zeewierproducten - haalbaarheidsstudies - economische haalbaarheid - publiek-private samenwerking - economische samenwerking - projecten - biobased economy
    Zeewier is een potentieel belangrijke voedselbron en grote duurzame koolstofbron voor de biobased economy. Met de groeiende wereldbevolking is het noodzakelijk om voor ons voedsel meer te kijken naar de zee als ‘landbouwgebied’. Boeren op zee is een grote uitdaging. Het vereist grote investeringen in infrastructuur. Voordat ondernemers hierin kunnen investeren moeten realistische vooruitzichten zijn op kweekmogelijkheden en winstgevende eindproducten. Dit project had tot doel de verschillende schakels in de keten van zeewierproductie tot vermarkting tegen het licht te houden. Duurzaamheid van de productie is hierbij leidend geweest.
    Biomassa voor de energievoorziening van tuinbouwclusters
    Zwart, H.F. de; Ruijs, M.N.A. ; Visser, H.J.M. - \ 2016
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1393) - 34
    bio-energie - glastuinbouw - haalbaarheidsstudies - economische haalbaarheid - warmte - kooldioxide - elektriciteit - biomassa - biobased economy - biochar - verbranding - opwekking van elektriciteit - warmteproductie - bioenergy - greenhouse horticulture - feasibility studies - economic viability - heat - carbon dioxide - electricity - biomass - biobased economy - biochar - combustion - electricity generation - heat production
    Biomass combustion in combination with a cluster of greenhouses to provide heat, CO2 and electricity can provide a partly solution to the sustainability of the horticultural sector. A biomass gasification plant could also provide valuable biochar, the result of partial combustion of biocarbon. This was shown to have attractive characteristics to be used in high quality potting soil. Despite the high value of the biochar (contributing for 16% of the income from the plant), the economic feasibility of a biomass combustion plant depends heavily on governmental subsidies (SDE +). When the developed technology is used on a practical scale, a biomass plant of 8 MW thermal power and 1.4 MW of electrical power is a sound size. Such a plant fits well with a horticultural cluster of 15 hectares, consisting of 6 ha Tomato, 6 ha Pepper and 3 hectares of Chrysanthemum. The biomass plant produces over 91% of the heating and 95% of the CO2 requirement and 67% of the electricity counsumed. However during winter a lot of electricity will have to be bought, which is compensated with selling to the public grid in summer. The biomass combustion plant will mainly run on biomass is supplied from elsewhere. The biomass from the local cluster covers only 0.3% of the combusted amount. If all available biomass from Netherlands territory would be used to heat greenhouses about 20% of greenhouse industry could make use of system like described in this report.
    Zeewier en natuurlijk kapitaal : kansen voor een biobased economy
    Burg, S.W.K. van den; Jak, R.G. ; Smits, M.J.W. ; Blaeij, A.T. de; Rood, T. ; Blanken, H. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-049) - ISBN 9789462578067 - 35
    zeewierenteelt - zeewieren - ecosysteemdiensten - financieren - economische haalbaarheid - biobased economy - nederland - haalbaarheidsstudies - seaweed culture - seaweeds - ecosystem services - financing - economic viability - biobased economy - netherlands - feasibility studies
    Grootschalige zeewierteelt in de Noordzee is nog niet rendabel als alleen de waarde van de productiedienst - het zeewier zelf - wordt meegenomen. Zeewierteelt kan echter diverse andere ecosysteemdiensten leveren. Met het denkmodel Natuurlijk Kapitaal is het mogelijk de baathebbers van deze ecosysteemdiensten te identificeren en met hen in gesprek te gaan over de mogelijkheden van waarderen en verzilveren. De vraag of dan een sluitende businesscase voor grootschalige zeewierteelt in Nederlandse wateren gerealiseerd kan worden is afhankelijk van innovatieve financieringsvormen, zekerheid over de levering van ecosysteemdiensten en de toepassingsmogelijkheden van het geproduceerde zeewier.
    Micro-algen in veevoeders : perspectief voor de toekomst?
    Dam, Lisanne van - \ 2016
    animal nutrition - animal feeding - feeds - feed additives - algae - algae culture - economic viability
    Inhoudsstoffen - Waarde van inhoudsstoffen : Kennisclip Bogo-project e-learning
    Baltissen, A.H.M.C. - \ 2016
    Groen Kennisnet
    plant composition - plant extracts - economic viability - biobased chemicals - biobased economy - horticulture - teaching materials - plantensamenstelling - plantextracten - economische haalbaarheid - chemicaliën uit biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - tuinbouw - lesmaterialen
    Deze kennisclip maakt onderdeel uit van de lesmodule Biobased Economy van het CIV T&U.
    The feasibility of direct processing of sugar beets in Slovenia: a quick scan
    Jongeneel, R.A. ; Smit, A.L. ; Bakker, Tom ; Jager, J.H. - \ 2015
    LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2015-149) - ISBN 9789086157280 - 25
    sugarbeet - processing - arable farming - ethanol production - biofuels - economic viability - slovenia - cap - european union - biobased economy - suikerbieten - verwerking - akkerbouw - ethanolproductie - biobrandstoffen - economische haalbaarheid - slovenië - gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - europese unie - biobased economy
    This study presents a quick scan of the economic feasibility of direct processing of sugar beet for ethanol production in Slovenia, using the Betaprocess technology. The outcome is that given the prices for sugar, sugar beets, ethanol and other relevant arable crops that are expected to prevail after the liberalisation of the EU’s sugar policy in 2017, direct processing of sugar beets is a profitable activity. This result is conditional on a number of requirements.
    Outlook on microalgae production chains
    Barbosa, Maria - \ 2015
    algae - algae culture - biomass production - applications - biorefinery - agro-industrial chains - economic viability - markets - biobased economy
    Mest vol verwaarden? Wat kan raffinage betekenen?
    Starmans, D.A.J. ; Buisonjé, F.E. de; Dijk, W. van; Haan, J.J. de; Timmerman, M. ; Visser, C.L.M. de - \ 2015
    Lelystad : WUR/ACRRES (Rappot / PPO-AGV 658) - 41
    mestverwerking - samenstelling - bioraffinage - economische haalbaarheid - haalbaarheidsstudies - terugwinning - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - manure treatment - composition - biorefinery - economic viability - feasibility studies - recovery - biobased materials
    Het doel van deze studie was te inventariseren welke waardevolle stoffen uit mest gewonnen kunnen worden en wat de potentie is in technologie en markt om deze te verwaarden. De inhoud van mest kan onderverdeeld worden in de volgende hoofdcategorieën: organische stof, mineralen, zware metalen, aminozuren, vluchtige vetzuren, antibiotica, hormonen. Via literatuuronderzoek is de samenstelling van elke categorie uiteen gesplitst in de verschillende stoffen met daarbij het gemiddelde gehalte van de betreffende stof in mest. Voor elke stof is de range in marktprijs nagegaan en aan de hand van het gehalte en marktprijs is de intrinsieke waarde van elke stof in de mest bepaald. Per hoofdcategorie van stoffen valt aan de hand van de waarde van de componenten te voorspellen of het mogelijk is om een sluitende business case te maken.
    Biomass and its potential for protein and amino acids : valorizing agricultural by-products
    Sari, Y.W. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Johan Sanders, co-promotor(en): Marieke Bruins. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573185 - 146
    landbouwbijproducten - eiwitbronnen - eiwitextractie - bioraffinage - biomassa - proteolyse - economische haalbaarheid - agricultural byproducts - protein sources - protein extraction - biorefinery - biomass - proteolysis - economic viability

    The use of biomass for industrial products is not new. Plants have long been used for clothes, shelter, paper, construction, adhesives, tools, and medicine. With the exploitation on fossil fuel usage in the early 20th century and development of petroleum based refinery, the use of biomass for industrial application declined. Since the late 1960s, the petroleum-based products have widely replaced the use of biomass-based products. However, depletion of fossil fuels, rising oil prices, and growing environmental awareness, push the attention and policy towards a transition from fossil into bio-based products. Bio-based products can also be obtained from protein. The amine group (-NH2) in protein shows attractive functionality for nitrogen-containing chemicals production. In petroleum based conversion of crude oil into chemicals, co-reagents such as ammonia have to be used, and various process steps are involved. With the amine in protein, various co-reagent introducing process steps can be by-passed.

    Biomass refinery for protein might not only be necessary for supplying feedstock for the chemical industry, before all, it is important to meet the world protein demand for food and feed. Chapter 1 illustrates the protein shortage in 2030 that we will encounter with the current uses of protein in the diet of both humans and animals. The worldwide protein production may provide this demand only if we consider the biomass refinery for protein and use the protein product in an effective and efficient way according the specific need of food, feed, and chemical industry. For this purpose, development in protein extraction technology from various types of biomass is essential. The thesis entitled “Biomass and its potential for protein and amino acids; valorizing agricultural by-products” describes possibilities for using agricultural by-products as protein and or amino acid resources.

    An overview on alkaline plant protein extraction was first presented, in Chapter 2, including the potential of addition of different types of enzymes. Protein extraction from common resources such as soybean meal and other oilseed meals were reviewed. Also new protein resources, like microalgae, were discussed on the applicability of alkali based methods for protein extraction. Most of the experimental studies opted for less than 100 min and 50-60°C as extraction time and temperature, respectively. A typical biomass to solvent ratio of 1:10 was selected in some studies. Alkaline pH was selected over acidic pH, because it is far away from the isoelectric point (IEP). Most proteins have the lowest solubility at their IEP, which commonly occurs at pH 4-5. Adding proteases during protein extraction increased protein yield.

    Two types of extraction methods were experimentally researched in this study; alkaline and combined alkaline and enzymatic. In Chapter 3, alkaline protein extraction method was used to extract protein from 16 types of biomass, mostly agricultural by-products. Aiming to maximise protein extraction yields, a three step extraction was performed at elevated temperatures; 25, 60, and 120 °C. Protein yield was correlated to biomass chemical composition through Partial Least Square (PLS) regression. The results showed that protein extractability depended crucially on the type of biomass used. Protein from cereals and legumes were highly extracted, compared to other biomass. High protein extractability coincides with the biological function of protein as a storage protein, as opposed to functional protein. Protein extraction was furthermore correlated to the composition of the biomass. Especially cellulose and oil hamper extractability of protein, whereas lignin has no significant influence, suggesting that alkaline treatment removed lignin sufficiently.

    In Chapter 4, the effect of proteolysis during protein extraction was studied. Based on their working pHs, both alkaline and acidic proteases tested. Oilseed meals from soybean, rapeseed, and microalgae were considered as protein resource. Proteases that worked at acidic pH assisted protein extraction; but, still, more proteins were extracted using proteases that work at alkaline pH. This finding is in line with the literatures study from Chapter 2 mentioning that more proteins can be extracted at alkaline pH. Protex 40XL, Protex P, and Protex 5L that work at alkaline pH assisted protein extraction, particularly for rapeseed and microalgae meals. To a lesser extent, these proteases also improved protein extraction yield of soybean meal and untreated microalgae.

    Having shown that proteolysis aids in protein extraction, proteases were also used to solubilise wheat gluten at alkaline pH. Solubilising wheat gluten is one of the bottle necks for wheat gluten application. In this thesis, wheat gluten was used to represent wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). From our perspective, more biomass by-products, such as wheat DDGS derived from ethanol production, will be available, also due to the target to replace 10% fossil fuel with bio-based fuel in 2050. With high glutamic acid content, wheat gluten provides possibilities to serve as an amino acid resource. Glutamic acid, which currently is microbial produced, has potential as feedstock for bulk chemicals production. Large amounts of cheaper glutamic acid can be made available by enabling its production from biomass by-products, such as wheat DDGS. Several methods for producing glutamic acid from wheat gluten were developed and the results were presented in Chapter 5. We found that a combination of enzymatic and mild acid hydrolysis opens up new possibilities for the industrial production of glutamic acid from biomass.

    Finally, in Chapter 6, general knowledge obtained from this study is discussed and a perspective on biomass valorization for protein and/or amino acids is presented. It was concluded that biomass, and particularly agricultural residues, are potential resources for protein and/or amino acids. An outlook on protein and/or amino acids production from by-products was also provided in this chapter. For this, economic calculations were provided that focussed on the processing cost. Based on these calculations, overnight alkaline treatment at room temperature was most economical to extract protein from most types of biomass. Residual biomass following protein extraction can be used as animal feed or for energy usage to get to a more integrated biorefinery, thereby reducing protein production cost.

    Ion exchange membranes in seawater applications : processes and characteristics
    Galama, A.H. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Huub Rijnaarts, co-promotor(en): Jan Post; Maarten Biesheuvel. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572256 - 272
    drinkwater - ontzilting - ontziltingsinstallaties - elektrodialyse - omgekeerde osmose - membraanpermeabiliteit - zoutgehalte - economische haalbaarheid - drinking water - desalination - desalination plants - electrodialysis - reverse osmosis - membrane permeability - salinity - economic viability

    Officiële titel ENG: Ion exchange membranes in seawater applications. Processes and characteristics

    Officiële titel NL: Ionwisselende membranen in zeewatertoepassingen. Processen en eigenschappen

    Auteur: A.H.Galama

    Jaar: 2015

    ISBN: 978-94-6257-225-6


    Zeewaterontzouting stelt mensen in staat om zoet water te maken uit een schijnbaar oneindige water voorraad. Om water ook echt beschikbaar te maken is het een voorwaarde dat de kosten van het ontzoutingsproces zo laag mogelijk zijn. Door gebruik van elektrodialyse (ED), een elektrochemische membraantechnologie voor ontzouting, kunnen de kosten van het ontzoutingsproces mogelijk worden verlaagd. In deze thesis worden de energetische aspecten van ED nader bekeken. De opgelegde hoeveelheid stroom blijkt daarin erg bepalend. Tevens worden de ionwisselende membranen, die in deze toepassing worden gebruikt, nader onderzocht. In de huidige technologische staat kan ED, wat betreft energie en kosten, op grote schaal niet concurreren met omgekeerde osmose. Om ED echt concurrerend te kunnen maken zal de ionische membraanweerstand moeten worden verlaagd en zal de membraanprijs moeten dalen. Voor toepassingen waar een hoge waterefficiëntie nodig is, denk aan ‘zero-liquid-discharge’ ontzoutingsprocessen, lijkt ED aantrekkelijk om als voorontzoutingstechnologie in te zetten.

    Landschapsvarken Bonte Bentheimer, Feestvaken of nieuw model voor verdienen
    Holster, Henri - \ 2014
    breeds - pig breeds - biodiversity - sustainability - taste - nature management - natural landscape - overijssel - landscape - economic viability
    Minder onkruiddruk van ongebruikte percelen
    Dalfsen, Pieter van - \ 2014
    biomass production - fibre plants - fuel crops - fodder crops - economic viability - weed control - biobased economy
    Factsheet: Pulsvisserij
    Quirijns, F.J. ; Turenhout, M.N.J. ; Paijmans, A.J. ; Taal, K. - \ 2014
    pulsvisserij - visserij-ecologie - discards - visvangsten - economische haalbaarheid - vismethoden - boomkorvisserij - zeevisserij - vangstsamenstelling - pulse trawling - fisheries ecology - discards - fish catches - economic viability - fishing methods - beam trawling - marine fisheries - catch composition
    De pulstechniek is relatief nieuw en roept veel vragen op over de mate van duurzaamheid en economische haalbaarheid. Daarom is er in de afgelopen decennia veel onderzoek gedaan naar deze visserijtechniek. Deze factsheet bevat de laatste gegevens over vangsten, discards, ecosysteem-effecten en economische haalbaarheid bij gebruik van puls in de platvisvisserij.
    Breeding strategies to make sheep farms resilient to uncertainty
    Rose, I.J. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Johan van Arendonk, co-promotor(en): Herman Mulder; J. Werf. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570900 - 188
    schapen - schapenhouderij - dierveredeling - veredelingsprogramma's - economische haalbaarheid - rentabiliteit - veerkracht - weiden - schapenvoeding - western australia - sheep - sheep farming - animal breeding - breeding programmes - economic viability - profitability - elasticity - pastures - sheep feeding - western australia

    The sheep industry in Western Australian has had many challenges over the last 20 years which have caused sheep numbers to decline. This decline is because sheep farms are not resilient to uncertain pasture growth and commodity prices. One way to improve resilience and profitability of farming systems is through breeding of sheep. Therefore, this thesis had two aims; 1. Quantify the potential to select and breed sheep that are more resilient and 2. Quantify how sheep breeding can make farming systems more resilient. To determine if sheep can be bred to be resilient to varying pasture growth I investigated if live weight change is a heritable trait. I investigated live weight change in adult Merino ewes managed in a Mediterranean climate in Katanning in Western Australia. Live weight change traits were during mating and lactation. The heritability of live weight change was low to moderate. Therefore that live weight change could be a potential indicator trait for resilience to uncertain pasture growth. To include live weight change in a breeding goal, correlations with other traits are needed. I calculated the genetic correlations between live weight change during mating, pregnancy and lactation, and reproduction traits. Most genetic correlations were not significant, but genetically gaining live weight during mating in two-year old ewes and during pregnancy for three-year-old ewes improved reproduction. Therefore, optimised selection strategies can select for live weight change and reproduction simultaneously. To investigate optimal breeding programs to make sheep farms resilient to uncertain pasture growth and prices, I modelled a sheep farm in a Mediterranean environment. The economic value of seven traits in the breeding objective were estimated. Including variation in pasture growth and commodity prices decreased average profit and increased the economic value of all breeding goal traits compared to the average scenario. Economic values increased most for traits that had increases in profit with the smallest impact on energy requirements. I also compared optimal breeding programs for across 11 years for 10 regions in Western Australia with different levels of reliability of pasture growth. I identified two potential breeding goals, one for regions with low or high pasture growth reliability and one for regions with medium reliability of pasture growth. Regions with low or high reliability of pasture growth had similar breeding goals because the relationship between economic values and reliability of pasture growth were not linear for some traits. Therefore, farmers can customise breeding goals depending on the reliability of pasture growth on their farm.

    Haalbaarheidsstudie bio-afbreekbare plastic draagtasjes : technische en economische haalbaarheid en implicaties
    Oever, M.J.A. van den; Bolck, C.H. ; Bos, H.L. ; Molenveld, K. ; Zee, M. van der; Schennink, G.G.J. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research nr. 1465) - 38
    bioplastics - kunststoffen - wegwerpmateriaal - haalbaarheidsstudies - polyethyleen - zakken - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - economische haalbaarheid - economische aspecten - bioplastics - plastics - disposables - feasibility studies - polyethylene - bags - biobased materials - biobased economy - economic viability - economic aspects
    Dit rapport beschrijft de resultaten van een haalbaarheidsstudie naar de technische en economische haalbaarheid en implicaties van een verbod op dunne plastic draagtasjes in Nederland, met een eventuele uitzondering voor bioplastic draagtassen. In deze korte studie staan bioplastic draagtassen centraal. Het gaat hierbij om alle bioplastics, dus om zowel de biologisch afbreekbare plastics als om niet-biologisch afbreekbaar bioplastic zoals biobased polyetheen (bio-PE). Het is technisch haalbaar om conventioneel fossiele PE plastic draagtassen te vervangen door bioplastic draagtassen. Bio-PE heeft dezelfde eigenschappen als fossiel PE en kan derhalve 1 op 1 als vervanging dienen. Biologisch afbreekbare plastic draagtassen voldoen eveneens; ze zijn vooralsnog dikker en zwaarder dan PE draagtassen om aan de gebruikerseisen te voldoen. Een specifieke antwoord op de economische en technische effecten is niet te geven omdat de exacte beleidsmaatregel en met name daaraan ten grondslag liggende beoogde effecten nog niet duidelijk is. In dit rapport worden daarom verschillende elementen besproken die onderdeel kunnen worden van een eventuele beleidsmaatregel.
    Toekomstperspectief voor het gemengd zilt bedrijf
    Ketelaars, J.J.M.H. ; Ruizeveld de Winter, A.C. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Plant Research International, Business Unit Agrosyteemkunde (Rapport / Plant Research International 545) - 66
    zoutwaterlandbouw - landbouw - toekomst - visteelt - aquacultuur - agrarische economie - zeeland - haalbaarheidsstudies - economische haalbaarheid - saline agriculture - agriculture - future - fish culture - aquaculture - agricultural economics - zeeland - feasibility studies - economic viability
    Op het Proefbedrijf Zeeuwse Tong in Colijnsplaat is gedurende vier jaren (2010-2013) ervaring opgedaan met de kweek van zagers, tong, algen, en schelpdieren, waaronder tapijtschelpen, Japanse oesters en platte oesters. In onderstaande worden de belangrijkste ervaring en met de verschillende teelten afzonderlijk en in combinatie samengevat. Vervolgens komen aan bod: de technische en economische haalbaarheid, en de risico’s en onzekerheden.
    Twee doeken met twee transparante folies geven 50% energiebesparing : Proef met hoogisolerend scherm succesvol van start
    Weel, P.A. van - \ 2014
    Onder Glas 11 (2014)4. - p. 38 - 39.
    glastuinbouw - schermen - kassen - energiebesparing - folie - groenten - proeven - economische haalbaarheid - greenhouse horticulture - blinds - greenhouses - energy saving - foil - vegetables - trials - economic viability
    Het gasverbruik voor verwarming van een kas wordt door drie zaken bepaald. Het temperatuurverschil met buiten, de uitstraling naar een koude hemel en de verdamping. Dat het overwinnen van de afkoeling – door uitstraling en door verdamping van vocht – samen vaak meer dan 50% van het energieverbruik bepalen is bij veel mensen onbekend. Het onderzoekprogramma Kas als Energiebron besteedt juist extra aandacht aan die verliezen.
    Melkveehouders over verduurzaming in de zuivelketen
    Lauwere, C.C. de; Hoes, A.C. ; Beldman, A.C.G. ; Reijs, J.W. ; Doornewaard, G.J. ; Philipsen, A.P. - \ 2014
    Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen (LEI report 2013-063) - ISBN 9789086156689 - 87
    melkveehouderij - zuivelindustrie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - begrazing - duurzame veehouderij - economische haalbaarheid - opinies - dairy farming - dairy industry - sustainability - animal welfare - animal health - grazing - sustainable animal husbandry - economic viability - opinions
    De Nederlandse Zuivel Organisatie (NZO) en LTO Nederland hebben hun krachten gebundeld in de Duurzame Zuivelketen. Het streven is om samen met de betrokken zuivelondernemingen en de melkveehouders, die bij hen aangesloten zijn, de Nederlandse zuivelsector wereldwijd koploper te maken op het gebied van duurzaamheid. Om die reden heeft de Duurzame Zuivelketen een aantal doelen geformuleerd, die gerelateerd zijn aan klimaat en energie, diergezondheid en dierenwelzijn, weidegang en biodiversiteit en milieu. Door middel van een enquête in het najaar van 2012 onder 150 gangbare en 23 biologische melkveehouders is onderzocht hoe melkveehouders tegen over de (haalbaarheid van de) door de Duurzame Zuivelketen geformuleerde doelen staan en tegenover de activiteiten van de betrokken zuivelondernemingen. Ook is gevraagd naar de maatregelen die melkveehouders al nemen of van plan zijn te gaan nemen om duurzaamheidsdoelen te realiseren en naar de invloed van de omgeving daarop.
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