Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Macronutrient intake and inadequacies of community-dwelling older adults, a systematic review
    Borg, S.J. ter; Verlaan, S. ; Mijnarends, D. ; Schols, J.M.G.A. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Luiking, Y.C. - \ 2015
    Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism 66 (2015)4. - ISSN 0250-6807 - p. 242 - 255.
    dietary-protein intake - dependent elderly population - nutritional-status - cognitive function - physical-activity - food-consumption - body-composition - energy-intake - people - health
    Background: Anorexia of ageing may predispose older adults to under-nutrition and protein energy malnutrition. Studies, however, report a large variation in nutrient inadequacies among community-dwelling older adults. Summary: This systematic review provides a comprehensive overview of the energy and macronutrient intakes and possible inadequacies in community-dwelling older adults. PubMed and EMBASE were screened up to December 2013; data from national nutrition surveys were added. Forty-six studies were included, following the PRISMA guideline. Key Messages: Mean daily energy intake was 8.9 MJ in men and 7.3 MJ in women. Mean daily carbohydrate and protein intakes were 46 and 15 En% in men and 47 and 16 En% in women, respectively. Mean daily total fat, saturated fatty acid (SFA), mono-unsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and poly-unsaturated fatty acid intakes were respectively 34, 13, 13 and 5-6 En%. The carbohydrates and MUFA intakes are below the acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDR). Fat intake is relatively high, and SFA intake exceeds the upper-AMDR. Based on the estimated average requirement (EAR) cut-point method, 10-12% of older adults do not meet the EAR for protein. To interpret a possible energy imbalance additional information is needed on physical activity, energy expenditure and body weight changes. This systematic review indicates a suboptimal dietary macronutrient distribution and a large variation in nutrient intakes among community-dwelling older adults.
    Micronutrient intakes and potential inadequacies of community-dwelling older adults: a systematic review
    Borg, S. ter; Verlaan, S. ; Hemsworth, J. ; Mijnarends, D. ; Schols, J.M.G.A. ; Luiking, Y.C. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de - \ 2015
    The British journal of nutrition 113 (2015)8. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1195 - 1206.
    vitamin-d status - elderly-people - cognitive function - dietary assessment - nutritional-status - nutrient intake - food-consumption - intake adequacy - united-states - energy-intake
    Micronutrient deficiencies and low dietary intakes among community-dwelling older adults are associated with functional decline, frailty and difficulties with independent living. As such, studies that seek to understand the types and magnitude of potential dietary inadequacies might be beneficial for guiding future interventions. We carried out a systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Observational cohort and longitudinal studies presenting the habitual dietary intakes of older adults ( = 65 years) were included. Sex-specific mean (and standard deviation) habitual micronutrient intakes were extracted from each article to calculate the percentage of older people who were at risk for inadequate micronutrient intakes using the estimated average requirement (EAR) cut-point method. The percentage at risk for inadequate micronutrient intakes from habitual dietary intakes was calculated for twenty micronutrients. A total of thirty-seven articles were included in the pooled systematic analysis. Of the twenty nutrients analysed, six were considered a possible public health concern: vitamin D, thiamin, riboflavin, Ca, Mg and Se. The extent to which these apparent inadequacies are relevant depends on dynamic factors, including absorption and utilisation, vitamin and mineral supplement use, dietary assessment methods and the selection of the reference value. In light of these considerations, the present review provides insight into the type and magnitude of vitamin and mineral inadequacies.
    Ileal brake activation: macronutrient-specific effects on eating behavior?
    Avesaat, M. van; Troost, F.J. ; Ripken, D. ; Hendriks, H.F. ; Masclee, A.A.M. - \ 2015
    International Journal of Obesity 39 (2015). - ISSN 0307-0565 - p. 235 - 243.
    glucagon-like peptide-1 - food-intake - hormone-release - energy-intake - antropyloroduodenal motility - gastrointestinal hormones - intestinal motility - duodenal glucose - plasma-levels - healthy-men
    Background:Activation of the ileal brake, by infusing lipid directly into the distal part of the small intestine, alters gastrointestinal (GI) motility and inhibits food intake. The ileal brake effect on eating behavior of the other macronutrients is currently unknown.Objective:The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of ileal infusion of sucrose and casein on food intake, release of GI peptides, gastric emptying rate and small-bowel transit time with safflower oil as positive control.Design:This randomized, single-blind, crossover study was performed in 13 healthy subjects (6 male; mean age 26.4±2.9 years; mean body mass index 22.8±0.4¿kg¿m-2) who were intubated with a naso-ileal catheter. Thirty minutes after the intake of a standardized breakfast, participants received an ileal infusion, containing control ((C) saline), safflower oil ((HL) 51.7¿kcal), low-dose casein ((LP) 17.2¿kcal) or high-dose casein ((HP) 51.7¿kcal), low-dose sucrose ((LC) 17.2¿kcal) and high-dose sucrose ((HC) 51.7¿kcal), over a period of 90¿min. Food intake was determined during an ad libitum meal. Visual analogue score questionnaires for hunger and satiety and blood samples were collected at regular intervals.Results:Ileal infusion of lipid, protein and carbohydrate resulted in a significant reduction in food intake compared with control (HL: 464.3±90.7¿kcal, P
    How do I look? Focusing attention on the outside body reduces responsiveness to internal signals in food intake
    Veer, E. van de; Herpen, E. van; Trijp, J.C.M. van - \ 2015
    Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 56 (2015). - ISSN 0022-1031 - p. 207 - 213.
    womens self-objectification - thin media images - energy-intake - normal-weight - college-women - portion size - meal intake - awareness - compensation - appearance
    The current study investigates the relationship between focusing on body appearance and the ability to adjust food consumption according to feelings of satiety. Based on a resource perspective, we propose that focusing on outward appearance negatively affects people's ability to respond to satiety signals. Specifically, we argue that focusing on appearance takes up attentional resources required for sensing and relying on physiological satiety cues in food consumption. The findings of two experiments support this and show that focusing on appearance through a short mirror exposure (Experiment 1) or by looking at advertisements of models (Experiment 2) interferes with people's ability to compensate for previous consumption (Experiment 1) and leads them to rely less on satiety signals in their eating behavior (Experiment 2). These findings suggest that an emphasis on outer body appearance reduces people's reliance on satiety cues.
    PortionControl@HOME: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating the Effect of a Multi-Component Portion Size Intervention on Portion Control Behavior and Body Mass Index
    Poelman, M.P. ; Vet, E. de; Velema, E. ; Boer, M.R. de; Seidell, J.C. ; Steenhuis, I.H.M. - \ 2015
    Annals of behavioral medicine 49 (2015)1. - ISSN 0883-6612 - p. 18 - 28.
    energy-intake - food-intake - consumption volume - relapse prevention - obesity epidemic - college-students - young-adults - impact - maintenance - consumers
    Background Food portion sizes influence energy intake. Purpose The purpose of this paper is to determine effectiveness of the “PortionControl@HOME” intervention on body mass index and portion control behavior. Methods A randomized controlled trial among 278 overweight and obese participants was conducted. PortionControl@HOME aimed to increase: portion size awareness, portion control behavior, portion control cooking skills, and to create a home environment favoring portion control. Results Intention-to-treat multi-level regression analysis indicated statistically significant effects of the intervention on portion control behavior at 3, 6, and 12 months follow-up. The effect on body mass index was significant only at 3 months follow-up and when outliers (n¿=¿3) were excluded (B¿=¿-0.45; 95 %CI¿=¿-0.88 to -0.04). The intervention effect on body mass index was mediated by portion control behavior. Conclusions The intervention improves portion control behavior, which in turn influence body mass index. Once the intervention ceased, sustained effects on body mass index were no longer evident. (Current-Controlled-Trials ISRCTN12363482).
    Differential effects of proteins and carbohydrates on postprandial blood pressure-related responses
    Teunissen-Beekman, K.F.M. ; Dopheide, J. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Bakker, S.J.L. ; Brink, E.J. ; Leeuw, P.W. de; Serroyen, J. ; Baak, M.A. van - \ 2014
    The British journal of nutrition 112 (2014)4. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 600 - 608.
    randomized controlled-trials - plasma amino-acids - healthy-subjects - insulin responses - dietary-protein - overweight adults - energy-intake - whey-protein - glucose - fructose
    Diet composition may affect blood pressure (BP), but the mechanisms are unclear. The aim of the present study was to compare postprandial BP-related responses to the ingestion of pea protein, milk protein and egg-white protein. In addition, postprandial BP-related responses to the ingestion of maltodextrin were compared with those to the ingestion of sucrose and a protein mix. We hypothesised that lower postprandial total peripheral resistance (TPR) and BP levels would be accompanied by higher plasma concentrations of nitric oxide, insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucagon. On separate occasions, six meals were tested in a randomised order in forty-eight overweight or obese adults with untreated elevated BP. Postprandial responses of TPR, BP and plasma concentrations of insulin, glucagon, GLP-1 and nitrite, nitroso compounds (RXNO) and S-nitrosothiols (NOx) were measured for 4 h. No differences were observed in TPR responses. Postprandial BP levels were higher after the ingestion of the egg-white-protein meal than after that of meals containing the other two proteins (P
    Taste matters-effects of bypassing oral stimulation on hormone and appetite responses
    Spetter, M.S. ; Mars, M. ; Viergever, M.A. ; Graaf, C. de; Smeets, P.A.M. - \ 2014
    Physiology and Behavior 137 (2014). - ISSN 0031-9384 - p. 9 - 17.
    cephalic phase responses - placebo-controlled trial - sensory-specific satiety - plasma ghrelin levels - food-intake - eating behavior - short-term - circulating ghrelin - energy-intake - c-peptide
    The interaction between oral and gastric signals is an important part of food intake regulation. Previous studies suggest that bypassing oral stimulation diminishes the suppression of hunger and increases gastric emptying rate. However, the role of appetite hormones, like cholecystokinin-8 and ghrelin, in this process is still unclear. Our objective was to determine the contributions of gastric and oral stimulation to subsequent appetite and hormone responses and their effect on ad libitum intake. Fourteen healthy male subjects (age 24.6 ± 3.8y, BMI 22.3 ± 1.6 kg/m2) completed a randomized, single-blinded, cross-over experiment with 3 treatment-sessions: 1) Stomach distention: naso-gastric infusion of 500 mL/0 kJ water, 2) Stomach distention with caloric content: naso-gastric infusion of 500 mL/1770 kJ chocolate milk, and 3) Stomach distention with caloric content and oral exposure: oral administration of 500 mL/1770 kJ chocolate milk. Changes in appetite ratings and plasma glucose, insulin, cholecystokinin-8, and active and total ghrelin concentrations were measured at fixed time-points up to 30 min after infusion or oral administration. Subsequently, subjects consumed an ad libitum buffet meal. Oral administration reduced appetite ratings more than both naso-gastric infusions (P <0.0001). Gastric infusion of a caloric load increased insulin and cholecystokinin-8 and decreased total ghrelin concentrations more than ingestion (all P <0.0001). No differences in active ghrelin response were observed between conditions. Ad libitum intake did not differ between oral and gastric administration of chocolate milk (P > 0.05). Thus, gastric infusion of nutrients induces greater appetite hormone responses than ingestion does. These data provide novel and additional evidence that bypassing oral stimulation not only affects the appetite profile but also increases anorexigenic hormone responses, probably driven in part by faster gastric emptying. This confirms the idea that learned associations between sensory characteristics and associated metabolic consequences serve to adapt hormone responses to nutrient content. These findings underscore the importance of oral stimulation in the regulation of food intake.
    Human protein status modulates brain reward responses to food cues1–3
    Griffioen-Roose, S. ; Smeets, P.A.M. ; Heuvel, E.M. van den; Boesveldt, S. ; Finlayson, G. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2014
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 100 (2014)1. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 113 - 122.
    leverage hypothesis - energy-intake - taste - breakfast - appetite - satiety - carbohydrate - mechanisms - receptors - choice
    Background: Protein is indispensable in the human diet, and its intake appears tightly regulated. The role of sensory attributes of foods in protein intake regulation is far from clear. Objective: We investigated the effect of human protein status on neural responses to different food cues with the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The food cues varied by taste category (sweet compared with savory) and protein content (low compared with high). In addition, food preferences and intakes were measured. Design: We used a randomized crossover design whereby 23 healthy women [mean SD age: 22 +/- 2 y; mean +/- SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 22.5 +/- 1.8] followed two 16-d fully controlled dietary interventions involving consumption of either a low-protein diet (0.6 g protein center dot kg body weight(-1) center dot d(-1), similar to 7% of energy derived from protein, approximately half the normal protein intake) or a high-protein diet (2.2 g protein center dot kg body weight(-1) center dot d(-1), similar to 25% of energy, approximately twice the normal intake). On the last day of the interventions, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses to odor and visual food cues were measured by using fMRI. The 2 interventions were followed by a 1 -d ad libitum phase, during which a large array of food items was available and preference and intake were measured. Results: When exposed to food cues (relative to the control condition), the BOLD response was higher in reward-related areas (orbitofrontal cortex, striatum) in a low-protein state than in a high-protein state. Specifically, BOLD was higher in the inferior orbitofrontal cortex in response to savory food cues. In contrast, the protein content of the food cues did not modulate the BOLD response. A low protein state also increased preferences for savory food cues and increased protein intake in the ad libitum phase as compared with a high-protein state. Conclusions: Protein status modulates brain responses in reward regions to savory food cues. These novel findings suggest that dietary protein status affects taste category preferences, which could play an important role in the regulation of protein intake in humans. This trial was registered at as NTR3288.
    The unit size effect of indulgent food: How eating smaller sized items signals impulsivity and makes consumers eat less
    Kleef, E. van; Kavvouris, C. ; Trijp, J.C.M. van - \ 2014
    Psychology and Health 29 (2014)9. - ISSN 0887-0446 - p. 1081 - 1103.
    portion size - energy-intake - self-control - item sizes - consumption - children - decrease - obesity - cues - behavior
    In deciding how much to eat, people are influenced by environmental cues. The unit size of food (i.e. the number of units in which a given amount of food is divided) provides such a cue. Previous research showed that given equal caloric and volumetric content, smaller units of food tend to reduce food consumption. We propose that the unit size of food impacts intake as it influences perceptions of impulsiveness and appropriateness. Our analysis is based on three experimental studies, all employing between subject designs. When consuming similar amounts of chocolates in studies 1 (n¿=¿118) and 2 (n¿=¿124), both studies show that consumption of five small units of chocolates is considered to be more impulsive, excessive and less appropriate than consuming one large unit of chocolate. Results of a third study (n¿=¿165) indicate that about 23% less chocolate is eaten when it is presented in small unit size vs. a large unit size and this effect is mediated by perceptions of impulsivity. All three studies suggest that perceptions of impulsivity and excess eating while eating several smaller units of food compared to one large unit might be a key factor explaining consumption effects in earlier studies on this bias.
    Both a higher number of sips and a longer oral transit time reduce ad libitum intake
    Bolhuis, D.P. ; Lakemond, C.M.M. ; Wijk, R.A. de; Luning, P.A. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2014
    Food Quality and Preference 32 (2014)Part C. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 234 - 240.
    food-intake - energy-intake - young-adults - eating rate - bite size - body-weight - appetite - consumption - satiety - meal
    Background - A higher eating rate leads to a higher food intake, possibly through shorter orosensory exposure to food. The transit time in the oral cavity and the number of bites or sips per gram (inversely related to bite or sip size) are main contributors that affect eating rate. The separate role of these two aspects on satiation and on orosensory exposure needs further clarification. Objective - The objective of the first study was to investigate contributions of the number of sips per gram (sips/g) and oral transit time per gram (s/g) on ad libitum intake. The objective of the second study was to investigate both aspects on the total magnitude of orosensory exposure per gram food. Methods - In study 1, 56 healthy male subjects consumed soup where the number of sips and oral transit time differed by a factor three respectively: 6.7 vs. 20 sips/100 g, and 20 vs. 60 s/100 g (2 × 2 cross-over design). Eating rate of 60 g/min was kept constant. In study 2, the effects of number of sips and oral transit time (equal as in study 1) on the total magnitude of orosensory exposure per gram soup were measured by time intensity functions by 22 different healthy subjects. Results - Higher number of sips and longer oral transit time reduced ad libitum intake by respectively ~22% (F(1, 157) = 55.9, P <0.001) and ~8% (F(1, 157) = 7.4, P = 0.007). Higher number of sips led to faster increase in fullness per gram food (F(1, 157) = 24.1, P <0.001) (study 1). Higher number of sips and longer oral transit time both increased the orosensory exposure per gram food (F(1, 63) = 23.8, P <0.001) and (F(1, 63) = 19.0, P <0.001), respectively (study 2). Conclusion - Higher number of sips and longer oral transit time reduced food intake, possibly through the increased the orosensory exposure per gram food. Designing foods that will be consumed with small sips or bites and long oral transit time may be effective in reducing energy intake.
    Behavioural strategies to control the amount of food selected and consumed
    Poelman, M.P. ; Vet, E.W.M.L. de; Velema, E. ; Seidell, J.C. ; Steenhuis, I.H.M. - \ 2014
    Appetite 72 (2014). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 156 - 165.
    weight-control behaviors - portion size - energy-intake - obesity epidemic - healthy women - young-adults - older-adults - meal intake - consumption - television
    Several factors within the food environment may stimulate overconsumption. The present study aimed to (1) identify behavioural strategies to cope with this environment to control the amount of food consumed, (2) examine the feasibility and usefulness of the strategies, and (3) evaluate the association between the strategies and body mass index (BMI). After the literature was screened for evidence of factors that contribute to the consumption of large amounts of food, 32 behavioural strategies were identified to overcome these influences (study 1). Subjectively reported feasibility and usefulness of the 32 behavioural strategies in weight management were explored using a pretest post-test study (study 2: n = 52). Additionally, two cross-sectional questionnaire studies (study 3a: n = 120 and study 3b: n = 278) were conducted to evaluate the association between the 32 behavioural strategies and BMI. The strategies were subjectively reported as feasible and useful in weight management. Frequent use of strategies discriminated non-overweight from overweight individuals, but did not discriminate overweight from obese individuals. In conclusion, the findings provided preliminary evidence for the acceptability and validity of the strategies. The effectiveness of the strategies for controlling the amount consumed should be further investigated, especially in overweight and obese participants.
    Texture and savoury taste influences on food intake in a realistic hot lunch time meal
    Forde, C.G. ; Kuijk, N.L. van; Thaler, T. ; Graaf, C. de; Martin, N. - \ 2013
    Appetite 60 (2013). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 180 - 186.
    bite size - energy-intake - portion size - questionnaire - satiation - weight - young - consumption - intensity - healthy
    Background: Previous studies with model foods have shown that softer textures lead to higher eating rates and higher ad libitum food intake and higher intensity of salt taste has been shown to result in a lower ad libitum food intake. These observations have yet to be replicated in the context of realistic solid hot meal components. Aim: The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of texture and taste on the ad libitum intake of a realistic hot lunchtime meal. Methods: The meals consisted of potatoes, carrots, steak and gravy varied according to a 2 (texture: mashed vs. whole) x 2 (taste: standard taste vs. strong taste) design. The texture dimension referred to mashed potatoes, mashed carrots and pieces of steak vs. whole boiled potatoes, whole boiled carrots and whole steak. The taste was varied by manipulating the taste intensity of the gravy to be either standard or high intensity savoury taste. The current study used a between groups, single course ad libitum design whereby subjects were recruited for a one off meal study, during which their food intake was measured. The four groups consisted of about 40 subjects (mashed, standard, n = 37; mashed, savoury n = 39; whole, standard n = 40; and whole, savoury n = 41) matched for age (average age = 44.8 +/- 5.3), gender (on average 19 males and 20 females), normal BMI (average 22.6 +/- 1.7) and dietary restraint score (DEBQ score = 1.74 +/- 0.6). Results: The results showed that the estimated means of the intake of the two mashed conditions was 563.2 +/- 20.3 g and intake of whole meal was 527.5 +/- 20.0 g (p = 0.23). The texture effect was significant in the higher savoury condition with an average of 91 g less food consumed in the solid-savoury meal than in the mashed savoury meal. This effect was not replicated in the standard gravy condition, with no significant difference between solid and mashed textures. This was reflected in an interaction effect that was approaching significance (p = 0.051). The estimated mean eating rate in the two mashed conditions was 57.0 +/- 2.5 g and was significantly higher than the whole meal condition (47.2 +/- 2.5 g (p <0.05), with no difference in eating rate between the standard and savoury gravy conditions. Discussion: Although interpretation was made difficult by the between groups design and the interaction between taste * texture, the results nonetheless confirm the effect of texture on eating rate and ad libitum intake for solid savoury meal components. The impact of taste on ad libitum intake of a solid meal remains unclear. We conclude that people consumed more of the meal when the food was simultaneously mashed and savoury. Food texture may be used to produce slower eating rates that result in a reduced overall energy intake within a realistic hot lunchtime meal. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Evaluation of food and nutrient intake assessment using concentration biomarkers in European adolescents from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study
    Vandevijvere, S. ; Geelen, A. ; Gonzalez-Gross, M. ; Veer, P. van 't; Dallongeville, J. ; Mouratidu, T. ; Dekkers, A. ; Börnhorst, C. ; Breidenassel, C. - \ 2013
    The British journal of nutrition 109 (2013)4. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 736 - 747.
    serum cholesteryl esters - n-3 fatty-acids - dietary-intake - energy-intake - additional measurements - micronutrient intake - biochemical markers - adipose-tissue - vitamin-c - validation
    Accurate food and nutrient intake assessment is essential for investigating diet–disease relationships. In the present study, food and nutrient intake assessment among European adolescents using 24 h recalls (mean of two recalls) and a FFQ (separately and the combination of both) were evaluated using concentration biomarkers. Biomarkers included were vitamin C, ß-carotene, DHA+EPA, vitamin B12 (cobalamin and holo-transcobalamin) and folate (erythrocyte folate and plasma folate). For the evaluation of the food intake assessment 390 adolescents were included, while 697 were included for the nutrient intake assessment evaluation. Spearman rank and Pearson correlations, and validity coefficients, which are correlations between intake estimated and habitual true intake, were calculated. Correlations were higher between frequency of food consumption (from the FFQ) and concentration biomarkers than between mean food intake (from the recalls) and concentration biomarkers, especially for DHA+EPA (r 0·35 v. r 0·27). Most correlations were higher among girls than boys. For boys, the highest validity coefficients were found for frequency of fruit consumption (0·88) and for DHA+EPA biomarker (0·71). In girls, the highest validity coefficients were found for fruit consumption frequency (0·76), vegetable consumption frequency (0·74), mean fruit intake (0·90) and DHA+EPA biomarker (0·69). After exclusion of underreporters, correlations slightly improved. Correlations between usual food intakes, adjusted for food consumption frequency, and concentration biomarkers were higher than correlations between mean food intakes and concentration biomarkers. In conclusion, two non-consecutive 24 h recalls in combination with a FFQ seem to be appropriate to rank subjects according to their usual food intake
    The Development and Evaluation of an Internet-Based Intervention to Increase Awareness about Food Portion Sizes: A Randomized Controlled Trial
    Poelman, M.P. ; Steenhuis, I.H.M. ; Vet, E.W.M.L. de; Seidell, J.C. - \ 2013
    Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 45 (2013)6. - ISSN 1499-4046 - p. 701 - 707.
    energy-intake - young-adults - meal intake - accuracy - program - women
    Objective To develop a Web-based tool (PortionSize@warenessTool) and to evaluate its effectiveness in increasing awareness of reference serving sizes and factors that may contribute to overeating in response to large portion sizes. Methods A randomized, controlled trial (intervention, n = 167; control, n = 143) was conducted. The authors measured awareness of reference serving size and overeating triggers from larger portions by an online questionnaire, assessed at baseline and 1 week later. Exposure dose reflected online activity (eg, number of Web pages viewed). Process evaluation data were collected within the intervention group. Results The intervention group demonstrated significantly higher awareness of reference serving sizes (¿2 = .062; P <.001) and overeating triggers from larger portions (¿2 = .061; P <.001) at posttest. Also, the authors observed a dose-dependent effect that led to improved awareness. Conclusions and Implications The PortionSize@warenessTool constitutes a promising tool to improve portion size awareness. Results The intervention group demonstrated significantly higher awareness of reference serving sizes (¿2 = .062; P <.001) and overeating triggers from larger portions (¿2 = .061; P <.001) at posttest. Also, the authors observed a dose-dependent effect that led to improved awareness. Conclusions and Implications The PortionSize@warenessTool constitutes a promising tool to improve portion size awareness.
    Relative validity of the food frequency questionnaire used to assess dietary intake in the Leiden Longevity Study
    Streppel, M.T. ; Vries, J.H.M. de; Meyboom, S. ; Beekman, M. ; Craen, A.J.M. ; Slagboom, P.E. ; Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2013
    Nutrition Journal 12 (2013). - ISSN 1475-2891 - 8 p.
    basal metabolic-rate - energy-intake - goldberg cutoff - limitations - validation - markers - design
    Background - Invalid information on dietary intake may lead to false diet-disease associations. This study was conducted to examine the relative validity of the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used to assess dietary intake in the Leiden Longevity Study. Methods - A total of 128 men and women participating in the Leiden Longevity Study were included in the present validation study. The performance of the FFQ was evaluated using the mean of three 24-hour recalls as the reference method. Evaluation in estimating dietary intake at the group level was done by paired t-tests. The relative validity of the individual energy adjusted level of intake was assessed with correlation analyses (Pearson’s), with correction for measurement error. Results - On group level, the FFQ overestimated as well as underestimated absolute intake of various nutrients and foods. The Bland and Altman plot for total energy intake showed that the agreement between the FFQ and the 24-hour recalls was dependent of intake level. Pearson correlation coefficients ranged from 0.21 (alpha linolenic acid) to 0.78 (ethanol) for nutrients and from -0.02 (legumes, non-significant) to 0.78 (alcoholic beverages) for foods. Adjustment for energy intake slightly lowered the correlation coefficients for nutrients (mean coefficient: 0.48 versus 0.50), while adjustment for within-subject variation in the 24-h recalls resulted in higher correlation coefficients for both nutrients and foods (mean coefficient: 0.69 for nutrients and 0.65 for foods). Conclusions - For most nutrients and foods, the ability of the FFQ to rank subjects was acceptable to good.
    Potential benefits of satiety to the consumer: scientific considerations
    Hetherington, M.M. ; Cunningham, K. ; Dye, L. ; Gibson, E.L. ; Gregersen, N.T. ; Halford, J.C.G. ; Lawton, C.L. ; Lluch, A. ; Mela, D.J. ; Trijp, J.C.M. van - \ 2013
    Nutrition Research Reviews 26 (2013). - ISSN 0954-4224 - p. 22 - 38.
    low-calorie diet - high-protein-diet - body-weight loss - disentangling food reward - sensory-specific satiety - glucagon-like peptide-1 - cognitive performance - energy-intake - appetite sensations - eating behavior
    Foods and dietary patterns that enhance satiety may provide benefit to consumers. The aim of the present review was to describe, consider and evaluate research on potential benefits of enhanced satiety. The proposal that enhanced satiety could only benefit consumers by a direct effect on food intake should be rejected. Instead, it is proposed that there is a variety of routes through which enhanced satiety could (indirectly) benefit dietary control or weight-management goals. The review highlights specific potential benefits of satiety, including: providing appetite control strategies for consumers generally and for those who are highly responsive to food cues; offering pleasure and satisfaction associated with low-energy/healthier versions of foods without feeling ‘deprived’; reducing dysphoric mood associated with hunger especially during energy restriction; and improved compliance with healthy eating or weight-management efforts. There is convincing evidence of short-term satiety benefits, but only probable evidence for longer-term benefits to hunger management, possible evidence of benefits to mood and cognition, inadequate evidence that satiety enhancement can promote weight loss, and no evidence on which consumers would benefit most from satiety enhancement. The appetite-reducing effects of specific foods or diets will be much more subtle than those of pharmaceutical compounds in managing hunger; nevertheless, the experience of pharmacology in producing weight loss via effects on appetite suggests that there is potential benefit of satiety enhancement from foods incorporated into the diet to the consumer.
    Consumption with Large Sip Sizes Increases Food Intake and Leads to Underestimation of the Amount Consumed
    Bolhuis, D.P. ; Lakemond, C.M.M. ; Wijk, R.A. de; Luning, P.A. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2013
    PLoS ONE 8 (2013)1. - ISSN 1932-6203
    increased meal intake - energy-intake - portion size - bite size - cognitive-factors - healthy women - satiety - fat - satiation - appetite
    Background A number of studies have shown that bite and sip sizes influence the amount of food intake. Consuming with small sips instead of large sips means relatively more sips for the same amount of food to be consumed; people may believe that intake is higher which leads to faster satiation. This effect may be disturbed when people are distracted. Objective The objective of the study is to assess the effects of sip size in a focused state and a distracted state on ad libitum intake and on the estimated amount consumed. Design In this 3×2 cross-over design, 53 healthy subjects consumed ad libitum soup with small sips (5 g, 60 g/min), large sips (15 g, 60 g/min), and free sips (where sip size was determined by subjects themselves), in both a distracted and focused state. Sips were administered via a pump. There were no visual cues toward consumption. Subjects then estimated how much they had consumed by filling soup in soup bowls. Results Intake in the small-sip condition was ~30% lower than in both the large-sip and free-sip conditions (P
    Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and digestible carbohydrate intake are not associated with risk op type 2 diabetes in eight European countries
    Sluijs, I. van der; Beulens, J.W.J. ; Schouw, Y.T. van der; Buckland, G. ; Kuijsten, A. ; Schulze, M.B. ; Amiano, P. ; Ardanaz, E. ; Balkau, B. ; Boeing, H. ; Gavrila, D. ; Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2013
    The Journal of Nutrition 143 (2013)1. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 93 - 99.
    fiber intake - energy-intake - life-style - nutrition - cancer - women - mellitus - cohort - prevention - disease
    The association of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) with the risk of type 2 diabetes remains unclear. We investigated associations of dietary GI, GL, and digestible carbohydrate with incident type 2 diabetes. We performed a case-cohort study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study, including a random subcohort (n = 16,835) and incident type 2 diabetes cases (n = 12,403). The median follow-up time was 12 y. Baseline dietary intakes were assessed using country-specific dietary questionnaires. Country-specific HR were calculated and pooled using random effects meta-analysis. Dietary GI, GL, and digestible carbohydrate in the subcohort were (mean +/- SD) 56 +/- 4, 127 +/- 23, and 226 +/- 36 g/d, respectively. After adjustment for confounders, GI and GL were not associated with incident diabetes [HR highest vs. lowest quartile (HRQ4) for GI: 1.05 (95% CI = 0.96, 1.16); HRQ4 for GL: 1.07 (95% CI = 0.95, 1.20)]. Digestible carbohydrate intake was not associated with incident diabetes [HRQ4: 0.98(95% CI = 0.86, 1.10)]. In additional analyses, we found that discrepancies in the GI value assignment to foods possibly explain differences in GI associations with diabetes within the same study population. In conclusion, an expansion of the GI tables and systematic GI value assignment to foods may be needed to improve the validity of GI values derived in such studies, after which GI associations may need reevaluation. Our study shows that digestible carbohydrate intake is not associated with diabetes risk and suggests that diabetes risk with high-GI and -GL diets may be more modest than initial studies suggested. J. Nutr. 143: 93-99, 2013.
    Do European people with Type 1 diabetes consume a high atherogenic diet? 7-year follow-up of the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study
    Soedamah-Muthu, S.S. ; Chaturveldi, N. ; Fuller, J. ; Toeller, M. - \ 2013
    European Journal of Nutrition 52 (2013)7. - ISSN 1436-6207 - p. 1701 - 1710.
    density lipoprotein cholesterol - cardiovascular-disease - iddm complications - body-weight - nutritional intake - metabolic-control - heart-disease - energy-intake - risk-factors - lipid-levels
    Background/objectives - Individuals with type 1 diabetes have a high risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, and it has been reported that they consume a high atherogenic diet. We examined how nutrient intake and adherence to current European nutritional recommendations evolved in a large cohort of European individuals with type 1 diabetes over a period of 7 years. Subjects/methods - We analysed data from the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study, a European multicentre prospective cohort study. Standardized 3-day dietary records were employed in individuals with type 1 diabetes. One thousand one hundred and two patients (553 men, 549 women, baseline age 33 ± 10 years, duration 15 ± 9 years) had complete nutritional data available at baseline and after 7 years. We calculated mean differences in reported nutrients over time and adjusted these for age, gender, HbA1c and BMI with ANOVA models. Results - Compared to baseline, there were minor changes in nutrients. Reported protein (-0.35 % energy (en), fat (-1.07 % en), saturated fat (-0.25 % en) and cholesterol (-7.42 mg/1000 kcal) intakes were lower, whereas carbohydrate (+1.23 % en) and fibre (+0.46 g/1000 kcal) intakes were higher at the 7-year follow-up. European recommendations for adequate nutrient intakes were followed in individuals with type 1 diabetes for protein (76 % at baseline and 78 % at follow-up), moderately for fat (34, 40 %), carbohydrate (34, 41 %) and cholesterol (39, 47 %), but poorly for fibre (1.4, 2.4 %) and saturated fat (11, 13 %). Conclusion - European individuals with type 1 diabetes consume a high atherogenic diet as few patients met recommendations for dietary fibre and saturated fat. This study showed minor changes in dietary nutrients and energy intakes over a period of 7 years. Nutrition education needs particular focus on strategies to increase dietary fibre and reduce saturated fat to exploit their potential benefit.
    Oral processing characteristics of solid meal components and relationship with foord composition, sensory attributes and expected satiation.
    Forde, R.M. ; Kuijk, N. van; Thaler, T. ; Graaf, C. de; Martin, N.A. - \ 2013
    Appetite 60 (2013). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 208 - 219.
    sugar-sweetened beverages - energy-intake - bite size - portion size - eating rate - dietary fiber - body-weight - satiety - women - humans
    Background: The modern food supply is often dominated by a large variety of energy dense, softly textured foods that can be eaten quickly. Previous studies suggest that particular oral processing characteristics such as large bite size and lack of chewing activity contribute to the low satiating efficiency of these foods. To better design meals that promote greater feelings of satiation, we need an accurate picture of the oral processing characteristics of a range of solid food items that could be used to replace softer textures during a normal hot meal. Aim: The primary aim of this study was to establish an accurate picture of the oral processing characteristics of a set of solid savoury meal components. The secondary aim was to determine the associations between oral processing characteristics, food composition, sensory properties, and expected satiation. Methods: In a within subjects design, 15 subjects consumed 50 g of 35 different savoury food items over 5 sessions. The 35 foods represented various staples, vegetables and protein rich foods such a meat and fish. Subjects were video-recorded during consumption and measures included observed number of bites, number of chews, number of swallows and derived measures such as chewing rate, eating rate, bite size, and oral exposure time. Subjects rated expected satiation for a standard 200 g portion of each food using a 100 mm and the sensory differences between foods were quantified using descriptive analysis with a trained sensory panel. Statistical analysis focussed on the oral processing characteristics and associations between nutritional, sensory and expected satiation parameters of each food. Results: Average number of chews for 50 g of food varied from 27 for mashed potatoes to 488 for tortilla chips. Oral exposure time was highly correlated with the total number of chews, and varied from 27 s for canned tomatoes to 350 s for tortilla chips. Chewing rate was relatively constant with an overall average chewing rate of approximately 1 chew/s. Differences in oral processing were not correlated with any macronutrients specifically. Expected satiation was positively related to protein and the sensory attributes chewiness and saltiness. Foods that consumed in smaller bites, were chewed more and for longer and expected to impart a higher satiation. Discussion: This study shows a large and reliable variation in oral exposure time, number of required chews before swallowing and expected satiation across a wide variety of foods. We conclude that bite size and oral-sensory exposure time could contribute to higher satiation within a meal for equal calories.
    Just a bite: Considerably smaller snack portions satisfy delayed hunger and craving
    Kleef, E. van; Shimizu, M. ; Wansink, B. - \ 2013
    Food Quality and Preference 27 (2013)1. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 96 - 100.
    food cravings - energy-intake - size - appetite
    Could smaller snack portions be similarly effective in decreasing cravings or feelings of hunger as larger portions? To answer this, three common snack foods – chocolate, apple pie, potato chips – were given to 104 participants as either a small portion (x) or a substantially larger portion (5–10x). Results indicate that smaller portions satisfied one’s ratings of hunger and craving similar to larger portions, but led to a mean intake that was significantly lower than in the large portion condition (with a difference of 103 calories). This suggests that 15 min after eating a considerably smaller snack, people will have eaten much less but will feel equally satisfied.
    Texture and satiation: The role of oro-sensory exposure time
    Graaf, C. de - \ 2012
    Physiology and Behavior 107 (2012)4. - ISSN 0031-9384 - p. 496 - 501.
    sugar-sweetened beverages - libitum food-intake - high dietary-fat - cephalic phase - energy-intake - body-weight - oral fat - young-children - satiety - appetite
    One of the characteristics of the current obesogenic food supply is the large availability of foods that can be ingested quickly. Controlled nutrition intervention studies have shown that the ingestion of simple energy containing beverages, which are consumed very quickly, do not lead to a lower compensatory intake of other foods. One of the theories behind this observation is that calories that are ingested quickly are not well sensed by the sense of taste, and do not lead to an adequate satiety response. This idea is confirmed by the results of a series of studies, where we have shown that the low satiation/satiety response of beverages can be largely attributed to their short oral residence time. Prolonging the oro-sensory exposure time to foods leads to earlier meal termination and/or a higher satiety response. The low satiation/satiety response to simple energy containing beverages is congruent with the observation from studies on the cephalic phase response to foods, i.e. the physiological response to sensory signals. Energy containing beverages do not lead to an adequate cephalic phase response. Various recent studies showed that slower eating leads to higher levels of satiety hormones. These results are in line with the idea that the sense of taste is a nutrient sensor which informs the brain and the gut about the inflow of nutrients. The sense of taste has an important contribution to the satiating effect of foods. One of the challenges in future research is to see whether or not these proofs of principles can be applied in longer term studies with regular commercial foods. This may make our obesogenic food supply more satiating, and may lead to a lower energy intake. (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Repeated consumption of a large volume of liquid and semi-solid foods increases ad libitum intake, but does not change expected satiety
    Hogenkamp, P.S. ; Mars, M. ; Stafleu, A. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2012
    Appetite 59 (2012)2. - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 419 - 424.
    energy-intake - meal-size - satiation - viscosity - humans - flavor - appetite - women
    Food intake and a food’s expected satiating effect initially rely on sensory attributes. People will learn about the food’s satiating capacity by exposure. We investigated whether repeated consumption changed the expected satiety effects and intake of iso-energetic liquid and semi-solid foods. In a randomised cross-over study, participants (n = 53; age: 21 ± 2.9 y; BMI: 21.8 ± 2.0 kg/m2) consumed one of two iso-energetic dairy foods (liquid or semi-solid) for breakfast in each 5-day test condition. Expectations regarding satiety were measured on days 1, 2, and 5. Foods were offered ad libitum on days 1 and 5 and in a fixed volume on days 2–4. Appetite sensations were rated up to 180 min after the start of the session on fixed time points. Expected satiety effects of the semi-solid food were higher than of the liquid food on all days (p <0.0001). Ad libitum intake of the liquid food was higher than of the semi-solid food on day 1 (liquid: 391 ± 177 g, semi-solid: 277 ± 98 g; p <0.0001) and day 5 (liquid: 477 ± 161 g, semi-solid: 375 ± 148 g; p <0.0001). On day 2, hunger was rated lower and fullness rated higher after the semi-solid compared with the liquid food; on day 4, no differences were observed (significant product* exposure interaction AUC). Changes in hunger and fullness indicated that the fixed volumes of liquid and solid food were perceived to be equally satiating after repeated consumption, but this did not result in the anticipated changes: expected satiety effects remained lower, and ad libitum intake higher for the liquid compared with the semi-solid food. The effect of texture on a food’s expected satiety effects and its ad libitum intake appears to be large, also after repeated consumption. Expectations based on sensory cues are not easily changed.
    Susceptibility to Overeating Affects the Impact of Savory of Sweet Drinks on Satiation, Reward, and Food Intake in Nonobese Women
    Finlayson, G. ; Bordes, I. ; Griffioen-Roose, S. ; Graaf, C. de; Blundell, J.E. - \ 2012
    The Journal of Nutrition 142 (2012). - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 125 - 130.
    3-factor eating questionnaire - sensory specific satiety - monosodium glutamate - energy-intake - reinforcing value - appetite control - explicit liking - human obesity - weight-gain - body-weight
    Taste is involved in food preference and choice, and it is thought that it can modulate appetite and food intake. The present study investigated the effect of savory or sweet taste on satiation, reward, and food intake and according to individual differences in eating behavior traits underlying susceptibility to overeating. In a crossover design, 30 women (BMI = 22.7 ± 2.3; age = 21.9 ± 2.6 y) consumed a fixed energy preload (360 kJ/g) with a savory, sweet, or bland taste before selecting and consuming items from a test meal ad libitum. Sensations of hunger were used to calculate the satiating efficiency of the preloads. A computerized task was used to examine effects on food reward (explicit liking and implicit wanting). The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire was used to compare individual differences in eating behavior traits. Satiation and total food intake did not differ according to preload taste, but there was an effect on explicit liking and food selection. The savory preload reduced liking and intake of high-fat savory foods compared to sweet or bland preloads. The eating behavior trait disinhibition interacted with preload taste to determine test meal intake. Higher scores were associated with increased food intake after the sweet preload compared to the savory preload. Independent of preload taste, disinhibition was associated with lower satiating efficiency of the preloads and enhanced implicit wanting for high-fat sweet food. Savory taste has a stronger modulating effect on food preference than sweet or bland taste and may help to preserve normal appetite regulation in people who are susceptible to overeating.
    The amount and type of dairy product intake and incident type 2 diabetes: results from the EPIC-InterAct Study
    Sluijs, I. van der; Forouhi, N.G. ; Beulens, J.W. ; Schouw, Y.T. van der; Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2012
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 96 (2012)2. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 382 - 390.
    metabolic risk-factors - insulin-resistance syndrome - dietary assessment methods - milk-fat - myocardial-infarction - energy-intake - vitamin-d - consumption - cohort - nutrition
    Background: Dairy product intake may be inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes, but the evidence is inconclusive for total dairy products and sparse for types of dairy products. Objective: The objective was to investigate the prospective association of total dairy products and different dairy subtypes with incidence of diabetes in populations with marked variation of intake of these food groups. Design: A nested case-cohort within 8 European countries of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study (n = 340,234; 3.99 million person-years of follow-up) included a random subcohort (n = 16,835) and incident diabetes cases (n = 12,403). Baseline dairy product intake was assessed by using dietary questionnaires. Country-specific Prentice-weighted Cox regression HRs were calculated and pooled by using a random-effects meta-analysis. Results: Intake of total dairy products was not associated with diabetes (HR for the comparison of the highest with the lowest quintile of total dairy products: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.83, 1.34; P-trend = 0.92) in an analysis adjusted for age, sex, BMI, diabetes risk factors, education, and dietary factors. Of the dairy subtypes, cheese intake tended to have an inverse association with diabetes (HR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.02; P-trend = 0.01), and a higher combined intake of fermented dairy products (cheese, yogurt, and thick fermented milk) was inversely associated with diabetes (HR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.78, 0.99; P-trend = 0.02) in adjusted analyses that compared extreme quintiles. Conclusions: This large prospective study found no association between total dairy product intake and diabetes risk. An inverse association of cheese intake and combined fermented dairy product intake with diabetes is suggested, which merits further study
    Link between lipid metabolism and voluntary food intake in rainbow trout fed coconut oil rich in medium-chain TAG
    Figueiredo-Silva, A.C. ; Kaushik, S. ; Terrier, F. ; Schrama, J.W. ; Médale, F. ; Geurden, I. - \ 2012
    The British journal of nutrition 107 (2012)11. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1714 - 1725.
    fatty-acid-composition - drum sciaenops-ocellatus - salmon salmo-salar - polka-dot grouper - oncorhynchus-mykiss - feed-intake - plasma cholecystokinin - cromileptes-altivelis - tissue distribution - energy-intake
    We examined the long-term effect of feeding coconut oil (CO; rich in lauric acid, C12) on voluntary food intake and nutrient utilisation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), with particular attention to the metabolic use (storage or oxidation) of ingested medium-chain TAG. Trout were fed for 15 weeks one of the four isoproteic diets containing fish oil (FO) or CO as fat source (FS), incorporated at 5 % (low fat, LF) or 15 % (high fat, HF). Fat level or FS did not modify food intake (g/kg0·8 per d), despite higher intestinal cholecystokinin-T mRNA in trout fed the HF-FO diet. The HF diets relative to the LF ones induced higher growth and adiposity, whereas the replacements of FO by CO resulted in similar growth and adiposity. This, together with the substantial retention of C12 (57 % of intake), suggests the relatively low oxidation of ingested C12. The down-regulation of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase-1 (CPT-1) confirms the minor dependency of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) on CPT-1 to enter the mitochondria. However, MCFA did not up-regulate mitochondrial oxidation evaluated using hepatic hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase as a marker, in line with their high retention in body lipids. At a low lipid level, MCFA increased mRNA levels of fatty acid synthase, elongase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase in liver, showing the hepatic activation of fatty acid synthesis pathways by MCFA, reflected by increased 16 : 0, 18 : 0, 16 : 1, 18 : 1 body levels. The high capacity of trout to incorporate and transform C12, rather than to readily oxidise C12, contrasts with data in mammals and may explain the absence of a satiating effect of CO in rainbow trout.
    Use of satiety peptides in assessing the satiating capacity of foods
    Mars, M. ; Stafleu, A. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2012
    Physiology and Behavior 105 (2012)2. - ISSN 0031-9384 - p. 483 - 488.
    glucagon-like peptide-1 - energy-intake - promotes satiety - obese subjects - healthy-men - appetite - humans - cholecystokinin - glp-1 - pyy3-36
    Foods differ in their satiating capacity. Satiety peptides may help to provide evidence for biological mechanisms behind these differences. The aim of this paper was to discuss the physiological relevance of three individual appetite peptides, i.e. CCK, GLP-1 and PYY, in assessing the satiating capacity of foods. A literature research was conducted on CCK, GLP-1, PYY and satiety; effective exogenous infusion studies and endogenous production studies, i.e. changes induced by foods, were identified. The relative changes in blood concentrations in these studies were compared in order to assess an indication of the physiological relevance of the peptides. Relative changes in the two types of studies investigating CCK overlapped, i.e. increases in serum were 3 to 14-fold in effective exogenous studies (n = 7) and 2 to 8-fold in endogenous production studies (n = 9). The relative changes in GLP-1 and PYY did not overlap; GLP-1: 4 to 16 fold in effective exogenous studies (n = 4) and no effect to 4 fold in endogenous production studies (n = 38). PYY: 3 to 11-fold in effective exogenous studies (n = 14) and no effect to 2-fold in endogenous production studies (n = 10). GLP-1 and PYY show effects on satiety at supra-physiological dosages, they are not likely to contribute individually to a difference in satiating capacity of foods and can therefore not be interpreted in isolation. The effects of CCK are likely to be in the physiological range and therefore may have an individual contribution to a difference in satiating capacity between foods
    Research brief : Serving Bowl Selection Biases the Amount of Food Served
    Kleef, E. van; Shimizu, M. ; Wansink, B. - \ 2012
    Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 44 (2012)1. - ISSN 1499-4046 - p. 66 - 70.
    portion sizes - college-students - energy-intake - consumption - distortion - illusions - spoons - volume - impact - eaten
    Objective: To determine how common serving bowls containing food for multiple persons influence serving behavior and consumption and whether they do so independently of satiation and food evaluation. Methods: In this between-subjects experiment, 68 participants were randomly assigned to either a group serving pasta from a large-sized bowl (6.9-L capacity) or a medium-sized bowl (3.8-L capacity). Results: Analysis of covariance showed that when given a large-sized bowl, diners served 77% more pasta (364.0 versus 205.5 g; P <.01) and felt more satiated (P ¼ .03) compared with diners given a medium-sized bowl, even though the food was not rated tastier or otherwise notable (all P > .32). Conclusions and Implications: In contrast to those in studies involving larger-sized plates and spoons, people serving from larger bowls felt more satiated. These findings again highlight the role that external cues play in food consumption and show the importance of considering serving bowl size in nutrition education.
    Successful development of satiety enhancing food products: towards a multidisciplinary agenda of research challenges
    Kleef, E. van; Trijp, J.C.M. van; Borne, J.J.G.C. van den; Zondervan, C. - \ 2012
    Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 52 (2012)7. - ISSN 1040-8398 - p. 611 - 628.
    sensory-specific satiety - glucagon-like peptide-1 - energy-intake - portion size - functional foods - dietary fiber - weight management - low-fat - consumption volume - metabolic syndrome
    In the context of increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in societies worldwide, enhancing the satiating capacity of foods may help people control their energy intake and weight. This requires an integrated approach between various food related disciplines. By structuring this approach around the new product development process, this paper aims to present the contours of such an integrative approach by going through the current state of the art around satiety enhancing foods. It portrays actual food choice as the end result of a complex interaction between internal satiety signals, other food benefits and environmental cues. Three interrelated routes to satiating enhancement are (1) change food composition to develop stronger physiological satiation and satiety signals, (2) anticipate and build on smart external stimuli at moment of purchase and consumption, and (3) improve palatability and acceptance of satiety enhanced foods. Key research challenges in achieving those routes in the field of nutrition, food technology, consumer, marketing and communication are outlined
    Eating behaviour and retro-nasal aroma release in normal-weight and overweight adults: a pilot study
    Zijlstra, N. ; Bukman, A.J. ; Mars, M. ; Stafleu, A. ; Ruijschop, R.M.A.J. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2011
    The British journal of nutrition 106 (2011)2. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 297 - 306.
    food-intake curve - bite size - flavor release - energy-intake - appetite control - obesity - women - meals - satiation - humans
    Eating rate and bite size are important factors affecting food intake, and we hypothesise the underlying role of oral sensory exposure in this. However, the latter currently lacks objective measuring parameters, but an interesting measure could be the extent of in vivo retronasal aroma release. Second, the literature is ambiguous about overweight subjects differing from normal-weight subjects in eating behaviour. Consequently, we investigated: (1) whether eating behaviour (food intake, eating rate, bite size, number of bites and meal duration) relates to weight status and (2) whether the extent of retro-nasal aroma release relates to eating behaviour and weight status. A matched group (sex, age and dietary restraint) of twenty-seven normal-weight (BMI 21.8 (SD 1.6) kg/m(2)) and twenty-seven overweight/obese subjects (BMI 30.5 (SD 5.8) kg/m(2)) consumed a spiced rice meal and apple pie yogurt on separate test days. The extent of retro-nasal aroma release was measured on a third test day. Mean bite size for spiced rice was significantly (P=0.03) larger in overweight/obese (10.3 (SD 3.2) g) v. normal-weight subjects (8.7 (SD 2.1) g). There were no other significant differences in eating behaviour or retro-nasal aroma release between the groups. Eating behaviours were not correlated with BMI or retro-nasal aroma release. Subjects showed consistent eating behaviour for both test products. Eating behaviour might be a characteristic of an individual but not by definition a characteristic for a group of people based on their weight. Given the large sample sizes, necessary according to a posteriori sample size calculations, one needs to consider the relevance of finding a statistically significant difference in eating behaviour between the weight groups in a laboratory setting.
    Mediterranean diet and type 2 diabetes risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study: the InterAct project
    Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2011
    Diabetes Care 34 (2011)9. - ISSN 0149-5992 - p. 1913 - 1918.
    prospective cohort - energy-intake - adherence - survival - obesity - health
    OBJECTIVE To study the association between adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) and risk of developing type 2 diabetes, across European countries. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We established a case-cohort study including 11,994 incident type 2 diabetic case subjects and a stratified subcohort of 15,798 participants selected from a total cohort of 340,234 participants with 3.99 million person-years of follow-up, from eight European cohorts participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The relative Mediterranean diet score (rMED) (score range 0–18) was used to assess adherence to MDP on the basis of reported consumption of nine dietary components characteristic of the Mediterranean diet. Cox proportional hazards regression, modified for the case-cohort design, was used to estimate the association between rMED and risk of type 2 diabetes, adjusting for confounders. RESULTS The multiple adjusted hazard ratios of type 2 diabetes among individuals with medium (rMED 7–10 points) and high adherence to MDP (rMED 11–18 points) were 0.93 (95% CI 0.86–1.01) and 0.88 (0.79–0.97), respectively, compared with individuals with low adherence to MDP (0–6 points) (P for trend 0.013). The association between rMED and type 2 diabetes was attenuated in people
    Trustworthy satiety claims are good for science and society. Comment on 'Satiety. No way to slim'
    Graaf, C. de - \ 2011
    Appetite 57 (2011)3. - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 778 - 783.
    sugar-sweetened beverages - libitum food-intake - body-weight - energy-intake - artificial sweeteners - eating patterns - dietary fiber - appetite - humans - fat
    In their short communication against satiety claims, Booth and Nouwen (2010) neglect dozens of well designed studies that show consistent relations between satiety, energy intake and body weight. Satiety, intake and weight are separate concepts, that need different claims and evidence to support them. Satiety can be measured reliably. A repeated higher satiety response to a specific food compared to an appropriate control food may be valuable to consumers who want to avoid hunger. This is good for society. The development of the psycho-biological knowledge to achieve this is good for science. The lawmaker should provide the frame of reference for trustworthy satiety claims. It is then up to the consumer to decide the value of these claims.
    A maternal dietary pattern characterised by fish and seafood in association with the risk of congenital heart defects in the offspring
    Obermann-Borst, S.A. ; Vujkovic, M. ; Vries, J.H.M. de; Wildhagen, M.F. ; Looman, C.W. ; Jonge, R. de; Steegers, E.A.P. ; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M. - \ 2011
    BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology 118 (2011)10. - ISSN 1470-0328 - p. 1205 - 1215.
    folic-acid supplements - neural-tube defects - nutritional-status - gene-expression - energy-intake - homocysteine - methylation - pregnancy - methionine - period
    Objective To identify maternal dietary patterns related to biomarkers of methylation and to investigate associations between these dietary patterns and the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs) in the offspring. Design Case–control study. Setting Western part of the Netherlands, 2003–08. Population One hundred and seventy-nine mothers of children with CHD and 231 mothers of children without a congenital malformation. Methods Food intake was obtained by food frequency questionnaires. The reduced rank regression method was used to identify dietary patterns related to the biomarker concentrations of methylation in blood. Main outcome measures Dietary patterns, vitamin B and homocysteine concentrations, biomarkers of methylation (S-adenosylmethionine [SAM] and S-adenosylhomocysteine [SAH]) and the risk of CHD estimated by odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results The one-carbon-poor dietary pattern, comprising a high intake of snacks, sugar-rich products and beverages, was associated with SAH (ß = 0.92, P <0.001). The one-carbon-rich dietary pattern with high fish and seafood intake was associated with SAM (ß = 0.44, P <0.001) and inversely with SAH (ß = -0.08, P <0.001). Strong adherence to this dietary pattern resulted in higher serum (P <0.05) and red blood cell (P <0.01) folate and a reduced risk of CHD in offspring: odds ratio, 0.3 (95% confidence interval, 0.2–0.6). Conclusions The one-carbon-rich dietary pattern, characterised by the high intake of fish and seafood, is associated with a reduced risk of CHD. This finding warrants further investigation in a randomised intervention trial.
    Increased preconception omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake improves embryo morphology
    Hammiche, F. ; Vujkovic, M. ; Wijburg, W. ; Vries, J.H.M. de; Macklon, N.S. ; Laven, J.S.E. ; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M. - \ 2011
    Fertility and Sterility 95 (2011)5. - ISSN 0015-0282 - p. 1820 - 1823.
    in-vitro fertilization - ovarian stimulation - hormone-levels - holstein cows - energy-intake - dietary-fat - dairy-cows - fish-meal - women - supplementation
    The association between preconception dietary intake of the polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) omega-6 and omega-3 and the E2 levels and IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcome were investigated in women in a prospective study. It revealed that high intakes of omega-3 LC-PUFA alpha-linolenic acid increase baseline E2, high intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid reduce E2 response and the number of follicles after ovarian stimulation, and total omega-3 intake, in particular alpha-linolenic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, improve embryo morphology
    The preconception Mediterranean dietary pattern in couples undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment increases the chance of pregnancy
    Vujkovic, M. ; Vries, J.H.M. de; Lindemans, J. ; Macklon, N.S. ; Spek, P.J. van der; Steegers, E.A.P. ; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M. - \ 2010
    Fertility and Sterility 94 (2010)6. - ISSN 0015-0282 - p. 2096 - 2101.
    life-style factors - folic-acid - energy-intake - homocysteine - fertility - folate - implantation - performance - population - impact
    Objective: To investigate associations between preconception dietary patterns and IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes validated by biomarkers of the homocysteine pathway. Design: Observational prospective study. Setting: A tertiary referral fertility clinic at the Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Patient(s): One hundred sixty-one couples undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment. Intervention(s): No interventions other than the Dutch governmental recommendation of folic acid. Main Outcome Measure(s): Dietary patterns, blood and follicular fluid concentrations of folate, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, homocysteine, and fertilization rate, embryo quality, and pregnancy. Result(s): In women, two dietary patterns were identified. The "health conscious-low processed" dietary pattern (variation explained 12.1%) was characterized by high intakes of fruits, vegetables, fish, and whole grains and low intakes of snacks, meats, and mayonnaise, and positively correlated with red blood cell folate (beta=0.07). The "Mediterranean" dietary pattern (variation explained 9.1%), that is, high intakes of vegetable oils, vegetables, fish, and legumes and low intakes of snacks, was positively correlated with red blood cell folate (beta=0.13), and vitamin B6 in blood (beta=0.09) and follicular fluid (beta=0.18). High adherence by the couple to the "Mediterranean" diet increased the probability of pregnancy, odds ratio 1.4 (95% confidence interval 1.0-1.9). Conclusion(s): A preconception "Mediterranean" diet by couples undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment contributes to the success of achieving pregnancy. (Fertil Steril (R) 2010; 94: 2096-101. (C) 2010 by American Society for Reproductive Medicine.)
    Caloric versus low-caloric sweeteners: Can the body be fooled?
    Smeets, P.A.M. - \ 2010
    International Sugar Journal 112 (2010). - ISSN 0020-8841 - p. 140 - 147.
    human hypothalamic responses - food-intake - intense sweeteners - insulin-release - artificial sweeteners - taste receptors - phase reflexes - energy-intake - oral glucose - appetite
    Low-caloric artificial sweeteners have been around for several decades now. Still, the debate over their usefulness in decreasing energy intake is ongoing. In principle, replacing sugar-containing foods with 'light' versions will lead to decreased energy intake. However, the reality of food intake behavior is not so simple and still many people tend to consume more calories than they burn and gain weight. Thus, 'light' products are not the easy solution they seem to be. Food intake regulation takes place in the brain. There, multiple neural and hormonal signals are integrated, ultimately leading to a particular pattern of food intake. For many years, the brain has been treated as a 'black box' in food research and other behavioral research alike. In recent years, however, functional neuroimaging techniques have enabled researchers to examine, noninvasively, the effects of different food stimuli in the human brain. This review summarizes literature on the effects of caloric and low-caloric sweeteners on physiological responses and eating behavior and specifically addresses recent neuroimaging studies. Such studies, along with others, suggest that the body cannot simply be 'fooled' by providing sweet taste without calories. Prevention of excess energy intake may not only be aided by refraining from liquid calories and other energy-dense 'fast foods', but also by a consistent relation between sweetness and caloric content. More research addressing the short as well as the long term effects of the replacement of foods and drinks by (partially) artificially sweetened 'light' versions is warranted.
    Effect of genotype and dietary protein level on growth performance and carcass characteristics of fattening pigs in central Vietnam
    Pham, K.T. ; Nghia, D.H. ; Ngoan, L.D. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. van der; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2010
    Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 23 (2010)8. - ISSN 1011-2367 - p. 1034 - 1042.
    growing-pigs - energy-intake - body-weight - ambient-temperature - feed-intake - gilts - barrows - quality - boars - requirements
    This study aimed to determine the optimum dietary crude protein level in a typical diet for fattening pigs fed ad libitum under normal climate conditions in Central Vietnam. One hundred and ninety two gilts of Mong Cai local breed (MC), F1 Large White??Mong Cai and F2 crossbreds of (Landrace??Mong Cai)??Large White were used. At the start of the experiment, Mong Cai pigs weighed 12 kg at 11 weeks of age, F1 pigs 12.1 kg at 8 weeks of age and F2 pigs 12.2 kg at 8 weeks of age. Four diets differing in crude protein (CP) content (10.1, 13.1, 16.1 and 18.9% in DM) were formulated from rice bran, corn meal, cassava meal and fish meal. Calculated digestible energy content of the diets ranged from 13.5 to 13.8 MJ per kg DM. Pigs were housed individually in pens of 2.5 m2 each and had ad libitum access to feed in a trough as well as water in bowls. The final weights after a growing period of 150 days were 66, 86 and 96 kg for MC, F1 and F2, respectively. Feed intake of MC pigs was highest at 13.1% CP while F1 and F2 had the highest feed intake at 16.1% CP. The results showed that for MC the maximum gain was obtained at levels between 13 to 16% CP. For the F1 the maximum gain was at dietary protein levels of 16-17%. For F2 the max gain was obtained at CP levels of 16 to 18%. Feed conversion was highest in MC pigs (~4.0) followed by F1 (~3.3) and F2 (~3.1), and within genotypes was lowest at the optimum CP level (p
    Consumer perceptions of satiety-related snack food decision making
    Bilman, E.M. ; Renes, R.J. ; Trijp, J.C.M. van - \ 2010
    Appetite 55 (2010)3. - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 639 - 647.
    out-of-home - energy-intake - australian children - constant stimuli - expected satiety - dietary behavior - portion size - extra foods - consumption - meal
    The aim of this study is to gain more insight into how consumers’ perceptions of the satiety value of snack products influence their choice of such products and to get a better understanding of consumer terminology and perceptions about product-related satiety. Participants were asked to indicate their individual product choice in response to a scenario. Scenarios varied as a between-subject factor in terms of whether information on the time gap till the next meal occasion (favorite main dish) was provided or not, and whether this meal would be eaten after one hour or four hours. To get a better understanding of consumer terminology a repertory grid task was used to elicit consumer attributes relating to satiety. This research shows that, when consumers are confronted with situations that vary in satiety requirements, they do not make significantly different snack products choices. But they do have specific ideas about the product features that influence the perceived satiety level of a product. Products perceived as fat, high in protein, with a savory taste and in one piece are expected to have a higher level of satiety compared to sweet products and products that exist of multiple small items.
    The effect of texture differences on satiation in 3 pairs of solid foods
    Zijlstra, N. ; Mars, M. ; Stafleu, A. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2010
    Appetite 55 (2010)3. - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 490 - 497.
    physical state - healthy women - energy-intake - body-weight - meal intake - eating rate - carbohydrate - viscosity - satiety - others
    This study explored the effect of texture differences on satiation (ad libitum food intake) in 3 pairs of solid foods. Test products were specially developed luncheon meat, meat replacers and sweets. Each food consisted of a "hard" and "soft" version, expected to lead to different eating rates and consequently to differences in oral sensory exposure time. One hundred and six subjects participated in 7 sessions. During the first sessions, subjects consumed the products ad libitum while watching a movie in a cinema. During the last session, eating rate of all products was measured. Mean intake did not differ significantly between the hard and soft version for any of the products, but subjects who ate more of the soft luncheon meat significantly outnumbered subjects who ate more of the hard version. Eating rate was significantly slower for the hard than for the soft luncheon meat (21±10 vs. 25±13g/min); no differences were found for the other food types. Ad libitum intake was twice as high in the highest versus the lowest quartile of eating rate (p
    Appetite control: methodological aspects of the evaluation of foods
    Blundell, J.E. ; Graaf, C. de; Hulshof, T. ; Jebb, S.A. ; Livingstone, B. ; Lluch, A. ; Mela, D.J. ; Salah, S. ; Schuring, E. ; Knaap, H.C.M. van der; Westerterp, M. - \ 2010
    Obesity Reviews 11 (2010)3. - ISSN 1467-7881 - p. 251 - 270.
    sensory-specific satiety - high-fat diet - energy-intake - high-carbohydrate - ad-libitum - base-line - body-weight - individual variability - macronutrient intake - covert manipulation
    This report describes a set of scientific procedures used to assess the impact of foods and food ingredients on the expression of appetite (psychological and behavioural). An overarching priority has been to enable potential evaluators of health claims about foods to identify justified claims and to exclude claims that are not supported by scientific evidence for the effect cited. This priority follows precisely from the principles set down in the PASSCLAIM report. The report allows the evaluation of the strength of health claims, about the effects of foods on appetite, which can be sustained on the basis of the commonly used scientific designs and experimental procedures. The report includes different designs for assessing effects on satiation as opposed to satiety, detailed coverage of the extent to which a change in hunger can stand alone as a measure of appetite control and an extensive discussion of the statistical procedures appropriate for handling data in this field of research. Because research in this area is continually evolving, new improved methodologies may emerge over time and will need to be incorporated into the framework. One main objective of the report has been to produce guidance on good practice in carrying out appetite research, and not to set down a series of commandments that must be followed.
    Efficiency of fat deposition from nonstarch polysaccharides, starch and unsaturated fat in pig
    Halas, V. ; Babinszky, L. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. - \ 2010
    The British journal of nutrition 103 (2010)1. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 123 - 133.
    anatomical body-composition - growing pigs - growth-performance - finishing pigs - dietary fiber - energy-intake - protein - gilts - nutrition - genotype
    The aim was to evaluate under protein-limiting conditions the effect of different supplemental energy sources: fermentable NSP (fNSP), digestible starch (dStarch) and digestible unsaturated fat (dUFA), on marginal efficiency of fat deposition and distribution. A further aim was to determine whether the extra fat deposition from different energy sources, and its distribution in the body, depends on feeding level. A total of fifty-eight individually housed pigs (48 (sd 4) kg) were used in a 3 x 2 factorial design study, with three energy sources (0.2 MJ digestible energy (DE)/kg0.75 per d of fNSP, dStarch and dUFA added to a control diet) at two feeding levels. Ten pigs were slaughtered at 48 (sd 4) kg body weight and treatment pigs at 106 (sd 3) kg body weight. Bodies were dissected and the chemical composition of each body fraction was determined. The effect of energy sources on fat and protein deposition was expressed relative to the control treatments within both energy intake levels based on a total of thirty-two observations in six treatments, and these marginal differences were subsequently treated as dependent variables. Results showed that preferential deposition of the supplemental energy intake in various fat depots did not depend on the energy source, and the extra fat deposition was similar at each feeding level. The marginal energetic transformation (energy retention; ER) of fNSP, dStarch and dUFA for fat retention (ERfat:DE) was 44, 52 and 49 % (P>0.05), respectively. Feeding level affected fat distribution, but source of energy did not change the relative partitioning of fat deposition. The present results do not support values of energetic efficiencies currently used in net energy-based systems
    Induction of satiation via aroma in dairy products
    Ruijschop, R. ; Boelrijk, A.E.M. ; Giffel, M.C. te; Graaf, C. de; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S. - \ 2009
    Australian Journal of Dairy Technology 64 (2009)1. - ISSN 0004-9433 - p. 50 - 53.
    body-weight loss - flavor perception - energy-intake - food-intake - release - humans - satiety - maintenance - orthonasal - viscosity
    Sensory satiation is probably one of the most important factors in meal termination. In this paper, the use of aromas to induce satiation via dairy products is illustrated by means of two examples: the use of organic acids, obtained by fermentation; and altering the extent of retro-nasal aroma release. In a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised cross-over preload-test meal design, it was demonstrated that a dairy beverage fermented with propionic acid bacteria was perceived as more satiating than a non-fermented equivalent dairy beverage. Satiety-inducing effects lasted up to 50 min. However, ad libitum energy intake was not reduced in the time frame tested. Another approach is to increase satiation by making use of differences in retro-nasal aroma release profiles. It is known that the physical structure of a food product is important for the extent of retro-nasal aroma release, i.e. solid foods generate a longer retro-nasal aroma release compared to liquid foods. This is possibly also related to satiation. Using olfactometry, aroma stimuli can be administered separately from other stimuli, such as different ingredients, textures and tastes. Hence, the relative importance of aroma stimuli apart from other stimuli on satiation mechanisms can be investigated. In a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised cross-over full factorial design, it was shown that perceived satiation can be increased by altering the extent of aroma release during consumption of a liquid dairy product
    Sip size of orangeade: effects on intake and sensory-specific satiation
    Weijzen, P.L.G. ; Smeets, P.A.M. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2009
    The British journal of nutrition 102 (2009)7. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1091 - 1097.
    libitum food-intake - repeated consumption - subsequent intake - physical state - energy-intake - sweet taste - body-weight - satiety - humans - beverages
    Sensory-specific satiation (SSS) drives food selection and contributes to meal termination. We hypothesised that smaller sips would increase SSS due to increased oro-sensory exposure, irrespective of energy content. The objective was to determine the effects of sip size and energy content on ad libitum intake of orangeade and subjective SSS for orangeade. Orangeade intake and ratings of wanting and liking were measured before and after ad libitum orangeade consumption in a 2 x 2 cross-over design (it 53). Conditions differed in energy content (no-energy v. regular-energy orangeade) and in sip size (large, 20 g/sip v. small, 5 g/sip). The mean intake of both orangeades was lower when consumed with small sips than when consumed with large sips (regular-energy, 352 v. 493 g; no-energy, 338 v. 405 g; both P
    Retronasal Aroma Release and Satiation: a Review
    Ruijschop, R. ; Boelrijk, A.E.M. ; Graaf, C. de; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S. - \ 2009
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 57 (2009)21. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 9888 - 9894.
    sensory-specific satiety - libitum food-intake - flavor release - swallowing process - feeding-behavior - energy-intake - perception - orthonasal - texture - humans
    In view of the epidemic of obesity, one of the aims of the food industry is to develop good-tasting food products that may induce an increased level of satiation, preventing consumers from overeating. This review focuses on the possibility of using aroma as a trigger for inducing or increasing satiation. Using a novel approach of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APcl-MS) in combination with olfactometry, the relative importance of different aroma concepts for satiation was studied, from both consumer and food product points of view. The extent of retronasal aroma release appears to be a physiological feature that characterizes a person. Although the extent of retronasal aroma release appears to be subject specific, food product properties can be tailored in such a way that these can lead to a higher quality and/or quantity of retronasal aroma stimulation. This in turn provokes enhanced feelings of satiation and ultimately may contribute to a decrease in food intake.
    High maternal vitamin E intake by diet or supplements is associated with congenital heart defects in the offspring
    Smedts, H.P.M. ; Vries, J.H.M. de; Rakhshandehroo, M. ; Wildhagen, M.F. ; Verkleij-Hagoort, A.C. ; Steegers, E.A.P. ; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M. - \ 2009
    BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology 116 (2009)3. - ISSN 1470-0328 - p. 416 - 423.
    oxidative stress - homocysteine metabolism - diabetic embryopathy - energy-intake - risk - pregnancy - antioxidant - prooxidant - biomarkers - disease
    Objective To study associations between maternal dietary and supplement intake of antioxidants vitamin E, retinol and congenital heart defects (CHDs). Design Case–control study. Setting Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Population Participants were 276 case mothers of a child with CHD and 324 control mothers with their children. Methods Food frequency questionnaires covering the intake of the previous 4 weeks were filled out at 16 months after the index pregnancy. Data were compared between cases and controls using the Mann–Whitney U test. Risk estimates for the association between CHD and dietary intake of vitamin E and retinol were estimated in a multivariable logistic regression model. Main outcome measures Medians (5–95th percentile) and odds ratios with 95% CI. Results Dietary vitamin E intake was higher in case mothers than in controls, 13.3 (8.1–20.4) and 12.6 (8.5–19.8) mg/day (P= 0.05). CHD risk increased with rising dietary vitamin E intakes (P-trend = 0.01). Periconception use of vitamin E supplements in addition to a high dietary vitamin E intake above 14.9 mg/day up to nine-fold increased CHD risk. Retinol intakes were not significantly different between the groups and not associated with CHD risk. Conclusions High maternal vitamin E by diet and supplements is associated with an increased risk of CHD offspring
    Dietary fat intake and subsequent weight change in adults: results from the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition cohorts
    Forouchi, N.G. ; Sharp, S. ; Du, H. ; A, A.D. van der; Halkjaer, J. ; Schulze, M.B. ; Tjonneland, A. ; Overvad, K. ; Jakobsen, M.U. ; Boeing, H. ; Buijsse, B. ; Palli, D. ; Masala, G. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Sorensen, T. ; Wareham, N. - \ 2009
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 90 (2009)6. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 1632 - 1641.
    physical-activity questionnaire - energy-intake - obesity - women - metaanalysis - trial - gain - calibration - prevention - validity
    Background: It is unclear from the inconsistent epidemiologic evidence whether dietary fat intake is associated with future weight change. Objective: The objective was to assess the association between the amount and type of dietary fat and subsequent weight change (follow-up weight minus baseline weight divided by duration of follow-up). Design: We analyzed data from 89,432 men and women from 6 cohorts of the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study. Using country-specific food-frequency questionnaires, we examined the association between baseline fat intake (amount and type of total, saturated, polyunsaturated, and monounsaturated fats) and annual weight change by using the residual, nutrient density, and energy-partition methods. We used random-effects meta-analyses to obtain pooled estimates across centers. Results: Mean total fat intake as a percentage of energy intake ranged between 31.5% and 36.5% across the 6 cohorts (58% women; mean ± SD age: 53.2 ± 8.6 y). The mean (±SD) annual weight change was 109 ± 817 g/y in men and 119 ± 823 g/y in women. In pooled analyses adjusted for anthropometric, dietary, and lifestyle factors and follow-up period, no significant association was observed between fat intake (amount or type) and weight change. The difference in mean annual weight change was 0.90 g/y (95% CI: –0.54, 2.34 g/y) for men and –1.30 g/y (95% CI: –3.70, 1.11 g/y) for women per 1 g/d energy-adjusted fat intake (residual method). Conclusions: We found no significant association between the amount or type of dietary fat and subsequent weight change in this large prospective study. These findings do not support the use of low-fat diets to prevent weight gain.
    Effect of bite size and oral processing time of a semisolid food on satiation
    Zijlstra, N. ; Wijk, R.A. de; Mars, M. ; Stafleu, A. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2009
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 90 (2009)2. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 269 - 275.
    energy-intake - physical state - aroma release - body-weight - eating rate - satiety - carbohydrate - viscosity - appetite - women
    Background: Food texture plays an important role in food intake regulation. In previous studies we showed a clear effect of viscosity on ad libitum food intake and found indications that eating rate, bite size, and oral processing time (OPT) could play a role. Objective: The objective was to determine the effect of bite size and OPT of a food on satiation, defined as ad libitum food intake. Design: Twenty-two healthy subjects participated in all 7 test conditions. Bite sizes were free or fixed to small bite sizes (˜5 g) or large bite sizes (˜15 g). OPT was free (only in combination with free bite size) or fixed to 3 or 9 s. Subjects consumed chocolate custard through a tube, which was connected to a peristaltic pump. Sound signals indicated OPT duration. Results: Subjects consumed significantly more when bite sizes were large than when they were small (bite size effect: P <0.0001) and when OPT was 3 s rather than 9 s (OPT effect: P = 0.008). Under small bite size conditions, mean (6SD) ad libitum intakes were 3826 197 g (3-s OPT) and 313 ± 170 g (9-s OPT). Under large bite size conditions, ad libitum intakes were much higher: 476 ± 176 g (3-s OPT) and 432 ± 163 g (9-s OPT). Intakes during the free bite size conditions were 462 ± 211 g (free OPT), 455 ± 197 g (3-s OPT), and 443 ± 202 g (9-s OPT). Conclusion: This study shows that greater oral sensory exposure to a product, by eating with small bite sizes rather than with large bite sizes and increasing OPT, significantly decreases food intake.
    Satiation Due to Equally Palatable Sweet and Savory Meals Does Not Differ in Normal Weight Young Adults 1–3
    Griffioen-Roose, S. ; Mars, M. ; Finlayson, G. ; Blundell, J.E. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2009
    The Journal of Nutrition 139 (2009)11. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 2093 - 2098.
    sensory-specific satiety - short-term appetite - food-intake - energy-intake - expected satiety - low consumers - portion size - liking - humans - taste
    Sensory properties are greatly involved in the process of satiation. Regarding the nature of sensory signals, an important distinction can be made between sweet and savory taste. It is unclear, however, whether sweet and savory differ in their influence on satiation. Our objective was to investigate the difference between a sweet and savory taste on satiation, independent of palatability, texture, energy density, and macronutrient composition. A crossover design was used, consisting of 3 test conditions in which 2 tastes (sweet and savory) were compared. Sixty-four healthy, nonsmoking, unrestrained participants (18 males and 46 females), with a mean age of 22.3 ± 2.4 y and a mean BMI of 21.6 ± 1.7 kg/m2, enrolled. Rice was used as a test meal served in either a sweet or savory version. The meals were similar in palatability, texture, energy density, and macronutrient composition. Ad libitum intake, eating rate, and changes in pleasantness and appetite during the meals were measured. Ad libitum intake did not differ between the 2 meals; participants ate a mean of 314 ± 144 g of the sweet meal and 333 ± 159 g of the savory meal. Eating rate (sweet, 38 ± 14 g/min; savory, 37 ± 14 g/min) and changes in pleasantness and appetite during the meals were similar. Homogeneous meals with a sweet or savory taste, similar in palatability, texture, energy density, and macronutrient composition, do not differ in their influence on satiation in normal weight young adults
    Hidden fat facilitates passive overconsumption
    Dongen, M. van; Graaf, C. de; Siebelink, E. ; Kok, F.J. - \ 2009
    The Journal of Nutrition 139 (2009)2. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 394 - 399.
    human dietary responses - energy-intake - food-intake - portion size - liquid food - midday meal - density - satiety - humans - carbohydrate
    Food intake regulation may be disturbed when sensory signals from foods are disconnected from their metabolic properties. Consumption of high-fat, energy-dense foods may stimulate passive overconsumption, because these foods do not provide sensory signals in accordance with the actual nutrient content. We examined the effects of perception of fat on energy intake in adults after overfeeding (Study 1) and on energy intake during a meal (Study 2). In study 1, 57 participants consumed 6 mandatory lunches differing in energy level (100, 200, and 300% of a standard lunch intake) and fat condition (visible fat and hidden fat). Ad libitum energy intake was measured during subsequent meals. In Study 2, 51 participants consumed 2 lunches that were high in visible or hidden fats. We measured ad libitum energy intake during lunch. In Study 1, the energy intake at dinner was 8% higher in the hidden fat condition than in the visible fat condition (P = 0.0046). A main effect was also found for the energy level of the lunch (P <0.0001), with the highest intake following the 100% energy level and the lowest intake following the 300% energy level. In Study 2, the energy intake was 9% higher in the hidden fat condition than in the visible fat condition (P = 0.013). Perception of fat influences energy intake. In the presence of visible fats, energy intake was lower than in the presence of hidden fats, suggesting that hidden fats may contribute to overconsumption. Appropriate sensory signals may be important in preventing overconsumption.
    Dietary fiber intake in relation to coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality over 40 y: the Zutphen Study
    Streppel, M.T. ; Ocke, M.C. ; Boshuizen, H.C. ; Kok, F.J. ; Kromhout, D. - \ 2008
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 88 (2008). - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 1119 - 1125.
    cardiovascular-disease - blood-pressure - cereal-grains - energy-intake - risk - metaanalysis - cohort - fruit - health - men
    Background: Little is known about the effects of dietary fiber intake on long-term mortality. Objective: We aimed to study recent and long-term dietary fiber intake in relation to coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality. Design: The effects of recent and long-term dietary fiber intakes on mortality were investigated in the Zutphen Study, a cohort of 1373 men born between 1900 and 1920 and examined repeatedly between 1960 and 2000. During that period, 1130 men died, 348 as a result of coronary heart disease. Hazard ratios were obtained from time-dependent Cox regression models. Results: Every additional 10 g of recent dietary fiber intake per day reduced coronary heart disease mortality by 17% (95% CI: 2%, 30%) and all-cause mortality by 9% (0%, 18%). The strength of the association between long-term dietary fiber intake and all-cause mortality decreased from age 50 y (hazard ratio: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.93) until age 80 y (0.99; 0.87, 1.12). We observed no clear associations for different types of dietary fiber. Conclusions: A higher recent dietary fiber intake was associated with a lower risk of both coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality. For long-term intake, the strength of the association between dietary fiber and all-cause mortality decreased with increasing age.
    Dietary intake and physical activity of normal weight and overweight 6 to 14 year old Swiss children
    Aeberli, I. ; Kaspar, M. ; Zimmermann, M.B. - \ 2007
    Swiss medical weekly 137 (2007). - ISSN 1424-7860 - p. 424 - 430.
    type-2 diabetes-mellitus - for-disease-control - body-mass index - energy-intake - childhood obesity - food-habits - adolescents - switzerland - consumption - fatness
    Principles and questions under study: The prevalence of overweight is increasing in Swiss children, and they are at increased risk for hypertension and insulin resistance. Better understanding of how food intakes and activity patterns differ between overweight and normal weight children is needed to develop intervention strategies to control childhood adiposity. The aim of the study was therefore to compare nutrient intake, dietary patterns and physical activity in overweight and normal weight children in Switzerland. Methods: The subjects were healthy 6 to 14-year-old normal weight and overweight children (n = 74 and n = 68 respectively). Dietary intakes were assessed during three home visits with two 24-hour recalls and one 1-day food record. Questionnaires on physical activity and social background were completed. Results: The carbohydrate and fat contents of the diet as a percent of energy did not differ comparing normal and overweight children, but the percentage of protein was significantly higher in overweight children. Intakes of energy, carbohydrates and fat were not significantly correlated with body mass index (BMI) standard deviation scores (SDS) after controlling for age, gender and total energy (for carbohydrates and fat). However, protein intake significantly predicted BMI-SDS after controlling for age, gender and total energy. Similarly, meat intake predicted BMI-SDS after controlling for age, gender and total energy, but none of the other analysed food groups were predictors. Time spent watching television and time spent in organised sports activity were significantly correlated with BMI-SDS. The educational level of mothers of overweight children was significantly lower than of mothers of normal weight children. Conclusion: Intakes of fat and saturated fat in Swiss children are 20% and 50% higher, respectively than recommended intakes. Higher protein intake, higher intake of meat and more hours spent watching TV and playing computer games are associated with overweight in primary school-aged Swiss children.
    Design Characteristics of Food Frequency Questionnaires in Relation to Their Validity
    Molag, M.L. ; Vries, J.H.M. de; Ocke, M.C. ; Dagnelie, P.C. ; Brandt, P.A. van den; Jansen, S.C. ; Staveren, W.A. van; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2007
    American Journal of Epidemiology 166 (2007)12. - ISSN 0002-9262 - p. 1468 - 1478.
    dietary assessment methods - doubly-labeled water - energy-intake - nutrient intake - assessment instruments - history questionnaire - biochemical markers - urinary nitrogen - weighed records - womens health
    The authors investigated the role of food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) design, including length, use of portion-size questions, and FFQ origin, in ranking subjects according to their nutrient intake. They also studied the ability of the FFQ to detect differences in energy intake between subgroups and to assess energy and protein intake. In a meta-analysis of 40 validation studies, FFQs with longer food lists (200 items) were better than shorter FFQs at ranking subjects for most nutrients; results were statistically significant for protein, energy-adjusted total fat, and energy-adjusted vitamin C. The authors found that FFQs that included standard portions had higher correlation coefficients for energy-adjusted vitamin C (0.80 vs. 0.60, p <0.0001) and protein (0.69 vs. 0.61, p = 0.03) than FFQs with portion-size questions. However, it remained difficult from this review to analyze the effects of using portion-size questions. FFQs slightly underestimated gender differences in energy intake, although level of energy intake was underreported by 23% and level of protein intake by 17%. The authors concluded that FFQs with more items are better able to rank people according to their intake and that they are able to distinguish between subpopulations, even though they underestimated the magnitude of these differences.
    The validity of dietary restraint scales: Comment on Stice et al. (2004)
    Strien, T. van; Engels, R. ; Staveren, W.A. van; Herman, C.P. - \ 2006
    Psychological Assessment 18 (2006)1. - ISSN 1040-3590 - p. 89 - 94.
    eating behaviors - energy-intake - body-weight - adolescents - women - questionnaire - consumption - stability - tendency - obesity
    In 4 empirical studies, E. Stice, M. Fisher, and M. R. Lowe (2004) calculated the correlations between some widely used dietary restraint scales and food intake. Failing to find substantial negative correlations, they concluded that these scales were invalid. The current article challenges this conclusion. For one thing, there is some evidence that restrained eaters do eat less than do unrestrained eaters under controlled experimental conditions favoring self-control. Dietary restraint is also associated with tendencies toward disinhibition under conditions favoring lose. of self-control; such disinhibition often masks (but does not invalidate) the construct of dietary restraint. For these and other reasons, the assessment of food intake at a single eating episode may not capture overall dietary restriction. Finally, how much one eats does not necessarily indicate whether one has eaten less than one desired to eat. The authors suggest that the existing restraint scales do in fact validly assess restriction of food intake, albeit in a more complex fashion than is evident from simple correlations in single episodes.
    Effects of Feeding Frequency and Feeding Level on Nutrient Utilization in Heavy Preruminant Calves
    Borne, J.J.G.C. van den; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Alferink, S.J.J. ; Giebels, R.M.M. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. - \ 2006
    Journal of Dairy Science 89 (2006)9. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 3578 - 3586.
    veal calves - milk replacer - energy-intake - protein - growth - pigs - diets - digestibility - metabolism - duodenum
    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding frequency (FF) and feeding level (FL) on protein and energy metabolism in adapted, heavy preruminant calves. It was hypothesized that an increased FF would increase protein utilization by an improved synchrony between the supply of and requirements for protein during the day when a quickly hydrolyzable protein source was used. Eighteen Holstein Friesian calves of 136 ± 3 kg of body weight were assigned to FF (1, 2, or 4 meals daily) at 2 FL (1.5 or 2.5 times the metabolizable energy requirements for maintenance), except for calves fed once daily (only at a low FL). Calves were individually housed in respiration chambers during 2 experimental periods of 10 d. Whey protein was the only protein source in the diet. Neither FL nor FF affected apparent fecal nutrient digestibility. Increasing FF increased the efficiency with which digestible protein was utilized in calves. The increase was greater at a high FL (+11% from 2 to 4 meals/d) than at a low FL (+5% from 2 to 4 meals/d), but no significant interaction occurred between FL and FF. An increased FF and a higher FL enhanced fat deposition. Heat production was not affected by FF, but its circadian rhythm differed considerably between FF. Activity-related heat production was not affected by FF or FL. Thus, increasing FF improved the efficiency with which protein and energy were utilized in heavy preruminant calves when a quickly hydrolyzable protein source was used.
    Reviewing the low efficiency of protein utilization in heavy preruminant calves - a reductionist approach
    Borne, J.J.G.C. van den; Verdonk, J.M.A.J. ; Schrama, J.W. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. - \ 2006
    Reproduction Nutrition Development 46 (2006). - ISSN 0926-5287 - p. 121 - 137.
    portal-drained viscera - amino-acid utilization - milk-fed calves - kg live weight - growing-pigs - dietary-protein - energy-intake - lysine utilization - body-weight - arginine supplementation
    The efficiency of protein utilization for growth in preruminant calves is decreasing with increasing body weight. In contrast to calves weighing less than 100 kg of body weight, heavy preruminant calves do not respond in protein retention to an increased intake of indispensable amino acids in dose-response studies. The marginal efficiency of protein utilization is low compared with pigs and milk-fed lambs at a similar stage of maturity. A reductionist approach was taken to perceive the potential mechanisms for the low protein utilization in preruminant calves. Neither an imbalance in the dietary protein to energy ratio nor a single limiting indispensable amino acid was responsible for the low efficiency. Also, amino acids were not specifically used to detoxify ammonia. Alternative hypotheses to explain the low efficiency are discussed and result in (i) a reduced post-absorptive supply of amino acids: e.g. by fermentation of milk in the (premature) rumen or preferential amino acid utilization by specific tissues; or (ii) a reduced post-absorptive amino acid utilization: e.g. by decreased insulin sensitivity, utilization of amino acids for gluconeogenesis or an asynchronous nutrient supply. In conclusion, several mechanisms for the low efficiency of protein utilization in heavy preruminant calves were excluded. Other physiological processes which are potentially involved remain to be studied, because the large potential for improving protein utilization in heavy preruminant calves asks for further exploration of their amino acid metabolism
    Ghrelin response to carbohydrate-enriched breakfast is related to insulin
    Blom, W.A.M. ; Stafleu, A. ; Graaf, C. de; Kok, F.J. ; Schaafsma, G. ; Hendriks, H.F.J. - \ 2005
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 81 (2005)2. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 367 - 375.
    growth-hormone secretagogue - plasma ghrelin - circulating ghrelin - food-intake - messenger-rna - leptin action - energy-intake - obese humans - high-fat - satiety
    Ghrelin plays an important role in the regulation of food intake. Little is known about how ghrelin concentrations are modified by dietary factors. Objective: We examined the effects of both amount and type of carbohydrate on ghrelin concentrations and all correlations among the variables ghrelin, glucose, insulin, leptin, and all 4 subjective measures of appetite. Design: Twenty healthy nonobese men were studied in a double-blind, randomized, crossover design. Subjective measures of appetite and concentrations of ghrelin, glucose, insulin, and leptin were frequently assessed for 4 h after liquid breakfast meals differing in energy content and carbohydrate structure-ie, water, low-calorie (LC) meal, high-calorie simple carbohydrate (HC-SC) meal, and high-calorie complex carbohydrate (HC-CC) meal. Results: Ghrelin concentrations decreased after the HC-SC breakfast by 41%, after the HC-CC breakfast by 33%, and after the LC breakfast by 24%. No significant differences in ghrelin concentration among the 3 breakfasts were observed until 120 min. Ghrelin concentrations were correlated with subjective measures of hunger (r = 0.51) and fullness (r = -0.44). The percentage decrease in ghrelin between 0 and 30 min was inversely correlated with the percentage increases in insulin (r = -0.76) and glucose (r= -0.79) but not with changes in leptin (r = 0.10). The percentage changes in ghrelin concentrations between 30 and 180 min were correlated with the percentage changes in insulin (r= -0.53) and leptin (r= -0.47) but not with changes in glucose (r = 0.22). Conclusion: The results support the hypothesis that ghrelin requires postgastric feedback, which may be regulated through insulin.
    Metabolic adaptation and hormonal regulation in young rabbit does during long-term caloric restriction and subsequent compensatory growth
    Rommers, J.M. ; Boiti, C. ; Brecchia, G. ; Meijerhof, R. ; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M. ; Decuypere, M.P. ; Kemp, B. - \ 2004
    Animal Science 79 (2004)2. - ISSN 1357-7298 - p. 255 - 264.
    feed restriction - thyroid-hormones - factor-i - prepubertal gilts - energy-intake - plasma - insulin - chickens - realimentation - performance
    An experiment was performed to assess the metabolic adaptation and hormonal regulation in young female rabbits during long-term food restriction and subsequent compensatory growth during rearing. Feeding level was either ad libitum (AL, no. = 52) or restricted (R, no. = 52). From 6 to 12 weeks of age, food intake of R was kept at a constant level. This resulted in an increase in relative restriction as compared with AL to 0.54of AL intake at 12 weeks of age (restriction period). Thereafter food intake gradually increased to 0.95 of AL at 17 weeks of age (recovery period). During the last 5 days before insemination at 17.5 weeks of age, all animals were fed to appetite. Blood samples were taken weekly from 6 to 17 weeks of age from 11 animals in each group. Growth rate of R was reduced during the restricted period (29 (s.d. 2) v. 44 (s.d. 5) g/day for R and AL, respectively; P <0.05), but was higher in the recovery period (30 (s.d. 3) v. 27 (s.d. 4) g/day, respectively; P <0.05). At first insemination, AL rabbits were heavier than R (4202 (s.d. 388) v. 3798 (s.d. 220) g, respectively; P <0.001). During the restricted period, plasma glucose was constantly lower (P <0.05) in R. Insulin levels paralleled those of glucose, being lower (P <0.05) in R than in AL. Restriction reduced CP <0.05) circulating corticosterone and tri-iodothyronine (T3) levels in R. Leptin, non-esterified fatty acids, and plasma urea nitrogen levels were similar for AL and R during food restriction, whereas triglycerides were similar until 10 weeks of age, after which the levels were lower in R. During the recovery period, the food intake of the R but not AL rabbits increased. Insulin was the only hormone in R rabbits that had returned to levels found in AL rabbits by the 2nd week of the recovery period. Glucose, T3, and corticosterone levels returned to levels found in AL rabbits between 3 to 4 weeks after refeeding. Non-esterified fatty acids, triglycerides, and leptin were higher (P <0.05) in AL rabbits from 13 weeks of age onwards. The pattern of changes in the endocrine status during food restriction and compensatory growth in rabbits do conform with those from other species, although some specific changes may vary depending on the severity of food restriction and its duration.
    Modelling of nutrient partitioning in growing pigs to predict their anatomical body composition. 2. Model evaluation
    Halas, V. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Babinszky, L. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. - \ 2004
    The British journal of nutrition 92 (2004)4. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 725 - 734.
    finishing gilts 45 - energy-intake - growth-performance - lipid accretion - earlier life - 85 kilograms - protein - components - metabolism - deposition
    The objective of the present paper was to evaluate a dynamic mechanistic model for growing and fattening pigs presented in a companion paper. The model predicted the rate of protein and fat deposition (chemical composition), rate of tissue deposition (anatomical composition) and performance of pigs depending on nutrient intake. In the model evaluation, the predicted response of the pig to changes in model parameters and to changes in nutrient intakes is presented. As a result of the sensitivity analysis, changes in the maintenance energy requirements and the fractional degradation rate of muscle protein had the greatest impact on tissue deposition rates. The model was also highly sensitive to changes in the maximum velocity and steepness parameter of the lysine utilisation for muscle protein synthesis. The model was further tested by independent published results. The model successfully predicted the response of pigs to a wide range of variation in nutrient composition. Consequently, the model can be applied to develop feeding strategies to optimise pig production. It also enables prediction of the slaughter performance and the meat quality.
    Modelling of nutrient partitioning in growing pigs to predict their anatomical body composition. 1. Model description
    Halas, V. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Babinszky, L. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. - \ 2004
    The British journal of nutrition 92 (2004)4. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 707 - 723.
    muscle protein-turnover - finishing gilts 45 - energy-intake - lipid accretion - chemical-composition - fattening pigs - feeding level - kg liveweight - earlier life - 85 kilograms
    A dynamic mechanistic model was developed for growing and fattening pigs. The aim of the model was to predict growth rate and the chemical and anatomical body compositions from the digestible nutrient intake of gilts (20-105 kg live weight). The model represents the partitioning of digestible nutrients from intake through intermediary metabolism to body protein and body fat. State variables of the model were lysine, acetyl-CoA equivalents, glucose, volatile fatty acids and fatty acids as metabolite pools, and protein in muscle, hide-backfat, bone and viscera and body fat as body constituent pools. It was assumed that fluxes of metabolites follow saturation kinetics depending on metabolite concentrations. In the model, protein deposition rate depended on the availability of lysine and of acetyl-CoA. The anatomical body composition in terms of muscle, organs, hide-backfat and bone was predicted from the chemical body composition and accretion using allometric relationships. Partitioning of protein, fat, water and ash in muscle, organs, hide-backfat and bone fractions were driven by the rates of muscle protein and body fat deposition. Model parameters were adjusted to obtain a good fit of the experimental data from literature. Differential equations were solved numerically for a given set of initial conditions and parameter values. In the present paper, the model is presented, including its parameterisation. The evaluation of the model is described in a companion paper.
    Economic weights for feed intake in the growing pig derived from a growth model and an economic model
    Hermesch, S. ; Kanis, E. ; Eissen, J.J. - \ 2003
    Journal of Animal Science 81 (2003). - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 895 - 903.
    food-intake capacity - protein turn-over - energy-intake - body protein - lean growth - simulation-model - swine production - live weight - selection - performance
    Economic weights are obtained for feed intake using a growth model and an economic model. The underlying concept of the growth model is the linear plateau model. Parameters of this model are the marginal ratio (MR) of extra fat and extra protein deposition with increasing feed intake (FI) and the maximum protein deposition (Pd-max). The optimum feed intake (FI0) is defined as the minimum feed intake that meets energy requirements for Pd-max. The effect of varying FI and MR on performance traits was determined. An increase in FI results in a larger increase in growth rate with lower MR. For a given MR, feed conversion ratio is lowest when FI equals FI0. Lean meat percentage (LMP) is largest for a low MR in combination with a low FI. The decrease in LMP with higher FI is largest when FI exceeds FI0. Economic weights for FI, MR and Pd-max depend on FI in relation to FI0. Economic weights for FI are positive when FI is less than FI0 and negative when FI is larger than FI0. The MR has only then a negative economic weight, when FI is below FI0. Economic weights of FI and MR have a larger magnitude with lower MR and lower FI. In contrast, economic weights for growth rate and FI derived from the economic model only change in magnitude and not in sign with different levels of these traits. The economic model always puts a negative economic weight on FI since it expresses profit due to a decrease in FI with constant growth rate and LMP. This holds the risk of continuous decrease in FI in pig breeding programs. In contrast, the use of growth models for genetic improvement allows direct selection for an optimum feed intake which maximizes feed efficiency in combination with maximum lean meat growth. It is concluded that recording procedures have to be adapted to collect the data necessary to implement growth models in practical pig breeding applications.
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