Just a bite: Considerably smaller snack portions satisfy delayed hunger and craving
Kleef, E. van; Shimizu, M. ; Wansink, B. - \ 2013
Food Quality and Preference 27 (2013)1. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 96 - 100.
food cravings - energy-intake - size - appetite
Could smaller snack portions be similarly effective in decreasing cravings or feelings of hunger as larger portions? To answer this, three common snack foods – chocolate, apple pie, potato chips – were given to 104 participants as either a small portion (x) or a substantially larger portion (5–10x). Results indicate that smaller portions satisfied one’s ratings of hunger and craving similar to larger portions, but led to a mean intake that was significantly lower than in the large portion condition (with a difference of 103 calories). This suggests that 15 min after eating a considerably smaller snack, people will have eaten much less but will feel equally satisfied.
Texture and satiation: The role of oro-sensory exposure time
Graaf, C. de - \ 2012
Physiology and Behavior 107 (2012)4. - ISSN 0031-9384 - p. 496 - 501.
sugar-sweetened beverages - libitum food-intake - high dietary-fat - cephalic phase - energy-intake - body-weight - oral fat - young-children - satiety - appetite
One of the characteristics of the current obesogenic food supply is the large availability of foods that can be ingested quickly. Controlled nutrition intervention studies have shown that the ingestion of simple energy containing beverages, which are consumed very quickly, do not lead to a lower compensatory intake of other foods. One of the theories behind this observation is that calories that are ingested quickly are not well sensed by the sense of taste, and do not lead to an adequate satiety response. This idea is confirmed by the results of a series of studies, where we have shown that the low satiation/satiety response of beverages can be largely attributed to their short oral residence time. Prolonging the oro-sensory exposure time to foods leads to earlier meal termination and/or a higher satiety response. The low satiation/satiety response to simple energy containing beverages is congruent with the observation from studies on the cephalic phase response to foods, i.e. the physiological response to sensory signals. Energy containing beverages do not lead to an adequate cephalic phase response. Various recent studies showed that slower eating leads to higher levels of satiety hormones. These results are in line with the idea that the sense of taste is a nutrient sensor which informs the brain and the gut about the inflow of nutrients. The sense of taste has an important contribution to the satiating effect of foods. One of the challenges in future research is to see whether or not these proofs of principles can be applied in longer term studies with regular commercial foods. This may make our obesogenic food supply more satiating, and may lead to a lower energy intake. (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier Inc.
Repeated consumption of a large volume of liquid and semi-solid foods increases ad libitum intake, but does not change expected satiety
Hogenkamp, P.S. ; Mars, M. ; Stafleu, A. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2012
Appetite 59 (2012)2. - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 419 - 424.
energy-intake - meal-size - satiation - viscosity - humans - flavor - appetite - women
Food intake and a food’s expected satiating effect initially rely on sensory attributes. People will learn about the food’s satiating capacity by exposure. We investigated whether repeated consumption changed the expected satiety effects and intake of iso-energetic liquid and semi-solid foods. In a randomised cross-over study, participants (n = 53; age: 21 ± 2.9 y; BMI: 21.8 ± 2.0 kg/m2) consumed one of two iso-energetic dairy foods (liquid or semi-solid) for breakfast in each 5-day test condition. Expectations regarding satiety were measured on days 1, 2, and 5. Foods were offered ad libitum on days 1 and 5 and in a fixed volume on days 2–4. Appetite sensations were rated up to 180 min after the start of the session on fixed time points. Expected satiety effects of the semi-solid food were higher than of the liquid food on all days (p <0.0001). Ad libitum intake of the liquid food was higher than of the semi-solid food on day 1 (liquid: 391 ± 177 g, semi-solid: 277 ± 98 g; p <0.0001) and day 5 (liquid: 477 ± 161 g, semi-solid: 375 ± 148 g; p <0.0001). On day 2, hunger was rated lower and fullness rated higher after the semi-solid compared with the liquid food; on day 4, no differences were observed (significant product* exposure interaction AUC). Changes in hunger and fullness indicated that the fixed volumes of liquid and solid food were perceived to be equally satiating after repeated consumption, but this did not result in the anticipated changes: expected satiety effects remained lower, and ad libitum intake higher for the liquid compared with the semi-solid food. The effect of texture on a food’s expected satiety effects and its ad libitum intake appears to be large, also after repeated consumption. Expectations based on sensory cues are not easily changed.
Susceptibility to Overeating Affects the Impact of Savory of Sweet Drinks on Satiation, Reward, and Food Intake in Nonobese Women
Finlayson, G. ; Bordes, I. ; Griffioen-Roose, S. ; Graaf, C. de; Blundell, J.E. - \ 2012
The Journal of Nutrition 142 (2012). - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 125 - 130.
3-factor eating questionnaire - sensory specific satiety - monosodium glutamate - energy-intake - reinforcing value - appetite control - explicit liking - human obesity - weight-gain - body-weight
Taste is involved in food preference and choice, and it is thought that it can modulate appetite and food intake. The present study investigated the effect of savory or sweet taste on satiation, reward, and food intake and according to individual differences in eating behavior traits underlying susceptibility to overeating. In a crossover design, 30 women (BMI = 22.7 ± 2.3; age = 21.9 ± 2.6 y) consumed a fixed energy preload (360 kJ/g) with a savory, sweet, or bland taste before selecting and consuming items from a test meal ad libitum. Sensations of hunger were used to calculate the satiating efficiency of the preloads. A computerized task was used to examine effects on food reward (explicit liking and implicit wanting). The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire was used to compare individual differences in eating behavior traits. Satiation and total food intake did not differ according to preload taste, but there was an effect on explicit liking and food selection. The savory preload reduced liking and intake of high-fat savory foods compared to sweet or bland preloads. The eating behavior trait disinhibition interacted with preload taste to determine test meal intake. Higher scores were associated with increased food intake after the sweet preload compared to the savory preload. Independent of preload taste, disinhibition was associated with lower satiating efficiency of the preloads and enhanced implicit wanting for high-fat sweet food. Savory taste has a stronger modulating effect on food preference than sweet or bland taste and may help to preserve normal appetite regulation in people who are susceptible to overeating.
The amount and type of dairy product intake and incident type 2 diabetes: results from the EPIC-InterAct Study
Sluijs, I. van der; Forouhi, N.G. ; Beulens, J.W. ; Schouw, Y.T. van der; Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2012
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 96 (2012)2. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 382 - 390.
metabolic risk-factors - insulin-resistance syndrome - dietary assessment methods - milk-fat - myocardial-infarction - energy-intake - vitamin-d - consumption - cohort - nutrition
Background: Dairy product intake may be inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes, but the evidence is inconclusive for total dairy products and sparse for types of dairy products. Objective: The objective was to investigate the prospective association of total dairy products and different dairy subtypes with incidence of diabetes in populations with marked variation of intake of these food groups. Design: A nested case-cohort within 8 European countries of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study (n = 340,234; 3.99 million person-years of follow-up) included a random subcohort (n = 16,835) and incident diabetes cases (n = 12,403). Baseline dairy product intake was assessed by using dietary questionnaires. Country-specific Prentice-weighted Cox regression HRs were calculated and pooled by using a random-effects meta-analysis. Results: Intake of total dairy products was not associated with diabetes (HR for the comparison of the highest with the lowest quintile of total dairy products: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.83, 1.34; P-trend = 0.92) in an analysis adjusted for age, sex, BMI, diabetes risk factors, education, and dietary factors. Of the dairy subtypes, cheese intake tended to have an inverse association with diabetes (HR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.02; P-trend = 0.01), and a higher combined intake of fermented dairy products (cheese, yogurt, and thick fermented milk) was inversely associated with diabetes (HR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.78, 0.99; P-trend = 0.02) in adjusted analyses that compared extreme quintiles. Conclusions: This large prospective study found no association between total dairy product intake and diabetes risk. An inverse association of cheese intake and combined fermented dairy product intake with diabetes is suggested, which merits further study
Link between lipid metabolism and voluntary food intake in rainbow trout fed coconut oil rich in medium-chain TAG
Figueiredo-Silva, A.C. ; Kaushik, S. ; Terrier, F. ; Schrama, J.W. ; Médale, F. ; Geurden, I. - \ 2012
The British journal of nutrition 107 (2012)11. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1714 - 1725.
fatty-acid-composition - drum sciaenops-ocellatus - salmon salmo-salar - polka-dot grouper - oncorhynchus-mykiss - feed-intake - plasma cholecystokinin - cromileptes-altivelis - tissue distribution - energy-intake
We examined the long-term effect of feeding coconut oil (CO; rich in lauric acid, C12) on voluntary food intake and nutrient utilisation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), with particular attention to the metabolic use (storage or oxidation) of ingested medium-chain TAG. Trout were fed for 15 weeks one of the four isoproteic diets containing fish oil (FO) or CO as fat source (FS), incorporated at 5 % (low fat, LF) or 15 % (high fat, HF). Fat level or FS did not modify food intake (g/kg0·8 per d), despite higher intestinal cholecystokinin-T mRNA in trout fed the HF-FO diet. The HF diets relative to the LF ones induced higher growth and adiposity, whereas the replacements of FO by CO resulted in similar growth and adiposity. This, together with the substantial retention of C12 (57 % of intake), suggests the relatively low oxidation of ingested C12. The down-regulation of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase-1 (CPT-1) confirms the minor dependency of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) on CPT-1 to enter the mitochondria. However, MCFA did not up-regulate mitochondrial oxidation evaluated using hepatic hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase as a marker, in line with their high retention in body lipids. At a low lipid level, MCFA increased mRNA levels of fatty acid synthase, elongase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase in liver, showing the hepatic activation of fatty acid synthesis pathways by MCFA, reflected by increased 16 : 0, 18 : 0, 16 : 1, 18 : 1 body levels. The high capacity of trout to incorporate and transform C12, rather than to readily oxidise C12, contrasts with data in mammals and may explain the absence of a satiating effect of CO in rainbow trout.
Use of satiety peptides in assessing the satiating capacity of foods
Mars, M. ; Stafleu, A. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2012
Physiology and Behavior 105 (2012)2. - ISSN 0031-9384 - p. 483 - 488.
glucagon-like peptide-1 - energy-intake - promotes satiety - obese subjects - healthy-men - appetite - humans - cholecystokinin - glp-1 - pyy3-36
Foods differ in their satiating capacity. Satiety peptides may help to provide evidence for biological mechanisms behind these differences. The aim of this paper was to discuss the physiological relevance of three individual appetite peptides, i.e. CCK, GLP-1 and PYY, in assessing the satiating capacity of foods. A literature research was conducted on CCK, GLP-1, PYY and satiety; effective exogenous infusion studies and endogenous production studies, i.e. changes induced by foods, were identified. The relative changes in blood concentrations in these studies were compared in order to assess an indication of the physiological relevance of the peptides. Relative changes in the two types of studies investigating CCK overlapped, i.e. increases in serum were 3 to 14-fold in effective exogenous studies (n = 7) and 2 to 8-fold in endogenous production studies (n = 9). The relative changes in GLP-1 and PYY did not overlap; GLP-1: 4 to 16 fold in effective exogenous studies (n = 4) and no effect to 4 fold in endogenous production studies (n = 38). PYY: 3 to 11-fold in effective exogenous studies (n = 14) and no effect to 2-fold in endogenous production studies (n = 10). GLP-1 and PYY show effects on satiety at supra-physiological dosages, they are not likely to contribute individually to a difference in satiating capacity of foods and can therefore not be interpreted in isolation. The effects of CCK are likely to be in the physiological range and therefore may have an individual contribution to a difference in satiating capacity between foods
Research brief : Serving Bowl Selection Biases the Amount of Food Served
Kleef, E. van; Shimizu, M. ; Wansink, B. - \ 2012
Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 44 (2012)1. - ISSN 1499-4046 - p. 66 - 70.
portion sizes - college-students - energy-intake - consumption - distortion - illusions - spoons - volume - impact - eaten
Objective: To determine how common serving bowls containing food for multiple persons influence serving behavior and consumption and whether they do so independently of satiation and food evaluation. Methods: In this between-subjects experiment, 68 participants were randomly assigned to either a group serving pasta from a large-sized bowl (6.9-L capacity) or a medium-sized bowl (3.8-L capacity). Results: Analysis of covariance showed that when given a large-sized bowl, diners served 77% more pasta (364.0 versus 205.5 g; P <.01) and felt more satiated (P ¼ .03) compared with diners given a medium-sized bowl, even though the food was not rated tastier or otherwise notable (all P > .32). Conclusions and Implications: In contrast to those in studies involving larger-sized plates and spoons, people serving from larger bowls felt more satiated. These findings again highlight the role that external cues play in food consumption and show the importance of considering serving bowl size in nutrition education.
Successful development of satiety enhancing food products: towards a multidisciplinary agenda of research challenges
Kleef, E. van; Trijp, J.C.M. van; Borne, J.J.G.C. van den; Zondervan, C. - \ 2012
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 52 (2012)7. - ISSN 1040-8398 - p. 611 - 628.
sensory-specific satiety - glucagon-like peptide-1 - energy-intake - portion size - functional foods - dietary fiber - weight management - low-fat - consumption volume - metabolic syndrome
In the context of increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in societies worldwide, enhancing the satiating capacity of foods may help people control their energy intake and weight. This requires an integrated approach between various food related disciplines. By structuring this approach around the new product development process, this paper aims to present the contours of such an integrative approach by going through the current state of the art around satiety enhancing foods. It portrays actual food choice as the end result of a complex interaction between internal satiety signals, other food benefits and environmental cues. Three interrelated routes to satiating enhancement are (1) change food composition to develop stronger physiological satiation and satiety signals, (2) anticipate and build on smart external stimuli at moment of purchase and consumption, and (3) improve palatability and acceptance of satiety enhanced foods. Key research challenges in achieving those routes in the field of nutrition, food technology, consumer, marketing and communication are outlined
Eating behaviour and retro-nasal aroma release in normal-weight and overweight adults: a pilot study
Zijlstra, N. ; Bukman, A.J. ; Mars, M. ; Stafleu, A. ; Ruijschop, R.M.A.J. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2011
The British journal of nutrition 106 (2011)2. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 297 - 306.
food-intake curve - bite size - flavor release - energy-intake - appetite control - obesity - women - meals - satiation - humans
Eating rate and bite size are important factors affecting food intake, and we hypothesise the underlying role of oral sensory exposure in this. However, the latter currently lacks objective measuring parameters, but an interesting measure could be the extent of in vivo retronasal aroma release. Second, the literature is ambiguous about overweight subjects differing from normal-weight subjects in eating behaviour. Consequently, we investigated: (1) whether eating behaviour (food intake, eating rate, bite size, number of bites and meal duration) relates to weight status and (2) whether the extent of retro-nasal aroma release relates to eating behaviour and weight status. A matched group (sex, age and dietary restraint) of twenty-seven normal-weight (BMI 21.8 (SD 1.6) kg/m(2)) and twenty-seven overweight/obese subjects (BMI 30.5 (SD 5.8) kg/m(2)) consumed a spiced rice meal and apple pie yogurt on separate test days. The extent of retro-nasal aroma release was measured on a third test day. Mean bite size for spiced rice was significantly (P=0.03) larger in overweight/obese (10.3 (SD 3.2) g) v. normal-weight subjects (8.7 (SD 2.1) g). There were no other significant differences in eating behaviour or retro-nasal aroma release between the groups. Eating behaviours were not correlated with BMI or retro-nasal aroma release. Subjects showed consistent eating behaviour for both test products. Eating behaviour might be a characteristic of an individual but not by definition a characteristic for a group of people based on their weight. Given the large sample sizes, necessary according to a posteriori sample size calculations, one needs to consider the relevance of finding a statistically significant difference in eating behaviour between the weight groups in a laboratory setting.
Mediterranean diet and type 2 diabetes risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study: the InterAct project
Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2011
Diabetes Care 34 (2011)9. - ISSN 0149-5992 - p. 1913 - 1918.
prospective cohort - energy-intake - adherence - survival - obesity - health
OBJECTIVE To study the association between adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) and risk of developing type 2 diabetes, across European countries. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We established a case-cohort study including 11,994 incident type 2 diabetic case subjects and a stratified subcohort of 15,798 participants selected from a total cohort of 340,234 participants with 3.99 million person-years of follow-up, from eight European cohorts participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The relative Mediterranean diet score (rMED) (score range 0–18) was used to assess adherence to MDP on the basis of reported consumption of nine dietary components characteristic of the Mediterranean diet. Cox proportional hazards regression, modified for the case-cohort design, was used to estimate the association between rMED and risk of type 2 diabetes, adjusting for confounders. RESULTS The multiple adjusted hazard ratios of type 2 diabetes among individuals with medium (rMED 7–10 points) and high adherence to MDP (rMED 11–18 points) were 0.93 (95% CI 0.86–1.01) and 0.88 (0.79–0.97), respectively, compared with individuals with low adherence to MDP (0–6 points) (P for trend 0.013). The association between rMED and type 2 diabetes was attenuated in people
Trustworthy satiety claims are good for science and society. Comment on 'Satiety. No way to slim'
Graaf, C. de - \ 2011
Appetite 57 (2011)3. - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 778 - 783.
sugar-sweetened beverages - libitum food-intake - body-weight - energy-intake - artificial sweeteners - eating patterns - dietary fiber - appetite - humans - fat
In their short communication against satiety claims, Booth and Nouwen (2010) neglect dozens of well designed studies that show consistent relations between satiety, energy intake and body weight. Satiety, intake and weight are separate concepts, that need different claims and evidence to support them. Satiety can be measured reliably. A repeated higher satiety response to a specific food compared to an appropriate control food may be valuable to consumers who want to avoid hunger. This is good for society. The development of the psycho-biological knowledge to achieve this is good for science. The lawmaker should provide the frame of reference for trustworthy satiety claims. It is then up to the consumer to decide the value of these claims.
A maternal dietary pattern characterised by fish and seafood in association with the risk of congenital heart defects in the offspring
Obermann-Borst, S.A. ; Vujkovic, M. ; Vries, J.H.M. de; Wildhagen, M.F. ; Looman, C.W. ; Jonge, R. de; Steegers, E.A.P. ; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M. - \ 2011
BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology 118 (2011)10. - ISSN 1470-0328 - p. 1205 - 1215.
folic-acid supplements - neural-tube defects - nutritional-status - gene-expression - energy-intake - homocysteine - methylation - pregnancy - methionine - period
Objective To identify maternal dietary patterns related to biomarkers of methylation and to investigate associations between these dietary patterns and the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs) in the offspring. Design Case–control study. Setting Western part of the Netherlands, 2003–08. Population One hundred and seventy-nine mothers of children with CHD and 231 mothers of children without a congenital malformation. Methods Food intake was obtained by food frequency questionnaires. The reduced rank regression method was used to identify dietary patterns related to the biomarker concentrations of methylation in blood. Main outcome measures Dietary patterns, vitamin B and homocysteine concentrations, biomarkers of methylation (S-adenosylmethionine [SAM] and S-adenosylhomocysteine [SAH]) and the risk of CHD estimated by odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results The one-carbon-poor dietary pattern, comprising a high intake of snacks, sugar-rich products and beverages, was associated with SAH (ß = 0.92, P <0.001). The one-carbon-rich dietary pattern with high fish and seafood intake was associated with SAM (ß = 0.44, P <0.001) and inversely with SAH (ß = -0.08, P <0.001). Strong adherence to this dietary pattern resulted in higher serum (P <0.05) and red blood cell (P <0.01) folate and a reduced risk of CHD in offspring: odds ratio, 0.3 (95% confidence interval, 0.2–0.6). Conclusions The one-carbon-rich dietary pattern, characterised by the high intake of fish and seafood, is associated with a reduced risk of CHD. This finding warrants further investigation in a randomised intervention trial.
Increased preconception omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake improves embryo morphology
Hammiche, F. ; Vujkovic, M. ; Wijburg, W. ; Vries, J.H.M. de; Macklon, N.S. ; Laven, J.S.E. ; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M. - \ 2011
Fertility and Sterility 95 (2011)5. - ISSN 0015-0282 - p. 1820 - 1823.
in-vitro fertilization - ovarian stimulation - hormone-levels - holstein cows - energy-intake - dietary-fat - dairy-cows - fish-meal - women - supplementation
The association between preconception dietary intake of the polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) omega-6 and omega-3 and the E2 levels and IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcome were investigated in women in a prospective study. It revealed that high intakes of omega-3 LC-PUFA alpha-linolenic acid increase baseline E2, high intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid reduce E2 response and the number of follicles after ovarian stimulation, and total omega-3 intake, in particular alpha-linolenic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, improve embryo morphology
The preconception Mediterranean dietary pattern in couples undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment increases the chance of pregnancy
Vujkovic, M. ; Vries, J.H.M. de; Lindemans, J. ; Macklon, N.S. ; Spek, P.J. van der; Steegers, E.A.P. ; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M. - \ 2010
Fertility and Sterility 94 (2010)6. - ISSN 0015-0282 - p. 2096 - 2101.
life-style factors - folic-acid - energy-intake - homocysteine - fertility - folate - implantation - performance - population - impact
Objective: To investigate associations between preconception dietary patterns and IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes validated by biomarkers of the homocysteine pathway. Design: Observational prospective study. Setting: A tertiary referral fertility clinic at the Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Patient(s): One hundred sixty-one couples undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment. Intervention(s): No interventions other than the Dutch governmental recommendation of folic acid. Main Outcome Measure(s): Dietary patterns, blood and follicular fluid concentrations of folate, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, homocysteine, and fertilization rate, embryo quality, and pregnancy. Result(s): In women, two dietary patterns were identified. The "health conscious-low processed" dietary pattern (variation explained 12.1%) was characterized by high intakes of fruits, vegetables, fish, and whole grains and low intakes of snacks, meats, and mayonnaise, and positively correlated with red blood cell folate (beta=0.07). The "Mediterranean" dietary pattern (variation explained 9.1%), that is, high intakes of vegetable oils, vegetables, fish, and legumes and low intakes of snacks, was positively correlated with red blood cell folate (beta=0.13), and vitamin B6 in blood (beta=0.09) and follicular fluid (beta=0.18). High adherence by the couple to the "Mediterranean" diet increased the probability of pregnancy, odds ratio 1.4 (95% confidence interval 1.0-1.9). Conclusion(s): A preconception "Mediterranean" diet by couples undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment contributes to the success of achieving pregnancy. (Fertil Steril (R) 2010; 94: 2096-101. (C) 2010 by American Society for Reproductive Medicine.)
|Caloric versus low-caloric sweeteners: Can the body be fooled?
Smeets, P.A.M. - \ 2010
International Sugar Journal 112 (2010). - ISSN 0020-8841 - p. 140 - 147.
human hypothalamic responses - food-intake - intense sweeteners - insulin-release - artificial sweeteners - taste receptors - phase reflexes - energy-intake - oral glucose - appetite
Low-caloric artificial sweeteners have been around for several decades now. Still, the debate over their usefulness in decreasing energy intake is ongoing. In principle, replacing sugar-containing foods with 'light' versions will lead to decreased energy intake. However, the reality of food intake behavior is not so simple and still many people tend to consume more calories than they burn and gain weight. Thus, 'light' products are not the easy solution they seem to be. Food intake regulation takes place in the brain. There, multiple neural and hormonal signals are integrated, ultimately leading to a particular pattern of food intake. For many years, the brain has been treated as a 'black box' in food research and other behavioral research alike. In recent years, however, functional neuroimaging techniques have enabled researchers to examine, noninvasively, the effects of different food stimuli in the human brain. This review summarizes literature on the effects of caloric and low-caloric sweeteners on physiological responses and eating behavior and specifically addresses recent neuroimaging studies. Such studies, along with others, suggest that the body cannot simply be 'fooled' by providing sweet taste without calories. Prevention of excess energy intake may not only be aided by refraining from liquid calories and other energy-dense 'fast foods', but also by a consistent relation between sweetness and caloric content. More research addressing the short as well as the long term effects of the replacement of foods and drinks by (partially) artificially sweetened 'light' versions is warranted.
Effect of genotype and dietary protein level on growth performance and carcass characteristics of fattening pigs in central Vietnam
Pham, K.T. ; Nghia, D.H. ; Ngoan, L.D. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. van der; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2010
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 23 (2010)8. - ISSN 1011-2367 - p. 1034 - 1042.
growing-pigs - energy-intake - body-weight - ambient-temperature - feed-intake - gilts - barrows - quality - boars - requirements
This study aimed to determine the optimum dietary crude protein level in a typical diet for fattening pigs fed ad libitum under normal climate conditions in Central Vietnam. One hundred and ninety two gilts of Mong Cai local breed (MC), F1 Large White??Mong Cai and F2 crossbreds of (Landrace??Mong Cai)??Large White were used. At the start of the experiment, Mong Cai pigs weighed 12 kg at 11 weeks of age, F1 pigs 12.1 kg at 8 weeks of age and F2 pigs 12.2 kg at 8 weeks of age. Four diets differing in crude protein (CP) content (10.1, 13.1, 16.1 and 18.9% in DM) were formulated from rice bran, corn meal, cassava meal and fish meal. Calculated digestible energy content of the diets ranged from 13.5 to 13.8 MJ per kg DM. Pigs were housed individually in pens of 2.5 m2 each and had ad libitum access to feed in a trough as well as water in bowls. The final weights after a growing period of 150 days were 66, 86 and 96 kg for MC, F1 and F2, respectively. Feed intake of MC pigs was highest at 13.1% CP while F1 and F2 had the highest feed intake at 16.1% CP. The results showed that for MC the maximum gain was obtained at levels between 13 to 16% CP. For the F1 the maximum gain was at dietary protein levels of 16-17%. For F2 the max gain was obtained at CP levels of 16 to 18%. Feed conversion was highest in MC pigs (~4.0) followed by F1 (~3.3) and F2 (~3.1), and within genotypes was lowest at the optimum CP level (p
Consumer perceptions of satiety-related snack food decision making
Bilman, E.M. ; Renes, R.J. ; Trijp, J.C.M. van - \ 2010
Appetite 55 (2010)3. - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 639 - 647.
out-of-home - energy-intake - australian children - constant stimuli - expected satiety - dietary behavior - portion size - extra foods - consumption - meal
The aim of this study is to gain more insight into how consumers’ perceptions of the satiety value of snack products influence their choice of such products and to get a better understanding of consumer terminology and perceptions about product-related satiety. Participants were asked to indicate their individual product choice in response to a scenario. Scenarios varied as a between-subject factor in terms of whether information on the time gap till the next meal occasion (favorite main dish) was provided or not, and whether this meal would be eaten after one hour or four hours. To get a better understanding of consumer terminology a repertory grid task was used to elicit consumer attributes relating to satiety. This research shows that, when consumers are confronted with situations that vary in satiety requirements, they do not make significantly different snack products choices. But they do have specific ideas about the product features that influence the perceived satiety level of a product. Products perceived as fat, high in protein, with a savory taste and in one piece are expected to have a higher level of satiety compared to sweet products and products that exist of multiple small items.
The effect of texture differences on satiation in 3 pairs of solid foods
Zijlstra, N. ; Mars, M. ; Stafleu, A. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2010
Appetite 55 (2010)3. - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 490 - 497.
physical state - healthy women - energy-intake - body-weight - meal intake - eating rate - carbohydrate - viscosity - satiety - others
This study explored the effect of texture differences on satiation (ad libitum food intake) in 3 pairs of solid foods. Test products were specially developed luncheon meat, meat replacers and sweets. Each food consisted of a "hard" and "soft" version, expected to lead to different eating rates and consequently to differences in oral sensory exposure time. One hundred and six subjects participated in 7 sessions. During the first sessions, subjects consumed the products ad libitum while watching a movie in a cinema. During the last session, eating rate of all products was measured. Mean intake did not differ significantly between the hard and soft version for any of the products, but subjects who ate more of the soft luncheon meat significantly outnumbered subjects who ate more of the hard version. Eating rate was significantly slower for the hard than for the soft luncheon meat (21±10 vs. 25±13g/min); no differences were found for the other food types. Ad libitum intake was twice as high in the highest versus the lowest quartile of eating rate (p
Appetite control: methodological aspects of the evaluation of foods
Blundell, J.E. ; Graaf, C. de; Hulshof, T. ; Jebb, S.A. ; Livingstone, B. ; Lluch, A. ; Mela, D.J. ; Salah, S. ; Schuring, E. ; Knaap, H.C.M. van der; Westerterp, M. - \ 2010
Obesity Reviews 11 (2010)3. - ISSN 1467-7881 - p. 251 - 270.
sensory-specific satiety - high-fat diet - energy-intake - high-carbohydrate - ad-libitum - base-line - body-weight - individual variability - macronutrient intake - covert manipulation
This report describes a set of scientific procedures used to assess the impact of foods and food ingredients on the expression of appetite (psychological and behavioural). An overarching priority has been to enable potential evaluators of health claims about foods to identify justified claims and to exclude claims that are not supported by scientific evidence for the effect cited. This priority follows precisely from the principles set down in the PASSCLAIM report. The report allows the evaluation of the strength of health claims, about the effects of foods on appetite, which can be sustained on the basis of the commonly used scientific designs and experimental procedures. The report includes different designs for assessing effects on satiation as opposed to satiety, detailed coverage of the extent to which a change in hunger can stand alone as a measure of appetite control and an extensive discussion of the statistical procedures appropriate for handling data in this field of research. Because research in this area is continually evolving, new improved methodologies may emerge over time and will need to be incorporated into the framework. One main objective of the report has been to produce guidance on good practice in carrying out appetite research, and not to set down a series of commandments that must be followed.