The seasonal variation of the CO2 flux over Tropical Asia estimated from GOSAT, CONTRAIL, and IASI
Basu, S. ; Krol, M.C. ; Butz, A. ; Clerbaux, C. ; Sawa, Y. ; Machida, T. ; Matsueda, H. ; Frankenberg, C. ; Hasekamp, O.P. ; Aben, I. - \ 2014
Geophysical Research Letters 41 (2014)5. - ISSN 0094-8276 - p. 1809 - 1815.
atmospheric co2 - carbon balance - emissions - gosat - retrievals - aerosol - fires
We estimate the CO2 flux over Tropical Asia in 2009, 2010, and 2011 using Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) total column CO2(XCO2) and in situ measurements of CO2. Compared to flux estimates from assimilating surface measurements of CO2, GOSAT XCO2 estimates a more dynamic seasonal cycle and a large source in March–May 2010. The more dynamic seasonal cycle is consistent with earlier work by Patra et al. (2011), and the enhanced 2010 source is supported by independent upper air CO2 measurements from the Comprehensive Observation Network for Trace gases by Airliner (CONTRAIL) project. Using Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) measurements of total column CO (XCO), we show that biomass burning CO2 can explain neither the dynamic seasonal cycle nor the 2010 source. We conclude that both features must come from the terrestrial biosphere. In particular, the 2010 source points to biosphere response to above-average temperatures that year.
Canal blocking strategies for hydrological restoration of degraded tropical peatlands in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia
Ritzema, H.P. ; Limin, S. ; Kusin, K. ; Jauhiainen, J. ; Wösten, H. - \ 2014
Catena 114 (2014). - ISSN 0341-8162 - p. 11 - 20.
peat swamp forest - carbon-dioxide - southeast-asia - fluxes - land - co2 - fires - n2o - ch4
In the 1990s the Government of Indonesia derided to develop one million hectares of peatlands for agriculture in Central Kalimantan on the Island of Borneo. The construction of thousands of kilometres of canals resulted in over-drainage and targets for agricultural production failed. Abandoned, the area has been subject to severe forest and peat fires. Restoration of degraded peatlands normally starts with restoring the water table to rewet the surface in order to control fire and to initiate reforestation. Canal blocking strategies are a potential means for accomplishing this. In a test plot in the Northern part of Block C of the former Mega Rice Project (MRP), a series of dams were constructed and (ground)water tables and subsidence rates were monitored to assess the effects of dam construction on peatland hydrology. The resulting higher water tables did not completely compensate for the negative effects of increased subsidence near the canals. The canals, which are "eating" themselves into the peatland, create depressions in the peatland surface leading to interception of overland- and interflow and increased risk of overtopping of dams during extreme rainfall events. The lessons learned are being used to improve blocking strategies and dam design. The changes in peatland topography caused by drainage, however, need to be better understood in order to further refine strategies for hydrological restoration of degraded peatlands in Indonesia. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Biosphere model simulations of interannual variability in terrestrial 13C/12C exchange.
Velde, I.R. van der; Miller, J.B. ; Schaefer, K. ; Masarie, K.A. ; Denning, S. ; White, J.W.C. ; Krol, M.C. ; Peters, W. ; Tans, P.P. - \ 2013
Global Biogeochemical Cycles 27 (2013)3. - ISSN 0886-6236 - p. 637 - 649.
carbon-isotope discrimination - ocean co2 sink - stomatal conductance - c-13 discrimination - atmospheric co2 - cycle - climate - fires - photosynthesis - assimilation
Previous studies suggest that a large part of the variability in the atmospheric ratio of (CO2)-C-13/(12)CO(2)originates from carbon exchange with the terrestrial biosphere rather than with the oceans. Since this variability is used to quantitatively partition the total carbon sink, we here investigate the contribution of interannual variability (IAV) in biospheric exchange to the observed atmospheric C-13 variations. We use the Simple Biosphere - Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach biogeochemical model, including a detailed isotopic fractionation scheme, separate C-12 and C-13 biogeochemical pools, and satellite-observed fire disturbances. This model of (CO2)-C-12 and (CO2)-C-13 thus also produces return fluxes of (13)CO(2)from its differently aged pools, contributing to the so-called disequilibrium flux. Our simulated terrestrial C-13 budget closely resembles previously published model results for plant discrimination and disequilibrium fluxes and similarly suggests that variations in C-3 discrimination and year-to-year variations in C(3)and C-4 productivity are the main drivers of their IAV. But the year-to-year variability in the isotopic disequilibrium flux is much lower (1 sigma=1.5PgCyr(-1)) than required (12.5PgCyr(-1)) to match atmospheric observations, under the common assumption of low variability in net ocean CO2 fluxes. This contrasts with earlier published results. It is currently unclear how to increase IAV in these drivers suggesting that SiBCASA still misses processes that enhance variability in plant discrimination and relative C-3/C(4)productivity. Alternatively, C-13 budget terms other than terrestrial disequilibrium fluxes, including possibly the atmospheric growth rate, must have significantly different IAV in order to close the atmospheric C-13 budget on a year-to-year basis.
Onderzoek naar brandveiligheid voor dieren in veestallen = Study regarding fire safety of barns for farm animals
Bokma-Bakker, M.H. ; Hagen, R.R. ; Bokma, S. ; Bremmer, B. ; Ellen, H.H. ; Hopster, H. ; Neijenhuis, F. ; Vermeij, I. ; Weges, J. - \ 2012
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 641) - 93
veehouderij - brandgevaar - dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - diergezondheid - huisvesting, dieren - stallen - branden - voorkomen van branden - veiligheid - wetgeving - Nederland - livestock farming - fire danger - animal welfare - animal production - animal health - animal housing - stalls - fires - fire prevention - safety - legislation - Netherlands
Study regarding bottle necks in fire safety of barns for farm animals and possible improvements, inter alia in legislation.
Fire effects on soil and hydrology
Stoof, C.R. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Coen Ritsema; A.J.D. Ferreira. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789085859154 - 182
brandgevolgen - branden - bodem - hydrologie - grondverwarming - as - fysische bodemeigenschappen - bodemwaterretentie - bodemtemperatuur - landdegradatie - erosie - fire effects - fires - soil - hydrology - soil heating - ash - soil physical properties - soil water retention - soil temperature - land degradation - erosion
Fire can significantly increase a landscape’s vulnerability to flooding and erosion events. By removing vegetation, changing soil properties and inducing soil water repellency, fire can increase the risk and erosivity of overland flow. Mitigation of land degradation and flooding events after fire can help safeguard natural resources and prevent further economical and ecological havoc, but can benefit from an improved understanding of its drivers.
Planning hydrological restoration of peatlands in Indonesia to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions
Jaenicke, J. ; Wösten, H. ; Budiman, A. ; Siegert, F. - \ 2010
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 15 (2010)3. - ISSN 1381-2386 - p. 223 - 239.
peat swamp forest - tropical peat - kalimantan - malaysia - fluxes - fires
Extensive degradation of Indonesian peatlands by deforestation, drainage and recurrent fires causes release of huge amounts of peat soil carbon to the atmosphere. Construction of drainage canals is associated with conversion to other land uses, especially plantations of oil palm and pulpwood trees, and with widespread illegal logging to facilitate timber transport. A lowering of the groundwater level leads to an increase in oxidation and subsidence of peat. Therefore, the groundwater level is the main control on carbon dioxide emissions from peatlands. Restoring the peatland hydrology is the only way to prevent peat oxidation and mitigate CO2 emissions. In this study we present a strategy for improved planning of rewetting measures by dam constructions. The study area is a vast peatland with limited accessibility in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Field inventory and remote sensing data are used to generate a detailed 3D model of the peat dome and a hydrological model predicts the rise in groundwater levels once dams have been constructed. Successful rewetting of a 590 km² large area of drained peat swamp forest could result in mitigated emissions of 1.4–1.6 Mt CO2 yearly. This equates to 6% of the carbon dioxide emissions by civil aviation in the European Union in 2006 and can be achieved with relatively small efforts and at low costs. The proposed methodology allows a detailed planning of hydrological restoration of peatlands with interesting impacts on carbon trading for the voluntary carbon market.
Wereldwijde houding ten aanzien van ingrepen
Niekerk, T.G.C.M. - \ 2009
V-focus 6 (2009)5. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 12 - 13.
pluimveehouderij - pluimvee - hennen - snavelkappen - sporen (pluimvee) - branden - tenen - scharen (knippen) - dierenwelzijn - onderzoek - wetgeving - Nederland - poultry farming - poultry - hens - debeaking - spurs (poultry) - fires - digits - shears - animal welfare - research - legislation - Netherlands
Ingrepen zoals snavelbehandelen, sporen branden en tenen knippen worden gezien als een ongewenste aantasting van de integriteit van het dier. Ze staan daarom in Nederland sterk ter discussie, maar ook wereldwijd heeft het de aandacht. Er wordt getracht het aantal en de mate van ingrepen terug te dringen via wetgeving (met name in Europa) en onderzoek
Restoration Ecology of Lowland tropical Peatlands in Southeast Asia: Current Knowledge and Future Research Directions
Page, S. ; Hoscilo, A. ; Wösten, J.H.M. ; Jauhiainen, J. ; Silvius, M.J. ; Rieley, J. ; Ritzema, H.P. ; Tansey, K. ; Graham, L. ; Vasander, H. ; Limin, S. - \ 2009
Ecosystems 12 (2009)6. - ISSN 1432-9840 - p. 888 - 905.
peat swamp forest - indonesia - interrelationships - kalimantan - fires
Studies of restoration ecology are well established for northern peatlands, but at an early stage for tropical peatlands. Extensive peatland areas in Southeast Asia have been degraded through deforestation, drainage and fire, leading to on- and off-site environmental and socio-economic impacts of local to global significance. To address these problems, landscape-scale restoration measures are urgently required. This paper reviews and illustrates, using information from on-going trials in Kalimantan, Indonesia, the current state of knowledge pertaining to (i) land-cover dynamics of degraded peatlands, (ii) vegetation rehabilitation, (iii) restoration of hydrology, (iv) rehabilitation of carbon sequestration and storage, and (v) promotion of sustainable livelihoods for local communities. For a 4500 km2 study site in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, we show a 78% reduction in forest cover between 1973 and 2003 and demonstrate that fire, exacerbated by drainage, is the principal driver of land-use change. Progressive vegetation succession follows infrequent, low-intensity fires, but repeated and high-intensity fires result in retrogressive succession towards non-forest communities. Re-wetting the peat is an important key to vegetation restoration and protection of remaining peat carbon stocks. The effectiveness of hydrological restoration is discussed and likely impacts on greenhouse gas emissions evaluated. Initial results indicate that raised water levels have limited short-term impact on reducing CO2 emissions, but could be critical in reducing fire risk. We conclude that successful restoration of degraded peatlands must be grounded in scientific knowledge, relevant to socio-economic circumstances, and should not proceed without the consent and co-operation of local communities
Peat–water interrelationships in a tropical peatland ecosystem in Southeast Asia
Wösten, J.H.M. ; Clymans, E. ; Page, S.E. ; Rieley, J.O. ; Limin, S.H. - \ 2008
Catena 73 (2008)2. - ISSN 0341-8162 - p. 212 - 224.
climate-change - kalimantan - indonesia - forests - fires - bog
Interrelationships between peat and water were studied using a hydropedological modelling approach for adjacent relatively intact and degraded peatland in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. The easy to observe degree of peat humification provided good guidance for the assignment of more difficult to measure saturated hydraulic conductivities to the acrotelm¿catotelm hydrological system. Ideally, to prevent subsidence and fire, groundwater levels should be maintained between 40 cm below and 100 cm above the peat surface. Calculated groundwater levels for different years and for different months within a single year showed that these levels can drop deeper than the critical threshold of 40 cm below the peat surface whilst flooding of more than 100 cm above the surface was also observed. In July 1997, a dry El Niño year, areas for which deep groundwater levels were calculated coincided with areas that were on fire as detected from radar images. The relatively intact peatland showed resilience towards disturbance of its hydrological integrity whereas the degraded peatland was susceptible to fire. Hydropedological modelling identified areas with good restoration potential based on predicted flooding depth and duration. Groundwater level prediction maps can be used in fire hazard warning systems as well as in land utilization and restoration planning. These maps are also attractive tools to move from the dominant uni-sectoral approach in peatland resource management toward a much more promising multi-sectoral approach involving various forestry, agriculture and environment agencies. It is demonstrated that the combination of hydrology and pedology is essential for wise use of valuable but threatened tropical peatland ecosystems.
Changing forest-woodland-savanna mosaics in Uganda: with implications for conservation
Nangendo, G. - \ 2005
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Frans Bongers; A. de Gier, co-promotor(en): H. ter Steege. - Enschede : ITC - ISBN 9789085042006 - 139
bosgebieden - bossen - savannen - savannebossen - ruimtelijke variatie - variatie in de tijd - branden - verbranden - conservering - bedrijfsvoering - uganda - vegetatie - woodlands - forests - savannas - savanna woodlands - spatial variation - temporal variation - fires - burning - conservation - management - uganda - vegetation
Forest-Woodland-Savanna (FWS) mosaics are complex, highly varied and dynamic landscapes.Until recently, they were considered poor in terms of biodiversity. Consequently, only few scientific studies have been done on them and little attention has been paid to their conservation. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the spatial and temporal variation in the FWS vegetation. Budongo Forest Reserve, located in northwestern
Five vegetation cover classes (VCC) and a burnt area cover class were identified and were best classified using Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) combined with an Expert System (overall accuracy was 94.6%). The VCC were well distinguishable in terms of species composition and vegetation structure. Many tree species, however, occurred in more than one VCC and the vegetation showed a gradient in species composition. Fire was identified as the major factor influencing woody plant variation. Along a succession gradient, adults and juveniles of some of the species were found at different locations.
Between 1985 and 2002, the woodland-savanna vegetation increased in 15.1% of the area and decreased in another 14.3%. Three VCC subjected to a similar fire regime for over 46 years also showed a convergence in woody plant composition.
The observed variation along the FWS gradient indicates that each part of the FWS mosaic is essential for the maintenance of the overall diversity within the mosaic. To conserve mosaics, the existing vegetation variation and their spatial and temporal interrelationships need to be conserved. Purposeful fire management is an essential element of this variation.
Dipterocarpaceae: forest fires and forest recovery
Priadjati, A. - \ 2002
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): R.A.A. Oldeman; J. Soedarsono; S.B.J. Menken. - Wageningen : Tropenbos International - ISBN 9789058087539 - 214
dipterocarpaceae - bosbranden - verjonging - effecten - branden - shorea leprosula - milieufactoren - indonesië - dipterocarpaceae - forest fires - regeneration - effects - fires - shorea leprosula - environmental factors - indonesia
One of the serious problems Indonesia is facing today is deforestation. Forests have been playing a very important role in Indonesia as the main natural resources for the economic growth of the country. Large areas of tropical forests, worldwide considered to be among the richest in plant diversity, have been lost in recent years mainly due to inappropriate logging, illegal logging, shifting cultivation, and forest fires. The negative repercussions of these activities are felt from an economical as well as from an ecological point of view.
Time and again, Indonesia has experienced severe droughts often resulting in large forest fires. The fires used to occur only sporadically but now occur regularly every approx. 4 years in the area, with the largest and most destructive ones so far taking place in 1997-98. This climatic phenomenon was linked to a particularly pronounced El Niño Southern-Oscillation (ENSO), combined with numerous fires closely connected with human activities.
'Dipterocarpaceae: Forest fires and forest recovery' discusses a comprehensive ecological understanding of fires, an overview of forest dynamics after fires, and the restoration strategies of the forest. Planting materials are reviewed in terms of their genetic diversity and their growth in different soil substrates, with various mycorrhizal inoculations and levels of light. The present publication is the last in a series adding information to the earlier projects conducted by Smits (1994), Yasman (1995), Hatta (1999) and Omon (2002).
Microclimatic conditions change considerably after forest fires. The burned forest was characterized by elevated levels of light intensity and heat, and significantly reduced levels of humidity. After the fires, the natural dynamics of forest, in terms of regeneration of plants and butterfly communities, was set back to an earlier development phase where there were no more trees, only 2.5% of saplings survived and all saplings shorter than 5 m died. The butterfly community in the burned area had high densities of pioneer species associated with disturbed habitats. Burning caused a significant shift in the forest butterfly community. There was a highly significant variation in sapling and seedling density, diameter, and species richness between burned and unburned forest. Even though sapling height was significantly greater in burned than in unburned forest, there was no significant difference between their growth in both forests. The growth of both saplings and seedlings was completely unaffected by any edge effect in both forest types. The species richness, density and height of seedlings were significantly greater in unburned forest but their growth was significantly greater in burned forest. The diverse seedling community of unburned forest was replaced by a species-poor community of pioneers dominated by Euphorbiaceae.
Dipterocarp forests can recover from fire impact if the damage is not too extensive and the fires are not recurrent, but their natural recovery is too slow to make it economically interesting, and therefore foresters try to restore the desired state of high forest as soon as possible. Their measures are based on the fact that similar microclimatic conditions in both forest types were reached within two years, so assisted recovery can be implemented soon in the burned area by introducing valuable climax tree species i.e dipterocarp species, before they would arrive spontaneously.
Such operations require seedlings. Key issues for the management of dipterocarp stock plants in the nurseries included genetic diversity of the seedlings, choice and preparation of appropriate potting mixes, species-soil original matching, nursery hygiene and mycorrhizal inoculation. Cuttings grown in sandy loam showed a stronger and faster growth than the cuttings in sandy clay loam and loam. The higher sand fraction in the soil provided a good aeration for mycorrhizae and plants roots. Pasteurised soil media increased the growth of seedlings in the nursery. It is assumed that composition, acidity, moisture content and heat of the rooting media can be combined in a treatment optimising the conditions for both root development and root colonisation by fungi, thus increasing the quality and quantity of seedlings produced. It was found that interactions between so many factors lead to a highly complex situation, far from easy to control.
S. leprosulaproved to be very homogeneous as expressed from the similarities in frequencies of the band patterns. The similarity was relatively high between eastern, central and western Kalimantan populations but the nearer the geographic distance the more similar the populations.
The initial inoculation supported S. leprosula to start growing in the greenhouse. In the established dipterocarp nursery, the spores of mycorrhizal fungi inoculated seedlings easily and freely. In 15 months in the greenhouse, all seedlings were colonised by these mycorrhizal weed fungi. Laccaria sp. was the most common one, followed by Thelephora sp. , Riessiella sp. and Inocybe sp . After 12 months in the field, the species composition of mycorrhizal fungi involved in root colonisation changed again. Inocybe sp . was still there, with two new other species being most abundant, namely Amanita sp. and Scleroderma sp. Even though the growth of S. leprosula seedlings in the nursery was supported by initial inoculation, in the field, no initial inoculation seedlings showed a stronger growth because they benefited more from the late stage fungi infecting the plants at the planting location.
When dipterocarps are used, the key to success for a dipterocarp planting is species choice and light control. Selecting species suited to the local soil and site conditions is essential. Light control should correspond to the light requirements of a species during its growing stages, so planting methods should reflect site conditions and growth characteristics of the species. S. leprosula is a light-demanding species at the early stage, 60 to 73% (relative light intensity) for seedlings and 74 to 100% for saplings.
The assisted recovery of pure Imperata cylindrica areas after fires is accelerated using mixed plantations composed of indigenous fast-growing pioneer tree species, i.e Peronema canescens that offer suitable conditions for the establishment of indigenous dipterocarp species. In circumstances without stress by fire, a young P. canescens tree has a well-developed monopodial trunk with a light canopy so that the light intensity under this species is very high or not much lower than in the open site. This shade condition (semi-closed) is not very suitable for S. leprosula seedlings when under-planted under this species. The capacity of P. canescens after fires to reiterate abundantly ('traumatic reiteration') and converge architecturally from Scarrone's model to a physiognomy resembling Leeuwenberg's model provided more favourable environmental conditions for S. leprosula to grow under the canopy of these trees (closed stand). Within almost three years, S. leprosula saplings in a closed stand and in a semi-open area reached a height of 281 to 283 cm and a diameter of 33 to 34 mm, whereas in the open area and under the semi-closed canopy of. P. canescens they were only 165 to 193 cm high and 22 to 27 mm in diameter.
Long-term survival of a species depends on its ability to adapt to environmental change. Adaptability is a two-sided process. It rests on the optimal match between a genotype (organism) and its direct environment (ecosystem patch or 'eco-unit'). It is important to understand the reaction of the plants, so as to select genotypes adapted and adaptable to environmental stress in new environments. For this reason, next to the taxonomical data of S. leprosula , the architectural model and its reiteration are also described in this book.
In Chapter 7 an overview is provided of the fire and forest regeneration issues with special reference to the Dipterocarpaceae and Shorea leprosula . Much practical information is provided on conditions for a successful regeneration of Dipterocarpaceae. It is concluded that the Dipterocarpaceae have become a threatened plant family and that safeguarding the genetic diversity of Shorea leprosula is highly urgent. If Dipterocarpaceae are to survive, the issue of fires must be resolved and dealt with.
|Advies over mogelijke activiteiten na de grote brand van juli 2000 : missie naar Samos, Griekenland 08-13 januari 2001
Hillegers, P.J.M. - \ 2001
Wageningen : Alterra - 16
branden - bosbranden - voorkomen van branden - herstel - kennis - bosbedrijfsvoering - griekenland - bosbrand - landschapsecologie - multifunctioneel landgebruik - toerisme - Samos - fires - forest fires - fire prevention - rehabilitation - knowledge - forest management - greece - Samos
Op Samos woedde zomer 2000 een grote brand, die een grote omvang kreeg door een droge tijd, een optredende hittegolf en een krachtige wind. Nederland was negatief betrokken bij deze brand, omdat het het enige land was, dat een negatief reisadvies afgaf voor toeristen. Diplomatieke bemiddeling resulteerde in een behulpzame missie om aanleiding en methodologie bij bosbranden en de voorkoming ervan aan een nader onderzoek te onderwerpen. Multifunctioneel landgebruik is een optie, de combinatie van recreatie, landbouw, veeteelt en bosbouw evenzo. Daarnaast is voor plattelandsontwikkeling locale participatie en samenwerking van belang
Landscape forming processes and diversity of forested landscapes : description and application of the model FORSPACE
Kramer, K. ; Baveco, J.M. ; Bijlsma, R.J. ; Clerkx, A.P.P.M. ; Dam, J. ; Groen, T.A. ; Groot Bruinderink, G.W.T.A. ; Jorritsma, I.T.M. ; Kalkhoven, J. ; Kuiters, A.T. ; Lammertsma, D.R. ; Prins, H.H.T. ; Sanders, M. ; Wegman, R. ; Wieren, S.E. van; Wijdeven, S. ; Wijngaart, R. van der - \ 2001
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 216) - 168
landschapsecologie - biodiversiteit - vegetatie - begrazing - branden - hoefdieren - herbivoren - populatiedynamica - ruimtelijke variatie - methodologie - modellen - bosecologie - nederland - verstoring - landscape ecology - biodiversity - vegetation - grazing - fires - ungulates - herbivores - population dynamics - spatial variation - methodology - models - forest ecology - netherlands - disturbance
In the project "Landschapsvormende processen en biodiversiteit" ("Landscape forming processes and bioversity") the spatial interactions between autonomous development of a vegetation and landscape forming processes were investigated and their implications for (bio)diversity at the landscape level were evaluated. For this purpose the model FORSPACE was developed which is a spatial explicit process model that describes vegetation dynamics and the impacts of landscape forming processes. In this study emphasis was paid to the effects of grazing by large herbivores and fire on the vegetation. Two approaches to analyse diversity at the landscape scale were developed: 1) a spatial analysis evaluating the time-evolution of dominant vegetation types, and 2) a metapopulation approach that describes the population dynamics of indicator species at the landscape scale depending on the availability of habitat. This report focuses on the methodological aspects of the study and thus acts as a reference for future applied studies. The model structure is described in detail, as well as the approach of spatial analysis and of the metapopulation dynamics of an indicator species. Much emphasis is paid on the validation of the driving processes for trees, herbs and grasses by evaluating controlled simulation experiments. In a case-study on the 200 ha of the Imbos, an area in the centre of the Netherlands, the impacts of grazing by herbivores and its interaction with different fire frequencies were evaluated.
|Brandbaarheid van textiel
Cate, G.J.H. ten - \ 1984
In: NITHOO : nieuwe inventarisatie toegepaste huishoudwetenschappen, onderzoek en onderwijs / van Leeuwen, H., Ruiter, C., Guenther, H., Den Haag : NITHOO-VUGA - p. B91 - 7.
kleding - brandgevaar - voorkomen van branden - branden - textielindustrie - textiel - clothing - fire danger - fire prevention - fires - textile industry - textiles