Seeking alternatives of water-saving irrigation : Sprinkler irrigation for smallholder sugarcane farmers in East Java, Indonesia
Rasyid Ridla Ranomahera, Muhammad ; Ritzema, Henk - \ 2020
In: The 3rd International Conference of Water Resources Development and Environmental Protection. - IOP Publishing (IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science )
East Java - furrow irrigation - smallholder - sprinkler - sugarcane
Sugarcane farmers in Lumajang in East Java Province have a strong preference of using furrow irrigation instead of sprinkler irrigation. To evaluate the possibility of smallholder sprinkler irrigation as an alternative water-saving irrigation method, the aim of this research is to examine the socio-technical dimension of current irrigation practices of smallholder sugarcane farmers, emphasizing the extent of farmer perspectives and knowledge. As comparison to furrows, a smallholder sprinkler system was designed and evaluated. The sprinkler was expected to fit smallholders' acreage, has low investment costs, is easy to build by locals, and is easy in its operation. The responses, perspectives and expectations of farmers to this smallholder sprinkler system are also discussed. The results indicated that smallholder sugarcane farmers perceive furrow irrigation as the best and low-cost irrigation method. They have already spent money on furrow irrigation investment; however, that investment was seen as a burden for their budgets because smallholders perceived sprinkler irrigation as an expensive irrigation method. In addition, the sprinkler could not satisfy their main expectation because it delivered less water than furrows, meaning the soil was not saturated. This mind-set underlines the slow acceptance process of a relatively new irrigation technology implementation for smallholders in Indonesia.
The efficiency of drip irrigation unpacked
Kooij, S. van der; Zwarteveen, M.Z. ; Boesveld, H. ; Kuper, M. - \ 2013
Agricultural Water Management 123 (2013). - ISSN 0378-3774 - p. 103 - 110.
water-use efficiency - furrow irrigation - surface irrigation - root distribution - cotton yield - fruit yield - productivity - soil - l. - tomato
Drip irrigation figures prominently in water policy debates as a possible solution to water scarcity problems, based on the assertion that it will improve water use efficiencies. We use this article to carefully trace the scientific basis of this assertion. Through a systematic review of the literature, we show that the term efficiency means different things to different people, and can refer to different elements in the water balance. Most articles claim that drip irrigation is irrigation water use efficient and crop water use efficient, but different studies use different definitions of these terms. In addition, measured efficiency gains not only refer to different capacities of the technology, but are also based on very specific boundary (scale) assumptions. We conclude that efficiency gains from drip irrigation will only be achieved under narrowly defined operational conditions, and just apply to very specific spatial and temporal scales. Hence, and unlike what generalized statements in policy documents and the overall enthusiasm for drip as a water saving tool suggest, expectations of increased water efficiencies associated with drip will only be realized, and are just realizable, in very specific circumstances.
Surge flow irrigation under short field conditions in Egypt
Ismail, S.M. ; Depeweg, H. ; Schultz, E. - \ 2004
Irrigation and Drainage 53 (2004)4. - ISSN 1531-0353 - p. 461 - 475.
furrow irrigation - infiltration - advance
Several studies carried out in long furrows have shown that surge flow irrigation offers the potential of increasing the efficiency of irrigation. The effects of surge flow in short fields, such as in Egypt, are still not well known, however. To investigate the effect of surge flow irrigation in short fields a series of experiments have been carried out at two different locations in Egypt. The first location with a clay soil was situated at the Agriculture Experimental Station, Assiut University, Assiut. The second location with a sandy soil was situated at the Assiut University Experimental Station for Desert Land, El-Wadi El-Assuity, Assiut. The blocked end furrow lengths and widths were 70 and 0.70 m respectively. Three discharges were selected for each soil type, namely 0.46, 0.74 and 0.90 l s-1 for clay soil and 0.73, 1.0 and 1.4 l s-1 for sandy soil. For each discharge two cycle times were investigated, namely 16 and 24 minutes. For each cycle time three cycle ratios were chosen, 1/4, 1/2 and 3/4 for the 16-minute and 1/3, 1/2, and 2/3 for the 24-minute cycle time. The water content was measured at three locations, namely at the beginning, middle and end of the furrow. In each location three points were measured in a vertical line at a depth of 0-0.1, 0.1-0.3 and 0.3-0.7 m. The results show that surge flow irrigation leads to a more uniform water distribution along the furrows than continuous flow. This uniformity is more pronounced in clay soil than in sandy soil. Surge flow irrigation decreases the advance time in comparison to continuous flow. The reduction in advance time was more pronounced with the discharges of 0.74 and 1.0 l s-1 in clay and sandy soil respectively. The 24-minute cycle time is better than the 16-minute cycle time. The reduction in advance time with a cycle time of 24 minutes is due to the effect of the off-time. Different cycle ratios can be used but the 1/3 cycle ratio may be the best. In conclusion, surge flow irrigation under the short field conditions as prevailing in Egypt decreases the advance time, increases uniformity and efficiency by decreasing deep percolation and reduces applied water volume by 15-35%
SURDEV: surface irrigation software; design, operation, and evaluation of basin, border, and furrow irrigation
Jurriëns, M. ; Zerihun, D. ; Boonstra, J. ; Feyen, J. - \ 2001
Wageningen : International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement/ILRI (ILRI publication 59) - ISBN 9789070754563
oppervlakte-irrigatie - irrigatiewater - modellen - computer software - kombevloeiing - strooksgewijze bevloeiing - greppelbevloeiing - irrigatie - software - surface irrigation - irrigation water - models - computer software - basin irrigation - border irrigation - furrow irrigation - software
SURDEV is a computer package for the design, operation, and evaluation of surface irrigation. SURDEV combines three sub-programs: BASDEV (for basin irrigation), FURDEV (for furrow irrigation), and BORDEV for (border irrigation). This combination enables the user to simulate many of the problems involved in the practice of surface irrigation. In addition to simulations, SURDEV performs calculations of the optimal flow rates, field lengths, and cut-off times necessary in surface-irrigation situations specified by the user
|Zandfilters zijn hulp bij het verwijderen van schimmelsporen uit gietwater
Os, E.A. van; Amsing, J. ; Runia, W. ; Kuik, F. van - \ 1997
De Boomkwekerij 7 (1997). - ISSN 0923-2443 - p. 24 - 25.
cultuurmethoden - filtratie - greppelbevloeiing - hydrocultuur - houtachtige planten als sierplanten - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - gewasbescherming - zand - bodem - oppervlakte-irrigatie - afvalwaterbehandeling - waterzuivering - cultural methods - filtration - furrow irrigation - hydroponics - ornamental woody plants - plant pathogenic fungi - plant protection - sand - soil - surface irrigation - waste water treatment - water treatment
Op sommige boomkwekerijen zijn zandfilters voor de ontsmetting van recirculatiewater in gebruik. Met deze filters lukt het om sporen van Phytopthora en Pythium uit het gietwater te verwijderen. De zandfilters zijn niet geschikt voor de verwijdering van aaltjes en Fusarium
Zoutophoping en -uitspoeling in samenhang met het druppelsysteem bij de teelt op steenwol = The influence of the drip system upon the accumulation and leaching of salts in rockwool cultures
Noordwijk, M. van; Raats, P.A.C. - \ 1981
Haren Gr. : Instituut voor Bodemvruchtbaarheid (Rapport / Instituut voor Bodemvruchtbaarheid no. 9-81) - 37
greppelbevloeiing - verbetering - steenwol - verzilting - natrium - bodem - oppervlakte-irrigatie - furrow irrigation - improvement - rockwool - salinization - sodium - soil - surface irrigation
Bij gebruik van steenwol als substraat voor de teelt van tuinbouwgewassen kunnen problemen ontstaan verband houdend met het verdelingspatroon van de voedingsoplossing. In dit rapport wordt het transportproces van de voedingsoplossing beschreven aan de hand van proefnemingen met een kleurstof. Vanuit theoretisch oogpunt wordt aangegeven in welke mate doorspoeling nodig kan zijn bij gebruik van slecht of matig gietwater. Tenslotte worden praktische adviezen gegeven over de plaatsing van druppelaars en afvoerspleten
|Kapillarbewaesserung : Topfpflanzen : Literatur 1969 - 1977
Anonymous, - \ 1978
Wageningen : Pudoc (Literatuurlijst / Centrum voor landbouwpublikaties en landbouwdocumentatie no. 4115)
bibliografieën - greppelbevloeiing - potplanten - sprinklers - oppervlakte-irrigatie - binnen kweken (van planten) - bibliographies - furrow irrigation - pot plants - sprinklers - surface irrigation - indoor culture
Anonymous, - \ 1977
Wageningen : IMAG (Publikatie / Instituut voor mechanisatie, arbeid en gebouwen no. 95) - 30
sierplanten - greppelbevloeiing - oppervlakte-irrigatie - sprinklers - ontginning - landinrichting - land - boerderij uitrusting - landbouwwerktuigen - ornamental plants - furrow irrigation - surface irrigation - sprinklers - reclamation - land development - land - farm equipment - farm machinery
Infiltration characteristics of furrow irrigation in a heavy-textured soil
Grassi, C.J. - \ 1972
Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): J. Nugteren. - Wageningen : Veenman - 127
greppelbevloeiing - hydraulisch geleidingsvermogen - infiltratie - kwel - bodemwater - subtropen - oppervlakte-irrigatie - tropen - venezuela - furrow irrigation - hydraulic conductivity - infiltration - seepage - soil water - subtropics - surface irrigation - tropics - venezuela
The objective of this thesis is to study the rate and pattern of infiltration of soil water, under the conditions of heavy texture and shallow depth in a tropical furrow- irrigated soil. The analysis is the result of a series of field-experiments and is supported by theories that has been proposed by others.The experiments were carried out in the Cojedes-Sarare Irrigation Project, Portuguesa State, Venezuela. Furrows with a length of 200 m, spaced at w = 0.70 m, and with an average slope of 0. 18 % were used. Three series of experiments were set out: (i) First series with variable inflow and surface roughness; (ii) Second series with variable initial soil moisture content; (iii) Third series with variable furrow length. Replicates of the treatments were distributed at random.Five irrigations were applied to the land during the period from January to March, 1970. Subsequently in the first series of experiments, first, third and fourth irrigations for three roughness conditions and four sizes of flow were tested. The second irrigation was used for the second series of experiments. The fifth irrigation served for the third series of experiments.During the first series of experiments, the following measurements were taken: (i) rate of advance of the water front (distance x in m at time t in min); (ii) furrow section parameters (top width T and depth h ); (iii) furrow inflow Q and outflow Q out . During the second and the third series of experiments, only the simultaneous inflow and outflow were recorded.Advance and infiltration functions were obtained for the period of advance of the water front (first stage), and infiltration functions for the period of wetting the root zone (second stage). Exponential equations were obtained by computer analysis for single furrow trials. Then, by averaging coefficients and exponents of the equations of the replicates, general equations for each treatment were found.The data of x as a function of t showed a good fit with the equation x = p t r . The coefficient p increased significantly with the flow size Q and the exponent r showed a trend to decrease although not significantly, with increasing Q . The coefficients of variation of p and r were rather high. Therefore a single furrow advance trial may not suffice to express the average field advance of the water front under the given conditions.The advance curves showed that the differences in roughness were great between the first irrigation with loose furrows and those irrigations after two or three applications have taken place. The roughness conditions appeared to be identical for third and fourth irrigations.With distance-averages of the furrow section parameters h and T , for three water front advance stages ( x = 87.5 m, x = 137,5 m and x = 175.0 m), the average section a f , and the average wetted perimeter P were obtained for a parabolic section of the furrows. The surface volume V f = a f p t r , and the area of infiltration A i (net area A in = P pt r and gross area A ig = w pt r ) were then arrived at.The infiltration functions were found for each treatment during the first stage, as V i= f(t) by using single furrow data of V i = Q t - V s ,. As the average infiltration depth I cum = V i / A i , the equations for I cum= f(t) were obtained. Equating these functions with the equation I cum = F at b+1/( b + 1) ( b + 2), the parameters a and b of the Kostiakov equation ( I = a t b ) were derived. For the second stage (when x = L = 175.0 m), the infiltration function was obtained by simultaneous measurements of the inflow and outflow, as infiltration flow: Q i = Q - Q out , from which the parameters of the infiltration equations, were found.The increase of infiltration with inflow size was clearly shown from the data analysis of both stages as being the effect of a larger volume of water. The parameters of the infiltration equation for the first stage altered in successive irrigations.Some emphasis was put on the unit inflow function q0 to relate flow sizes for both stages with length of run and infiltration. Equations for the unit inflow q0 = Q / A i and for unit infiltration flow q i = Q i / A i per unit area, were obtained for each treatment. Then a generalized type of equation was introduced which relates the unit inflow function with the average depth of water infiltrated during the advance time at the furrow intake. An equation to predict the length of advance is included x = φ( Q ) t 0.927, for the surface roughness and soil conditions under which the experiments were carried out. The representation of q0= f(t) and q i = f(t) for both stages, in a composite figure with the advance function as a function of time, provides an illustration of the infiltration process, usable for the design and management of furrow irrigation under the conditions of the experiments.The relationship between the exponent of time in the advance equation and the exponent of time in the infiltration equation was analysed with the data from the experiments. This analysis confirmed that r increases when ( b + 1) decreases. This agrees with findings in the literature, such as the relationship proposed by FOK and BISHOP (1965) Values for the surface storage coefficient C 1 = D / D0 , and infiltration coefficient C 2 = I cum / I cum0 to solve the balance equation for predicting advance were also obtained.The second series of experiments, in which infiltration rate was measured during the second stage, as a function of the initial moisture content, showed that the value of the coefficient a of the Kostiakov equation increased not significantly as the initial content of soil moisture decreases.The third series of experiments - measurements taken during the second stage - showed that upon the increase of furrow length, the coefficient a of the infiltration equation decreases and the exponent b increases.Water losses by deep percolation and by run-off at the end of the run, were finally analysed on the bases of the equations found and the data available. The analysis was made for the case of constant inflow for both stages (third irrigation), and for the case of reduced inflow during the second stage (fourth irrigation).The data analysis showed that infiltration is a very variable factor affected by the conditions of the soil and the surface of the channel bed, as well as by the size of the flow, furrow length and stage of irrigation. Soil cracking upon drying was found to be a relevant factor in the entry of water into the soil. Because deep percolation losses are certainly very small under the indicated physical conditions, irrigation efficiency will be rather high if provisions are made to use a cut-back stream, during the second stage, in order to lose a minimum of water by run-off at the end of the run.
Het tertiaire vak
Nugteren, J. - \ 1967
Wageningen : Veenman - 18
irrigatie - strooksgewijze bevloeiing - greppelbevloeiing - irrigation - border irrigation - furrow irrigation