Framework to determine the effectiveness of dietary exposure mitigation to chemical contaminants
Fels, H.J. van der; Edwards, S. ; Kennedy, M. ; O'Hagan, A. ; O'Mahony, C. ; Scholz, G. ; Steinberg, P. ; Tennant, D. ; Chiodini, A. - \ 2014
Food and Chemical Toxicology 74 (2014). - ISSN 0278-6915 - p. 360 - 371.
chromatography-mass spectrometry - solid-phase microextraction - extraction-gas chromatography - single-laboratory validation - fusarium mycotoxin content - methyl mercury exposure - spme-gc-ms - risk-assessment - baby-food - fish consumption
In order to ensure the food safety, risk managers may implement measures to reduce human exposure to contaminants via food consumption. The evaluation of the effect of a measure is often an overlooked step in risk analysis process. The aim of this study was to develop a systematic approach for determining the effectiveness of mitigation measures to reduce dietary exposure to chemical contaminants. Based on expert opinion, a general framework for evaluation of the effectiveness of measures to reduce human exposure to food contaminants was developed. The general outline was refined by application to three different cases: 1) methyl mercury in fish and fish products, 2) deoxynivalenol in cereal grains, and 3) furan in heated products. It was found that many uncertainties and natural variations exist, which make it difficult to assess the impact of the mitigation measure. Whenever possible, quantitative methods should be used to describe the current variation and uncertainty. Additional data should be collected to cover natural variability and reduce uncertainty. For the time being, it is always better for the risk manager to have access to all available information, including an assessment of uncertainty; however, the proposed methodology provides a conceptual framework for addressing these systematically.
Determination of T-2 and HT-2 toxins in food and feed: an update
Krska, R. ; Malachova, A. ; Berthiller, F. ; Egmond, H.P. van - \ 2014
World Mycotoxin Journal 7 (2014)2. - ISSN 1875-0710 - p. 131 - 142.
tandem mass-spectrometry - performance liquid-chromatography - fusarium mycotoxin content - in-house validation - lc-ms/ms method - a trichothecenes - immunoaffinity cleanup - fluorescence detection - gas-chromatography - masked mycotoxins
Based on the recent scientific opinion of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain on the risks to human and animal health related to the presence of T-2 and HT-2 toxins in food and feed that was published by EFSA in the EFSA Journal, this article provides an update on the determination of these Fusarium mycotoxins. After a brief introduction into the chemistry of these toxins, both chromatographic and immuno-analytical methods are discussed for the determination of these type A trichothecenes. During the last decade, liquid chromatography with (tandem) mass spectrometry has become the most frequently used method for the determination of T-2 and HT-2 toxins, often within a multi-analyte approach. However, complex matrices and the resulting signal suppression effects, as observed particularly in electrospray-mass spectrometry methods owing to matrix effects, may require careful optimisation of clean-up, usage of matrix matched standards, or e.g. the use of internal standards. For specific purposes where extremely low limits of quantification are needed, e.g. for the analysis of duplicate diets, a dedicated gas chromatography method with multistage mass spectrometry has become available. Other novel analytical approaches to determine T-2 and HT-2 toxins in food and feed include biosensor-based methods in surface plasmon resonance and electrochemical formats, as well as DNA microchip assays. For rapid screening, several immunochemical methods (mostly ELISAs) have become available and some are sold as commercial test kits. Whereas these methods work fast, cross-reactivities with other trichothecenes can have an undesired effect on their accuracy. While proficiency tests including T-2 and HT-2 toxins have been carried out, none of the chromatographic or immunochemical methods have been formally validated in interlaboratory validation studies. There are no certified reference materials available for T-2 and HT-2 toxins.
T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin in grain and grain-based commodities in Europe: occurrence, factors affecting occurrence, co-occurence and toxicological effects
Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der; Stratakou, I. - \ 2010
World Mycotoxin Journal 3 (2010)4. - ISSN 1875-0710 - p. 349 - 367.
fusarium mycotoxin content - in-vitro toxicity - human-lymphocytes - trichothecene mycotoxins - induced apoptosis - lymphoid organs - t2 toxin - mice - cells - rats
This paper presents an overview of the occurrence of T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin in cereals in Europe and derived food products, factors influencing the occurrence, co-occurrence with other trichothecenes, and toxicological effects of T-2 and HT-2 in human. Of all cereals, oats showed to be most susceptible to T-2/HT-2 contamination. Particularly, oats grown in Scandinavia and UK in the period 2003-2007 were highly contaminated. This contamination has reduced in 2008 and 2009. In raw cereals, T-2 and HT-2 levels were highly correlated with each other in most instances, with the HT-2 level being two to seven times higher than the T-2 level. The toxin levels showed not to be correlated with levels of deoxynivalenol and nivalenol. The occurrence of T-2 and HT-2 in the field varied between years, regions, cereal grain varieties, sowing time, and precrop. Organically produced cereals contained lower T-2 and HT-2 levels as compared to conventionally grown cereals. Little or no effects from using fungicides was seen. Processing cereals resulted in low T-2 and HT-2 levels in food products, although oat products contained some T-2 and HT-2. The by-products from food processing, often used for animal feeding, frequently were highly contaminated. T-2 and HT-2 showed to have high acute and subacute toxicity, as they caused haematotoxic, immunotoxic, cytotoxic, and dermal effects. Carcinogenicity of T-2 and HT-2 in human has not been proven. Outbreaks of human toxicosis caused by trichothecenes, including T-2 and HT-2, have been reported. The present overview is deemed to be valuable for risk assessments at the European level, planned to be held by EFSA. It also provides directions for further research, including the ecology of the fungi responsible for T-2 and HT-2, and agronomical practices to reduce the contamination in the field.