Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Improvement of village chicken production in a mixed (chicken-ram) farming system in Burkina Faso
    Kondombo, S.R. - \ 2005
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Martin Verstegen; A.J. Nianogo, co-promotor(en): Rene Kwakkel; Maja Slingerland. - Wageningen : - ISBN 9789085042952 - 200
    kippen - schapen - pluimveehouderij - schapenhouderij - gemengde landbouw - plattelandsgemeenschappen - prestatieniveau - verbetering - diervoedering - burkina faso - fowls - sheep - poultry farming - sheep farming - mixed farming - rural communities - performance - improvement - animal feeding - burkina faso
    Keywords:Village chickens, sheep, production system, feeding, fattening, integration,Burkina Faso.

    Animal production in general and chickens and small ruminants in particular play importantsoci-economic roles in developing countries. Production of village chickens is a source of easy and regular income for rural farmers in developing countries in general and inBurkina Fasoin particular. Unfortunately efforts to improve this production system were not very effective and village chickens still have low productivity. Due to the roles of village chickens, the Strategic Research Plan of Burkina Faso recommended to invest in gathering knowledge on this production and in conducting research for the improvement of the system. The current study started with survey and literature reviews to analyse the existing production systems at farm level. Special attention was given to farmers' practices and to identification of local feed resources and their use. Secondly studies were designed in order to improve the most common village chicken production systems based on scavenging. On-station studies were undertaken in 2 research stations in the Central and East Regions of Burkina Faso and on-farm trials were undertaken in 6 villages in the same regions. System analyses showed that both village chicken and sheep fattening could be used for improvement of livestock production and subsequent income generation at rural farm level. Furthermore, an integrated village chicken and ram fattening farming system appeared to be a promising possibility for village chicken improvement. It allows to control village chicken scavenging and to reduce the high risks related to the free-range system. The studied demonstrated that regular supplementation with locally available feedstuffs as sorghum or local beer by-product can be used as feeding strategies to improve village chicken production. Commercial complete chicken diets may also be used but only as supplement to scavenging because village chickens did not perform well with complete diet in confinement conditions. Further, crop residues can be valorised in sheep fattening with incorporation of 30% of concentrate feed. The results of these studies are used to integrate village chickens and ram fattening production in an Integrated Production System (IPS). The results of this IPS indicate that with adequate supplementation, the IPS allowed to achieve a daily growth of village cockerels up to 10.4 g/d/bird. Such a level was not found in other conditions of feeding tested so far. Taking the case ofBurkina Faso, the study demonstrated that the IPS can serve to obtain an annual income that is above the low poverty line. The tested IPS is an integrated farming system in which rams are fattened and village chickens are allowed to scavenge on the refusals of these rams. In this IPS chickens and rams are reared in a limited area. These controlled conditions give the opportunity to invest with low risks in village chicken production by improving feeding, health care, housing and management, making village chicken rearing more profitable. IPS appears to be a framework within which most activities for improvement of village chicken production can be implemented. IPS fits to farmers' conditions and strategies of keeping multiple species and using essentially locally available resources. IPS can be used for poverty alleviation in developing countries in general and inBurkina Fasoin particular.
    Comparing specialised and mixed farming systems in the clay areas of the Netherlands under future policy scenarios: an optimisation approach
    Bos, J. - \ 2002
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): H. van Keulen; J.A. Renkema; G.W.J. van de Ven. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058087393 - 256
    bedrijfssystemen - gemengde landbouw - landbouwbeleid - milieubeleid - gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - interdisciplinair onderzoek - modellen - analyse - stikstofbalans - verontreiniging - nederland - lineair programmeren - farming systems - mixed farming - agricultural policy - environmental policy - cap - linear programming - interdisciplinary research - models - analysis - nitrogen balance - pollution - netherlands

    Keywords: interdisciplinary analysis, mixed farming, linear programming, agricultural policy, environmental policy

    Increasing attention for the sustainability concept also caused renewed interest in mixed farming systems in the Netherlands, which supposedly have some advantages over specialised farming systems. These advantages are not unambiguous and may also be realised in specialised farming systems. A systematic quantification of differences in environmental and economic performance between specialised and mixed farming systems was therefore considered useful. The multiple goal linear programming model developed in this study optimises the configuration of regionally specialised or mixed farming systems, subject to a set of constraints, to one of a set of defined objectives, selecting from a large set of agricultural activities. A second focal point of this thesis is agricultural policy analysis. With regard to these policies, numerous 'what if' questions can be posed. Such questions addressed in this thesis consider the optimal configuration of farming systems under Dutch manure policy regulations, the efficacy of these regulations in reducing emissions and the impact of reforms of the European Union's Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) on optimal configuration of farming systems.

    Model results suggest that economic performance of mixed farming systems is better than that of specialised farming systems. Differences in economic performance originate from agronomic-technical, organisational and institutional differences. Significant differences in environmental performance are absent.

    Dutch manure policy regulations still allow agricultural practices that are associated with relatively high leaching losses. It is proposed to implement additional, means-oriented policy instruments, specifically targeted to reducing leaching loss and incorporating financial incentives.

    Moderate CAP reforms as anticipated in Agenda 2000 are not likely to induce drastic changes in land use in the Netherlands other than resulting from autonomous developments. In contrast, a drastic reform - full liberalisation - is likely associated with considerable changes in agricultural land use. Farms will roughly be divided in two categories: large-scale, highly specialised farms and farms combining food production with contributions to other societal goals.

    Het gemengde bedrijfstype in Zuid-Holland-Zuid
    Sluis, B.J. van der; Buurma, J.S. ; Hietbrink, O. - \ 2001
    Den Haag : LEI - ISBN 9789052426495 - 33
    gemengde landbouw - tuinbouw - groenteteelt - nederland - zuid-holland - glastuinbouw - mixed farming - horticulture - vegetable growing - netherlands - zuid-holland - greenhouse horticulture
    Structuuranalyse Nieuwe Veehouderijsystemen. Bijlagen
    Langeveld, J.W.A. ; Rie, J.F.F.P. van; Wolbrink, M. ; Immink, V.M. ; Zaalmink, B.W. ; Jonker, J.M.E. - \ 2000
    Wageningen : Plant Research International - 28
    agrarische structuur - bedrijfsontwikkeling in de landbouw - bedrijfsvergelijking in de landbouw - internationale vergelijkingen - melkveehouderij - vleesvee - varkenshouderij - pluimveehouderij - gemengde landbouw - agricultural structure - farm development - farm comparisons - international comparisons - dairy farming - beef cattle - pig farming - poultry farming - mixed farming
    3 bijlagen: 1. Structuur van de veehouderij in Noord-West Europa. In deze 1e bijlage wordt de structuur van de primaire sector in Noord-West Europa besproken. Hierbij wordt uitgegaan van de reeds in de hoofdtekst gebruikte EUROSTAT dataset. Met name wordt gekeken naar de verschillende bedrijfstypen, zoals ze voorkomen in België, Denemarken en Duitsland. Deze worden onderling vergeleken. 2. Historische ontwikkelingen in het buitenland. Gebruikmakend van dezelfde dataset als voor Nederland wordt in deze 2e bijlage gekeken naar vergelijkbare ontwikkelingen in andere landen van Noord-West Europa, met name in België, Denemarken en Duitsland. 3. Sectorale ontwikkelingen in de niet-primaire sector in Nederland. In deze laatste bijlage worden de ontwikkelingen, die de afgelopen 4 decennia hebben plaatsgevonden in de sector alsmede in de omgeving van de sector, weergegeven, waarbij vooral wordt ingegaan op de factoren, die van belang zijn geweest voor de vorming van de huidige structuur van veehouderijsector in Nederland.
    Mixed farming : scope and constraints in West African savanna
    Slingerland, M. - \ 2000
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): H. van Keulen. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058082428 - 289
    bedrijfssystemen - gemengde landbouw - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - landgebruik - vee - trekdieren - technologieoverdracht - savannen - west-afrika - dierlijke trekkracht - verspreiding van onderzoek - landbouwvoorlichting - farming systems - mixed farming - natural resources - land use - livestock - draught animals - technology transfer - savannas - west africa - animal power - diffusion of research - agricultural extension

    Since colonial times the crop livestock integration concept has been a leading development model in francophone West Africa. So far, it has failed in certain aspects, such as cultivation of fodder crops, intensification of cereal production through animal traction, and sedentarisation of mobile livestock keepers. Three major flaws in the concept have been identified, that are partly responsible for the reported failure: neglect of the farm (household) context, neglect of the financing role of livestock, neglect of competition for land and labour. Whether crop livestock integration can remain the leading development model in a situation of high population growth, has been explored through the following research question:

    "Is crop livestock integration or mixed farming a suitable model for farming systems development, leading to guaranteed food security and socio-economic survival for all social entities of the rapidly increasing population in Sahelian countries, without endangering their resource basis?"

    The context

    Physical context

    In the study area, the village Kaïbo Sud V5, Province Zoundwéogo, Burkina Faso, resources and their use appeared to be heterogeneous. Scenario studies with SHARES, a model at the level of Kaïbo Sud V5, and HOREB, a model at the level of an average farm in Zoundwéogo province, indicated that self-sufficiency in grain can not be achieved under currently applied crop and animal production technology in average rainfall years. External inputs in the form of inorganic fertiliser and/or concentrate feed for livestock are needed to compensate unavoidable nutrient losses, and a cart is needed to allow intensive management of crop residues and manure.

    Agricultural knowledge system

    In Burkina Faso, policy makers, research and extension appear to follow the transfer of technology model, a top-down approach leading to development of technologies that are not necessarily addressing farmers' needs. Research is either curiosity-driven or guided by objectives of policy makers. Extension only reaches a limited number of farmers, hence the progressive farmers approach dominates their relations. Farmers generally adopt proposed technologies, either because they have the means to introduce the innovations or because the proposed innovation suits them best. Only farmers that adopted technologies were contacted subsequently, and in turn, those farmers actively asked research and extension for solutions to their problems. Only when they were recognised as a constituency of the policy makers, they could influence the research agenda. Resource-poor farmers and mobile livestock keepers are neither recognised as a constituency nor possessed the means to innovate, hence they hardly benefit from research and extension.

    Farming systems development

    A framework situating discrete farming systems in the development perspective of mixed farming, has been designed. The framework ranges from separate specialised low external input (LEIA) systems, through integrated and mixed farming systems without or with external inputs, to specialised high external inputs (HEIA) farming systems. Observed farming systems in Burkina Faso could be classified within the proposed framework. Policy makers, driven by the objective to settle and control mobile herdsmen and to constrain crop producers to permanent fields, aimed at mixed farming systems for everyone. The recent sustainability debate appears to support their promotion of mixed (LEIA) farming systems because they are assumed to reduce nutrient losses. Mobile Fulani herdsmen engage in crop production only, when forced by circumstances, such as drought or animal diseases, leading to severe losses in livestock, making continuation of their former way of life impossible. Mixed farming is a poverty-induced option for them and therefore not attractive. For Mossi crop producers, on the contrary, wealth is the drive towards mixed farming, cattle being needed to support the associated technologies, such as animal traction and use of manure. Resource-poor farmers going into mixed farming have to apply labour-intensive techniques (their only resource) and, because of their low purchasing power, they cannot afford external inputs and have no option but to (over) exploit the environment. High external input (HEIA) farming should avoid pollution of the environment.

    Ecologically, both HEIA and LEIA can have negative effects on natural resource quality. Socio-economically, high agricultural production per unit area, based on the use of external inputs will lead to larger scale production and lower prices. Resource-poor farmers cannot follow this development and run the risk of being expelled from farming. Economically, HEIA farming is only sustainable when cash crops are cultivated or when high prices can be guaranteed. Around cities, capital intensive production systems can exist, because of the high purchasing power of the urban population and because of the short producer-consumer lines. In rural areas, farming systems that do not rely on high-quality infrastructure and use labour-intensive techniques, achieving moderate production levels are most suitable, guaranteeing local self-sufficiency in food. Production for export should be based on industrially organised systems using high levels of external inputs and capital. To aim at a variety of farming systems, each addressing specific societal needs, seems a more suitable strategy than to aim at the mixed farming system proposed in the model.

    Financing role of livestock

    In the mixed farming model, the role of livestock was limited to the supply of manure and animal power for crop production, and to value crop residues. For farmers in Burkina Faso and elsewhere in West Africa, livestock plays an important role as capital asset, to cover (emergency) cash needs. In farming systems where crop production depends on erratic rainfall, as in West Africa, livestock can be used to transfer surpluses from years with abundant rainfall to years with deficiencies. Livestock production was negatively affected by this buffer function, because emergency (premature) sales are associated with losses due to foregone offspring and foregone live weight. Emergency sales further restricted revenues, when livestock had to be sold in periods with low market prices. Sales of livestock for financing purposes also negatively affected performance of the farming system as a whole, in terms of foregone manure and animal traction, limiting crop production.

    For financing, farmers preferred livestock to other means, even though taking a loan with a savings and credit co-operative was cheaper. Accessibility, security, liquidity and profitability were all more favourable for livestock than for any of the alternatives examined. The fact that a pledge of 150 % of the credit is needed for a loan from a co-operative, was a major constraint for resource-poor farmers. Financing through livestock was therefore more attractive than taking a loan with a co-operative or any other source.

    Animal traction

    Animal traction has been presented as a key element of crop livestock integration. It appears to be associated with larger farm sizes, larger areas of cash crop and higher livestock numbers, hence with wealthier farmers. In Zoundwéogo province and Kaïbo village, animal traction could develop as there were sufficient animals to serve all households and to cultivate total current crop area. Additional efforts should be made to increase training of bullocks and transfer of bullocks from Fulani livestock keepers to Mossi crop producers is needed. Bullocks appeared too weak for the tasks asked from them, resulting in short working days of 2-3 hours. Output per animal might be increased through introduction of heavier animal breeds or additional animal feeding. Timeliness of seeding and weeding might also be improved by using additional bullocks. The scope for improvement is limited as any solution depends on purchasing power of the farmer and availability of inputs.

    Natural resource basis

    Mossi and Fulani herds appeared to use the village territory in different ways, dictated by animal species, production objectives and season. Current high population growth leads to an expanded area under crops, for food production, and consequently reduced grazing area in the rainy season. Crop residue management, as proposed in the crop livestock integration model, leads to increased control over this feed resource by Mossi crop producers. As a result, room for the traditional feeding strategy, applied by Fulani and consisting of mobility and tracking changes in vegetation, becomes limited. The quantity (area) of animal feed becomes limiting, especially in the rainy season. In the post-harvest, dry season, both quantity and quality of animal feed becomes limiting because crop residues are no longer available and their animals thus have to rely on low quality grasses from the natural vegetation. Options for Fulani herds were further restricted by excluding them from the use of village wells in the dry season. Fulani have either to leave the village territory more often and for longer periods, or to accept lower animal production. When Mossi specialised crop producers become mixed farmers, the number of animals in their system increases. When Fulani become mixed farmers, their livestock will reside more permanently on the village territory. Larger livestock numbers and smaller grazing area increase risks of degradation, especially because specialist feeders such as goats and sheep will be forced to accept a more general diet, resulting in diet overlap between formerly complementary feeders. Population growth and subsequent urbanisation has been shown to lead to increased demands for firewood that has to be provided from village territories. Degradation of the natural resources in village territories and a decrease in feed resources for browsers can be the result.


    The crop livestock integration model, and especially the mixed farming model, has only limited applicability as goal for farming systems development. In Burkina Faso, the majority of the farming population consists of resource-poor farmers, incapable to adopt technologies associated with mixed farming, because they lack the purchasing power to acquire ploughs, draught bullocks, inorganic fertilisers, etc. Mixed farming as a comprehensive development model therefore fails, although several of its components are (at least partially) adopted by a variety of farmers. The concept of restricted nutrient losses through intensive management of manure and crop residues appeared, for instance, valid, but, because of unavoidable losses during (re-)cycling, external inputs are needed to guarantee sufficient food production for the rapidly growing population. Moreover, exchange of crop residues and manure between specialised farming systems, has the same potential for nutrient cycling as mixed farming, but may be preferred because of advantages associated with labour distribution. Constraints for farming system development, especially for crop farmers, can be alleviated by creation of an optimal farm environment, such as a sound financial infrastructure, an agricultural knowledge system addressing farmers needs, a professional infrastructure to provide inputs and to guarantee marketing of outputs, fair farm-gate prices for agricultural products, etc. Attractive prices for meat and milk, infrastructure for veterinary care, grazing rights protected by law and limiting crop production in designated grazing areas and corridors, etc. are needed to facilitate mobile animal production. Technology development should already take its impact on the environment into account. Research and extension should stimulate participation of resource-poor farmers and mobile livestock keepers in technology development and support development of a range of farming systems, in terms of inputs and outputs, because together they can address the variety of societal needs.

    Mest, stro en voer : Het gemengde bedrijf op afstand als optie voor een zelfstandige biologische landbouw in de regio West- en Midden-Nederland : Samenvatting
    Hendriks, K. ; Oomen, G. - \ 2000
    Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel 159) - ISBN 9789067545891 - 10
    biologische landbouw - stalmest - stro - plantenresten - diervoedering - voer - ruwvoer (roughage) - mengvoer - bedrijfssystemen - stikstofkringloop - gemengde landbouw - nederland - zuid-holland - organic farming - farmyard manure - straw - plant residues - animal feeding - feeds - roughage - compound feeds - farming systems - nitrogen cycle - mixed farming - netherlands - zuid-holland
    Mest, stro en voer : het gemengde bedrijf op afstand als optie voor een zelfstandige biologische landbouw in de regio West- en Midden-Nederland
    Hendriks, K. ; Oomen, G. - \ 2000
    Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel 158) - ISBN 9789067545884 - 94
    biologische landbouw - stalmest - stro - plantenresten - diervoedering - voer - ruwvoer (roughage) - mengvoer - bedrijfssystemen - stikstofkringloop - gemengde landbouw - nederland - zuid-holland - organic farming - farmyard manure - straw - plant residues - animal feeding - feeds - roughage - compound feeds - farming systems - nitrogen cycle - mixed farming - netherlands - zuid-holland
    1998 moeilijk gras- en maisjaar voor Lagekostenbedrijf
    Wouters, B. - \ 1999
    Praktijkonderzoek Rundvee, Schapen en Paarden. Praktijkonderzoek 12 (1999)2. - ISSN 1386-8470 - p. 32 - 35.
    melkveehouderij - gemengde landbouw - productiekosten - graslanden - maïs - zea mays - meteorologische factoren - plantenvoeding - stikstofmeststoffen - bedrijfsresultaten in de landbouw - rentabiliteit - dairy farming - mixed farming - production costs - grasslands - maize - zea mays - meteorological factors - plant nutrition - nitrogen fertilizers - farm results - profitability
    Ondanks een vroege start is door de vele regen in 1998 een lang weideseizoen niet gerealiseerd. Ook de maisteelt en maisoogst had te lijden van het slechte weer.
    MINAS : waar liggen de knelpunten
    Dijk, W. van - \ 1998
    PAV-bulletin. Vollegrondsgroenteteelt / Praktijkonderzoek voor de Akkerbouw en de Vollegrondsgroenteteelt 1 (1998)1. - ISSN 1385-5298 - p. 2 - 5.
    gemengde landbouw - mineralen - boekhouding - mestbehoeftebepaling - stalmest - vollegrondsteelt - mixed farming - minerals - accounting - fertilizer requirement determination - farmyard manure - outdoor cropping
    Mixed farming systems in Europe : workshop proceedings, Dronten, The Netherlands, 25-28 May 1998
    Keulen, H. van; Lantinga, E.A. ; Laar, H.H. van - \ 1998
    Wageningen : LUW - ISBN 9789067545297 - 231
    gemengde landbouw - biologische landbouw - bedrijfssystemenonderzoek - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - nederland - proefboerderijen - geïntegreerde bedrijfssystemen - mixed farming - organic farming - farming systems research - sustainability - netherlands - experimental farms - integrated farming systems
    The potential of improving napier grass under smallholder farmers' conditions in Kenya
    Kariuki, J.N. - \ 1998
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): S. Tamminga; C.K. Gachuiri; G.K. Gitau. - Naivasha : Kariuki - ISBN 9789054859642 - 197
    melkvee - pennisetum purpureum - melkveehouderij - gemengde landbouw - herkauwersvoeding - voedingsstoffenverbetering - voedingswaarde - voedersupplementen - voeropname - verteerbaarheid - groeitempo - vaarzen - kenya - dairy cattle - pennisetum purpureum - dairy farming - mixed farming - ruminant feeding - nutrient improvement - nutritive value - feed supplements - feed intake - digestibility - growth rate - heifers - kenya

    Dairy farming is the main livestock enterprise in the mixed crop/livestock farming system in the high rainfall areas of Kenya. These areas are characterised by a high human population density and very small farms. As a consequence, napier grass ( Pennisetum purpureum ) has been widely adopted because of its relatively high dry matter yield and suitability as a cut fodder. The conventional methods of improving napier grass quality through fertilization or use of concentrates to supplement napier grass diets is limited because most farmers cannot afford these inputs. This has led to poor animal performance mostly attributed to the low protein content in napier grass.

    The most vulnerable group are heifers which receive far less attention compared to calves and cows. This is reflected by low weight gain (less than 0.25 kg day -1) and poor reproductive and life-time performance. Fortunately, several protein-rich forages (PRF) which have the potential to improve the quality of napier grass-based diets have been identified. These include Desmodium spp., Calliandra calothyrsus, Leucaena leucocephala, Ipomoea batatas, Medicago sativa, Musa sapienta, Trifolium semipilosum and Canna edulis .

    The benefits of using PRF include improved rumen function, increased energy and protein intake, improved feed efficiency, increased availability of minerals and vitamins, and generally enhanced animal performance. Appropriate and adequate information on the nutritive value of napier grass at different stages of growth and the PRF would facilitate ration formulation, allow more reliable prediction of subsequent animal performance and assist in the planning of suitable feeding strategies for the resource poor dairy farmers. Therefore, the overall objective of the study was to evaluate the nutritive value of napier grass and determine the potential for improvement in animal performance using PRF. Results from this thesis indicated that intake and utilization can be improved by manipulating the cutting regime of napier grass and varying the levels of PRF supplements.

    Indeed, PRF had a profound effect on fermentation and subsequently improved the intake of organic matter fermented in the rumen by up to 50%. Protein supplementation strategies for low crude protein tropical grasses should first target at optimising microbial protein production and then consider supplements containing a combination of ruminally degradable and bypass protein for high animal performance. Inadequately fed heifers grow poorly and show poor reproductive performance. The positive growth response obtained from the supplemented heifers were attributed to additional rumen degradable protein and/or bypass protein from PRF that overcame protein deficiency in napier grass.

    It was concluded that PRF could play an important role in the improvement of the utilization of napier grass and the subsequent animal performance. The data provided in this study, on the nutritive value of these forages will, consequently, facilitate making appropriate choices for diet formulation at the farm level.

    Livestock and the environment : finding a balance
    Verheijen, L.A.H.M. ; Wiersema, D. ; Hulshoff Pol, L.W. ; Brandjes, P.J. ; Wit, J. de; Meer, H.G. van der; Bos, J.J.F. ; Westra, P.T. ; Nell, A.J. ; Jansen, J.C.M. - \ 1996
    Wageningen : IAC
    azië - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - agrarische bedrijfsplanning - kunstmeststoffen - irrigatie - mest - gemengde landbouw - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - voedingsstoffen - bescherming - herstel - hulpbronnengebruik - subtropen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - tropen - asia - farm management - farm planning - fertilizers - irrigation - manures - mixed farming - natural resources - nutrients - protection - rehabilitation - resource utilization - subtropics - sustainability - tropics
    Comprehensive study on interactions between livestock production systems and the environment. Management of waste from animal product processing is the main subject
    Relevance of ruminants in upland mixed-farming systems in East Java, Indonesia
    Ifar, S. - \ 1996
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): D. Zwart; H.M.J. Udo. - S.l. : Ifar - ISBN 9789054855811 - 139
    bedrijfssystemen - herkauwers - gemengde landbouw - java - farming systems - ruminants - mixed farming - java
    In Indonesia, upland agriculture is associated with resource-poor farmers, land degradation, and low agricultural production. The common premise is that cattle productivity in upland areas is low and that this is mainly caused by a shortage of feed. The area chosen to carry out this study on the relevance of ruminants for upland mixed farming systems was the limestone area, a marginal upland area, in the southern part of Malang regency in East Java. The data collection was done within the framework of an interdisciplinary agricultural research training project. Two villages were selected as research sites because of their differences in land use and soil characteristics; land use dominated by sugarcane and annual crops vs land use where agroforestry is becoming increasingly important. Cattle are by far the most important livestock in the limestone area. Farmers aim at both physical production (progeny, increase in body weight, manure, draught power) and intangible benefits. The intangible benefits comprise the capital embodied in animals kept and the possibility of disposing of animals as and when required: insurance and finance. If the intangible benefits are counted in, farmers arrive at a daily return to labour from livestock similar to the ongoing daily wages in the agricultural sector. Systems for sharing ruminants enable the available labour and capital to be better used and distribute wealth more evenly in the village, and play a major role in replenishing herds after periods of severe drought. The use of cattle for land cultivation is related to the land use system. Land use also has important consequences for the feed resource base. Livestock keepers obtain a large proportion of feeds from communal areas and from crop fields operated by other farmers. In both villages the feeding system and herd size are well adapted to the available resources. Simulation proved to be a useful tool for understanding the feeding practices and the evaluation of proposed new technologies. Biological production can only be increased by increasing the amounts of high quality feeds. Overall, by keeping ruminants farmers efficiently allocate their resources i.e. labour and capital according to their household objectives. The objectives in research and development programmes should be set in relation to all benefits of livestock keeping. The interdisciplinary research approach has given insight into the versatility of livestock in supporting human welfare.
    Criteria for sustainable livestock production: a proposal for implementation
    Wit, J. de; Oldenbroek, J.K. ; Keulen, H. van; Zwart, D. - \ 1995
    Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 53 (1995)3. - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 219 - 229.
    duurzaamheid (sustainability) - zoötechniek - gemengde landbouw - ecologie - gewassen - landbouw - fenologie - acclimatisatie - sustainability - zootechny - mixed farming - ecology - crops - agriculture - phenology - acclimatization
    After discussing some general problems in measuring sustainability, an identification of measurable criteria for the major agroecological problems is proposed, derived from explicit issues of unsustainability. The proposed criteria are briefly discussed. Factors which might influence the effect of inclusion of livestock in an agricultural system on each criterion are also discussed. It is argued that identification of livestock-specific criteria is impossible because of the large heterogeneity of livestock production systems and the non-linear relation between livestock-specific criteria and agroecological criteria. Therefore, a system-specific analysis is needed to assess the overall effect of livestock inclusion in an agricultural system on each of the proposed general criteria for sustainability. These are: demand and supply of consumable livestock products; potential human population supporting capacity; land area utilized for agriculture; degree of equity in food distribution; variability of production; net annual soil losses; nutrient balances and losses; water availability and utilization; soil organic matter; fossil energy and drug utilization. Such a system-specific analysis will also allow formulation of measurable criteria for other objectives, and an assessment of trade-offs between the criteria. Recognition of such trade-offs, together with the reduced acceptability of external effects (both in time and space), might appear to be the most important notion of the sustainability concept.
    Toekomstperspectieven voor kleine gemengde veehouderijbedrijven in Overijssel.
    Wahle, P.T. ; Giesen, G.W.J. - \ 1994
    Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel 98) - 60
    agrarische economie - gemengde landbouw - taxatie - schatting - nederland - overijssel - agricultural economics - mixed farming - valuation - estimation - netherlands - overijssel
    Economic analysis of six livestock-farms with combined production of cattle, pigs and hens
    On-farm research for testing of appropriate technologies in crop-livestock production systems.
    Yazman, J.A. ; Singh, C.B. ; Patil, B.R. ; Udo, H.M.J. - \ 1994
    New Delhi [etc.] : ICAR [etc.] - 72
    bedrijfssystemen - gemengde landbouw - india - on-farm research - farming systems - mixed farming - india - on-farm research
    Gemengd bedrijf : verleden of toekomst?
    Biewenga, A. ; Bruele, R. van de; Huisman, P. - \ 1992
    Wageningen : L.U. (Mededeling / Landbouwuniversiteit, Vakgroep Landbouwplantenteelt en Graslandkunde 106) - 70
    gemengde landbouw - nederland - geïntegreerde bedrijfssystemen - mixed farming - netherlands - integrated farming systems
    Role of livestock on mixed smallholder farms in the Ethiopian Highlands : a case study from the Baso and Worena Wereda near Debre Berhan
    Gryseels, G. - \ 1988
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): D. Zwart; E.P. Jansen. - S.l. : Gryseels - 249
    landbouw - sociale economie - sociale structuur - zoötechniek - gemengde landbouw - productiestructuur - agrarische structuur - ethiopië - agriculture - socioeconomics - social structure - zootechny - mixed farming - production structure - agricultural structure - ethiopia
    The productivity of livestock in sub-Saharan Africa in terms of milk and meat is the lowest of any world region. The outcome of livestock development projects has been disappointing. Low returns to investment in such projects have often arisen from poor project design, in turn the result of inadequate understanding of the relevant livestock production systems. Livestock in sub-Saharan Africa is concentrated on smallholder farms, where crop and livestock husbandry are practiced in association. The role of livestock in such "mixed" farming systems and the interactions between the crop and livestock components have often been poorly understood.

    The highlands have the highest density of both the human and livestock populations of any major ecological zone in sub- Saharan Africa. Almost all the livestock of this zone can be found on mixed smallholder farms. Ethiopia accounts for 50% of the African highland landmass, and has the largest livestock herd on the African continent. This study reviews the role of livestock on mixed smallholder farms in the Ethiopian highlands.

    The study takes a farming systems approach to research. It was undertaken within the framework of the Highlands Programme of the International Livestock Centre for Africa (ILCA). Field data were collected from 1979 to 1985 through farm management and household economic surveys of a total of 170 traditional smallholder farms located in four different Peasants Associations of the Baso and Worena district. The area is representative of the higher altitude zone of the Ethiopian highlands, and is located in a cereal-livestock zone. The farming system is based on smallholder rainfed subsistence agriculture, annual crops planted by broadcasted seed, rudimentary implements and an ox-drawn wooden plough, the 'maresha'. The results of this study show that livestock are of crucial importance to this farming system, and that there is a high level of crop-livestock integration. Livestock provide a dominant part of the farm's cash income and gross margin. The main outputs of cattle were intermediate products used as inputs into the crop production enterprise, such as draught power for land cultivation and crop threshing, and manure for fertilizer. The availability of animal draught power was a significant factor in determining the level of farm grain production. Livestock generated a substantial amount of employment, and was of prime importance in providing security and a source of investment to the farm household. Animals, particularly small ruminants, were sold according to cash flaw needs, and purchased as a store of wealth. Donkeys provide almost all the transport of inputs and outputs of agricultural products. The data show that livestock productivity is low for final products, but high in terms of intermediate products. The main production and institutional constraints to increased farm output are identified and discussed. The principal constraint to the development of livestock production for increased offtake of meat and milk is the importance given by farmers to the intermediate functions of livestock.

    Research on relevant technology to increase the productivity of livestock in the Ethiopian highlands is reviewed. At ILCA's experiment station in Debre Berhan, research was undertaken on possible interventions for the farming system of the Baso and Worena district. Two technologies related to smallholder livestock production appeared particularly promising: the use of crossbred dairy cows (Boran x Friesian) for milk production, and the use of a newly developed single-ox plough. The encouraging results of on-station research and an ex-ante evaluation using a linear programming model led to the initiation of farmer-managed on-farm trials of both technologies in the same peasants associations in which the diagnostic studies had been undertaken previously. The productivity of test farms was compared with that of other farms that served as a control. Crossbred dairy cows had significantly higher milk yields than cows of local breeds, incomes of dairy test farmers were significantly higher than those of control farmers, and no major problems were encountered in technology adoption. The major constraints to dairy development in the area were found to be a shortage of feed during the dry season, lack of milk marketing facilities particularly during the main fasting period, occasional disease problems of crossbred cattle, and the lack of appropriate breeding services. If adequate extension services can be provided, smallholder dairy production on the basis of crossbred cows could be an efficient vehicle for agricultural development in the area. Verification trials were also conducted on the utilisation and rate of adoption of the single-ox plough for land cultivation. Both utilisation and adoption were low. An important weakness of the technology appeared to be the poor structural stability of the single-ox unit compared with the traditional 'maresha'. plough drawn by a pair of oxen. The research findings suggest that single-ox ploughing may be useful for seed covering operations, but could not replace the use of paired oxen for land cultivation.

    The study concludes with an appraisal of the methodological approach taken in the research process, and a discussion of the transferability of the research results that were obtained. The implications of the study for future research work m agriculture and livestock in the Ethiopian highlands are also discussed.

    Gemengd grondgebruik
    Lalkens, R.H. - \ 1980
    Den Haag : L.E.I. (Landbouw-Economisch Instituut ) - 65
    agrarische bedrijfsvoering - bedrijfssystemen - landbouwbedrijven - gemengde landbouw - farm management - farming systems - farms - mixed farming
    De ontwikkeling van de rundvleesproduktie op een akkerbouwbedrijf : resultaten van een akkerbouwbedrijf met rundvleesproduktie 1958 t/m 1973
    Kop, C. - \ 1976
    Den Haag : [s.n.] (Landbouw. LEI, afd. landbouw no. 61) - 41
    landbouwbedrijven - bedrijfssystemen - gemengde landbouw - nederland - geïntegreerde bedrijfssystemen - noord-brabant - farms - farming systems - mixed farming - netherlands - integrated farming systems - noord-brabant
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