Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    From basalts to badlands : modelling long-term landscape response to lava damming of an upland catchment in western Turkey
    Gorp, W. van - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tom Veldkamp, co-promotor(en): Jeroen Schoorl; Arnaud Temme. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570481 - 182
    landschap - geologie - landinrichting - evolutie - modelleren - stroomgebieden - tektoniek - vulkanische lava - pleistoceen - turkije - landscape - geology - land development - evolution - modeling - watersheds - tectonics - volcanic lava - pleistocene - turkey

    Combining field reconstruction and landscape evolution modelling can be useful to investigate the relative role of different drivers (tectonics, climate, local base level) on long term catchment evolution. In this thesis, field reconstruction and landscape evolution modelling are combined to unravel the long-term (300 ka) response to lava damming events of evolution of the Geren Catchment, a tributary of the upper Gediz river near Kula, Western Turkey. This catchment was considered suitable for such a study because its high preservationof remnant landscape surfaces and fluvial terraces which could be dated, while its base level evolution could be reconstructed by identifying and dating lava flows.

    In Chapter 2, landscape evolution modelling of an idealized catchment revealed long-term (15 ka) catchment response to natural damming. Evolution of a high erodible and low erodible landscape was simulated using landscape evolution model (LEM) LAPSUS (LandscApe procesS modelling at mUlti dimensions and Scales). The natural dam was given four different erodibilities, to mimic both the potentially more erodible landslide dams and resistant lava dams. In a low erodible landscape damming led to persistent preservation of the sediment wedge formed behind the dam, while in a high erodible landscape, damming additionally led to knickpoint persistence, hampered incision of the main river and stream rerouting. The highest erodible dam was almost removed after 15 ka, while its sediment wedge was still partly present. Comparison of results with natural dam events from literature showed that modelled response characteristics are observed in actual situations and that simulations on Quaternary timescales are useful.

    In Chapter 3, field reconstruction resulted in a young lava flow being age constrained to the late Holocene (3.0 – 2.6 ka), by luminescence dating of fluvial sands below and on top of the flow. This lava flow dammed the Gediz river at two locations. the upstream lake was silted, while the downstream lake was not. Dams were breached catastrophically and possibly in a cascading event. The Gediz created an epigenetic gorge and its current river bed is still not at its pre-lava flow level. Results are summarized in a conceptual diagram. Furthermore, field reconstruction and 40Ar/39Ar dating revealed multiple lava dam events which have infrequently raised and lowered the base level of the Geren Catchment in the middle to late Pleistocene (311 – 175 ka). Sediment-capped palaeosurfaces in the Geren suggest change from an active fluvial system to a more lacustrine environment in the middle Pleistocene, followed by fluvial reactivation and stepped incision in the late Pleistocene.

    A second landscape evolution modelling study was conducted in Chapter 4, on a 300 ka timescale, with a larger catchment. Four scenarios have been applied on a reconstructed paleodem of the Geren Catchment. In the first scenario, the palaeodem was given constant rainfall for 300 ka. In the second scenario, three short (1 ka) damming events were added at its catchment outlet. In the third scenario, the palaeodem endured gradual base level lowering at its outlet, based on the known incision rate of its base level, the Gediz river. In the fourth scenario, base level lowering and damming events were combined. Results were interpreted by evaluating 1 ka-averaged net erosion, catchment sediment storage, longitudinal profile development and spatial differences in net erosion and sediment storage. Results showed that the net erosion signal of the catchment is complex in all cases. However, average net erosion and its variability increased due to constant base level lowering. Additionally, alternating phases of high and low variability occurred in net erosion, where high variability coincided with a strong decrease in total catchment sediment storage. Adding damming events to the gradual base level lowering scenario generated similar average net erosion as the base level lowering scenario, however its temporal pattern showed significantly different alternation of high and low variability periods. Furthermore, dampened upstream erosion was observed. Over time, this dampening migrates upstream indicating a long-term legacy of short term dam events.

    Field reconstruction and landscape evolution modelling were combined in Chapter 5, to be able to reconstruct and understand actual Geren catchment response to identified base level evolution over a 300 ka period. In all simulations, rainfall and vegetation are varied over time based on arboral pollen. Because exact significance and duration of dam events were not known, three scenarios of landscape evolution in the Geren Catchment were investigated: i) uplift driven gradual base level lowering, ii) gradual base level lowering and short damming events and iii) gradual base level lowering and long damming events. Output was evaluated for erosion-aggradation evolution in trunk gullies at two different distances from the catchment outlet. Climate influences erosion – aggradation activity in the upstream reach, although internal feedbacks influence timing and magnitude. Scenario i shows the most correlation with the climate signal, although its correlation is weak. Lava damming events leave an aggradation signal in the downstream reach, while complex and lagged response to these dams obscure correlations with climate and leave a legacy of the past in current landscape evolution. Catchment response of the long dam scenario correspond best with field reconstruction and dating. The combination of climate and base level explains a significant part of the landscape evolution history of the Geren Catchment.

    In Chapter 6, a reflection and synthesis of Chapters 2-5 is presented. Indications for response to tectonics, climate and damming events are discussed separately for both field and modelling results. It is concluded that (lava) damming events of Pleistocene age can hamper, but also enhance incision on a 300 ka timescale. Furthermore, they can still have effect on current and future catchment evolution. However, catchment response to this evolution is complex and catchment specific and model results do not exactly reproduce its catchment history. An aggregated landscape evolution model output such as stream bed elevation change can be useful for comparison with fluvial terrace sequences. Combining field reconstruction and modelling suggests that the 300 ka incision history of the Geren is best explained if the catchment endured prolonged dam events. The combination of field reconstruction, dating and landscape evolution modelling therefore can enhance our understanding of long-term evolution of a specific landscape and increases knowledge on long term impact of past events on current catchment complexities and it is suggested to embed this research approach more structurally in long-term landscape reconstructions.

    Ecological Systems: Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology
    Leemans, R. - \ 2013
    New York : Springer - ISBN 9781461457558 - 309
    ecologie - levenswetenschappen - ecosystemen - biogeowetenschappen - geochemie - stedelijke ecologie - geologie - ecology - life sciences - ecosystems - biogeosciences - geochemistry - urban ecology - geology

    Earth is home to an estimated 8 million animal species, 600,000 fungi, 300,000 plants, and an undetermined number of microbial species. Of these animal, fungal, and plant species, an estimated 75% have yet to be identified. Moreover, the interactions between these species and their physical environment are known to an even lesser degree. At the same time, the earth’s biota faces the prospect of climate change, which may manifest slowly or extremely rapidly, as well as a human population set to grow by two billion by 2045 from the current seven billion. Given these major ecological changes, we cannot wait for a complete biota data set before assessing, planning, and acting to preserve the ecological balance of the earth. This book provides comprehensive coverage of the scientific and engineering basis of the systems ecology of the earth in 15 detailed, peer-reviewed entries written for a broad audience of undergraduate and graduate students as well as practicing professionals in government, academia, and industry. The methodology presented aims at identifying key interactions and environmental effects, and enabling a systems-level understanding even with our present state of factual knowledge.

    Features authoritative, peer-reviewed entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

    Covers topics ranging from atmospheric biogeochemistry to invasive species, ecosystem services, and urban ecology

    Provides an ecological systems perspective on the vital question of how to cope with climate change and the global human population explosion

    Includes a glossary of key terms and a concise definition of the subject for each contribution

    Soil and Terrain Database for Tunisia primary data (version 1.0) - scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Tunisia)
    Dijkshoorn, J.A. ; Nachtergaele, F.O. ; Huting, J.R.M. - \ 2013
    ISRIC - World Soil Information
    geology - soil classification
    The Soil and Terrain database for Tunisia primary data (version 1.0), at scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Tunisia), was compiled of enhanced soil information within the framework of the FAO's program of Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands (LADA). A SOTER database was compiled based on the digital soil map of Tunisia. The primary soil and terrain data for Tunisia has been selected from available survey reports and publications. A SRTM-DEM was used to adjust some unit boundaries in the GIS file. SOTER forms a part of the ongoing activities of ISRIC, FAO and UNEP to update the world's baseline information on natural resources.The project involved collaboration with national soil institutes from the countries in the region as well as individual experts.
    Landschappen van Nederland, geologie, bodem en landgebruik
    Jongmans, A.G. ; Berg, M.W. van den; Sonneveld, M.P.W. ; Peek, G.J.W.C. ; Berg van Saparoea, R.M. van den - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086862139 - 925
    bodem - landschap - landschapselementen - geomorfologie - geologie - klimaat - landgebruik - nederland - soil - landscape - landscape elements - geomorphology - geology - climate - land use - netherlands
    Landschappen van Nederland is samengevat in zes delen: Bodem en Landschap, Tektoniek en Klimaat, Ijs en Wind, Rivieren, Veen en als laatste Kust en Zee. Per type: landschap wordt beschreven welke klimatologische en tektonische aspecten hebben bijgedragen aan de totstandkoming. Daarnaast wordt uitvoering aandacht besteed aan de rol van de mens in de vorming van de landschappen. De zes delen zijn samengebracht in twee volumes.
    Descriptions of the European environmental zones and strata
    Metzger, M.J. ; Shkaruba, A.D. ; Jongman, R.H.G. ; Bunce, R.G.H. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra report 2281) - 152
    klimaatzones - bodem - vegetatie - geologie - zonering - classificatie - europa - climatic zones - soil - vegetation - geology - zoning - classification - europe
    Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability
    Ma, X. - \ 2011
    University of Twente. Promotor(en): M. Molenaar, co-promotor(en): M.J. Kraak; P.J.M. van Oosterom; Arnold Bregt. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789061643234 - 184
    geologie - datacommunicatie - gegevensbeheer - gegevensstructuren - gegevensanalyse - ontologieën - geology - data communication - data management - data structures - data analysis - ontologies
    Palaeoecological study of a Weichselian wetland site in the Netherlands suggests a link with Dansgaard-Oeschger climate oscillation
    Geel, B. Van; Bos, J.A.A. ; Huissteden, J. Van; Pals, J.P. ; Schatz, H. ; Mourik, J.M. Van; Reenen, G.B.A. Van; Wallinga, J. ; Plicht, J. Van Der - \ 2010
    Netherlands journal of geosciences 89 (2010)3-4. - ISSN 0016-7746 - p. 187 - 201.
    Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles - Macrofossils - Non-pollen palynomorphs - Oribatida - Pollen - Weichselian

    Botanical microfossils, macroremains and oribatid mites of a Weichselian interstadial deposit in the central Netherlands point to a temporary, sub-arctic wetland in a treeless landscape. Radiocarbon dates and OSL dates show an age between ca. 54.6 and 46.6 ka cal BP. The vegetation succession, starting as a peat-forming wetland that developed into a lake, might well be linked with a Dansgaard-Oeschger climatic cycle. We suggest that during the rapid warming at the start of a D-O cycle, relatively low areas in the landscape became wetlands where peat was formed. During the more gradual temperature decline that followed, evaporation diminished; the wetlands became inundated and lake sediments were formed. During subsequent sub-arctic conditions the interstadial deposits were covered with wind-blown sand. Apart from changes in effective precipitation also the climate-related presence and absence of permafrost conditions may have played a role in the formation of the observed sedimentological sequence from sand to peat, through lacustrine sediment, with coversand on top. The Wageningen sequence may correspond with D-O event 12,13 or 14. Some hitherto not recorded microfossils were described and illustrated.

    Natuurpotentie Willinks Weust
    Delft, S.P.J. van; Brouwer, F. ; Werff, M.M. van der; Kemmers, R.H. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Resultaten van een ecopedologisch onderzoek ) - 138
    bodemchemie - bodemkarteringen - geologie - ecohydrologie - natuurgebieden - achterhoek - soil chemistry - soil surveys - geology - ecohydrology - natural areas - achterhoek
    Dienst Landelijk Gebied (DLG) heeft van de provincie Gelderland in het kader van NBL (natuur buiten landinrichting) opdracht gekregen voor de inrichting van een aantal percelen nabij de steengroeve ten oosten van Winterwijk. Het gebied is bekend onder de naam Willinks Weust. Alvorens kan worden ingericht is een ecohydrologisch en biochemisch onderzoek noodzakelijk. Het gebied is echter ook sterk verdroogd door diepe ontwateringsloten, met name in het erosiedal en op de overgang naar het plateau. Ook de steengroeve aan de noordkant van het gebied heeft in een overgangzone een verdrogende invloed. Inrichting van de percelen en herstel van de hydrologie bieden goede mogelijkheden de natuurwaarden in het gebied te herstellen en versterken.
    Landschap in breder perspectief? Avonturen met scholieren en aardrijkskundeonderwijs
    Bontje, L.E. - \ 2010
    Topos : periodiek over landschapsarchitectuur, ruimtelijke planning en sociaal-ruimtelijke analyse 2010 (2010)20. - ISSN 1572-302X - p. 82 - 83.
    landschap - voortgezet onderwijs - geografie - geologie - landscape - secondary education - geography - geology
    "Kom op Stef!" roept Riwesh. "Nee, Nikos gaat winnen", voorspelt Laura. Stef en Nikos staan fanatiek met een lepeltje in een glas met water en sediment te roeren. "Wie kan ons vertellen waarom Nikos gewonnen heeft?!. En terwijl de leerlingen redelijk snel beredeneren dat in Stef's zwaarder sediment moet zitten dan in dat van Nikos, beleef ik een klein gloriemomentje in mijn nog korte loopbaan als Aardrijkskundedocente. Het leuke aan onderwijs is, dat er direct resultaat van je werk te zien is...
    Mid-Holocene water-level changes in the lower Rhine-Meuse delta (western Netherlands): implications for the reconstruction of relative mean sea-level rise, palaeoriver-gradients and coastal evolution
    Plassche, O. van de; Makaske, B. ; Hoek, W.Z. ; Konert, M. ; Plicht, J. van der - \ 2010
    Netherlands journal of geosciences 89 (2010)1. - ISSN 0016-7746 - p. 3 - 20.
    eolische afzettingen - geologie - waterstand - holoceen - zuid-holland - rivierengebied - aeolian deposits - geology - water level - holocene - zuid-holland - rivierengebied - radiocarbon age calibration - southern north-sea - cal bp - movements - area - bc
    We present a revised relative mean sea-level (MSL) curve for the Rhine-Meuse delta, western Netherlands, for the period 7900-5300 cal yr BP. The revision is based on a series of new and previously unpublished local groundwater-level index data from buried Late Glacial aeolian dunes in the lower Rhine-Meuse delta, and reinterpretation of existing data. The new index data consist of (AMS and conventional) radiocarbon dates of samples, collected from the base of peat formed on dune slopes, near Vlaardingen (21 index points), Hillegersberg (one index point), and Hardinxveld-Giessendam (10 index points). The Vlaardingen data represent the coast-nearest Rhine-Meuse delta local water-level record, which therefore is highly indicative for sea-level change. Pollen and macrofossil analysis, and dating of paired samples was carried out to assess the reliability of the groundwater-level index data. The revision of the MSL curve involves: (1) a significant (0 to >1 m) upward adjustment for the period 7900-7300 cal yr BP; (2) a downward adjustment of =0.25 m for the period 6650-5300 cal yr BP. The new data indirectly support the reliability of the part of the curve for the period 7300-6650 cal yr BP. A longitudinally fairly uniform river gradient of 2.5-3.0 cm/km in the lower Rhine-Meuse delta during the period 6650-5600 cal yr BP can be inferred from the data sets. A significant river gradient extended further towards the coastline than previously thought and it may be that also the revised MSL curve reflects river-gradient effects. An increased floodbasin effect (stronger intra-coastal tidal damping) seems to have developed in the lower Rhine-Meuse delta in de period 7500-6600 cal yr BP, and was probably a complex response to a major avulsion of the Rhine.
    Knowledge for a sustaineble future of the Wadden: intergrated research agenda of the Wadden-Academy-KNAW
    Kabat, P. ; Bazelmans, J. ; Dijk, J. van; Herman, P.M.J. ; Speelman, H. ; Deen, N.R.J. ; Hutjes, R.W.A. - \ 2009
    Leewarden : KNAW - ISBN 9789490289157 - 145
    natuurbescherming - landgebruiksplanning - geologie - ondergrond - geomorfologie - ecologie - wadden - waddenzee - nature conservation - land use planning - geology - subsoil - geomorphology - ecology - tidal flats - wadden sea
    The Wadden Academy is a new entity of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW) which was officially founded on 30 July 2008 by decision of the Dutch government and as a reflection of the recommendations of the Meijer Committee. This publication is the integrated research agenda of the Wadden Academy. Wadden Sea research has for many years been dominated by the natural sciences. Socio-economic research and, to a lesser extent, historical research is grossly under-represented in terms of volume and importance. The Wadden Sea Area should figure more prominently on the research agenda of economists, historians, sociologists, psychologists, anthropologists and cultural scientists. They can identify those who feel involved in the Wadden Sea Area and in what way, how this involvement is justified in history, what interests are at stake, what reference images of the landscapes are used and how this will affect the future of the area. A key task for the Wadden Academy is to study changes which are taking place over different space and time scales and are the result of the interaction between the geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere and humankind and society. In the approach adopted by the Wadden Academy, great value is attached to knowledge of the region’s long past and present
    IMBOD : synchronisatie van de gegevens over bodem en ondergrond
    Vries, F. de; Boorder, N.J. de; Brouwer, F. ; Groot, J.J. ; Kiden, P. ; Leeters, E.E.J.M. ; Maring, L. ; Mol, G. - \ 2009
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1960) - 53
    bodemkarteringen - bodemmorfologische kenmerken - bodemsamenstelling - bodemprofielen - ondergrond - geologie - databanken - informatiesystemen - vergelijkingen - kaarten - bodemkwaliteit - soil surveys - soil morphological features - soil composition - soil profiles - subsoil - geology - databases - information systems - comparisons - maps - soil quality
    In de BIS-database van Alterra en de DINO-database van TNO is veel informatie opgeslagen over de bodem en de ondergrond van Nederland. Deze databases zijn jaren geleden ontstaan vanuit verschillende achtergronden. Daardoor komen er verschillen voor bij de indelingen en terminologie voor de gegevens. Dit rapport bevat concrete voorstellen om de gegevens in beide databestanden beter op elkaar af te stemmen
    'Gouden gronden' in de Noordelijke Friese Wouden
    Sonneveld, M.P.W. - \ 2009
    Geografie 2009 (2009)oktober. - ISSN 0926-3837 - p. 32 - 34.
    bodem - geologie - landschap - bodem-landschap relaties - historische geografie - friese wouden - soil - geology - landscape - soil-landscape relationships - historical geography - friese wouden
    De overheid heeft in 2004 twintig Nationale Landschappen aangewezen. Samen vertellen ze een prachtig verhaal over de ontstaanswijze van Nederland. De bodem, vaak onzichtbare drager van het landschap, verdient daarbij meer aandacht dan ze tot nu toe krijgt
    Groeven en graven : nieuw leven voor voormalige zandgroeven in Zuid-Limburg
    Stobbelaar, D.J. - \ 2009
    land use planning - landscape - sand pits - rehabilitation - recreation - geology - zuid-limburg
    De Bosatlas van Ondergronds Nederland
    Vries, F. de; Camarasa, M. - \ 2009
    Groningen : Noordhoff - ISBN 9789001122454 - 96
    geologie - grondwater - archeologie - energie - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - geomorfologie - infrastructuur - landgebruik - nederland - natuur - geology - groundwater - archaeology - energy - natural resources - geomorphology - infrastructure - land use - netherlands - nature
    De ondergrond van Nederland is bijzonder. Geen enkel land met zo’n slappe ondergrond is tegelijk zo dichtbevolkt. En vrijwel geen ander land in Europa beschikt over een gasvoorraad met zo’n enorme omvang. Maar liefst 400.000 keer boorden geologen een gaatje in de Nederlandse bodem, meestal tot een meter of tien diep, een enkele keer zelfs zes kilometer. Alle kennis die dat opleverde, is in deze atlas overzichtelijk weergegeven in beelden en kaarten. Acht hoofdstukken geven een kleurrijk beeld van alles wat normaal gesproken onzichtbaar blijft: bodem- en gesteentelagen vol aardgas, grondwater, voedingsstoffen, bodemenergie, metselzand, Romeinse resten, metrotunnels en elektriciteitskabels. Ook nemen we de lezer mee op een reis door de tijd, die Nederland 300 miljoen jaar geleden begon in een Surinaams tropenbos, om via een Afrikaanse zoutvlakte en een Mediterrane binnenzee te eindigen aan de voet van een reusachtige gletsjer. Deze nieuwe Bosatlas ontcijfert de kilometersdikke bodemlagen die zich gaandeweg onder onze voeten ophoopten.
    Bodemkundig-geologische inventarisatie van de gemeente Winterswijk
    Bosch, M. van den; Brouwer, F. - \ 2009
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1797) - 38
    bodemkarteringen - geologie - nederland - kaarten - achterhoek - gelderland - soil surveys - geology - netherlands - maps - achterhoek - gelderland
    Voor het uitvoeren van maatregelen op het gebied van Nationaal Landschap, Euregio, EHS, waterbeheer en natuurontwikkeling wil de gemeente Winterswijk op perceelsniveau inzicht hebben in de kwaliteit van de bodem. Daartoe heeft de gemeente opdracht gegeven alle bestaande bodeminformatie samen te voegen tot een gedetailleerde en geïntegreerde bodemkaart en geologische kaart. Negen bodemkaarten uit het archief van Alterra en ca. 3200 geologische boringen uit het archief van het Geologisch Veldlaboratorium Winterswijk zijn hiervoor verwerkt. De benodigde informatie is zowel analoog als digitaal aan de gemeente verstrekt.
    IMBOD deelactiviteit 5 : inhoudelijke afstemming
    Maring, L. ; Vries, F. de; Brouwer, F. ; Groot, H. ; Kiden, P. ; Leeters, E.E.J.M. ; Mol, G. - \ 2009
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1817) - 63
    bodem - geologie - databanken - informatiesystemen - nederland - bodemkwaliteit - soil - geology - databases - information systems - netherlands - soil quality
    In het IMBOD project worden de mogelijkheden onderzocht voor de integratie van de gegevens in de DINO-database van TNO en de BIS-database van Alterra, zodat de informatie in de toekomst via één loket verstrekt kan worden. Dit rapport geeft een beschrijving van de overeenkomsten en verschillen van de gegevens in beide databestanden en het bevat adviezen voor een betere afstemming
    Neogene stratigraphy of the Langenboom locality (Noord-Brabant, the Netherlands)
    Wijnker, T.G. ; Bor, T.J. ; Wesselingh, F.P. ; Munsterman, D.K. ; Brinkhuis, H. ; Burger, A.W. ; Vonhof, H.B. ; Post, K. ; Hoedemakers, K. ; Janse, A.C. ; Taverne, N. - \ 2008
    Netherlands journal of geosciences 87 (2008)2. - ISSN 0016-7746 - p. 165 - 180.
    geologie - tektoniek - paleozoölogie - noord-brabant - geology - tectonics - palaeozoology - noord-brabant - north-sea basin - dinoflagellate cyst - bering strait - upper miocene - pliocene - belgium - pleistocene - age
    The locality of Langenboom (eastern Noord-Brabant, the Netherlands), also known as Mill, is famous for its Neogene molluscs, shark teeth, teleost remains, birds and marine mammals. The stratigraphic context of the fossils, which have been collected from sand suppletions, was hitherto poorly understood. Here we report on a section which has been sampled by divers in the adjacent flooded sandpit 'De Kuilen' from which the Langenboom sands have been extracted. The studied section covers part of the marine Miocene Breda Formation and Pliocene Oosterhout Formation, and is topped by fluvial Quaternary deposits of presumably the Beegden Formation. The Breda Formation (15 - 18 m below lake surface) in this section is, based on organic walled dinoflagellate cysts, of an early-middle Tortonian age. The Oosterhout Formation (7 - 15 m below lake surface) comprises two depositional sequences, the lower of which (12 - 15 m below lake surface) presumably is the source of most Langenboom fossils. Combined dinoflagellate cyst and benthic mollusc indicators point to an early Zanclean - early Piacenzian age for this lower cycle. Its basal transgressive lag and (to lesser extent) top comprise reworked Tortonian taxa as well. Dinoflagellate cysts and a single benthic mollusc point to a Piacenzian age for the upper Oosterhout Formation sequence (7 - 12 m below lake surface).
    Geoarchaeological prospection of a Medieval manor in the Dutch polders using an electromagnetic induction sensor in combination with soil augerings
    Simpson, D. ; Lehouck, A. ; Meirvenne, M. ; Bourgeois, J. ; Thoen, E. ; Vervloet, J. - \ 2008
    Geoarchaeology: an international journal 23 (2008)2. - ISSN 0883-6353 - p. 305 - 319.
    archeologie - geologie - globale plaatsbepalingssystemen - historische geografie - archaeology - geology - global positioning systems - historical geography - geophysical survey - features
    In archaeological prospection, geophysical sensors are increasingly being used to locate buried remains within their natural context. To cover a large area in sufficient detail, an electromagnetic induction sensor can be very useful, measuring simultaneously the electrical conductivity and the magnetic susceptibility of the soil (e.g., Geonics EM38DD). In this study, an 8 ha field containing a Medieval manor was mapped in a submeter resolution, using a mobile sensor configuration equipped with a GPS. As different soil features can yield analogous responses, the interpretation of geophysical maps can be ambiguous. Therefore, soil auger observations were laid out along two perpendicular transects to provide vertical profiles across the sensor measurements. This information greatly enhanced the interpretation of the anomalies obtained by the sensor. Both natural and anthropogenic features were delineated, which clearly presented a moated site along a former tidal channel. (C) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    The Age and Origin of the Gelderse IJssel
    Makaske, B. ; Maas, G.J. ; Smeerdijk, D.G. van - \ 2008
    Netherlands journal of geosciences 87 (2008)4. - ISSN 0016-7746 - p. 323 - 337.
    geologische sedimentatie - geologie - geschiedenis - rivieren - historische geografie - ijssel - gelderland - geological sedimentation - geology - history - rivers - historical geography - river ijssel - gelderland - rhine-meuse delta - wetland woods - netherlands - avulsion - deposits - architecture - excavation - stadshagen - woodlands
    Historic trading cities are located on the Gelderse IJssel and flourished in the late Middle Ages. Little is known about this river in the early Middle Ages and before, and there is considerable debate on the age and origin of the Gelderse IJssel as a Rhine distributary. A small river draining the surrounding Pleistocene uplands must have been present in the IJssel valley during most of the Holocene, but very diverse opinions exist as to when this local river became connected to the Rhine system (and thereby to a vast hinterland), and whether this was human induced or a natural process. We collected new AMS radiocarbon evidence on the timing of beginning overbank sedimentation along the lower reach of the Gelderse IJssel. Our data indicate onset of overbank sedimentation at about 950 AD in this reach. We attribute this environmental change to the establishment of a connection between the precursor of the IJssel and the Rhine system by avulsion. Analysis of previous conventional radiocarbon dates from the upper IJssel floodplain yields that this avulsion may have started ~600 AD. Our results contradict earlier suppositions, based on interpretation of archaeological data and historical accounts, that the Gelderse IJssel is much older and originated as a canal, dug under supervision of the Roman general Drusus
    The Gelderse IJssel is the third major distributary of the Rhine in the Netherlands and diverts on average similar to 15% of the Rhine discharge northward. Historic trading cities are located on the Gelderse IJssel and flourished in the late Middle Ages. Little is known about this river in the early Middle Ages and before, and there is considerable debate on the age and origin of the Gelderse IJssel as a Rhine distributary. A small river draining the surrounding Pleistocene uplands must have been present in the IJssel valley during most of the Holocene, but very diverse opinions exist as to when this local river became connected to the Rhine system (and thereby to a vast hinterland), and whether this was human induced or a natural process. We collected new AMS radiocarbon evidence on the timing of beginning overbank sedimentation along the lower reach of the Gelderse IJssel. Our data indicate onset of overbank sedimentation at about 950 AD in this reach. We attribute this environmental change to the establishment of a connection between the precursor of the IJssel and the Rhine system by avulsion. Analysis of previous conventional radiocarbon dates from the upper IJssel floodplain yields that this avulsion may have started similar to 600 AD. Our results contradict earlier suppositions, based on interpretation of archaeological data and historical accounts, that the Gelderse IJssel is much older and originated as a canal, dug under supervision of the Roman general Drusus.
    Waarom verschillen de zeespiegelreconstructies voor Nederland?
    Kiden, P. ; Makaske, B. ; Plassche, O. van de - \ 2008
    Grondboor en Hamer 62 (2008)3/4. - p. 54 - 61.
    paleo-ecologie - geologie - geschiedenis - rivieren - zeespiegelschommelingen - waterstand - palaeoecology - geology - history - rivers - sea level fluctuations - water level
    Nederland had op 1 januari 1700 een primeur, namelijk met de (half)uurlijkse peiling van de waterhoogte van het IJ. Midden vorige eeuw werd de 14C dateringsmethode ontwikkeld om met deze nieuw methode de holocene zeespiegelstijging te reconstrueren. De stormramp van 1953 maakte duidelijk dat kennis van zeespiegelveranderingen van groot belang is voor de veilgiheid van Nederland
    De kwetsbaarheid van delta's : zeven plagen in een geologisch perspectief
    Makaske, B. - \ 2008
    Geografie 17 (2008)9. - ISSN 0926-3837 - p. 50 - 55.
    geologie - deltagronden - rivieren - overstromingen - erosie - afrika - azië - geology - delta soils - rivers - floods - erosion - africa - asia
    De overstromingen in de Birmese Irrawaddy delta afgelopen mei en ontruiming van New Orleans in verband met orkaan Gustav in september maken ons nog een keer duidelijk hoe riskant bewoning van een deltaplan is. Delta's zijn zeer aantrekkelijk vanwege hun natuurlijke hulpbronnen, maar ook uitermate kwetsbaar. De Nijldelta loopt jaarlijks ruim 120 miljoen ton vers sediment mis vanwege de stroomopwaarts gelegen Aswan-dam
    Understanding landscape dynamics over thousand years : combining field and model work : with case study in the Drakensberg foothill, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
    Temme, A.J.A.M. - \ 2008
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tom Veldkamp. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085852636 - 191
    landschap - landvormen - geomorfologie - geologie - fysische geografie - dynamica - verandering - wiskundige modellen - simulatiemodellen - geografische informatiesystemen - landscape - landforms - geomorphology - geology - physical geography - dynamics - change - mathematical models - simulation models - geographical information systems
    The title of this thesis is “Understanding landscape dynamics over thousands of years : combining field and model work, with a case study in the Drakensberg Foothills, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa”. As the title clearly states, the overall objective is an increased knowledge of landscape dynamics through the combination of fieldwork and landscape evolution modelling.
    Fieldwork is the topic of Chapter 2. The 50 kilo-annum (ka) landscape evolution of the research area in Okhombe valley in the Drakensberg Foothills is studied. Results are presented from extensive fieldwork in Okhombe valley, combined with laboratory work.
    Starting around 50 ka and continuing until around 30 ka, with cooler temperatures and more rainfall than at present, the slow processes of solifluction and creep transported material from the steep upper slopes of the research area to the concave areas that were immediately downstream. At least two major mudflow events partly or completely covered the solifluction deposits at the end of this period, around 29 ka. When temperatures and rainfall decreased toward the Last Glacial Maximum, grassland was likely replaced by denser shrubland. Overland flow and water erosion were inhibited. At the onset of warmer and wetter climate around 15 ka, shrubby vegetation retreated to higher altitudes and Okhombe valley was again covered with grassland. This decrease in vegetation cover, together with increased rainfall, resulted in higher rates of fluvial redistribution. Presently, erosion is still widespread in the area.
    The knowledge of landscape evolution was put to the test in a landscape evolution model in Chapter 5. Chapters 3 and 4 prepared the LAPSUS model for this task by discussing two important aspects of landscape evolution modelling.
    Chapter 3 presents a method to deal with an important conceptual and technical issue in long-term landscape evolution modelling. Conventional models consider depressions in Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) spurious, and remove them before modelling. Long-term multi-process landscape evolution models predict depressions, that therefore must be considered non-spurious. A method is detailed that allows these models to identify and include these depressions in dynamic landscapes. Identification first finds sinks, then adds neighbouring cells to the corresponding depression until a saddle is crossed. Inclusion of depressions in the dynamic landscape led to a procedure to deal with flows of water and sediment into and out of depressions. Depressions can be completely or partly filled with sediment. Partial filling, from each of the neighbouring cells, takes the shape of an above- and below-water delta with user-defined slope.
    Chapter 4 discusses ways to more formally list, make and report choices involved in setting-up multi-process landscape evolution models. This discussion is necessary now that models are increasingly combining multiple processes in one study. Choices in model set-up must be made regarding the extent and resolution of time, space and processes. A scheme is presented that can guide workers in making these choices, and tests to determine case-optimal set-ups are discussed using four case studies.
    In Chapter 5 , LAPSUS is used with the lessons from Chapters 3 and 4 in mind, to test the landscape reconstruction developed in Chapter 2. Adding to existing process descriptions, the processes of creep, solifluction and biological and frost weathering were developed for LAPSUS. A sensitivity analysis was performed, both for individual processes and for the overall model. Model calibration was trial and error and of qualitative nature. It attempted to simultaneously match model results to fieldwork conclusions for three outputs: zonal process activity over time, relative process activity over time and zonal development of soildepth. After calibration, model results suggested that a very slow wave of sediment moved through the landscape after the onset of the Holocene. Waves of sediment this slow have not been reported before. It is also suggested that erosion following this wave is continuing until today. Chapter 5 also shows that landscape evolution model results allow significant refinements of single-process interpretations of deposits, and can fill in erosional hiatuses in stratigraphical records.
    Chapter 6 goes one step further and tests whether the LAPSUS version of Chapter 5 is able to discriminate between landscape responses to stable and changed climate for the next millenium in Okhombe valley. This is an important first step in the use of landscape evolution models in the assessment of the effect of human-induced changing climate. Results of landscape evolution models are, of course, uncertain. This chapter tests the influence of parameter uncertainty, assumes that the influence of uncertainty in process descriptions and model structure is minor, and ignores uncertainty in input values (e.g. climatic records). LAPSUS was run hundreds of times, using random parameter values drawn from their joint probability distributions for three levels of assumed uncertainty and for stable and changed climate. Results indicate that LAPSUS can discriminate between the two climate scenarios in most cases, even at the highest level of parameter uncertainty. An explorative, uncertain and relative conclusion about changes in landscape evolution as a result of climate change can be drawn: erosion will likely be stronger in the concave positions, and deposition will likely be stronger further downstream than under stable climate.
    Chapter 7 combines results of the previous chapters. A subdivision of similar deposits in KwaZulu-Natal in four types is proposed using knowledge about the conditions that resulted in the deposits in Okhombe valley. Then, four innovations in landscape evolution modelling that the work in chapter 3-6 has contributed to, are summarized. These innovations are combined into a proposal for iterative model-fieldwork combinations in geomorphology. Eventually the focus is on the role that landscape evolution models can play in studies of land dynamics, given their inherent complex systems’ properties.

    Beelden van 200000 jaar veranderend landschap op en rond de Berg
    Mulder, J.R. - \ 2008
    Bulletin van de Botanische Tuinen Wageningen 53 (2008)3. - ISSN 0166-7092 - p. 4 - 9.
    landschap - rivieren - geologie - geschiedenis - historische geografie - betuwe - gelderland - landscape - rivers - geology - history - historical geography - betuwe - gelderland
    Dit beeldverhaal gaat in op achtergronden van ontstaan en tevens deel verdwijnen van de stuwwal tussen Wageningen en de Nijmegen. Met daarbij de veranderende rivierloop van de Rijn, oeverwallen, oude riviergeulen en nederzettingen in de Betuwe
    Databank van de lithografische opbouw en morfologische ontwikkeling van de uiterwaarden van de Midden-Waal
    Hebinck, K.A. - \ 2008
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1678) - 37 p.
    geomorfologie - databanken - geografische informatiesystemen - bodemtypen (lithologisch) - nederland - geologie - bodem - kaarten - uiterwaarden - waal - geomorphology - databases - geographical information systems - soil types (lithological) - netherlands - geology - soil - maps - river forelands - river waal
    In de uiterwaarden zijn de komende decennia veel ingrepen gepland. Een goede kennis van de sedimentatiedynamiek en morfologische ontwikkeling van de uiterwaarden is daarbij een vereiste. Daartoe is een digitale databank (op CD bij dit rapport) opgesteld van de opbouw en geomorfologische ontwikkeling van het sediment van de uitwerwaarden van de Waal. De opgenomen boringen zijn een samenvoeging van de beschikbare boringen uit de archieven van Universiteit Utrecht, TNO en Alterra. Aan de hand van de boringen zijn er kaarten van kleiafzettingen in de uiterwaarden gemaakt.
    Bodemkundig onderzoek van het terrein HAVO Notre Dame des Anges te Beek-Ubbergen i.v.m. nieuwbouw
    Mulder, J.R. - \ 2008
    Wageningen : Alterra - 43
    geologie - bodemkarteringen - kaarten - rijk van nijmegen - geology - soil surveys - maps - rijk van nijmegen
    Bodemkundig-hydrologisch onderzoek met als doel het maken van een bodemkaart, schaal 1 : 25 00, die als basis voor de planvorming (nieuwbouw en inrichting) moet dienen. Daarbij is ook de fluctuatie van het grondwater meegenomen
    NCL Symposium Optical dating applications, Wageningen, The Netherlands, April 24, 2008
    Buis, E. ; Temme, A.J.A.M. ; Wallinga, J. - \ 2008
    Delft : NCL Netherlands Centre for Luminescence dating (NCL symposium series vol. 5) - 19
    geologie - leeftijdsbepaling - optische eigenschappen - luminescentie - datering - optica - geology - age determination - optical properties - luminescence - dating - optics
    New groundwater-level rise data from the Rhine-Meuse delta - implications for the reconstruction of Holocene relative mean sea-level rise and differential land-level movements
    Berendsen, H.J.A. ; Makaske, B. ; Plassche, O. van de; Ree, M.H.M. ; Das, S. ; Dongen, M. van; Ploumen, S. ; Schoenmakers, W. - \ 2007
    Netherlands journal of geosciences 86 (2007)4. - ISSN 0016-7746 - p. 333 - 354.
    geologie - grondwaterstand - bodemdaling - zeespiegelschommelingen - alblasserwaard - zuidhollandse eilanden - zuid-holland - geology - groundwater level - subsidence - sea level fluctuations - alblasserwaard - zuidhollandse eilanden - zuid-holland - western netherlands - flevo lagoon - evolution - bc - avulsion - deposits - coast - area
    We present new local groundwater-level rise data from two Late Glacial aeolian dunes, located near Barendrecht and Oud-Alblas in the western Rhine-Meuse delta. These data are based on AMS radiocarbon dating of terrestrial macrofossils, collected from the base of peat formed on the slopes of these dunes. This method avoids contamination of bulk peat samples by old soil carbon or younger rootlets and rhizomes, as well as the hardwater effect. The new data are used to assess the reliability of previously published groundwater-level index data based on conventional radiocarbon dating of bulk basal peat samples from the slopes of the Late Glacial aeolian dunes at Barendrecht, Hillegersberg, Bolnes and Wijngaarden, all located in the western Rhine-Meuse delta. Comparison of the new and published groundwater-level data shows no significant systematic difference between conventionally dated bulk peat samples and AMS-dated samples of terrestrial macrofossils. The new data from the dune at Barendrecht confirm the reliability of the younger than 6600 cal yr BP age-depth data from the dunes at Hillegersberg and near Bolnes. This result supports the validity of this part of the mean sea-level (MSL) curve for the western Netherlands. Consequently, the position of the groundwater-level curve for Flevoland (central Netherlands) below this MSL curve can most likely be attributed to differential land-level movement. The available data show that the groundwater-gradient effect in the western Rhine-Meuse delta became less than 5 cm/km after 6600 calyr BP. Finally, temporal correlation between temporary increases in local groundwater-level rise with known shifts of river courses in the delta plain suggests, that avulsions can explain sudden local deviations from the trend in groundwater-level rise. A general conclusion of this study is that a complex relationship exists between sea level and local delta-plain water levels.
    Evolution of the human-environment relationship
    Costanza, R. ; Steffen, W. ; Hibbard, K. ; Crumley, C. ; Leemans, R. ; Graumlich, L. ; Dearing, J. ; Redman, C. ; Schimel, D. - \ 2007
    In: Encyclopedia of Earth / Cleveland, C.J.,
    samenleving - milieu - mens - geologie - ecologie - aarde - society - environment - man - geology - ecology - earth
    The scope of the Encyclopedia of Earth is the environment of the Earth broadly defined, with particular emphasis on the interaction between society and the natural spheres of the Earth.
    Bridging scaling gaps for the assessment of biodiversity from space
    Schaepman, M.E. ; Malenovsky, Z. ; Mücher, C.A. ; Kooistra, L. ; Thullier, W. - \ 2007
    In: The full picture Geneva (Switzerland) : Tudor Rose / GEO - ISBN 9789299004708 - p. 258 - 261.
    geologie - aarde - aardwetenschappen - observatie - geology - earth - earth sciences - observation
    Soils of volcanic regions in Europe
    Arnalds, O. ; Bartoli, F. ; Buurman, P. ; Oskarsson, H. ; Stoops, G. ; García-Rodeja, E. - \ 2007
    Berlin Heidelberg : Springer Verlag - ISBN 9783540487104 - 649
    geologie - bodemschatten - mineralogie - fysische geografie - geologische sedimentatie - bodemkunde - bodembescherming - aardwetenschappen - geology - mineral resources - mineralogy - physical geography - geological sedimentation - soil science - soil conservation - earth sciences
    Soils of volcanic areas often exhibit unique properties differentiating them from other soils on Earth. This book gives comprehensive coverage of soils in volcanic regions within Europe, dealing with most aspects of modern day soil science. It covers a range of issues such as mineralogy, chemistry, physics, soil genesis, classification, and more.
    Een lange geschiedenis; reliëf, bodem, vegetatie en eerste bewoners
    Vervloet, J.A.J. - \ 2006
    In: Dit is Bennekom. Verleden, heden en toekomst van een bijzonder dorp / Lever, B., Hoekstra, T., Vlaskamp, G., Bennekom : Historische Vereniging Oud-Bennekom - ISBN 9789078592013 - p. 10 - 34.
    geologie - vegetatie - geschiedenis - historische geografie - gelderse vallei - veluwe - geology - vegetation - history - historical geography - gelderse vallei - veluwe
    In dit hoofdstuk aandacht voor de vraag hoe hoogteverschillen in dit gebied met bossen en heiden als onderdeel van het Veluwse heuvelgebied aan de oostkant van het dorp tot de lage weilanden aan de westkant, als onderdeel van de Gelderse Vallei
    Sampling scheme optimization from hyperspectral data
    Debba, P. - \ 2006
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): A. Stein; F.D. van der Meer, co-promotor(en): E.J.M. Carranza. - [S.l. ] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085044628 - 164
    optimalisatie - bemonsteren - remote sensing - simulatie - gegevensanalyse - geografische informatiesystemen - geologie - geostatistiek - geology - optimization - sampling - remote sensing - simulation - data analysis - geographical information systems - geostatistics

    This thesis presents statistical sampling scheme optimization for geo-environ-menta] purposes on the basis of hyperspectral data. It integrates derived products of the hyperspectral remote sensing data into individual sampling schemes. Five different issues are being dealt with.

    First, the optimized sampling scheme is presented to select samples that represent different ontological categories. The iterated conditional modes algorithm (ICM) is used as an unsupervised segmentation technique. Within each cate-gory, simulated annealing is applied for minimizing the mean shortest distance (MMSD) between sampling points. The number of sampling points in each category is proportional to the size and variability' of the category. The combination of the ICM algorithm for image segmentation with simulated annealing for optimized sampling, results in an elegant and powerful tool in designing optimal sampling schemes using remote sensing images. A validation study conducted shows that the optimized sampling scheme gives best estimates for commonly used vegetation indices compared to simple random sampling and rectangular grid sampling.

    Next, optimal sampling schemes, which focus on ground verification of minerals derived from hyperspectral data, are presented. Spectral angle mapper {SAM) and spectral feature fitting (SFF) classification techniques are applied to obtain rule mineral images. The rule images provide weights that are utilized in objective functions of the sampling schemes which are optimized by means of simulated annealing. Three weight, functions intensively sample areas where a high probability and abundance of al unite occurs. Weight function I uses binary weights derived from the SAM classification image, leading to an even distribution of sampling points over the region of interest. Weight function II uses scaled weights derived from the SAM rule image. Sample points are arranged more intensely in areas where there is an abundance of al unite. Weight function III combines information from several different rule image classifications. Sampling points are distributed more intensely in regions of high probable alu-nite as classified by both SAM and SFF, thus representing the purest of pixels. This method leads to an efficient distribution of sample points, on the basis of a user-defined objective.

    This is followed by a quantitative method for optimally locating exploration targets based on a probabilistic mineral prospectivity map. which was created by means of weights-of-evidence (WofE) modeling. Locations of discovered mineral occurrences were used as a training set and a map of distances to faults/fractures and three channel ratio images of HyMap hyperspectral data were used as evidences. The WofE posterior probability map was applied to an objective function that optimized location of exploration targets. Optimized exploration target zones spatially coincide with undiscovered mineral occurrences, namely, those not used to train the WofE model input, and show other zones without mineral occurrences within delineated prospective ground. The results indicate usefulness of the described optimization method to allocate exploration targets for undiscovered mineral occurrence, based on probabilistic mineral prospectiv-ity maps.

    A method for estimating the partial abundance of spectrally similar minerals in complex mixtures follows. Linear mixtures are generated with varying proportions of individual spectrum, from a spectral library, of a set of iron-bearing oxide/hydroxide/sulfate minerals. The first and second derivatives of each of the different sets of mixed spectra and the individual spectrum are evaluated. This method for spectral unmixing requires formulating a linear function of individual spectra of the minerals. The error between these derivative functions and the respective derivative function of the mixed spectrum is minimized by means of simulated annealing. Experiments are made on several different mixtures of selected end-members, which could plausibly occur in real situations. The variance of the differences between the second derivatives of the observed spectrum and the second derivatives of the end-member spectra give most precise estimates for the abundance of each end-member.

    Lastly, a method by which an optimal ground sampling scheme can be obtained for a variable of interest is described. The variable of interest is the spatial distribution of a suite of heavy metals in mine tailings. Derivation of an optimal sampling scheme makes use of covariates of the spatial variable of interest, which are readily but less accurately obtainable by using airborne hyperspectral data. The covariates are abundances of secondary iron-bearing minerals estimated through spectral unmixing. Via simulated annealing, an optimal retrospective sampling scheme for a previously sampled area is derived having fewer samples but having almost equal mean kriging prediction error as the original ground samples. Via simulated annealing, an optimal prospective sampling scheme for a new unvisited area is derived based on the variogram model of a previously sampled area. The results of this study demonstrate potential application of hy-perspectral remote sensing and simulated annealing to surface characterization of large mine tailings having similar climatic and terrain characteristics to the mine tailings in the case study area.

    Woodlands of the past : The excavation of wetland woods at Zwolle-Stadshagen (the Netherlands): Reconstruction of the wetland wood in its environmental context
    Kooistra, M.J. ; Kooistra, L.I. ; Rijn, P. van; Sass, U.G.W. - \ 2006
    Netherlands journal of geosciences 85 (2006)1. - ISSN 0016-7746 - p. 37 - 60.
    landschap - bodem - geologie - archeologie - palynologie - geschiedenis - hout - overijssel - landscape - soil - geology - history - archaeology - palynology - wood - overijssel - pollen - bog - teleconnections - sections - pipette - climate - remains - holland - rise - bc
    Information on the vegetation and landscape history of a region is often limited, and available data are hard to interprete. A concept is presented here on how a more comprehensive picture of the structure and development of landscapes and vegetations of the past can be gained by integrating the information of several disciplines. Archaeological field methods have been combined with methods used in landscape studies (geology, soil science, micromorphology) and vegetation studies (ecology, palynology and dendrochronology). This concept has been applied and tested during an integrated study of a buried woodland at Zwolle-Stadshagen (Province of Overijssel, the Netherlands). Many large wood remnants were found in a peat layer preserved below a thick clay deposit. The wood remnants were dated by using dendrochronology to the period between ca. 150 BC and AD 580 (ca. 2200 - 1400 cal. BP). Two phases could be distinguished in the development of the peat. The woodland consisted of a closed stand with ash, alder and oak as main species, in the first phase mostly resembling an alder carr, and in the second one the near-extinct Filipendulo-Alnetum Passage et Hofmann 1968. No evidence of exploitation of the woodland by man nor of animal foraging was found. The followed integrated procedure has led to a more substantiated reconstruction of the palaeo-environment with its wetland wood, but also of the influence of human activities on the palaeo-landscape and its woodlands, that could not have been obtained otherwise.
    Sedimentary architecture and optical dating of Middle and Late Pleistocene Rhine-Meuse deposits - Fluvial response to climate change, sea-level fluctuation and glaciation
    Busschers, Freek S. ; Weerts, H.J.T. ; Wallinga, J. ; Cleveringa, P. ; Kasse, C. ; Wolf, H. de; Cohen, K.M. - \ 2005
    Netherlands journal of geosciences 84 (2005)1. - ISSN 0016-7746 - p. 25 - 41.
    Climate - Estuarine - Fluvial - Glaciation - Isostacy - Late Pleistocene - Middle Pleistocene - Netherlands - North Sea Basin - Optical dating - Rhine-Meuse - Sea-level - Subsidence

    Eight continuous corings in the west-central Netherlands show a 15 to 25 m thick stacked sequence of sandy to gravelly channel-belt deposits of the Rhine-Meuse system. This succession of fluvial sediments was deposited under net subsiding conditions in the southern part of the North Sea Basin and documents the response of the Rhine-Meuse river system to climate and sea-level change and to the glaciation history. On the basis of grain size characteristics, sedimentological structures, nature and extent of bounding surfaces and palaeo-ecological data, the sequence was subdivided into five fluvial units, an estuarine and an aeolian unit. Optical dating of 34 quartz samples showed that the units have intra Saalian to Weichselian ages (Marine Isotope Stages 8 to 2). Coarse-grained fluvial sediments primarily deposited under cold climatic conditions, with low vegetation cover and continuous permafrost. Finer-grained sediments generally deposited during more temperate climatic conditions with continuous vegetation cover and/or periods of sea-level highstand. Most of the sedimentary units are bounded by unconformities that represent erosion during periods of climate instability, sea-level fall and/or glacio-isostatic uplift.

    Lichenrijke stuifzanden in Noord-Limburg : verleden, heden en toekomst
    Ketner-Oostra, H.G.M. ; Douma, B.E. ; Ancker, H. van den; Jungerius, P.D. - \ 2005
    Natuurhistorisch Maandblad 94 (2005)6. - ISSN 0028-1107 - p. 109 - 116.
    geomorfologie - geologie - landschapsecologie - vegetatie - eolisch zand - korstmossen - plantengeografie - noord-limburg - geomorphology - geology - landscape ecology - vegetation - aeolian sands - lichens - phytogeography - noord-limburg
    Tijdens een vooronderzoek over mogelijk herstel van stuifzandvegetatie in de gemeente Bergen zijn vier natuurterreinen onderzocht waarvan de gegevens terug te vinden waren bij eerder onderzoek (Cleef en Kers, 1968). Een vergelijking is gemaakt met recent uitgevoerd onderzoek (Van den Acker, 2002). Het betreft een 90 ha groot verstuivingslandschap binnen Nationaal Park de Maasduinen
    Modelling landslide dynamics in forested landscapes
    Claessens, L.F.G. - \ 2005
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tom Veldkamp, co-promotor(en): Jeroen Schoorl. - Wageningen : s.n. - ISBN 9789085041450 - 143
    aardverschuivingen - landschap - landschapsecologie - modellen - herverdeling - bossen - erosie - geologie - geomorfologie - vegetatie - digitaal terreinmodel - nieuw-zeeland - landslides - landscape - landscape ecology - models - redistribution - forests - erosion - geology - geomorphology - vegetation - digital elevation model - new zealand
    The research resulting in this thesis covers the geological, geomorphological and landscape ecology related themes of the project 'Podzolisation under Kauri (Agathis australis): for better or worse?' supported by theNetherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO). The general objective of this thesis is to investigate landscape, soil and vegetation dynamics in theWaitakereRangesRegionalParkon the North Island of New Zealand, where also all the fieldwork was carried out. The main core of the thesis consists of the development of a dynamic landscape process model to simulate soil redistribution by shallow landsliding. Resulting spatial patterns of erosion and deposition, changes in landslide susceptibility over time and the relation of spatially explicit landscape attributes with vegetation patterns are further explored.

    ·Chapter 1 is a general introduction elaborating on the geology, climate and socio-economic setting of the study area and explains the main objectives and research questions. The contents and overall structure of the thesis are also illustrated. Following this introductory chapter, the thesis is composed of 5 chapters based on scientific papers published in or submitted to peer reviewed journals.

    ·Chapter 2 deals with the general tectonic setting of the study area. Quaternary coastal and fluvial terrace morphology and chronology are explored to reconstruct the tectonic history of the south-west coast of the Northland region inNew Zealand. This chapter is situated on the geological timescale (1.8 Ma BP till present) and places the subsequent chapters dealing with the landscape process model and its applications, acting on a timescale of years to decades, in a broader spatio-temporal perspective. Field surveys and the analysis of aerial photography yield an inventory of 13 fluvial and 12 marine terrace levels. Due to poor exposure of clear field evidence in the form of e.g. wave-cut platforms or distinct river sediments, planar landscape morphology forms the main criterion for terrace remnant identification. Based on the record of terrace height spacings, sparse tephra age control and correlation with global paleoclimatic records, an attempt is made to reconstruct the regional Quaternary uplift rates. Because no hard chronostratigraphic marker is present within the fluvial terrace sequence, fluvial terrace levels are linked to the marine sequence by using the mean uplift rates calculated from the marine terraces (0.35 mm yr -1 from 0- 0.1 Ma and 0.26 mm yr -1 from 0.1-0.3 Ma). Both sets of terraces are then correlated with oxygen isotope fluctuations and the astronomically tuned timescale from ODP Site 677 and the Vostok ice core paleoclimatic records. Oldest marine and fluvial terrace levels are estimated 1.21 Ma and 0.242 Ma respectively. Although there seems to be some form of controversy about the uplift history and especially the preservation of terraces in the study area, a general regional uplift, superimposed on glacio-eustatic sea-level changes, is substantiated as the only possible mechanism leading to the maintenance of a considerable relief and active denudation processes inland.

    ·Chapter 3 deals with the development and application of the LAPSUS-LS landscape process model. The model is constructed as a component of the LAPSUS modelling framework ( L andsc A pe P roces S modelling at m U lti dimensions and scale S ; -LS:L and S lide,refers to the process specific model component). LAPSUS-LS delineates the location of shallow landslide initiation sites and simulates the effects on spatial patterns of soil redistribution and resulting landslide hazard for a large watershed within the study area. Processes that need to be incorporated in the model are reviewed followed by the proposed modelling framework. The model predicts the spatial pattern of landslide susceptibility within the simulated catchment and subsequently applies a spatial algorithm for the redistribution of failed material on the basis of a scenario of triggering rainfall events, relative landslide hazard and trajectories with runout criteria for failed slope material. The model forms a spatially explicit method to address the effects of shallow landslide erosion and sedimentation because digital elevation data are adapted between timesteps and on- and off-site effects over the years can be simulated in this way. By visualisation of the modelling results in a GIS environment, the shifting pattern of upslope and downslope (in)stability, triggering of new landslides and the resulting slope retreat by soil material redistribution due to former mass movements is simulated and assessed.

    ·Chapter 4 zooms in on a more theoretical aspect of the LAPSUS-LS model and evaluates digital elevation model (DEM) resolution effects on model results. The focus is on influences of grid size on landslide soil redistribution quantities and resulting spatial patterns and feedback mechanisms. Distributions of slope, specific catchment area and relative hazard for shallow landsliding are analysed for four different DEM resolutions (grid sizes of 10, 25, 50 and 100 m) for a 12 km 2 study catchment in theWaitakereRanges. The effect of DEM resolution proves to be especially pronounced for the boundary conditions determining a valid landslide hazard calculation. For coarse resolutions, the smoothing effect results in a larger area becoming classified as unconditionally stable or unstable. Simple empirical soil redistribution algorithms are applied for scenarios in which all sites with a certain landslide hazard fail and generate debris flow. The lower initial number of failing cells but also the inclusion of slope (limit) in those algorithms becomes apparent with coarser resolutions. For finer resolutions, much larger amounts of soil redistribution are found, which is attributed to the more detailed landscape representation. Looking at spatial patterns of landslide erosion and sedimentation, the size of the area affected by these processes also increases with finer resolutions. In general, landslide erosion occupies larger parts of the area than deposition, although the total amounts of soil material eroded and deposited are the same. Analysis of feedback mechanisms between soil failures over time shows that finer resolutions show higher percentages of the area with an increased or decreased landslide hazard. When the extent of sites with lower and higher hazards are compared, finer grid sizes and higher landslide hazard threshold scenarios tend to increase the total extent of areas becoming more stable relative to the less stable ones. It is concluded that extreme care should be taken when quantifying landslide basin sediment yield by applying simple soil redistribution formulas to DEMs with different resolutions. Rather, quantities should be interpreted as relative amounts. For studying shallow landsliding over a longer timeframe, the 'perfect' DEM resolution may not exist, because no resolution can possibly represent the dimensions of all different slope failures scattered in space and time. It is emphasised that the choice of DEM resolution, possibly restricted by data availability in the first place, should always be adapted to the context of a particular type of analysis.

    ·Chapter 5 and 6 describe two distinct applications of the LAPSUS-LS model: in Chapter 5 , a sediment record is used, in combination with the LAPSUS-LS model, to reconstruct the incidence of high-magnitude/low-frequency landslide events in the upper part of theWaitakereRivercatchment and the history of the Te Henga wetland at the outlet. Sediment stratigraphy and chronology are interpreted by radiocarbon dating, foraminiferal analysis, andprovisionaltephrochronology. Gradual impoundment of the wetland began c. 6000 cal yr BP, coinciding with the start of a gentle sea-level fall, but complete damming and initial sedimentation did not begin until c. 1000 cal yr BP. After damming, four well-defined sediment pulses occurred and these are preserved in the form of distinct clay layers in most of the sediment cores. For interpreting the sediment pulses, the LAPSUS-LS modelisapplied to determine spatially distributed relative landslide hazard, applicable at the catchment scale. An empirical landslide soil redistribution componentisadded to determine sediment delivery ratio and the impact on total catchment sediment yield. Sediment volumesarecalculated from the wetland cores and corresponding landslide scenarios are defined through back-analysis of modelled sediment yield output. In general, at least four major high-magnitude landslide events, both natural and intensified by forest clearance activities, occurred in the catchment upstream of Te Henga wetland during the last c. 1000 years. Their magnitude can be expressed by a range of critical rainfall thresholds representing a LAPSUS-LS scenario.

    ·Chapter 6 is a more ecologically focused application of the model and links digital terrain analysis and landslide modelling with the spatial distribution of mature kauri trees. The use of topographical attributes for the analysis of the spatial distribution and ecological cycle of kauri ( Agathis australis ), a canopy emergent conifer tree from northernNew Zealand, is studied. Several primary and secondary topographic attributes are derived from a DEM for theWaitakereRivercatchment and the contribution of these variables in explaining presence or absence of mature kauri is assessed with logistic regression and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) plots. The topographically based landslide hazard index calculated with the LAPSUS-LS model appears to be very useful in explaining the occurrence and ecological dynamics of kauri. It is shown that the combination of topographic -, soil physical - and hydrological parameters in the calculation of this single landslide hazard index, performs better in explaining presence of mature kauri than using topographic attributes calculated from the DEM properties alone. Moreover, this example demonstrates the possibilities of using terrain attributes for representing geomorphological processes and disturbance mechanisms, often indispensable in explaining a species' ecological cycle and forest stand dynamics. The results of this analysis support the 'temporal stand replacement model', involving disturbance as a dominant ecological process in forest regeneration, as an interpretation of the community dynamics of kauri. Furthermore, a certain threshold maturity stage, in which trees become able to stabilise landslide prone sites and postpone a possible disturbance by this process, together with great longevity are seen as major factors making kauri a 'landscape engineer'.

    ·Synthesising, Chapter 7 reflects on the most important conclusions from the research resulting in this thesis and discusses the achievement of the main objectives and answers to the research questions postulated in Chapter 1. Three general themes are put forward covering the previous chapters. Finally some ideas for future research are suggested.

    De bodemgesteldheid van bosreservaten in Nederland; deel 9 bosreservaat Leyduin-Vinkenduin (NH), bosreservaat Bunderbos (L), bosreservaat Ossenbos (G), bosreservaat Heloma- en Bleekerspolder(Fr), bosreservaat Achter de Voort (Ov), bosreservaat De Slikken van Flakkee (Z)
    Mekkink, P. - \ 2004
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 60.9) - 88
    beschermde bossen - bossen - bosgronden - bodemkarteringen - geologie - humus - bodemwater - nederland - bodemprofielen - kaarten - reserved forests - forests - forest soils - soil profiles - soil surveys - geology - humus - soil water - maps - netherlands
    In de bosreservaten Leyduin-Vinkenduin, Bunderbos, Ossenbos, Heloma- en Bleekerspolder, Achter de Voort en Slikken van Flakkee komen Tertiaire, Pleistocene en Holocene afzettingen voor. Het zijn veengronden, moerige gronden, zandgronden, rivierkleigronden en lössgronden met daarin vlietveengronden, vlierveengronden, broekeerdgronden, veldpodzolgronden, haarpodzolgronden, vorstvaaggronden, duinvaaggronden, vlakvaaggronden, leekeerdgronden, ooivaaggronden en poldervaaggronden. De gronden komen voor met grondwatertrap Ia, IIa, IIb, IIIa, IIIb, IVu, Vao, Vbd, VIo en VId, VIId en VIIId. De verbreiding van de bodemeenheden en grondwatertrappen is bij de bosreservaten Leyduin-Vinkenduin, Bunderbos, Ossenbos en Achter de Voort weergegeven op een bodem- en grondwatertrappenkaart, schaal 1 : 5000. Mede onder invloed van het gevoerde beheer en het vegetatietype en hebben zich terrestrische en semiterrestrische humusprofielen ontwikkeld met een ectorganisch en een endorganisch deel. De profielopbouw en de opbouw van de strooisellaag zijn beschreven en in een database vastgelegd
    Vegetation, water, humans and the climate; a new perspective on an interactive system
    Kabat, P. ; Claussen, M. ; Dirmeyer, P.A. ; Gash, J.H.C. ; Bravo de Guenni, L. ; Meybeck, M. ; Pielke sr., R.A. ; Vörösmarty, C.J. ; Hutjes, R.W.A. ; Lütkemeier, S. - \ 2004
    Berlin (Germany) [etc.] : Springer (Global change : the IGBP series ) - ISBN 9783540424000 - 566
    geologie - hydrologie - klimaat - bodem - vegetatie - menselijke activiteit - milieutoets - interacties - aardwetenschappen - terrestrische ecosystemen - hydrologische cyclus - biosfeer - geology - hydrology - climate - soil - vegetation - human activity - environmental assessment - interactions - earth sciences - terrestrial ecosystems - hydrological cycle - biosphere
    Woodlands of the past : The excavation of wetland woods at Zwolle-Stadshagen (The Netherlands) II. Development of the palaeo-landscape in its hydrological context
    Kooistra, M.J. - \ 2003
    Wageningen : Alterra - 39
    landschap - bodem - geologie - archeologie - hout - hydrologie - overijssel - landscape - soil - geology - archaeology - wood - hydrology - overijssel
    Bodemkundig archeologisch onderzoek Blauwe Sluis; een verkennend bodemkundig-archeologisch onderzoek op een huisperceel gelegen aan de Sluissestraat 18 in Appeltern
    Pleijter, M. ; Vroon, H.R.J. ; Exaltus, R.P. - \ 2003
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 731) - 41
    archeologie - bodemkarteringen - geologie - nederland - kaarten - gelderland - land van maas en waal - archaeology - soil surveys - geology - maps - netherlands - gelderland - land van maas en waal
    Op het huisperceel aan de Sluissestraat 18 in Appeltern staat momenteel een aantal kippenschuren, die de eigenaar wil laten verbouwen tot een rijstal met een paardenbak. Hiervoor is een bestemmingsplanwijziging nodig. Voorsorterend op het Verdrag van Valleta heeft de provincie Gelderland als voorwaarde voor het toekennen van de bestemmingsplanwijziging gesteld dat aanvullend archeologisch onderzoek moet worden uitgevoerd. Dit onderzoek behelst het inventariseren van reeds bekende archeologische informatie uit verschillenden bronnen, zoals het IKAW, ARCHIS en van amateurarcheologen. Met behulp van bodemkundige gegevens en aanvullend veldonderzoek is een gebiedsvisie opgesteld aan de hand van karakteristieke landschapseenheden.
    De bodemgesteldheid van bosreservaten in Nederland : Deel 6 Bosreservaat Herkenboscher Heide
    Mekkink, P. - \ 2002
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 60.6) - 50
    bosgronden - beschermde bossen - bodemkarteringen - humus - grondwater - bodemtypen - geologie - nederland - kaarten - midden-limburg - forest soils - reserved forests - soil surveys - maps - humus - groundwater - soil types - geology - netherlands - midden-limburg
    In het bosreservaat Herkenboscher Heide komen pleistocene afzettingen uit de Formatie van Sterksel en de Formatie Twente aan de oppervlakte voor. Het zijn grindhoudende zandgronden, dekzanden en lössgronden met daarin holtpodzolgronden, vorstvaaggronden, vlakvaaggronden en ooivaaggronden. De gronden hebben grondwatertrap VIIId. De verbreiding van de geologische afzettingen is weergegeven op de geologische kaart. De verbreiding van de bodemeenheden is weergegeven op de bodemkaart. Mede onder invloed van het opstandstype en het gevoerde beheer hebben zich humusprofielen ontwikkeld bestaande uit een ectorganisch en een endorganisch deel. De profielopbouw en de opbouw van de strooisellaag zijn beschreven en op tape vastgelegd.
    Elements for archaeological heritage management: exploring the archaeological potential of drowned Mesolithic and Early Neolithic landscapes in Zuidelijk Flevoland
    Peeters, H. ; Makaske, B. ; Mulder, J.R. ; Otte-Klomp, A. ; Smeerdijk, D.G. van; Smit, S. ; Spek, T. - \ 2002
    Berichten van de Rijksdienst voor het Oudheidkundig Bodemonderzoek = Proceedings of the State Service for Archaeological Investigations in the Netherlands 45 (2002). - ISSN 0167-5443 - p. 81 - 123.
    geologie - bodem - geschiedenis - landschap - grondwaterstand - flevoland - archeologie - bewoningsgechiedenis - bodemonderzoek - cultuurhistorie - overstroming - zeespiegelstijging - geology - soil - landscape - groundwater level - history - flevoland
    The initial ideas for the ROB project Zuidelijk Flevoland conceived during the last year of fieldwork at the Hoge Vaart, 1996
    De bodemgesteldheid van bosreservaten in Nederland; deel 5 bosreservaat De Stille Eenzaamheid
    Mekkink, P. - \ 2002
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 60.5) - 48
    bosgronden - beschermde bossen - bodemkarteringen - humus - grondwater - bodemtypen - geologie - nederland - kaarten - gelderland - bodemkunde - bosreservaat - humusprofiel - forest soils - reserved forests - soil surveys - maps - humus - groundwater - soil types - geology - netherlands - gelderland
    In het Gelderse bosreservaat De Stille Eenzaamheid komen pleistocene afzettingen uit de Formatie van Drente en Twente en holocene afzettingen uit de Formatie van Kootwijk aan de oppervlakte voor. Het zijn zandgronden met daarin duin- en vlakvaaggronden. De gronden hebben grondwatertrap VIo, VIId en VIIId. Mede onder invloed van het opstandstype en het gevoerde beheer hebben zich humusprofielen ontwikkeld bestaande uit een ectorganisch en een endorganisch deel. De profielopbouw en de opbouw van de strooisellaag zijn beschreven en op tape vastgelegd.
    De stijging van de waterspiegel nabij Almere in de periode 5300-2300 v. Chr
    Makaske, B. ; Smeerdijk, D.G. van; Mulder, J.R. ; Spek, T. - \ 2002
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 478) - 105
    paleo-ecologie - geologie - geschiedenis - meren - nederland - waterstand - archeologie - bodemkunde - grondwaterstand - historische geografie - zeespiegelstijging - Flevoland - palaeoecology - geology - lakes - history - netherlands - water level
    Op basis van 14C-ouderdomsbepalingen aan basisveenmonsters is een reconstructie gemaakt van de stijging van de waterspiegel in de omgeving van Almere in de periode 5300-2300 v.Chr. Een geologisch en bodemkundig onderzoek door middel van grondboringen ging vooraf aan het verzamelen van de veenmonsters. De samenstelling van het basisveen is uitvoerig paleo-ecologisch onderzocht. De dateringsgegevens zijn uitgezet in tijd-dieptediagrammen en er zijn curven getrokken die de ontwikkeling van de waterstand in de loop van de tijd weergeven. Vervolgens is een vergelijking gemaakt met de resultaten van soortgelijke studies die elders in Flevoland zijn uitgevoerd. Ook is een vergelijking gemaakt met de ontwikkeling van de zeespiegel. Het onderzoek kan bijdragen aan een betere inschatting van de bewoningsmogelijkheden van het studiegebied in de Midden- en Late Steentijd, hetgeen relevant is voor onderzoek naar archeologische waarden.
    Over vulkaankegels, lavastromen, heidevelden en ooibossen
    Ketner, P. ; Wielemaker, W. - \ 2002
    Natura 99 (2002)6. - ISSN 0028-0631 - p. 192 - 194.
    geologie - geomorfologie - landschap - vulkanische gebieden - vulkanen - vegetatie - frankrijk - geology - geomorphology - landscape - volcanic areas - volcanoes - vegetation - france
    Beschrijving van de geologische ontstaansgeschiedenis, bodem, landschap en vegetatie in de Auvergne, een gebied dat de effecten van vulkanisme in al zijn vormenrijkdom duidelijk laat zien
    Addressing the multi-scale lapsus of landscape : multi-scale landscape process modelling to support sustainable land use : a case study for the Lower Guadalhorce valley South Spain
    Schoorl, J.M. - \ 2002
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J. Bouma; A. Veldkamp. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058085955 - 172
    landschap - landgebruik - geologie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - landschapsecologie - modellen - landgebruiksplanning - bodembeheer - spanje - landscape - land use - geology - sustainability - landscape ecology - models - land use planning - soil management - spain

    "Addressing the Multi-scale Lapsus of Landscape" with the sub-title "Multi-scale landscape process modelling to support sustainable land use: A case study for the Lower Guadalhorce valley South Spain" focuses on the role of landscape as the main driving factor behind many geo-environmental processes at different temporal and spatial levels. LAPSUS is the name of the geomorphological model developed in this study and at the same time it is taken, with a certain degree of freedom, as a reference to the underestimated importance of landscape as cause and result of geomorphological processes.

    The main objective of this research is to investigate the role of the landscape at different spatial and temporal levels (extension and resolution) in geomorphological processes (e.g. soil redistribution: erosion and sedimentation), focussing on the sustainability of land use within a representative Mediterranean landscape. Landscape is defined in terms of genesis, geomorphology, lithology/ soil, land cover, land use, and even land management (human factor).

    The research area chosen for this study is located in the south of Spain, surrounding the village of Álora, in the central Guadalhorce river basin in the province of Málaga, Andalucía (Chapter 1). The area has a mean annual temperature of 17.5 °C and receives a mean yearly rainfall of 534 [mm], distributed mainly from October to April. This research area was selected as representative for a wide variety of Mediterranean environmental conditions in terms of a complex geological history resulting in a spatial diversification over short distances of morphology, lithology and active landscape processes ranging from tectonics, land use changes to land degradation.

    The study is directed, from the beginning to the end, at different spatial and temporal extensions-resolutions, studying different landscape processes within their specific spatial and temporal boundaries (Chapter 1). The first step in this investigation is the understanding of the evolution of the landscape and the geological background of the research area (spatial extension 10 2[km 2], temporal extension 10 7[a], temporal resolution 10 4to 10 5[a], Chapter 2). The second step is the development of a multi-scale landscape process model LAPSUS, valid at different spatial and temporal resolutions (spatial extension 10 3to 10 5[m 2], spatial resolution from 1 to 81 [m], Chapter 3). The third step comprises the actual measurement of net soil redistribution rates at the landscape level using the 137Cs technique. First, the applicability of this technique under the current Mediterranean conditions of the research area is evaluated (spatial extension 10 3to 10 5[m 2] Chapter 4). Secondly, net 137Cs derived soil redistribution rates on the temporal resolution of years and decades is simulated and the monitored erosion and sedimentation patterns are compared with the possibilities of the LAPSUS model (spatial resolution 7.5 [m], Chapter 5). The fourth step is the evaluation of the soil-landscape context at the multi-catchment or basin scale with special attention to the effects of soil redistribution upon water availability for vegetation (spatial extension 10 2[km 2], Chapter 6). The fifth step is the integration of landscape process modelling and changes in land use to evaluate on-site and off-site effects (spatial extension 10 [km 2], spatial resolution 25 [m], temporal extension 10 [a], temporal resolution 1 [a], Chapter 7). As a final step a synthesis of results, comments and evaluation of the research is done (Chapter 8).

    Landscape evolution from a geological perspective. Landscape evolution is the result of a variety of geomorphological processes and their controls in time. Tectonics, climate and sea level fluctuations have mainly controlled landscape evolution in the research area. Data is obtained and analysed from the Upper Miocene to present (Chapter 2). Consequently, geomorphological reconstructions are made using sedimentary evidence such as marine and fluvial deposits, as well as erosional evidence such as terrain form and longitudinal profile analysis. These reconstructions add information and constraints to the uplift history and landscape development of the research area. Main sedimentation phases are the Late Tortonian, Early Pliocene and Pleistocene. Important erosional hiatus are found for the Middle Miocene, Messinian and Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene. Concerning the palaeo-landscape, this resulted in a relative large and elongated Tortonian marine valley filled up with complex sedimentary structures. Next a prolonged stage of erosion of these deposits and incision of the major valley system took place during the Messinian. In the Pliocene a short palaeo-Guadalhorce, in a narrow and much smaller valley existed, partly filled with marine sediments combined with prograding fan delta complexes. During the Pleistocene a wider and larger incising river system resulted in rearrangements of the drainage network. Evaluating the uplift history of the area, the tectonic activity was relatively higher during the Tortonian-Messinian and Late Pleistocene, while it was lower during the Pliocene. Relative uplift rates for the study area range between 160-276 [m Ma -1] in the Messinian, 10-15 [m Ma -1] in the Pliocene to 40-100 [m Ma -1] during the Pleistocene.

    Multi-scale landscape process modelling. Once the geological background is understood, the development and testing of a landscape process model is undertaken (Chapter 3). Since resolution effects remain a factor of uncertainty in many hydrological and geomorphological modelling approaches, an experimental multi-scale study of landscape process modelling is presented, with emphasis on quantifying the effect of changing the spatial resolution upon modelling the processes of erosion and sedimentation. A simple single process model is constructed and equal boundary conditions are created. The use of artificial DEMs eliminates the possible effects of landscape representation. Consequently, the only variable factors are DEM resolution and the method of flow routing, both steepest descent and multiple flow directions. An important dependency of modelled erosion and sedimentation rates on these main variables is found. The general trend is an increase of erosion predictions with coarser resolutions. An artificial mathematical overestimation of erosion and a realistic natural modelling effect of underestimating re-sedimentation cause this. Increasing the spatial extent eliminates the artificial effect while at the same time the realistic effect is enhanced. Both effects can be quantified and are expected to increase within natural landscapes. The modelling of landscape processes will benefit from integrating these types of results at different resolutions.

    The use of the 137Cs technique in a Mediterranean environment. The 137Cs technique has been used in all sorts of environments all over the world to estimate net soil redistribution rates. However, its potentials in areas with shallow and stony soils on hard rock lithology remain unclear. Concentrations in the soil of artificial and natural radionuclides are investigated to assess the applicability of this technique in the study area as a mean to estimate soil redistribution (Chapter 4) and to calibrate the LAPSUS model (Chapter 5). The radionuclide concentrations vary in relation to lithology: natural radionuclides such as Potassium-40 ( 40K), Uranium-238 ( 238U) and Thorium-232 ( 232Th) show significant higher concentrations in the gneiss than in the serpentinite soils for both reference profiles as all other samples. This as opposed to the artificial radionuclide Caesium-137 ( 137Cs), which is found significantly higher in the serpentinite soils, for the reference profiles probably because of the difference in clay mineralogy and for the transect samples because of difference in soil distribution. The exponential decrease of 137Cs with soil depth and its homogeneous spatial distribution emphasise the applicability of the 137Cs technique in this type of Mediterranean environments. The spatial distribution of the 137Cs inventory and concentration are in agreement with the soil erosion and degradation indicators measured in the field. Surfaces with erosion or degradation features (higher bulk density, shallow soils or surface crust development) show lower 137Cs concentrations and inventories, while protected surfaces by vegetation show higher 137Cs concentrations and inventories. The distribution of 137Cs along the slopes can be explained within existing conceptual models. In this way the serpentinite and gneiss slopes are classified in four models according to the present soil redistribution and the detection of erosion and deposition areas.

    Furthermore the landscape evolution over the past 37 years is evaluated. Estimating net soil redistribution rates from radionuclide distributions depend on the calculation of the local area reference inventory and the applied calibration technique. The resulting net soil redistribution estimates are compared with simulations of the LAPSUS model. Total net soil loss for the research area ranges from 2 to 69 [t ha -1a -1] for serpentinite and gneiss slopes respectively. Differences in total slope sediment budgets as well as differences along the transects reveal influences of landscape representation and land use. In this case the impact of tillage erosion is far more important than possible parent material induced differences.

    Dynamic landscape, soil and water redistribution. Soil suitability assessments for land use purposes are commonly based on on-site specific topographic, soil and climatic characteristics, often neglecting the effects of physical landscape processes by water. The LAPSUS model is applied, including the effects of soil and water redistribution within the landscape (run-on, run-off, erosion and sedimentation) on soil water availability (Chapter 6). The approach focuses at the coarser level of multiple catchments over a period of ten years. By means of four scenarios with increasing complexity, patterns of soil loss and sediment deposition are simulated and resultant effects of water routing, soil depth and erodibility on water availability are evaluated. The model operates in the landscape context using annual time steps and both on-site effects (local changes in terms of boundary conditions) and off-site effects (caused by changes elsewhere) are accounted for. Different approaches for surface run-off routing have a major influence on the magnitude and spatial patterns of water and soil redistribution within the landscape, as well as initial conditions such as soil depth, parent material characteristics and erodibility. Locally decreasing water storage capacity (on-site) may cause increased run-off and erosion at lower positions in the landscape (off-site). Apparent acceptable mean regional soil loss rates, often include local soil redistribution rates that cause significant changes in actual soil depth, indirectly affecting related total amounts of available soil water.

    Linking landscape process modelling and land use change. LAPSUS is also used to explore the impacts of land use changes scenarios on landscape development (Chapter 7). For a period of 10 years LAPSUS calculates soil redistribution (erosion and sedimentation) for three scenarios. Main inputs are a DEM, precipitation and land use related infiltration and erodibility. Examples are shown of both on-site as well as off-site effects of land use change and the influence of different pathways of change. Each scenario produces different spatial and temporal patterns of total amounts of erosion and sedimentation throughout the landscape. Consequently, potential land use related parameters like soil depth, infiltration and flooding risk change significantly too. The scenario of an abrupt change produces the highest erosion rates, compared to the gradual change scenario and the baseline scenario. However, because of the multi-dimensional characteristics of the landscape not only the area suffering from land use change is affected. Increasing erosion and run-off rates from upstream-located olive orchards have an impact on downstream local run-on, erosion and sedimentation rates. In this case the citrus orchards situated in the valley bottom locally suffer damages from re-sedimentation events but benefit from the increase in run-on water and nutrients.

    Synthesising, the landscape was studied at different levels of temporal and spatial extensions and resolutions. Consequently it is not easy to link the results of the processes understood at those different levels, however the abstraction of some findings can give some direction: according to the geological evidence in this case study area the final present day uplift rates range between 0.07 to 0.1 [mm a -1]. These rates are in the same order of magnitude as the net erosion rates for natural slopes measured with the 137Cs technique. This suggests a link of the spatial temporal resolution of geological landscape evolution and actual natural landscape development. At the same time the cultivated areas on gneiss lithology indicate a factor 10 or more increase of soil redistribution, demonstrating the enormous impact of human induced landscape evolution and land use change.

    LAPSUS has been developed as a single process landscape evolution model, based on the potential energy content of flowing water over a landscape surface and the continuity equation for sediment movement, operating at the landscape-annual scale. The temporal components of the model are a compromise between the spatial resolution of interest and the applied process based lumped parameters. It also can be used at different grid sizes. It has shown quite reasonable results for simulating erosion/accumulation rates at slope, subcatchment and catchment scale, introducing the effect of different lithologies and land uses. This simplification of the reality and the isolation of the influence of different factors in the landscape evolution can help to understand the on-site and off-site effects of land use changes on the landscape and the impact on the sustainability development of the region.

    Verdronken dekzandlandschap in Flevoland
    Makaske, B. ; Kooistra, M.J. ; Haring, R. ; Smeerdijk, D.G. van - \ 2001
    Aarde en mens 5 (2001)1. - ISSN 1388-0071 - p. 19 - 23.
    geologie - geomorfologie - bodemtypen - bodemvorming - nederland - holoceen - flevoland - geology - geomorphology - soil types - soil formation - netherlands - holocene - flevoland
    Dit artikel gaat over landschappelijke veranderingen in Zuidelijk Flevoland in het midden Holoceen
    Linking plants to rocks : ectomycorrhizal fungi mobilize nutrients from minerals.
    Landeweert, R. ; Hoffland, E. ; Finlay, R.D. ; Kuyper, T.W. ; Breemen, N. van - \ 2001
    Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16 (2001)5. - ISSN 0169-5347 - p. 248 - 254.
    verwering - geologie - schimmels - mineralen - weathering - geology - fungi - minerals
    Plant nutrients, with the exception of nitrogen, are ultimately derived from weathering of primary minerals. Traditional theories about the role of ectomycorrhizal fungi in plant nutrition have emphasized quantitative effects on uptake and transport of dissolved nutrients. Qualitative effects of the symbiosis on the ability of plants to access organic nitrogen and phosphorus sources have also become increasingly apparent. Recent research suggests that ectomycorrhizal fungi mobilize other essential plant nutrients directly from minerals through excretion of organic acids. This enables ectomycorrhizal plants to utilize essential nutrients from insoluble mineral sources and affects nutrient cycling in forest systems.
    Imaging Spectrometry: basic principles and prospective applications
    Meer, F.D. van de; Jong, S.M. de - \ 2001
    Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers - ISBN 9781402001949 - 403
    environmental management - earth sciences - ecotoxicology - remote sensing - photogrammetry - geology - engineering - physics - applied statistics - milieubeheer - aardwetenschappen - ecotoxicologie - remote sensing - fotogrammetrie - geologie - engineering - fysica - toegepaste statistiek
    De bodemgesteldheid van de aanpassingsinrichting Ade : resultaten van een bodemgeografische onderzoek
    Rosing, H. ; Brouwer, F. ; Pleijter, M. - \ 2000
    Wageningen : Alterra, Research Instituut voor de Groene Ruimte (SC-rapport 700) - 76
    bodemgeschiktheid - bodemkarteringen - kaarten - geologie - ruilverkaveling - nederland - bodemtypen - zuid-holland - soil suitability - soil surveys - maps - geology - land consolidation - netherlands - soil types - zuid-holland
    De bodemgesteldheid van het landinrichtingsgebied Wintelre-Oerle; resultaten van een bodemgeografisch onderzoek
    Vroon, H.R.J. - \ 2000
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 71) - 81
    bodemkunde - bodemkarteringen - kaarten - grondwaterspiegel - geologie - bodemwater - oppervlakkige afvoer - hydrologie - noord-brabant - kempen - soil science - soil surveys - maps - water table - geology - soil water - runoff - hydrology - noord-brabant - kempen
    Het landinrichtingsgebied Wintelre-Oerle bestaat grotendeels uit pleistocene afzettingen. De oudste binnen 180 cm diepte voorkomende afzettingen liggen in het zuidwestelijk deel van het onderzoeksgebied. Het zijn grofzandige, soms iets grindhoudende, fluviatiele afzettingen (Formatie van Sterksel) uit het eind van het Vroeg-Pleistoceen tot het begin van het Midden-Pleistoceen. Het materiaal ligt vrij ondiep onder het dekzand. Het merendeel van de aangetroffen pleistocene afzettingen bestaat uit eolische, fijnzandige sedimenten afgewisseld met leemlagen (lössleem). Deze afzettingen worden gerekend tot de Formatie van Nuenen. In het noorden van het gebied (Rouwven) komen stuifzandgronden voor. Deze eolische, leemarme, holocene afzettingen behoren tot de Formatie van Kootwijk. Op enkele plaatsen komt een moerige laag voor. Dit zijn meestal wel de allerlaagste plaatsen in het onderzoeksgebied. In grote delen van het gebied hebben de gronden door potstalbemesting een dikke minerale eerdlaag gekregen. Binnen de zandgronden zijn podzolgronden (veldpodzol-, laarpodzol-, haarpodzol- en loopodzolgronden), eerdgronden (gooreerd-, beekeerd-, kanteerd-, akkereerd- en enkeerdgronden) en vaaggronden (duinvaag- en vorstvaaggronden) onderscheiden. De fluctuatie van het grondwater is vanwege de lemige ondergrond groot. Veruit het grootste deel van het gebied bestaat uit droge tot zeer droge gronden (grondwatertrap VIId en VIIId). De resultaten van het veldbodemkundig onderzoek zijn weergegeven op een bodem- en grondwatertrappenkaart (schaal 1 : 25 000). Voorts zijn de in het veld verzamelde bodemkundige, bodemfysische en hydrologische gegevens geschematiseerd en gegeneraliseerd, zodat ze bruikbaar zijn voor het berekenen van eventuele opbrengstdervingen door vochttekort en/of wateroverlast. De resultaten hiervan zijn in aparte digitale bestanden opgeslagen en worden in deze vorm alleen aan de opdrachtgever verstrekt.
    Natural compositional variation of the river Meuse (Maas) suspended load: a 13 ka bulk geochemical record from the upper Kreftenheye and Betuwe Formations in northern Limburg
    Tebbens, L.A. ; Veldkamp, A. ; Kroonenberg, S.B. - \ 2000
    Netherlands journal of geosciences 79 (2000)4. - ISSN 0016-7746 - p. 391 - 409.
    geologie - geochemie - sediment - maas - limburg - geology - geochemistry - sediment - river meuse - limburg
    Unambiguously pristine and largely unpolluted sediments from the Late Weichselian and Holocene infillings of the Meuse residual channels in northern Limburg (the Netherlands) have been sampled to determine the natural compositional variation of the river’s suspended load. Bulk geochemical and granulometric analyses demonstrate that about 70␘f the variation can be ascribed to hydrodynamic mineral sorting. Clay- and fine silt-sized phyllosilicates are the most important deterministic features, hosting the bulk of Al2O3, TiO2, K2O, MgO and trace element variability (notably Ba, Cr, Ga, Rb and V). Quartz is abundant in the fine and coarse sand fractions. Na2O and the Zr-Nb-Nd-Y quartet relate to albitic feldspars and heavy minerals, respectively, in the coarse silt fraction. The granulometry should therefore be quantified if geochemical baseline data for a particular geological unit or region are drawn up and for the evaluation of potentially polluted sediments. Although provenance has not changed, the composition of Meuse sediments cannot be considered constant over a time frame of 1000-10,000 years, due to climatic change.Weathering of phyllosilicates in both interstadial and interglacial soil environments and changing relative source-area contributions alter the detrital clay-mineral supply to raise the Al2O3 and lower the K2O and MgO contents in Holocene Meuse sediments. Early diagenetic siderite and vivianite formation in gyttjas causes relative accumulations of Fe2O3, MnO, P2O5, Co, Ni and notably Zn above the phyllosilicate background values. These accumulations are natural and show that sediments with elevated trace metal contents are not necessarily polluted.Very early atmospheric pollution in relation to ore mining and smelting activities in the Roman era, however, probably caused elevated Pb contents in Subatlantic humic clays and peat samples, long before the historic pollution of the Industrial Revolution started. The Al2O3, Fe2O3 and CaO contents are used to predict the trace-element values as a function of sample granulometry, siderite/vivianite and lime content, respectively. As such, they can provide a sound basis for environmental researchers to determine baseline values of heavy metals in bulk samples of fine-grained fluvial sediments.
    Spatial prediction of the variability of early pleistocene subsurface sediments in the Netherlands part 2: geochemistry
    Huisman, D.J. ; Weijers, J.P. ; Dijkshoorn, L. ; Veldkamp, A. - \ 2000
    Netherlands journal of geosciences 79 (2000)4. - ISSN 0016-7746 - p. 381 - 390.
    stratigrafische geologie - geologie - sediment - geochemie - nederland - stratigraphy - geology - sediment - geochemistry - netherlands
    We started a geochemical mapping campaign in the Early Pleistocene fluviatile Kedichem Formation in the Netherlands in order to meet the demand for more information about subsurface sediment compositions. Geochemical data were collected during a sampling campaign, and about 600 samples from the Kedichem Formation were analyzed. By linking the geochemical data with lithological classifications from the TNO-NITG borehole database, we established a geochemical prediction model. Elements were divided into classes according to their geochemical behaviour in relation to lithological parameters. For each of the classes, we combined lithological groups in to groups with relevant geochemical differences. By calculating for each element the average composition in each of these groups, we were able to predict the geochemical composition of subsurface sediments by ‘translating’ the spatial lithological data from the TNO-NITG borehole database into geochemical data.We visualized this model by calculating and interpolating the average composition of horizontal slices of the Kedichem Formation. The model performance is fairly good, although it has a tendency to underestimate extreme values.
    Spatial prediction of the variability of early pleistocene subsurface sediments in the Netherlands - part 1: Heavy minerals
    Huisman, D.J. ; Weijers, J.P. ; Dijkshoorn, L. ; Veldkamp, A. - \ 2000
    Netherlands journal of geosciences 79 (2000)4. - ISSN 0016-7746 - p. 373 - 380.
    stratigrafische geologie - geologie - sediment - zware metalen - nederland - ruimtelijke variatie - stratigraphy - geology - sediment - heavy metals - spatial variation - netherlands
    We investigated the spatial variability of the heavy-mineral composition in the Early Pleistocene fluviatile Kedichem Formation in the Netherlands in order to meet the demand for more information about subsurface sediment composition.We first determined the spatial extension and thickness of the sediment body, then used Fuzzy clustering techniques on a database containing approx. 2000 heavy-mineral counts from the Kedichem Formation to map the spatial extension of the various sediment provenances within the formation. Three clusters could be discerned, one representing a combined Meuse-Scheldt source, the other two representing a mixed Rhine-Baltic source.We made slice maps at several depths through the formation, and plotted the cluster memberships. The maps show an overall dominance of the Meuse-Scheldt source in the south of the Netherlands, whereas the Rhine-Baltic source occurs mainly in the central Netherlands. The methods employed show that it is possible to map and study the 3-D variation in heavy-mineral composition and hence sediment provenance in the Dutch subsurface with the use of simple statistical and visualization techniques.
    Wat de bodem onthulde; bodemkundig en micromorfologisch onderzoek van een mesolithische vindplaats op het rivierduin van Zutphen-Ooyerhoek
    Kooistra, M.J. ; Mulder, J.R. ; Spek, T. - \ 1999
    Wageningen : DLO-Staring Centrum - 22
    bodemmicromorfologie - zware kleigronden - geschiedenis - geologie - nederland - achterhoek - soil micromorphology - clay soils - history - geology - netherlands - achterhoek
    Verdronken dekzandgronden in Zuidelijk Flevoland (archeologische opgraving 'A27-Hoge Vaart'): interdisciplinaire studie naar de veranderingen van bodem en landschap in het Mesolithicum en Vroeg-Neolithicum
    Spek, T. ; Bisdom, E.B.A. ; Smeerdijk, D.G. van - \ 1997
    Wageningen : DLO-Staring Centrum (Rapport / DLO-Staring Centrum 472.1) - 187
    archeologie - bodemkarteringen - kaarten - pedologie - bodemmicromorfologie - geologie - nederland - aardwetenschappen - flevoland - archaeology - soil surveys - maps - pedology - soil micromorphology - geology - netherlands - earth sciences - flevoland
    Naschrift op reactie 'Variatie in permeabiliteit van een pleistocene rivierafzetting en de invloed op grondwaterstroming'.
    Laperre, R.E. ; Smit, H.M.C. ; Simmelink, H.J. ; Lanen, H.A.J. van - \ 1996
    H2O : tijdschrift voor watervoorziening en afvalwaterbehandeling 29 (1996). - ISSN 0166-8439 - p. 728 - 728.
    grondwaterstroming - geologie - rivieren - sediment - modellen - limburg - groundwater flow - geology - rivers - sediment - models - limburg
    Reactie op 'Variatie in permeabiliteit van een pleistocene rivierafzetting en de invloed op grondwaterstriming' van R.E. Lapperre e.a. in H twee O 29(1996) no. 18
    Variatie in permeabiliteit van een pleistocene rivierafzetting en de invloed op grondwaterstroming.
    Laperre, R.E. ; Smit, H.M.C. ; Simmelink, H.J. ; Lanen, H.A.J. van - \ 1996
    H2O : tijdschrift voor watervoorziening en afvalwaterbehandeling 29 (1996). - ISSN 0166-8439 - p. 520 - 523.
    geologie - grondwaterstroming - modellen - rivieren - sediment - limburg - geology - groundwater flow - models - rivers - sediment - limburg
    College met gevonden dia's.
    Kroonenberg, S.B. - \ 1996
    Wageningen : Landbouwuniversiteit - 71
    economische impact - economie - geologie - hoger onderwijs - landgebruik - nederland - ruimtelijke ordening - gebruikswaarde - zonering - aardwetenschappen - economic impact - economics - geology - higher education - land use - netherlands - physical planning - use value - zoning - earth sciences
    College gegeven op 6 juni 1996 bij het afscheid als hoogleraar in de geologie en mineralogie
    Fluvial sequences of the Maas : a 10 Ma record of neotectonics and climatic change at various time-scales
    Berg, M.W. van den - \ 1996
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): S.B. Kroonenberg. - S.l. : Van den Berg - ISBN 9789054855989 - 181
    reliëf - watererosie - tektoniek - geologie - klimaatverandering - paleoklimatologie - Nederland - maas - relief - water erosion - tectonics - geology - climatic change - palaeoclimatology - Netherlands - river meuse

    Around 10 million years ago, the interplay of tectonics, climate and sea level changed markedly in the southern North Sea Basin. One of the results was the start of rapid progradation of the Rhine/Meuse delta. The sediments of this basin-filling complex have been preserved in a number of depocentres in an en-echelon arrangement which form the backbone of the North Sea Basin. These depocentres were located within the west-central part of the European intra-plate rift system. The southernmost part of this rift system, the Roer valley graben (part of the lower Rhine Embayment), was the first depocentre to be filled by sediments supplied by the rising hinterland in the south. The sediment- source area expanded gradually to include the Alpine collision front, which was first tapped by the river Rhine around three million years ago. Therefore, the sediments that filled the Roer valley graben provide information for unravelling the geological history of the north-west European plate.

    Using high-resolution, sequence-stratigraphic techniques, this thesis focuses on the stratigraphic, morphologic and tectonic aspects of the upper-delta and fluvial sediments, laid down by the Rhine/Maas (Meuse) fluvial system in the present-day Netherlands. The present study benefited greatly form the large database, compiled during the past decades by the Geological Survey of the Netherlands and the Winand Staring Centre-DLO Institute. Vital data sources were Zagwijn's pollen- based regional palaeo-climatic interpretations as a well as climatic data derived from deep-sea cores and ice cores. In addition, correlation of deep-sea geological records to astronomical parameters, proved of great value as it enabled conversion of the relative time scales based on palaeontological data to a linear one.

    In general, precise dating of fluvial deposits is difficult. As a consequence, interpretation largely depends on circumstantial evidence, such as the fractal-type hierarchical structure of the climatically controlled fluvial systems.

    A total of 57 stacked units (around 5-20 in in thickness) have been identified by studying terraces and fining upward sequences in borehole records from the Roer valley graben. In both types of exposure, the bounding surfaces of these stacked sequences generally reflect long-term, basin-wide episodes of fluvial deposition and erosion. Dating and modelling support the interpretation that the sequences represent a fourth-order cyclicity in the hierarchy of environmental changes that affected fluviatile processes and caused river reactivation (at fifth-order level in Miall's classification). For this entire period of 10 million years, a strong correlation exists between the number of (buried) surfaces reflecting river reactivation and major climate cycles with a duration varying between approximately 400 to 50 thousand years. Measured in time-steps at million years scale (1-2 Ma), the dominant average duration shifts from 200 thousand years for the period from 10-2 Ma to 100 thousand years for the last 2 million years. Such climatically-controlled cyclicity is well-known from deep-sea cores. This correlation shows that climatic change is an important control on cyclicity in fluvial sequences as well. Moreover, it demonstrates that it is possible to meaningfully correlate the oceanic record with the continental fluvial record. Consequently, a continuous series of fifth-order fluvial sequences can be used to develop a high-resolution time frame, which will be of great value in the study of basin dynamics. Fluvial sequences, which reflect the two extremes of climatic cycles, are a welcome addition to palynological records, which are restricted to warm episodes.

    Zooming in on the components of fifth-order fluvial sequences has enabled us to demonstrate a fractal-type hierarchy within the coupling between sedimentary units and climate cycles. Fourth-, fifth- and sixth-order climate cycles equally reflect fifth-, fourth-, and probably third-order sedimentary cycles.

    One of the problems involved in direct correlation of climate changes and changes in fluvial dynamics is accounting for the effects of the vegetation cover. Regeneration of a particular vegetation cover takes a few hundred years at the most. This introduces a time-lag factor in the process-response relationship. Obviously, this time-lag factor is particularly relevant in the case of sixth-order (millennial-scale) climate changes.

    Preservation of sedimentary sequences depends greatly on regional tectonics. The present study shows that subsidence of the graben started much earlier than uplift of the south flank of the Roer valley rift. Consequently, the two processes must have different control mechanisms. Subsidence is fault-controlled, caused by deep-seated extension, governed by the dynamics of the European plate. Uplift, possibly controlled by underthrusting of the Ardennes/Rhenish Shield, resulted in overall shortening of the graben owing to foreland compression. This interaction between extension and compression is reflected in a right-lateral strike-slip movement along the principal displacement zones of the graben and in the formation of drainage divides perpendicular to the length axis of the graben. The faults are extensional in character and show predominantly normal displacements. The strike-slip dynamics are reflected in the regional morphology and the changing patterns of the palaeoriver systems. During episodes in which horizontal movement along the boundary faults prevails, a river can change course and cross major faults to start flowing to other depocentres in the same rift zone. This highlights the importance of hiatuses in the sedimentary record for the interpretation of basin tectonics.

    An extensive, long-term geodetic benchmark data set, compiled over 117 years, corroborates the direction of relative displacement as inferred from geomorphology. The combination of this geodetic data set and the uplift history as recorded by the series of river terraces, is crucial for the analysis of vertical movements observed in other parts of the Netherlands. In addition, it helps to establish links between regions with different subsurface characteristics.

    At the resolution scale of the fourth-order climate cycles, both uplift and subsidence show variations in pace: acceleration and deceleration. Three important episodes showed up: (1) the onset of the hinterland uplift occurred approximately around ten millions years ago simultaneously with the, type one, rapid eustatic sea-level fall known as the boundary between the supercycles TBl-TB2 from Haq's cycle chart. (2) The apparently simultaneous onset of Quaternary-type climate dynamics and the transition from relatively slow to rapid vertical crustal dynamics, which occurred approximately three millions years ago. (3) Another, albeit less dramatic indication of a geodynamic effect is the temporary cessation of uplift which occurred between 1.5 and 1.1 million years ago. An event which seems to coincide with episodes of major plate-tectonic physiographic changes.

    The apparent synchronism between crustal dynamics and changes in climate system brings up an intriguing topic for future research: would it be possible to link the changing frequency of orbital forcing and its effect on climatic and geodynamic changes? The events mentioned above suggest that such a link may exist. Similarly detailed data on other basins could provide answers. Including fluvial sequence stratigraphy in general stratigraphic research may greatly improve our knowledge of basin dynamics.

    Hydrologische systeembeschrijving van het herinrichtingsgebied Enschede - Noord
    Kleijer, H. ; Cate, J.A.M. ten; Spoelstra, J. - \ 1995
    Wageningen : DLO-Staring Centrum (Rapport / DLO-Staring Centrum 330)
    geologie - geomorfologie - hydrologie - land - kaarten - ruimtelijke ordening - bodemkarteringen - bodemwater - oppervlaktewater - nederland - aardwetenschappen - overijssel - reconstructie - twente - geology - geomorphology - hydrology - land - maps - physical planning - soil surveys - soil water - surface water - netherlands - earth sciences - overijssel - reconstruction - twente
    Van Enschede-Noord is een hydrologische systeembeschrijving opgesteld op basis van abiotische gegevens, waarvoor een hoogtelijnenkaart, geologische kaart, bodem- en grondwatertrappenkaart, geomorfologische kaart en een kaart met stroomgebieden zijn gemaakt. De waterkwaliteit is gemeten om de potentiële vegetatie-ontwikkelingen te schetsen. Hierbij is ingedeeld naar basenrijkdom en mate van vervuiling, en naar chloride- en sulfaatgehalte. Van de stroomgebieden van de Jufferbeek, Leutinkbeek, Eschbeek-Vinkenbeek, Drienerbeken, Elsbeek, en Hoge Boekelerbeek zijn de potenties naar basenrijkdom redelijk aan te geven. Het grootste deel valt qua chloridegehalte in de klassen schoon en nauwelijks beonvloed, en qua sulfaatgehalte in de klassen matig en sterkbeonvloed.
    Hierarchical concepts in landscape and its underlying disciplines : the unbearable lightness of a theory?
    Klijn, J.A. - \ 1995
    Wageningen : DLO-Staring Centrum (Report / DLO-Staring Centrum 100) - 144
    bibliografieën - geologie - geomorfologie - landschap - landschapsecologie - aardwetenschappen - bibliographies - geology - geomorphology - landscape - landscape ecology - earth sciences
    Op de fiets door het geologisch landschap rond Vollenhove
    Gonggrijp, G.P. - \ 1995
    Gea : driemaandelijks tijdschrift van de Stichting Geologische Aktiviteiten voor Belangstellenden in de Geologie en Mineralogie 28 (1995)3. - ISSN 0167-4692 - p. 86 - 90.
    geologie - aardwetenschappen - overijssel - geology - earth sciences - overijssel
    Ververwijderd van de grote steden en snelwegen ligt in de noordwesthoek van Overijssel een rustig en mooi stukje Nederland: het Land van Vollenhove. Daar wisselen opvallende hoogten, weiden, moerassen en plassen elkaar af. Deze boeiende afwisseling is te danken aan de typische geologische geschiedenis, de biologische ontwikkeling en de wijze waarop de mens in het landschap actief is geweest. In dit verhaal ligt het accent op de vorming van het fundament van het landschap door het geologische krachtenspel. De oppervlaktevormen verraden de invloedsfeer van deze krachten. Een geologisch profielwand in 'de Zandkoele' bij Heetveld toont de details van het ontstaan van het gebied.
    Imaging spectrometry and the Ronda peridotites
    Meer, F.D. van der - \ 1995
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): S.B. Kroonenberg; A.G. Fabbri. - S.l. : Van der Meer - ISBN 9789054853855 - 309
    remote sensing - scannen - technieken - exploratie - geologie - krijtkalk - gesteenten - sediment - kalksteen - mergel - carbonaten - spanje - geofysica - remote sensing - scanning - techniques - exploration - geology - chalk - rocks - sediment - limestone - marl - carbonates - spain - geophysics

    In Chapter 2, the results of detailed geologic mapping of sedimentary strata of the Subbeticum of Ronda are presented including a stratigraphic description of several sections near Ronda, El Burgo, Ardales, Teba, and Arriate in the Ronda-Málaga area. These are used to develop time-facies profiles on basis of which the paleogeography is reconstructed with emphasis on Miocene turning points. Timing of rift-related Mesozoic tectonic events, Early Miocene compressional tectonic events, and Late Miocene strike-slip tectonic events are derived from the result of a backstripping analysis using a synthetic composite stratigraphic section as input data. The final results are presented within the framework of Western Mediterranean plate tectonics yielding a number of deformation events characterizing the tectono-sedimentary evolution of the area.

    A review of recent work on field and microstructures within the Ronda peridotite body is given in Chapter 3. Paleostress analysis of fault-slip data from the peridotites are discussed. These lead to three stress tensors: an extensional, a compressional, and a strike-slip related tensor. Similar work conducted on Cretaceous and Tertiary carbonates of the Subbeticum give identical stress tensors. For the carbonates, tectonic stylolites and extension veins allow to relatively date these stress tensors. This dating together with the timing of tectonic phases from the backstripping analysis is used to derive an alternative model for the emplacement of the Ronda peridotites.

    Visible and near-infrared reflectance spectra of carbonate minerals, carbonate mineral mixtures, and un-weathered rock samples are discussed in Chapter 4. First, bidirectional reflectance theory is addressed forming the basis for a semi-empirical model to simulate reflectance of mineral mixtures from their single-component reflectance spectra. The following topics are discussed in the remainder of this Chapter: carbonate absorption band position, effects of particle size, effects of sorting, calcite-dolomite mixtures and the shifting 2.3μm absorption band, and the effects of impurities such as aqueous fluid inclusions, transition metal ions, organic matter. Finally, spectra of rock samples are discussed in relation to the mineral spectra.

    Reflectance spectra of ultrarnafic rocks and minerals forming these rocks are discussed in Chapter 5. After a review of some earlier work, mineral spectra of olivines, orthopyroxenes, and clinopyroxenes are presented. Un-weathered rock spectra of several samples of dunites, lherzolites, harzburgites, and pyroxenites are discussed. The remainder of the Chapter is devoted to the effect of serpentinization on the reflectance spectra of ultrarnafic rocks. Its is demonstrated that the degree of serpentinization can be quantified by using the depth of OH -features occurring near 1.4μm and 2.3μm and the brightness of a sample measured as the reflectivity at 1.6μm. From a study of synthetic mixtures of olivine, serpentine, and magnetite prepared in the laboratory it is derived that the spectral quenching effect of magnetite affects the spectral properties of serpentines with 55 % serpentine minerals or less. Thus highly serpentinized areas can be mapped using the above mentioned characteristics regardless the amount of magnetite.

    In Chapter 6, reflectance spectra of weathered peridotite and carbonate rock samples, soils, and vegetation, derived from the Ronda-Málaga area, are discussed. Part of this Chapter is based on a case study developed for the Los Pedroches batholith near Almadén (southCentral Spain). A total of 13 soil samples were taken over the contact aureole of the granitic intrusion and analyzed spectrally as well as chemically. The reflectance spectra of relevant minerals are discussed and subsequently the soil spectra. From these spectra, the change of albedo, Fe, AlOH absorption, H 2 O, and OH -absorption over the contact zone are quantified using the spectra. Field spectra using a TM simulator spectrometer are used to link the laboratory spectra and the TM image. Finally, image processing techniques using ratio images are used to map changes in iron content etc of soils over the area. This case study demonstrates the possibility of linking laboratory and pixel spectra when calibrating the data carefully using field spectrometry.

    In Chapter 7, the preprocessing of the raw imaging spectrometer data is discussed. First, a technical description of the sensors used is given. These are the Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS) and the GER imaging spectrometer. Next quantification of signal-to- noise ratios is discussed using two alternative methods. The main topic is the atmospheric calibration of imaging spectrometer data. Several methods are used: Flat-field calibration, Internal Average Reflectance method, Empirical line method, Logresidual method, and a atmospheric simulation model. The performance of these methods is compared using a number well-characterized standard field targets in the Cuprite mining district AVIRIS data set and the GERIS data set from southern Spain. Comparison of the results directly reflects the difference between atmospheric calibration in presence or absence of heavy vegetation.

    If the imaging spectrometer data are properly calibrated, the next logical step would be to use the data to map surface mineralogy. Mineral mapping techniques are treated in Chapter 8. Some techniques have been proposed for this purpose which are not always very successful, many studies use conventional classification techniques. Specific imaging spectrometer techniques are introduced: inverse mixing modelling, spectral angle mapping, and band-depth analysis. The main body of the text deals with a new mineral mapping technique based on indicator kriging. This technique uses automatic zonation techniques to identify absorption features and non-parametric geostatistics to calculate the probability that a pixel belongs to a certain mineralogy. The performance of this technique is discussed in the framework of conventional image classification techniques.

    In last final Chapter 9, several techniques and methodologies discussed in previous Chapters are applied to the GER 63-channel imaging spectrometer data set flown over the Ronda peridotites and adjacent carbonates which was calibrated using techniques discussed in Chapter 7. Two Case Studies are presented to emphasize the use of imaging spectrometry for geologic mineral exploration purposes. The first Case Study deals with the problem of dolomitization which is an important parameter in oil exploration. Calcite-dolomite mixtures and dolomitization patterns are mapped using the semi-linear model for the position of the carbonate absorption band derived in Chapter 4. Conditional simulation techniques and indicator kriging are used to estimate the calcite content of pixels. The second Case Study addresses the degree of serpentinization in the peridotites; an indication for possible asbestos deposits. The approach is based on the theoretical results derived in Chapter 5. Results of mineral mapping using techniques discussed in Chapter 8, show that several minerals could be mapped using the GER data set which give information on metamorphic facies. These metamorphic minerals bear important conclusions on the conditions of metamorphism related to the emplacement of the peridotites discussed in Chapters 2 and 3.

    Simulation of subsurface biotransformation
    Bosma, T.N.P. - \ 1994
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): A.J.B. Zehnder; G. Schraa. - S.l. : Bosma - ISBN 9789054852216 - 136
    microbiële afbraak - geologie - biologie - bodembacteriën - organische verbindingen - organische scheikunde - microbial degradation - geology - biology - soil bacteria - organic compounds - organic chemistry

    Hydrophobic organic contaminants like DDT, Polychlorobiphenyls (PCB's) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's), have been detected all over the world. They tend to accumulate in the atmosphere and in the soil as a result of their physical and chemical properties. Breakdown mainly proceeds by (photo)chemical reactions in the atmosphere and via microbial transformation in the soil. Microbial transformation can be viewed as part of the ecological process of decomposition, that is, the remineralization of organic material by biota. This Chapter discusses the ecological significance of biotransformation and the dependence of biotransformation rates on enviromnental conditions, and suggests ways to improve the effectiveness of biological soil remediation techniques.

    Contaminant cycling in ecosystems
    Chemicals are released into the environment by human activities. Normally, they enter the abiotic part of the ecosystem which may be viewed as a contaminant pool (Fig. S. 1). Biota take up contaminants directly from the abiotic environment e.g. via leaves or the skin, or ingest them by feeding on a lower trophic level. Organisms have systems at their disposal to excrete or detoxify contaminants. Excretion brings contaminants back to the contaminant pool, while detoxification results in a decontamination as indicated in Fig. S. 1.

    Plants and animals are not always able to detoxify or excrete contaminants after uptake. The inability of organisms to handle xenobiotic compounds may have several causes. One example is the absence of appropriate enzymes to transform the compounds, another the accumulation in (animal) fat tissue before excretion or enzymatic transformation has taken place. Contaminants accumulate in the food chain when organisms are not able to detoxify or excrete them. Accumulation is indicated by the use of different grey shades in Fig. S. 1.

    The population of "decomposers" (Fig. S. 1) is specialized in the uptake and conversion of all kinds of dead organic material, like for instance dead animals and plant debris. Decomposers are crucial for the functioning of ecosystems because they recycle nutrients to the nutrient pool. Contaminants which are accumulated in the tissue of organisms are recycled to the contaminant pool simultaneously. Some bacteria and fungi are able to detoxify and mineralize man-made organic compounds like chlorinated benzenes and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Thus, they prevent their accumulation in the environment. These microorganisms may therefore be viewed as the "decontaminators" of ecosystems (Fig. S. 1), Many micro-organisms live in soil and ground water where hazardous compounds may accumulate. Microbial transformation is the only mechanism leading to the effective detoxification of such compounds. Therefore, it is of interest to know under which environmental conditions biotransformation is inhibited or stimulated. The potential of micro- organisms to transform contaminants under various environmental conditions is discussed in the following together with the factors governing exposure of micro-organisms to contaminants in soil and ground water.

    Potential of micro-organisms to transform organic contaminants
    The capacity of micro-organisms to detoxify anthropogenic chemicals under similar enviromnental conditions is variable among various habitats. This may be related to previous exposure of the micro-organisms to the compound under consideration. An adapted microflora capable of converting and mineralizing new compounds may evolve after a long exposure time. The microflora in a not pre- exposed environment may not be able to detoxify the same compound. Dichloropropene and 2,4-D (dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) are examples of pesticides that micro-organisms "learned" to transform. Degradation of these compounds in the field can be so rapid nowadays that their effectiveness as pesticide is strongly reduced. As a result, farmers have to apply considerably larger amounts of these pesticides than was necessary in the early times of their use.

    Many non-chlorinated organic compounds can be mineralized by aerobic bacteria. Well documented examples are simple aromatic compounds like benzene, toluene, and xylenes. ,More complicated aromatic structures like PAH's are also susceptible to aerobic degradation. Heavily chlorinated compounds are not readily degraded under aerobic conditions. However, anaerobic bacteria have a great potential to dehalogenate all kinds of such chemicals. Dehalogenation changes the environmental impact of the parent compounds considerably. Partly dechlorinated compounds are often more toxic and more mobile than the original compounds. The carcinogenic compound vinylchloride for example, may arise from the anaerobic dechlorination of tetra- and trichloroethene (PER and TRI). The anoxic transformation products are often biodegradable under aerobic conditions. The increased mobility of the more toxic products allows them to travel to aerobic environments where they
    can be mineralized. Thus, the anaerobic process of dehalogenation may be an important mechanism to initialize the complete mineralization of heavily chlorinated contaminants in the subsurface environment.

    Most of the information regarding the potential of micro-organisms to degrade organic contaminants is obtained from laboratory studies at 20°C. Studies carried out at temperatures down to 4°C, reveal only a slight temperature dependency of aerobic biotransformation rates. Anaerobic dehalogenation rates are reduced and intermediary dehalogenation products accumulate at lower temperatures. It seems that activities of aerobic micro-organisms involved in these processes are less dependent on temperature than those of anaerobes. Therefore, the aerobic removal rates of non- or partly halogenated compounds may be similar in summer and in winter in natural systems, while heavily halogenated compounds will tend to persist more in winter because of the reduced activity of anaerobes.

    A microscopic view of soil pollution and micro-organisms
    A picture of a versatile microbial community that is able to transform and mineralize a variety of hazardous organic compounds arises from the previous section. Nevertheless, biodegradable organic contaminants can persist in soil for decades. The microbial transformation rate of an organic compound is strongly affected by the potential uptake rate which is influenced by the transport rate to individual micro-organisms, The very slow in situ biotransformation is probably caused by the properties of the soil matrix surrounding the micro-organisms which reduces the transport rate. The microscopic spatial distribution of contaminants and micro-organisms will affect biotransformation rates in soil. This paragraph discusses how a spatial separation between micro- organisms and contaminants may develop in case of pollutions from point and non-point sources.

    Soil is polluted from point sources like for instance accidental spills and landfills (local pollution), or from non-point sources like atmospheric deposition and application of pesticides (diffuse pollution). The general characteristic of a local pollution is the presence of high contaminant concentrations in a small volume of soil (Fig. S.2A, upper part). Diffuse pollution is characterized by low contaminant concentrations over a wide area (Fig. S.2B, upper part). The lower part of Fig. S.2 schematically shows the local distribution of micro-organisms and contaminants in both situations. Bacteria are normally present inside soil aggregates. Low concentrations of contaminants flow around these aggregates in the case of diffuse pollution (Fig. S.2B). Local pollution initially contaminates pores around soil aggregates. The easily accessible part in wide pores may be biotransformed rapidly until nutrients become exhausted. This leads to a rapid growth of bacteria in the wide pores. Pollutants which are not biotransformed initially will diffuse into the aggregates. Thus, a situation arises with relatively high numbers of bacteria surrounding contaminated aggregates (Fig. S.2A). Degradation activity is drastically reduced as a result of spatial separation. A similar situation may arise when spots containing pure contaminant exist, where no biological activity is possible anymore. Hence, micro-organisms and contaminants are spatially separated both in the case of local and diffuse pollution. Biotransformation can only take place after diffusion of contaminant through the soil matrix to the micro-organisms.

    Computer calculations based on the concept presented in Fig. S.2 show that intra-aggregate processes of sorption and diffusion are of primary importance in determining the kinetics of biotransformation in soil. Effective diffusion rates in soil aggregates can be up to 1-10 orders of magnitude smaller than in water, depending on the characteristics of the soil matrix. As a consequence, biotransformation rates in different soils are subject to the same variation. When the diffusivity in soil aggregates is small, a steep concentration gradient is needed to maintain a flux of nutrients and contaminants that is sufficient to sustain microbial activity. As soon as the contaminant concentration drops below the value that is needed to maintain the gradient, biotransformation will stop. This threshold concentration is inversely proportional to the effective diffusion rate of contaminant. So, residual concentrations after biotransformation are expected to differ by many orders of magnitude, just like the biotransformation rates do.

    Optimization of bioremediation techniques to relieve limitation of biotransformation
    Limitation of biotransformation is not only the result of slow diffusion rates in soil, but may also be due to physiological or thermodynamic factors, to the presence of undissolved pollutants, or to the coupling of pollutant to soil organic matter via covalent bonds (bound residue formation). All these factors may result in reduced biotransformation rates. A strong association between the pollutants and the soil matrix especially develops at sites which have been polluted for years or decades already, Bound residue formation and extremely slow diffusion into small, highly tortuous pores have both been proposed as causes for this strong association. As a result, bioremediation is particularly difficult for these so-called "aged" pollutants (Fig. S.2A,

    Dissolution rates of undissolved pollutants may be enhanced by dispersing the pure component through the soil, and by the addition of surfactants that increase maximum dissolution rates. These methods have been shown to increase biotransformation rates in practice. However, surfactants do not dissolve bound residues which are covalently bound to organic matter. In addition, they do not increase diffusion rates in small, highly tortuous pores, The existence of bound residues and the extremely slow diffusion rates are causes for high residual concentrations that remain after bioremediation. Therefore, surfactants are not expected to decrease these residual concentrations.

    The possible application of procedures that enhance bound residue formation as means of bioremediation is disputed. It can be argued that pollutants which are present as bound residues are not hazardous anymore, having lost their specific chemical characteristics. Thus, they have also lost their biological activity. However, pollutants not only bind to the humus fraction of the soil, but also to dissolved or colloidal fractions of soil organic matter. This may lead to a mobilization of pollutants instead of the intended immobilization. In addition, dioxinlike products are formed when pollutants with phenolic or carboxylic groups bind to each other. The use of applications involving enhancement of bound residue formation requires that the possible hazards are better understood and that ways are provided to prevent them.

    Considerable residual concentrations will always remain after bioremediation of "aged" pollutions, due to strong sorption and incorporation in organic matter, unless special measures are taken to mobilize the pollutants. In an ex situ scheme, the soil may be pulverized to increase biotransformation rates and decrease residual concentrations. It is imaginable to remove the mobile fraction of pollutant in a relatively short time via a biological treatment during in situ remediation. The residual immobilized fraction which is trapped inside soil aggregates is biologically and chemically inactive. It should be sufficient to monitor and control pollutants that are slowly desorbing from the soil aggregates in an "after-care" phase. An approach may be to monitor the concentration level in the macropores continuously and to stimulate biotransformation by the addition of nutrients as soon as some critical level is reached. An alternative would be to apply a slow pump-and-treat method continuously, The after-care phase can be stopped as soon as total pollution concentrations in the soil are below acceptable limits.

    New pollutions have to be treated biologically as soon as possible to achieve optimal results because long contact times between pollutants and soil have a negative effect on the expected result of bioremediation. A possible strategy is to include biological soil treatment in human activities which almost inherently lead to soil pollution with organic chemicals. Thus, the establishment of a strong association between contaminants and soil can be prevented. This strategy has shown to be effective at tank stations where leaking of benzine or diesel is unavoidable.

    Introduction of specialized bacteria is used as a strategy to enhance the biotransformation of compounds that are not degraded by the indigenous microflora. The success of the addition of micro- organisms depends on their ability to reach the contamination, to survive, and to carry out the desired reaction. A better understanding and control of the transport of bacteria in soil and ground water will help to optimize techniques for bioremediation which employ introduced bacteria. Surface characteristics of bacteria and soil particles together with the ionic strength of the flowing water control the transport of bacteria under saturated flow conditions. The adhesion of bacteria to soil particles is positively correlated with the hydrophobicity of bacteria and the ionic strength of the flowing water. Hence, the ionic strength of the water in which bacteria are introduced can be used to control microbial transport and attachment. If a low ionic strength is used, bacteria may travel long distances and disperse around the point where they are introduced. On the other hand, a high ionic strength will generally stimulate the attachment of bacteria to the solid phase and may prevent bacteria from moving away from the polluted site.

    Concluding remarks
    Microbial transformation is required to achieve detoxification of hydrophobic organic contaminants that accumulate in soil. Micro-organisms can therefore be viewed as a subpopulation of the decomposers with a special function, namely detoxification of the environment. The effectiveness of microbial transformation can severely be reduced by the relative immobility of organic compounds in the soil matrix where micro-organisms live. Limitations resulting from slow diffusion can only be removed effectively during ex situ remediation, e.g. by pulverizing the contaminated soil. During a biological in situ treatment the bulk of contamination can be removed rapidly. The treatment should be followed by an aftercare period in which the possible leaking of the residual amount is monitored to be able to take measures if necessary.

    From an ecological stand-point, it can be argued that production and release rates of toxicants have to be smaller than in situ biotransformation rates to keep environmental pollution within acceptable limits. Treatment as close to the source as possible during the manufacturing and use of chemicals will be an important strategy to reach such a goal. The use of pesticides should be regulated such that the amount applied in a growth. season is completely transformed in situ in the same season.

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
    Discussions with Clay L. Montague were very helpful in the conception of the Synopsis.

    Mechanism and kinetics of mineral weathering under acid conditions
    Anbeek, C. - \ 1994
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): N. van Breemen; L. van der Plas. - S.l. : Anbeek - ISBN 9789054852155 - 210
    mineralogie - verwering - bodemvorming - landschap - klimaat - overstromingen - exploratie - geologie - milieu - verontreinigende stoffen - verontreiniging - nadelige gevolgen - luchtverontreiniging - ammoniak - emissie - vervluchtiging - geofysica - mineralogy - weathering - soil formation - landscape - climate - floods - exploration - geology - environment - pollutants - pollution - adverse effects - air pollution - ammonia - emission - volatilization - geophysics - cum laude

    This study deals with the relationships between crystal structure, grain diameter, surface morphology and dissolution kinetics for feldspar and quartz under acid conditions.

    Intensively ground samples from large, naturally weathered mineral fragments are frequently used in dissolution studies. The surface area of such samples, estimated from their gas adsorption isotherm (BET method), is normally implied to be all freshly created by grinding. This study revealed that: (1) during natural weathering, micropores (diameters ≈2 nm) develop in feldspar but not in quartz grains; (2) the micropores account for virtually all BET surface area of naturally weathered feldspar grains; and (3) due to the micropores, grinding of large, naturally weathered feldspar fragments is highly ineffective in creating samples with only freshly ground BET surface area.

    By assuming all BET surface area of ground feldspar samples to be freshly created, experimental dissolution data have been explained from dissolution rates essentially independent of the grain diameter. For ground feldspar samples this study revealed that: (1) the dissolution rate of the freshly created BET surfaces is essentially proportional to the grain diameter; and (2) the dissolution rate of the naturally weathered BET surfaces, still present after grinding, is most likely independent of the grain diameter. Moreover, the dissolution rate, normalized to BET surface area, of unfractured, naturally weathered feldspar grains was essentially independent of the grain diameter. These findings can be explained if: (1) the average density of dissolution sites on freshly created feldspar surfaces is approximately proportional to the grain diameter; (2) micropores develop at dissolution sites during natural weathering; and (3) the BET surface area of the micropore "walls" (i.e. the area perpendicular to the grain surface) is essentially non-reactive.

    Thermodynamical considerations and Monte Carlo simulations showed that: (1) the formation of micropores in feldspar but not in quartz grains during natural weathering can be explained from enhanced dissolution at crystal defects; and (2) the BET surface area of micropore "walls" from enhanced dissolution at crystal defects is essentially non-reactive. A kinetic model is developed, showing for feldspar that the non-reactivity of the micropore "walls" helps to explain the discrepancy, reported in the literature, between laboratory and field dissolution rates.

    Effecten van bodemdaling door gaswinning in de Waddenzee
    Oost, A.P. ; Dijkema, K.S. - \ 1993
    Wageningen : IBN-DLO (IBN - rapport 025)
    extractie - aardgas - methaan - inerte gassen - mijnbouw - schade - ongevallen - gevaren - bodemdaling - tektoniek - geologie - wetlands - polders - moerassen - plassen - nederland - oceanografie - offshore - stromingen - waddenzee - extraction - natural gas - methane - inert gases - mining - damage - accidents - hazards - subsidence - tectonics - geology - wetlands - polders - marshes - ponds - netherlands - oceanography - offshore - currents - wadden sea
    Verder met SAG : voorstel tot verbetering van gegevensuitwisseling tussen IGG-TNO, RGD, RIVM en SC-DLO
    Lentjes, P.G. ; Bregt, A.K. ; Jellema, J. - \ 1993
    Wageningen : DLO-Staring Centrum (Rapport / DLO-Staring Centrum 267) - 37
    databanken - geologie - nederland - bodemwater - aardwetenschappen - databases - geology - netherlands - soil water - earth sciences
    Erosion Stratification in the Kiambu Area in Kenya: a Methological Study to get Quick Insights in the Distribution of Erosion Condition, Using Aerial Photographs and Field Observations
    Linden, R. van der - \ 1993
    Wageningen : Wageningen Agriculturl University, Department of Soil and Water Conservation - 48
    erosie - bosbouw - geografische informatiesystemen - geologie - hydrologie - kenya - fotografie - remote sensing - bodem - bodembescherming - waterbescherming - beheer van waterbekkens - verwering - erosion - forestry - geographical information systems - geology - hydrology - kenya - photography - remote sensing - soil - soil conservation - water conservation - watershed management - weathering
    Die Verwendung von a-priori Kenntnissen in räumlichen Umweltvariabilitätsstudien .
    Stein, A. - \ 1993
    In: Neue Modellierungsmethoden in Geologie und Umweltinformatik / Peschel, G.J., - p. 74 - 79.
    geologie - aardwetenschappen - geostatistiek - geology - earth sciences - geostatistics
    Design-based versus model-based sampling strategies : Comment on R. J. Barnes' "bounding the required sample size for geologic site characterization"
    Gruijter, J.J. de; Braak, C.J.F. ter - \ 1992
    Mathematical Geology 24 (1992)7. - ISSN 0882-8121 - p. 859 - 864.
    geologie - onderzoek - bemonsteren - grondanalyse - aardwetenschappen - geology - research - sampling - soil analysis - earth sciences
    Two fundamentally different sources of randomness exist on which design and inference in spatial sampling can be based: (a) variation that would occur on resampling the same spatial population with other sampling configurations generated by the same design, and (b) variation occurring on sampling other populations, hypothetically generated by the same spatial model, using the same sampling configuration. The former leads to the design-based approach, which uses classical sampling theory; the latter leads to the model-based approach and uses geostatistical theory. Failure to recognize these two sources of randomness causes misunderstanding about dependence of variables and the role of randomization in sampling, unwarranted narrowing down the choice of sampling strategies to those that are model-based, and abuse in simulation experiments. This is exemplified in Barnes' publication on the required sample size for geologic site characterization by nonparametric tolerance intervals. A basic design-based strategy like Simple Random Sampling is shown to require smaller sample sizes than the model-based strategy advocated by Barnes. In addition, Simple Random Sampling is completely robust against model errors and less complicated.
    Quaternary river terrace formation in the Allier basin, France : a reconstruction based on sand bulk geochemistry and 3-D modelling
    Veldkamp, A. - \ 1991
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): S.B. Kroonenberg. - S.l. : Veldkamp - 172
    geologie - rivieren - sediment - reliëf - waterlopen - geomorfologie - watererosie - geochemie - weer - meteorologische factoren - frankrijk - kwartair - invloeden - geology - rivers - sediment - relief - streams - geomorphology - water erosion - geochemistry - weather - meteorological factors - france - quaternary - influences

    The research presented in this thesis is focussed on a quantitative reconstruction of the effects of past environmental dynamics within a fluvial system. The study area is part of the Allier basin (Limagne) in the Auvergne, Massif Central, France.

    The research was carried out in several stages. At first field work was carried out to determine the terrace stratigraphy and chronology in more detail. A new age estimate of the Fva (65 m above present river bed) is based on pumice clasts found in the terrace sediments. Younger terraces were dated with14C and Th/U disequilibrium methods. Fx terrace sediments (15 and 10 m above present river bed) were mainly deposited during the Late Weichselian, while the Fwb terrace sediments (25 m above present river bed) have most probably a Late Saalian age. Due to these new age estimates a revision of the existing Allier terrace chronology is necessary. This new chronology shows a large time gap between the deposition of the Fv and Fw terrace sediments.

    Next, sands of various terrace units were collected and bulk geochemically measured with XRF. This bulk geochemical research allowed a statistically significant discrimination of different terrace levels. The processes which shape and shaped the actual sand geochemistry were successfully quantified. It was found that grain size has only a very limited effect on bulk geochemical variability while longitudinal sorting processes and weathering have a stronger impact on actual sediment composition. Although the effects of parent material controlled weathering in the Allier sands were successfully modelled, the older terrace sediments are unsuitable for paleoenvironmental reconstructions. Such a reconstruction was done for the Weichselian and Holocene terrace deposits at the Allier/Dore confluence. The sediment mixing behaviour of these rivers is estimated by calculating sediment mixing ratios. This reconstruction started with an investigation of spatial mixing effects of Allier and Dore sediments in time by means of mapping and geostatistics. Results suggest an environmental
    control over the spatial variability of sediment mixing at this confluence in time. The reconstructed relative sediment fluxes of the Allier in time show a good correspondence with known past environments. Relative Allier sediment fluxes seem mainly climate controlled whereby large fluvio-glacial fluxes at the end of a glacial played a dominant role in the Allier system. These large sediment fluxes in the Allier system caused a strong rise in the Allier riverbed level contributing to the development of lake basins (Marais) in Grande Limagne.

    Further a large scale and long term model of terrace formation was constructed using finite state modelling. This methodology allows the construction of a general 3-D terrace formation model containing as well quantitative as qualitative knowledge on fluvial systems. Finally, an adapted version for the Allier (LIMTER) is made incorporating all present knowledge on this system. LIMTER allows the formulation and evaluation of long term terrace formation scenarios for the Allier system. Simulation results suggest that terrace stratigraphy in the study area is mainly the result of the internal Allier dynamics and climatic change. Local tectonism caused the development of unpaired terraces while the general regional uplift played a dominant role in terrace formation and preservation in general.

    The terrace research as presented in this thesis shows that it is well possible for any fluvial system to simulate the interaction climate/tectonism and fluvial dynamics. The for the Allier simulated dynamics, net sedimentation during and at the end of a Glacial and net dissection during an Interglacial has no general validity.

    Alkali basalt gravel weathering in Quaternary Allier River Terraces, Limagne, France.
    Veldkamp, E. ; Jongmans, A.G. ; Feijtel, T.C.J. ; Veldkamp, A. ; Breemen, N. van - \ 1990
    Soil Science Society of America Journal 54 (1990). - ISSN 0361-5995 - p. 1043 - 1048.
    klimaat - overstromingen - frankrijk - geologie - landschap - rivieren - sediment - bodemvorming - verwering - climate - floods - france - geology - landscape - rivers - sediment - soil formation - weathering
    Tectonic and climatic controls on late quaternary sedimentary processes in a neotectonic intramontane basin, the Pitalito Basin, South Colombia
    Bakker, J. - \ 1990
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): S.B. Kroonenberg, co-promotor(en): T. van der Hammen. - S.l. : S.n. - 160
    reliëf - watererosie - klimaatverandering - paleoklimatologie - geologische sedimentatie - stratigrafische geologie - tektoniek - geologie - Colombia - geologische processen - relief - water erosion - climatic change - palaeoclimatology - geological sedimentation - stratigraphy - tectonics - geology - Colombia - geological processes

    The present study deals with the influence of tectonics and climatic changes on sedimentation patterns in the Quaternary Pitalito Basin (lat. 1°52'N, long. 76°02'W). This intramontane sedimentary basin is 15 km in width and 20 kin in length and is located in the Eastern Cordillera of the southern Colombian Andes at an altitude of c. 1300 m.
    Chapter 1 discusses the scope of this study.
    In Chapter 2 general information is given about the regional tectonic setting of the basin, its morphological features, the present climate around the basin and the present-day zonal vegetation of the Colombian Andean region.
    Chapter 3 starts with the description of a gravity survey carried out to examine basin geometry. The basin consists of a shallow western part in which the basement is situated at 300-400 m depth, and a deep eastern part with the basement at 1000-1200 m depth. This geometry is controlled by tectonic structures: (1) an active strike-slip fault with right lateral displacement along the northern boundary of the basin, (2) a relatively passive southern fault system and (3) a NW/SE-oriented fault which separates the shallow western part from the deep eastern part and which is situated at the present course of the Guarapas river. By extrapolation from the known sedimentation rates for the last 60,000 years, subsidence could have started c. 4.5 Ma ago. The second part of Chapter 3 discusses the geoelectric characteristics of the upper 200 m of the non-exposed sedimentary infill. Coarse to medium clastics (cobbles, gravel and sand) are restricted to the shallow western part, whereas clay and peat predominate in the deep eastern part. The lateral transition between the two lithofacies is situated along the present course of the Guarapas river.
    In Chapter 4 the near-surface and surface basin sediments are described. These sediments have been studied in exposures and borings. They represent the last stage of sedimentary infill by a northeastward-heading fluvial system. The top of these sediments has an approximate age of 17,000 years B.P. The sediments in the shallow western region of the basin represent the proximal part of the fluvial system. They consist of widely scattered lenticular channel deposits enveloped by extensive and thick inorganic overbank deposits. The sediments in the east form the distal part of the fluvial system. They are made up by laterally fixed sandbodies whereas the adjacent flood basin deposits are characterized by the occurrence of organic strata which are several meters thick. These different types of alluvial architecture are ascribed to different fluvial dynamics. The western, proximal component is intermediate between braided and anastomosing river types and is characterized by channels migrating laterally due to avulsion. The distal, eastern part shows an anastomosing pattern and is characterized by laterally fixed channels. The transition between the two river types is equally situated along the line of the Guarapas river.
    In Chapter 5 two pollen records are described which were obtained from the organicrich deposits in the eastern part of the basin. The records revealed the paleoecological and especially climatic conditions during the last 60,000 years around the Pitalito Basin. From ≈60,000 years B.P. to ≈20,000 years B.P. mean annual temperature fluctuated considerably and decreased, in comparison with modem temperatures, with about 3°C during the relatively warm periods (interstadials) to about 6°-8°C during the coldest periods (stadials). There is no evidence for a significant variation in climatic humidity during the registered period. The changing temperatures led to a downward displacement of the vegetation belts amounting c. 500 m during the interstadials and c. 1500 m during stadial times, in comparison with the present position. In spite of these environmental changes, the fluvial system present in the Pitalito Basin probably did not change significantly until c. 20,000 years B.P. At that time the eastern flood basins became choked with clastic sediments and peat growth ended. Sedimentological and palynological data suggest a change from relatively humid climatic conditions to a semi-. and climate which is characterized by torrential rains and a sparse vegetation cover. These semi-arid conditions lasted from ≈20,000 to at least ≈17,000 years B.P. Somewhere between 17,000 and 7000 years B.P. basin infill came to an end and the rivers incised in their own sediments. The river changed its course 90° to an outlet in the NW. There is no palynological record of this interval. Around 7000 years B.P. peat began to develop again in the northeastern part of the basin due to tilting of the basin floor. The palynological record registers the prevalence of present-day climatic conditions from 7000 years B.P. onward (mean annual temperature c. 20°C; annual rainfall c. 1200 mm). A somewhat warmer period is recorded around 5000 years B.P.; mean annual temperature was about 2°-3°C higher than today.
    In Chapter 6 a synthesis of the data of the former chapters is given.

    The following conclusions may be drawn:
    - The intraniontane Pitalito Basin developed as a result of extension along a fault wedge which forms part of the Garzón-Suaza fault. It is the first extensively described pullapart basin in the Colombian Andean region, Tectonics played a decisive role in the differentation of the fluvial system
    - The effects of climatic changes during the depositional history are superimposed upon those caused by tectonic activity. During a considerable part of the Last Glacial (60,000-20,000 years B.P.) the fluvial system in the Pitalito Basin was not affectedby the vertical shifts of the zonal vegetation belts. The start of especially dry climatic conditions around 20,000 years B.P., possibly combined with tectonic activity, caused a dramatic change in the sedimentation patterns. The maximal estimated temperature decline during the Pleniglacial at the altitude of the Pitalito Basin is possibly in the order of 6°-8°C compared to modem temperatures.
    - The thick pile of sedimentary infill and the presence of well-preserved pollen at this elevation make the Pitalito Basin a very suitable site for deep borings to record Late Cenozoic vegetational changes at low elevation.

    Nederland in vorm : aardkundige waarden van het Nederlandse landschap
    Gonggrijp, G.P. ; Marrewijk, A.A.M. van; Steur, G.G.L. ; Wolters, A.R. - \ 1989
    's-Gravenhage : Sdu uitgevers (Achtergrondreeks natuurbeleidsplan nr. 5) - ISBN 9789012064514 - 141
    geomorfologie - bescherming - geologie - conservering - natuurbescherming - landschap - natuurlijke historie - nederland - geologische processen - natuurlandschap - natuur - geomorphology - protection - geology - conservation - nature conservation - landscape - natural history - netherlands - geological processes - natural landscape - nature
    Bevat bodemkundige informatie Stiboka
    Geochemical and mineralogical discontinuities in a stone-line containing soil profile in Araracuara, Colomian amazones.
    Moura, M.L. ; Kroonenberg, S.B. - \ 1989
    In: Stone - lines : journee d'etude, Bruxelles, 24 mars 1987 = Stone - lines : studiedag, Brussel, 24 maart 1987 / Alexandre, J., Symoens, J.J., - p. 93 - 95.
    colombia - erosie - geologie - pedologie - bodemmicromorfologie - verwering - colombia - erosion - geology - pedology - soil micromorphology - weathering
    Profil de l'environnement de la vallee du Fleuve Senegal
    Lavieren, L.P. van; Wetten, J.C.J. van - \ 1988
    Leersum : RIN (RIN contributions to research on management of natural resources 1988-3) - 159
    geologie - hydrologie - water - demografie - milieu - mens - milieueffect - sociologie - ruimtelijke ordening - landgebruik - zonering - natuurlijke historie - bescherming - natuurbescherming - senegal - menselijke invloed - natuur - geology - hydrology - water - demography - environment - man - environmental impact - sociology - physical planning - land use - zoning - natural history - protection - nature conservation - senegal - human impact - nature
    Vergelijking van TM-beeld met geologische en bodemkaart : een toepassing van Erdas en ARC/INFO
    Bucx, T.H.M. - \ 1988
    Wageningen : ICW (Nota / Instituut voor Cultuurtechniek en Waterhuishouding 1904) - 41
    geografische informatiesystemen - geologie - cartografie - bodemkarteringen - aardwetenschappen - thematische cartografie - geographical information systems - geology - mapping - soil surveys - earth sciences - thematic mapping
    De relatie tussen de geologische geschiedenis en de geohydrologische situatie enerzijds en de chemische samenstelling anderzijds, in het lage deel van Nederland
    Pomper, A.B. - \ 1988
    Wageningen : ICW (Nota / Instituut voor Culturtechniek en Waterhuishouding 1837) - 18
    stratigrafische geologie - geologie - grondwater - hydrologie - geohydrologie - tijdschalen - west-nederland - stratigraphy - geology - groundwater - hydrology - geohydrology - time scales - west netherlands
    Voor het begrijpen van de grondwatersituatie in laag Nederland is het nodig enig inzicht te hebben in de geologische wordingsgeschiedenis van het gebied.
    The soil environment of the intertidal area in the Westerschelde Netherlands Belgium
    Oenema, O. ; Steneker, R. ; Reynders, J. - \ 1988
    Hydrobiological Bulletin 22 (1988)1. - ISSN 0165-1404 - p. 21 - 30..
    kanalen - delta's - estuaria - zoet water - geologie - zware metalen - vermenging - morfologie - nederland - rivierwater - rivieren - zout water - waterlopen - oppervlaktewater - waterverontreiniging - waterkwaliteit - biologische eigenschappen - westerschelde - zeeland - waterbodems - canals - deltas - estuaries - fresh water - geology - heavy metals - mixing - morphology - netherlands - river water - rivers - saline water - streams - surface water - water pollution - water quality - biological properties - western scheldt - zeeland - water bottoms
    hydrodynamic forces and sediment discharges determine the sedimentary environment and surface morphology of the intertidal area in the Westerschelde estuary in the S.W. Netherlands. Sandflats (clay, content < 8%) are found in the central part, mudfla
    Suelos, geologia y geomorfologia en zonas erosionadas de la cuenca del Valdeamargos, depresion de Calatayud.
    Mulders, M.A. ; Slurink, J. ; Boixadera, J. - \ 1988
    Anales de edafologia y agrobiologia 47 (1988)7/8. - p. 1055 - 1074.
    geologie - geomorfologie - kaarten - plantenecologie - bodemkarteringen - spanje - aardwetenschappen - geology - geomorphology - maps - plant ecology - soil surveys - spain - earth sciences
    Bodemkunde van Nederland : leer- en handboek op hoger-onderwijsniveau
    Locher, W.P. ; Bakker, H. de; Steur, G.G.L. - \ 1987
    Den Bosch : Malmberg - ISBN 9789020842845
    klimaat - overstromingen - geologie - landschap - nederland - fysische geografie - bodemvorming - bodemkunde - verwering - handboeken - climate - floods - geology - landscape - netherlands - physical geography - soil formation - soil science - weathering - handbooks
    Stiboka leerboek hoger onderwijs
    Soil formation, microstructure and physical behaviour of Late Weichselian and Holocene Rhine deposits in the Netherlands
    Miedema, R. - \ 1987
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): L.J. Pons, co-promotor(en): F.F.R. Koenigs. - S.l. : S.n. - 339
    kleimineralen - zware kleigronden - klimaat - overstromingen - geologie - landschap - nederland - pedologie - rivieren - sediment - bodemvorming - bodemmicromorfologie - verwering - glaciale perioden - holoceen - postglaciale perioden - kwartair - rijn - clay minerals - clay soils - climate - floods - geology - landscape - netherlands - pedology - rivers - sediment - soil formation - soil micromorphology - weathering - glacial periods - holocene - postglacial periods - quaternary - river rhine

    Dutch Late Weichselian braided river deposits and Holocene meandering river deposits of the Rhine have been studied and compared. Cross sections demonstrate the lateral and vertical variations of the Late Weichselian sediments. Soil mapping of these deposits, even on a very detailed scale, proves very difficult. Best results have been obtained with a legend based on hydrology enabling the distinction of topo-hydrosequences of well drained brown soils, imperfectly drained mottled soils and poorly drained grey soils.

    Advanced soil formation and notably the dramatic processes in the Late Weichselian period (decalcification, clay illuviation, pseudogleying, periglacial formation of a highly reoriented, very dense microstructure) have caused clay mineralogical, chemical and physical changes in the Late Weichselian soils.

    The well drained and imperfectly drained Late Weichselian soils have an argillic horizon (Alfisols, Luvisols), occasionally with very low base saturation (Ultisols, Acrisols) and with strong subsequent pseudogleying in the imperfectly drained soils. The Holocene soils demonstrate decalcification and biogenic homogenization as well as some gleying according to their drainage position. These soils are classified as Inceptisols (Cambisols), occasionally as Mollisols (Phaeozems).

    Less favourable physical characteristics and behaviour (soil strength, structure stability and tillage behaviour) of the Late Weichselian soils and soil material is quantitatively documented. Differences with the Holocene soils and soil material are statistically highly significant and are caused by differences in texture, content, quality and distribution of organic matter and the highly reoriented, very dense microstructure.

    Use as permanent grassland or ley in the crop rotation is recommended to increase levels of biological activity. This seems the only remedy for the imperfectly and poorly drained Late Weichselian soils that are compacted by natural soil forming processes not counteracted by biological activity. Very recently improved drainage of large areas of Late Weichselian imperfectly drained soils has increased the saturated hydraulic conductivity to noncritical levels through increased earthworm activity to some metres depth.

    Bodem in beeld
    Anonymous, - \ 1986
    Haarlem etc. : Rijks Geologische Dienst [etc.]
    geografie - geologie - geomorfologie - grondwater - hydrologie - grondvermogen - landevaluatie - kaarten - nederland - bodemclassificatie - bodemgeschiktheid - bodemkarteringen - bodemtypen - aardwetenschappen - geohydrologie - hydrogeologie - geography - geology - geomorphology - groundwater - hydrology - land capability - land evaluation - maps - netherlands - soil classification - soil suitability - soil surveys - soil types - earth sciences - geohydrology - hydrogeology
    In deze brochure worden via voorbeelden van thematische kaarten presentatiemogelijkheden getoond van aardkundige gegevens voor uiteenlopende vormen van grondgebruik, hier voor een gebied in de Betuwe. De voorbeelden hebben betrekking op het gebruik van het grondoppervlak, de bodem, de ondiepe en diepe ondergrond. Het betreft een samenwerkingsproject van de Rijks Geologische Dienst, de Dienst Grondwaterverkenning TNO en Stiboka
    Subsoil uncovered
    Anonymous, - \ 1986
    Haarlem etc. : Rijksgeologische Dienst [etc.] - 35
    structuur - bodemkarteringen - landevaluatie - horizonten - bodemgeschiktheid - kaarten - geologie - geomorfologie - grondwater - hydrologie - bodemtaxonomie - bodemclassificatie - bodemtypen - grondvermogen - nederland - geografie - illustraties - aarde - aardwetenschappen - geohydrologie - hydrogeologie - grafische documenten - structure - soil surveys - land evaluation - horizons - soil suitability - maps - geology - geomorphology - groundwater - hydrology - soil taxonomy - soil classification - soil types - land capability - netherlands - geography - illustrations - earth - earth sciences - geohydrology - hydrogeology - graphic documents
    Brochure expertise Stiboka, Rijks Geologische Dienst en TNO Grondwaterverkenning
    The geology of the Chuka-South area (Kenya)
    Veldkamp, T. - \ 1986
    Wageningen : Landbouwuniversiteit Wageningen (Scriptie / Vakgroep Bodemkunde en Geologie. Landbouwhogeschool 1115) - 76
    geologie - geomorfologie - kenya - aardwetenschappen - geology - geomorphology - kenya - earth sciences
    Reisverslag van een bezoek aan IJsland
    Pomper, A.B. - \ 1986
    Wageningen : ICW (Nota / Instituut voor Cultuurtechniek en Waterhuishouding 1731) - 37
    watervoerende lagen - exploratie - geologie - geomorfologie - geothermische energie - methodologie - tektoniek - vulkanische activiteit - ijsland - aquifers - exploration - geology - geomorphology - geothermal energy - methodology - tectonics - volcanic activity - iceland
    Beknopt verslag van het symposium "water-rock interaction 5", welke in Reykjavik gehouden werd (augustus 1986). Daarnaast is tijdens veldonderzoek aandacht besteed aan vulkanische verschijnselen en geomorfologische gevolgen
    Morphology, genesis and distribution of calcareous material in Late Weichselian sediments of the Rhine and Meuse rivers in the eastern part of The Netherlands.
    Jongmans, A.G. ; Miedema, R. - \ 1986
    Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science 34 (1986). - ISSN 0028-2928 - p. 441 - 449.
    zware kleigronden - geologie - rivieren - sediment - bodemvorming - betuwe - gelderland - clay soils - geology - rivers - sediment - soil formation - betuwe - gelderland
    Erosie in Nederland: een overzicht
    Eppink, L.A.A.J. - \ 1985
    Landschap : tijdschrift voor landschapsecologie en milieukunde 2 (1985)2. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 80 - 87.
    bodem - erosie - geologie - verwering - watererosie - winderosie - nederland - soil - erosion - geology - weathering - water erosion - wind erosion - netherlands
    Na een algemene beschrijving van erosie als een natuurkundig verschijnsel en versnelde bodemerosie als een sociaal probleem, wordt aandacht besteed aan de betekenis van wind en water op de erosie in Nederland
    Enkele aardwetenschappelijk waardevolle objecten in de gemeente Brederwiede
    Gonggrijp, G.P. - \ 1983
    Leersum : R.I.N. (RIN-rapport no. 83/4) - 21
    conservering - geologie - geomorfologie - glaciale afzettingen - morenengronden - natuurbescherming - bescherming - nederland - gletsjergeologie - overijssel - noordwest-overijssel - conservation - geology - geomorphology - glacial deposits - moraine soils - nature conservation - protection - netherlands - glacial geology - overijssel - noordwest-overijssel
    Trace metal cycling in a polluted lake : IJsselmeer, The Netherlands
    Salomons, W. - \ 1983
    Haren : I.B. - 50
    chemische eigenschappen - eutrofiëring - geologie - gezondheid - zware metalen - meren - metalen - plassen - reservoirs - sediment - bodemverontreiniging - water - waterverontreiniging - waterkwaliteit - waterbodems - chemical properties - eutrophication - geology - health - heavy metals - lakes - metals - ponds - reservoirs - sediment - soil pollution - water - water pollution - water quality - water bottoms
    Physiography and formation of the holocene floodplain along the lower course of the Rhine in The Netherlands
    Havinga, A.J. ; Hof, A.J. op 't - \ 1983
    Wageningen : Agricultural University (Mededelingen / Landbouwhogeschool 83-8) - ISBN 9789067540520 - 73
    bodemkarteringen - kaarten - geologie - rivieren - sediment - nederland - stroomvlakten - betuwe - gelderland - soil surveys - maps - floodplains - geology - rivers - sediment - netherlands - betuwe - gelderland
    Gisteren was vandaag morgen : dynamiek van landschap en bodem in ruimte en tijd
    Kroonenberg, S.B. - \ 1983
    Wageningen : Landbouwhogeschool (Publicatie / Bodemkunde en Geologie. Landbouwhogeschool 806) - 25
    geologie - geomorfologie - aardwetenschappen - openbare redes - geology - geomorphology - earth sciences - public speeches
    rede Wageningen november 1983
    Zeolites and palygorskite as weathering products of pillow lava in Curacao
    Boekschoten, G.J. ; Buurman, P. ; Reeuwijk, L.P. van - \ 1983
    Netherlands journal of geosciences 62 (1983). - ISSN 0016-7746 - p. 409 - 415.
    formatie - geologie - nederlandse antillen - oorsprong - vulkanische gronden - verwering - formation - geology - netherlands antilles - origin - volcanic soils - weathering
    Igneous and metamorphic complexes of the GuianaShield in Surinam
    Bosma, W. ; Kroonenberg, S.B. ; Maas, K. ; Roever, E.W.F. de - \ 1983
    Netherlands journal of geosciences 62 (1983). - ISSN 0016-7746 - p. 241 - 245.
    geologie - suriname - aardwetenschappen - geology - suriname - earth sciences
    Cenozoic alkalibasaltic to ultrabasic volcanism in the upermost Magdalena Valley, Southern Huila Department, Columbia
    Kroonenberg, S.B. ; Pichler, H. ; Diederix, H. - \ 1982
    Geologia Norandina (1982)5. - p. 19 - 26.
    colombia - formatie - geologie - oorsprong - vulkanische gronden - kaenozoïcum - colombia - formation - geology - origin - volcanic soils - kenozoic
    Proceedings of the symposium on peat lands below sea level : peat lands lying below sea level in the Western part of the Netherlands, their geology, reclamation, soils, management and land use
    Bakker, H. de; Berg, M.W. van den - \ 1982
    Wageningen : ILRI (Publication / International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement 30) - ISBN 9789070260705 - 296
    hoogveengronden - geologie - hydromorfe gronden - hoogveengebieden - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - nederland - padigronden - turf - veengronden - veengebieden - sapropeel - moerasgronden - bog soils - geology - hydromorphic soils - moorlands - natural resources - netherlands - paddy soils - peat - peat soils - peatlands - sapropel - swamp soils
    Congres Stiboka and ISSS
    Soils of the Serengeti Woodlands, Tanzania
    Jager, T. - \ 1982
    Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): J. Bennema. - Wageningen : Pudoc - 239
    bodemkunde - geomorfologie - landschap - geologie - planten - habitats - milieu - dieren - territorium - meteorologische factoren - natuurlijke historie - bescherming - natuurbescherming - bodemkarteringen - kaarten - tanzania - natuurlandschap - aardwetenschappen - natuur - soil science - geomorphology - landscape - geology - plants - habitats - environment - animals - territory - meteorological factors - natural history - protection - nature conservation - soil surveys - maps - tanzania - natural landscape - earth sciences - nature
    Soils were surveyed in the woodlands of the Serengeti National Park in north-west Tanzania. The Serengeti Woodlands have been covered by volcanic deposits that have influenced chemical properties to a large extent. Physical characteristics were studied too in detail. The distribution of woodland and grassland correlated with infiltration rate and depth the moisture front reached after infiltration. A neutron probe was used for the soil moisture study. Especially in grassland areas frequented by large herds of herbivores, effective rainfall was less than half the actual rainfall. Mineralogical studies revealed that the clay fraction of the soils of the Serengeti Woodlands consisted almost entirely of X-ray amorphous material.

    Vergelijking van de nieuwe geologische kaart, de geomorfologische kaart en de bodemkaart, schaal 1:50.000, toegelicht met een fragment van blad 17 Oost
    Cate, J.A.M. ten; Oosten, M.F. van; Wee, M.W. ter - \ 1981
    Wageningen : STIBOKA (Overdruk / Stichting voor Bodemkartering no. 160) - 21
    geografie - geologie - geomorfologie - kaarten - bodemclassificatie - bodemtaxonomie - bodemtypen - nederland - drenthe - aardwetenschappen - geography - geology - geomorphology - maps - soil classification - soil taxonomy - soil types - netherlands - drenthe - earth sciences
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