Staff Publications

Staff Publications

  • external user (warningwarning)
  • Log in as
  • language uk
  • About

    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

    We have a manual that explains all the features 

    Current refinement(s):

    Records 1 - 50 / 152

    • help
    • print

      Print search results

    • export

      Export search results

    Check title to add to marked list
    From basalts to badlands : modelling long-term landscape response to lava damming of an upland catchment in western Turkey
    Gorp, W. van - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tom Veldkamp, co-promotor(en): Jeroen Schoorl; Arnaud Temme. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570481 - 182
    landschap - geologie - landinrichting - evolutie - modelleren - stroomgebieden - tektoniek - vulkanische lava - pleistoceen - turkije - landscape - geology - land development - evolution - modeling - watersheds - tectonics - volcanic lava - pleistocene - turkey

    Combining field reconstruction and landscape evolution modelling can be useful to investigate the relative role of different drivers (tectonics, climate, local base level) on long term catchment evolution. In this thesis, field reconstruction and landscape evolution modelling are combined to unravel the long-term (300 ka) response to lava damming events of evolution of the Geren Catchment, a tributary of the upper Gediz river near Kula, Western Turkey. This catchment was considered suitable for such a study because its high preservationof remnant landscape surfaces and fluvial terraces which could be dated, while its base level evolution could be reconstructed by identifying and dating lava flows.

    In Chapter 2, landscape evolution modelling of an idealized catchment revealed long-term (15 ka) catchment response to natural damming. Evolution of a high erodible and low erodible landscape was simulated using landscape evolution model (LEM) LAPSUS (LandscApe procesS modelling at mUlti dimensions and Scales). The natural dam was given four different erodibilities, to mimic both the potentially more erodible landslide dams and resistant lava dams. In a low erodible landscape damming led to persistent preservation of the sediment wedge formed behind the dam, while in a high erodible landscape, damming additionally led to knickpoint persistence, hampered incision of the main river and stream rerouting. The highest erodible dam was almost removed after 15 ka, while its sediment wedge was still partly present. Comparison of results with natural dam events from literature showed that modelled response characteristics are observed in actual situations and that simulations on Quaternary timescales are useful.

    In Chapter 3, field reconstruction resulted in a young lava flow being age constrained to the late Holocene (3.0 – 2.6 ka), by luminescence dating of fluvial sands below and on top of the flow. This lava flow dammed the Gediz river at two locations. the upstream lake was silted, while the downstream lake was not. Dams were breached catastrophically and possibly in a cascading event. The Gediz created an epigenetic gorge and its current river bed is still not at its pre-lava flow level. Results are summarized in a conceptual diagram. Furthermore, field reconstruction and 40Ar/39Ar dating revealed multiple lava dam events which have infrequently raised and lowered the base level of the Geren Catchment in the middle to late Pleistocene (311 – 175 ka). Sediment-capped palaeosurfaces in the Geren suggest change from an active fluvial system to a more lacustrine environment in the middle Pleistocene, followed by fluvial reactivation and stepped incision in the late Pleistocene.

    A second landscape evolution modelling study was conducted in Chapter 4, on a 300 ka timescale, with a larger catchment. Four scenarios have been applied on a reconstructed paleodem of the Geren Catchment. In the first scenario, the palaeodem was given constant rainfall for 300 ka. In the second scenario, three short (1 ka) damming events were added at its catchment outlet. In the third scenario, the palaeodem endured gradual base level lowering at its outlet, based on the known incision rate of its base level, the Gediz river. In the fourth scenario, base level lowering and damming events were combined. Results were interpreted by evaluating 1 ka-averaged net erosion, catchment sediment storage, longitudinal profile development and spatial differences in net erosion and sediment storage. Results showed that the net erosion signal of the catchment is complex in all cases. However, average net erosion and its variability increased due to constant base level lowering. Additionally, alternating phases of high and low variability occurred in net erosion, where high variability coincided with a strong decrease in total catchment sediment storage. Adding damming events to the gradual base level lowering scenario generated similar average net erosion as the base level lowering scenario, however its temporal pattern showed significantly different alternation of high and low variability periods. Furthermore, dampened upstream erosion was observed. Over time, this dampening migrates upstream indicating a long-term legacy of short term dam events.

    Field reconstruction and landscape evolution modelling were combined in Chapter 5, to be able to reconstruct and understand actual Geren catchment response to identified base level evolution over a 300 ka period. In all simulations, rainfall and vegetation are varied over time based on arboral pollen. Because exact significance and duration of dam events were not known, three scenarios of landscape evolution in the Geren Catchment were investigated: i) uplift driven gradual base level lowering, ii) gradual base level lowering and short damming events and iii) gradual base level lowering and long damming events. Output was evaluated for erosion-aggradation evolution in trunk gullies at two different distances from the catchment outlet. Climate influences erosion – aggradation activity in the upstream reach, although internal feedbacks influence timing and magnitude. Scenario i shows the most correlation with the climate signal, although its correlation is weak. Lava damming events leave an aggradation signal in the downstream reach, while complex and lagged response to these dams obscure correlations with climate and leave a legacy of the past in current landscape evolution. Catchment response of the long dam scenario correspond best with field reconstruction and dating. The combination of climate and base level explains a significant part of the landscape evolution history of the Geren Catchment.

    In Chapter 6, a reflection and synthesis of Chapters 2-5 is presented. Indications for response to tectonics, climate and damming events are discussed separately for both field and modelling results. It is concluded that (lava) damming events of Pleistocene age can hamper, but also enhance incision on a 300 ka timescale. Furthermore, they can still have effect on current and future catchment evolution. However, catchment response to this evolution is complex and catchment specific and model results do not exactly reproduce its catchment history. An aggregated landscape evolution model output such as stream bed elevation change can be useful for comparison with fluvial terrace sequences. Combining field reconstruction and modelling suggests that the 300 ka incision history of the Geren is best explained if the catchment endured prolonged dam events. The combination of field reconstruction, dating and landscape evolution modelling therefore can enhance our understanding of long-term evolution of a specific landscape and increases knowledge on long term impact of past events on current catchment complexities and it is suggested to embed this research approach more structurally in long-term landscape reconstructions.

    Ecological Systems: Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology
    Leemans, R. - \ 2013
    New York : Springer - ISBN 9781461457558 - 309
    ecologie - levenswetenschappen - ecosystemen - biogeowetenschappen - geochemie - stedelijke ecologie - geologie - ecology - life sciences - ecosystems - biogeosciences - geochemistry - urban ecology - geology

    Earth is home to an estimated 8 million animal species, 600,000 fungi, 300,000 plants, and an undetermined number of microbial species. Of these animal, fungal, and plant species, an estimated 75% have yet to be identified. Moreover, the interactions between these species and their physical environment are known to an even lesser degree. At the same time, the earth’s biota faces the prospect of climate change, which may manifest slowly or extremely rapidly, as well as a human population set to grow by two billion by 2045 from the current seven billion. Given these major ecological changes, we cannot wait for a complete biota data set before assessing, planning, and acting to preserve the ecological balance of the earth. This book provides comprehensive coverage of the scientific and engineering basis of the systems ecology of the earth in 15 detailed, peer-reviewed entries written for a broad audience of undergraduate and graduate students as well as practicing professionals in government, academia, and industry. The methodology presented aims at identifying key interactions and environmental effects, and enabling a systems-level understanding even with our present state of factual knowledge.

    Features authoritative, peer-reviewed entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

    Covers topics ranging from atmospheric biogeochemistry to invasive species, ecosystem services, and urban ecology

    Provides an ecological systems perspective on the vital question of how to cope with climate change and the global human population explosion

    Includes a glossary of key terms and a concise definition of the subject for each contribution

    Soil and Terrain Database for Tunisia primary data (version 1.0) - scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Tunisia)
    Dijkshoorn, J.A. ; Nachtergaele, F.O. ; Huting, J.R.M. - \ 2013
    ISRIC - World Soil Information
    geology - soil classification
    The Soil and Terrain database for Tunisia primary data (version 1.0), at scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Tunisia), was compiled of enhanced soil information within the framework of the FAO's program of Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands (LADA). A SOTER database was compiled based on the digital soil map of Tunisia. The primary soil and terrain data for Tunisia has been selected from available survey reports and publications. A SRTM-DEM was used to adjust some unit boundaries in the GIS file. SOTER forms a part of the ongoing activities of ISRIC, FAO and UNEP to update the world's baseline information on natural resources.The project involved collaboration with national soil institutes from the countries in the region as well as individual experts.
    Landschappen van Nederland, geologie, bodem en landgebruik
    Jongmans, A.G. ; Berg, M.W. van den; Sonneveld, M.P.W. ; Peek, G.J.W.C. ; Berg van Saparoea, R.M. van den - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086862139 - 925
    bodem - landschap - landschapselementen - geomorfologie - geologie - klimaat - landgebruik - nederland - soil - landscape - landscape elements - geomorphology - geology - climate - land use - netherlands
    Landschappen van Nederland is samengevat in zes delen: Bodem en Landschap, Tektoniek en Klimaat, Ijs en Wind, Rivieren, Veen en als laatste Kust en Zee. Per type: landschap wordt beschreven welke klimatologische en tektonische aspecten hebben bijgedragen aan de totstandkoming. Daarnaast wordt uitvoering aandacht besteed aan de rol van de mens in de vorming van de landschappen. De zes delen zijn samengebracht in twee volumes.
    Descriptions of the European environmental zones and strata
    Metzger, M.J. ; Shkaruba, A.D. ; Jongman, R.H.G. ; Bunce, R.G.H. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra report 2281) - 152
    klimaatzones - bodem - vegetatie - geologie - zonering - classificatie - europa - climatic zones - soil - vegetation - geology - zoning - classification - europe
    Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability
    Ma, X. - \ 2011
    University of Twente. Promotor(en): M. Molenaar, co-promotor(en): M.J. Kraak; P.J.M. van Oosterom; Arnold Bregt. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789061643234 - 184
    geologie - datacommunicatie - gegevensbeheer - gegevensstructuren - gegevensanalyse - ontologieën - geology - data communication - data management - data structures - data analysis - ontologies
    Palaeoecological study of a Weichselian wetland site in the Netherlands suggests a link with Dansgaard-Oeschger climate oscillation
    Geel, B. Van; Bos, J.A.A. ; Huissteden, J. Van; Pals, J.P. ; Schatz, H. ; Mourik, J.M. Van; Reenen, G.B.A. Van; Wallinga, J. ; Plicht, J. Van Der - \ 2010
    Netherlands journal of geosciences 89 (2010)3-4. - ISSN 0016-7746 - p. 187 - 201.
    Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles - Macrofossils - Non-pollen palynomorphs - Oribatida - Pollen - Weichselian

    Botanical microfossils, macroremains and oribatid mites of a Weichselian interstadial deposit in the central Netherlands point to a temporary, sub-arctic wetland in a treeless landscape. Radiocarbon dates and OSL dates show an age between ca. 54.6 and 46.6 ka cal BP. The vegetation succession, starting as a peat-forming wetland that developed into a lake, might well be linked with a Dansgaard-Oeschger climatic cycle. We suggest that during the rapid warming at the start of a D-O cycle, relatively low areas in the landscape became wetlands where peat was formed. During the more gradual temperature decline that followed, evaporation diminished; the wetlands became inundated and lake sediments were formed. During subsequent sub-arctic conditions the interstadial deposits were covered with wind-blown sand. Apart from changes in effective precipitation also the climate-related presence and absence of permafrost conditions may have played a role in the formation of the observed sedimentological sequence from sand to peat, through lacustrine sediment, with coversand on top. The Wageningen sequence may correspond with D-O event 12,13 or 14. Some hitherto not recorded microfossils were described and illustrated.

    Natuurpotentie Willinks Weust
    Delft, S.P.J. van; Brouwer, F. ; Werff, M.M. van der; Kemmers, R.H. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Resultaten van een ecopedologisch onderzoek ) - 138
    bodemchemie - bodemkarteringen - geologie - ecohydrologie - natuurgebieden - achterhoek - soil chemistry - soil surveys - geology - ecohydrology - natural areas - achterhoek
    Dienst Landelijk Gebied (DLG) heeft van de provincie Gelderland in het kader van NBL (natuur buiten landinrichting) opdracht gekregen voor de inrichting van een aantal percelen nabij de steengroeve ten oosten van Winterwijk. Het gebied is bekend onder de naam Willinks Weust. Alvorens kan worden ingericht is een ecohydrologisch en biochemisch onderzoek noodzakelijk. Het gebied is echter ook sterk verdroogd door diepe ontwateringsloten, met name in het erosiedal en op de overgang naar het plateau. Ook de steengroeve aan de noordkant van het gebied heeft in een overgangzone een verdrogende invloed. Inrichting van de percelen en herstel van de hydrologie bieden goede mogelijkheden de natuurwaarden in het gebied te herstellen en versterken.
    Landschap in breder perspectief? Avonturen met scholieren en aardrijkskundeonderwijs
    Bontje, L.E. - \ 2010
    Topos : periodiek over landschapsarchitectuur, ruimtelijke planning en sociaal-ruimtelijke analyse 2010 (2010)20. - ISSN 1572-302X - p. 82 - 83.
    landschap - voortgezet onderwijs - geografie - geologie - landscape - secondary education - geography - geology
    "Kom op Stef!" roept Riwesh. "Nee, Nikos gaat winnen", voorspelt Laura. Stef en Nikos staan fanatiek met een lepeltje in een glas met water en sediment te roeren. "Wie kan ons vertellen waarom Nikos gewonnen heeft?!. En terwijl de leerlingen redelijk snel beredeneren dat in Stef's zwaarder sediment moet zitten dan in dat van Nikos, beleef ik een klein gloriemomentje in mijn nog korte loopbaan als Aardrijkskundedocente. Het leuke aan onderwijs is, dat er direct resultaat van je werk te zien is...
    Mid-Holocene water-level changes in the lower Rhine-Meuse delta (western Netherlands): implications for the reconstruction of relative mean sea-level rise, palaeoriver-gradients and coastal evolution
    Plassche, O. van de; Makaske, B. ; Hoek, W.Z. ; Konert, M. ; Plicht, J. van der - \ 2010
    Netherlands journal of geosciences 89 (2010)1. - ISSN 0016-7746 - p. 3 - 20.
    eolische afzettingen - geologie - waterstand - holoceen - zuid-holland - rivierengebied - aeolian deposits - geology - water level - holocene - zuid-holland - rivierengebied - radiocarbon age calibration - southern north-sea - cal bp - movements - area - bc
    We present a revised relative mean sea-level (MSL) curve for the Rhine-Meuse delta, western Netherlands, for the period 7900-5300 cal yr BP. The revision is based on a series of new and previously unpublished local groundwater-level index data from buried Late Glacial aeolian dunes in the lower Rhine-Meuse delta, and reinterpretation of existing data. The new index data consist of (AMS and conventional) radiocarbon dates of samples, collected from the base of peat formed on dune slopes, near Vlaardingen (21 index points), Hillegersberg (one index point), and Hardinxveld-Giessendam (10 index points). The Vlaardingen data represent the coast-nearest Rhine-Meuse delta local water-level record, which therefore is highly indicative for sea-level change. Pollen and macrofossil analysis, and dating of paired samples was carried out to assess the reliability of the groundwater-level index data. The revision of the MSL curve involves: (1) a significant (0 to >1 m) upward adjustment for the period 7900-7300 cal yr BP; (2) a downward adjustment of =0.25 m for the period 6650-5300 cal yr BP. The new data indirectly support the reliability of the part of the curve for the period 7300-6650 cal yr BP. A longitudinally fairly uniform river gradient of 2.5-3.0 cm/km in the lower Rhine-Meuse delta during the period 6650-5600 cal yr BP can be inferred from the data sets. A significant river gradient extended further towards the coastline than previously thought and it may be that also the revised MSL curve reflects river-gradient effects. An increased floodbasin effect (stronger intra-coastal tidal damping) seems to have developed in the lower Rhine-Meuse delta in de period 7500-6600 cal yr BP, and was probably a complex response to a major avulsion of the Rhine.
    Knowledge for a sustaineble future of the Wadden: intergrated research agenda of the Wadden-Academy-KNAW
    Kabat, P. ; Bazelmans, J. ; Dijk, J. van; Herman, P.M.J. ; Speelman, H. ; Deen, N.R.J. ; Hutjes, R.W.A. - \ 2009
    Leewarden : KNAW - ISBN 9789490289157 - 145
    natuurbescherming - landgebruiksplanning - geologie - ondergrond - geomorfologie - ecologie - wadden - waddenzee - nature conservation - land use planning - geology - subsoil - geomorphology - ecology - tidal flats - wadden sea
    The Wadden Academy is a new entity of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW) which was officially founded on 30 July 2008 by decision of the Dutch government and as a reflection of the recommendations of the Meijer Committee. This publication is the integrated research agenda of the Wadden Academy. Wadden Sea research has for many years been dominated by the natural sciences. Socio-economic research and, to a lesser extent, historical research is grossly under-represented in terms of volume and importance. The Wadden Sea Area should figure more prominently on the research agenda of economists, historians, sociologists, psychologists, anthropologists and cultural scientists. They can identify those who feel involved in the Wadden Sea Area and in what way, how this involvement is justified in history, what interests are at stake, what reference images of the landscapes are used and how this will affect the future of the area. A key task for the Wadden Academy is to study changes which are taking place over different space and time scales and are the result of the interaction between the geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere and humankind and society. In the approach adopted by the Wadden Academy, great value is attached to knowledge of the region’s long past and present
    IMBOD : synchronisatie van de gegevens over bodem en ondergrond
    Vries, F. de; Boorder, N.J. de; Brouwer, F. ; Groot, J.J. ; Kiden, P. ; Leeters, E.E.J.M. ; Maring, L. ; Mol, G. - \ 2009
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1960) - 53
    bodemkarteringen - bodemmorfologische kenmerken - bodemsamenstelling - bodemprofielen - ondergrond - geologie - databanken - informatiesystemen - vergelijkingen - kaarten - bodemkwaliteit - soil surveys - soil morphological features - soil composition - soil profiles - subsoil - geology - databases - information systems - comparisons - maps - soil quality
    In de BIS-database van Alterra en de DINO-database van TNO is veel informatie opgeslagen over de bodem en de ondergrond van Nederland. Deze databases zijn jaren geleden ontstaan vanuit verschillende achtergronden. Daardoor komen er verschillen voor bij de indelingen en terminologie voor de gegevens. Dit rapport bevat concrete voorstellen om de gegevens in beide databestanden beter op elkaar af te stemmen
    'Gouden gronden' in de Noordelijke Friese Wouden
    Sonneveld, M.P.W. - \ 2009
    Geografie 2009 (2009)oktober. - ISSN 0926-3837 - p. 32 - 34.
    bodem - geologie - landschap - bodem-landschap relaties - historische geografie - friese wouden - soil - geology - landscape - soil-landscape relationships - historical geography - friese wouden
    De overheid heeft in 2004 twintig Nationale Landschappen aangewezen. Samen vertellen ze een prachtig verhaal over de ontstaanswijze van Nederland. De bodem, vaak onzichtbare drager van het landschap, verdient daarbij meer aandacht dan ze tot nu toe krijgt
    Groeven en graven : nieuw leven voor voormalige zandgroeven in Zuid-Limburg
    Stobbelaar, D.J. - \ 2009
    land use planning - landscape - sand pits - rehabilitation - recreation - geology - zuid-limburg
    De Bosatlas van Ondergronds Nederland
    Vries, F. de; Camarasa, M. - \ 2009
    Groningen : Noordhoff - ISBN 9789001122454 - 96
    geologie - grondwater - archeologie - energie - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - geomorfologie - infrastructuur - landgebruik - nederland - natuur - geology - groundwater - archaeology - energy - natural resources - geomorphology - infrastructure - land use - netherlands - nature
    De ondergrond van Nederland is bijzonder. Geen enkel land met zo’n slappe ondergrond is tegelijk zo dichtbevolkt. En vrijwel geen ander land in Europa beschikt over een gasvoorraad met zo’n enorme omvang. Maar liefst 400.000 keer boorden geologen een gaatje in de Nederlandse bodem, meestal tot een meter of tien diep, een enkele keer zelfs zes kilometer. Alle kennis die dat opleverde, is in deze atlas overzichtelijk weergegeven in beelden en kaarten. Acht hoofdstukken geven een kleurrijk beeld van alles wat normaal gesproken onzichtbaar blijft: bodem- en gesteentelagen vol aardgas, grondwater, voedingsstoffen, bodemenergie, metselzand, Romeinse resten, metrotunnels en elektriciteitskabels. Ook nemen we de lezer mee op een reis door de tijd, die Nederland 300 miljoen jaar geleden begon in een Surinaams tropenbos, om via een Afrikaanse zoutvlakte en een Mediterrane binnenzee te eindigen aan de voet van een reusachtige gletsjer. Deze nieuwe Bosatlas ontcijfert de kilometersdikke bodemlagen die zich gaandeweg onder onze voeten ophoopten.
    Bodemkundig-geologische inventarisatie van de gemeente Winterswijk
    Bosch, M. van den; Brouwer, F. - \ 2009
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1797) - 38
    bodemkarteringen - geologie - nederland - kaarten - achterhoek - gelderland - soil surveys - geology - netherlands - maps - achterhoek - gelderland
    Voor het uitvoeren van maatregelen op het gebied van Nationaal Landschap, Euregio, EHS, waterbeheer en natuurontwikkeling wil de gemeente Winterswijk op perceelsniveau inzicht hebben in de kwaliteit van de bodem. Daartoe heeft de gemeente opdracht gegeven alle bestaande bodeminformatie samen te voegen tot een gedetailleerde en geïntegreerde bodemkaart en geologische kaart. Negen bodemkaarten uit het archief van Alterra en ca. 3200 geologische boringen uit het archief van het Geologisch Veldlaboratorium Winterswijk zijn hiervoor verwerkt. De benodigde informatie is zowel analoog als digitaal aan de gemeente verstrekt.
    IMBOD deelactiviteit 5 : inhoudelijke afstemming
    Maring, L. ; Vries, F. de; Brouwer, F. ; Groot, H. ; Kiden, P. ; Leeters, E.E.J.M. ; Mol, G. - \ 2009
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1817) - 63
    bodem - geologie - databanken - informatiesystemen - nederland - bodemkwaliteit - soil - geology - databases - information systems - netherlands - soil quality
    In het IMBOD project worden de mogelijkheden onderzocht voor de integratie van de gegevens in de DINO-database van TNO en de BIS-database van Alterra, zodat de informatie in de toekomst via één loket verstrekt kan worden. Dit rapport geeft een beschrijving van de overeenkomsten en verschillen van de gegevens in beide databestanden en het bevat adviezen voor een betere afstemming
    Neogene stratigraphy of the Langenboom locality (Noord-Brabant, the Netherlands)
    Wijnker, T.G. ; Bor, T.J. ; Wesselingh, F.P. ; Munsterman, D.K. ; Brinkhuis, H. ; Burger, A.W. ; Vonhof, H.B. ; Post, K. ; Hoedemakers, K. ; Janse, A.C. ; Taverne, N. - \ 2008
    Netherlands journal of geosciences 87 (2008)2. - ISSN 0016-7746 - p. 165 - 180.
    geologie - tektoniek - paleozoölogie - noord-brabant - geology - tectonics - palaeozoology - noord-brabant - north-sea basin - dinoflagellate cyst - bering strait - upper miocene - pliocene - belgium - pleistocene - age
    The locality of Langenboom (eastern Noord-Brabant, the Netherlands), also known as Mill, is famous for its Neogene molluscs, shark teeth, teleost remains, birds and marine mammals. The stratigraphic context of the fossils, which have been collected from sand suppletions, was hitherto poorly understood. Here we report on a section which has been sampled by divers in the adjacent flooded sandpit 'De Kuilen' from which the Langenboom sands have been extracted. The studied section covers part of the marine Miocene Breda Formation and Pliocene Oosterhout Formation, and is topped by fluvial Quaternary deposits of presumably the Beegden Formation. The Breda Formation (15 - 18 m below lake surface) in this section is, based on organic walled dinoflagellate cysts, of an early-middle Tortonian age. The Oosterhout Formation (7 - 15 m below lake surface) comprises two depositional sequences, the lower of which (12 - 15 m below lake surface) presumably is the source of most Langenboom fossils. Combined dinoflagellate cyst and benthic mollusc indicators point to an early Zanclean - early Piacenzian age for this lower cycle. Its basal transgressive lag and (to lesser extent) top comprise reworked Tortonian taxa as well. Dinoflagellate cysts and a single benthic mollusc point to a Piacenzian age for the upper Oosterhout Formation sequence (7 - 12 m below lake surface).
    Geoarchaeological prospection of a Medieval manor in the Dutch polders using an electromagnetic induction sensor in combination with soil augerings
    Simpson, D. ; Lehouck, A. ; Meirvenne, M. ; Bourgeois, J. ; Thoen, E. ; Vervloet, J. - \ 2008
    Geoarchaeology: an international journal 23 (2008)2. - ISSN 0883-6353 - p. 305 - 319.
    archeologie - geologie - globale plaatsbepalingssystemen - historische geografie - archaeology - geology - global positioning systems - historical geography - geophysical survey - features
    In archaeological prospection, geophysical sensors are increasingly being used to locate buried remains within their natural context. To cover a large area in sufficient detail, an electromagnetic induction sensor can be very useful, measuring simultaneously the electrical conductivity and the magnetic susceptibility of the soil (e.g., Geonics EM38DD). In this study, an 8 ha field containing a Medieval manor was mapped in a submeter resolution, using a mobile sensor configuration equipped with a GPS. As different soil features can yield analogous responses, the interpretation of geophysical maps can be ambiguous. Therefore, soil auger observations were laid out along two perpendicular transects to provide vertical profiles across the sensor measurements. This information greatly enhanced the interpretation of the anomalies obtained by the sensor. Both natural and anthropogenic features were delineated, which clearly presented a moated site along a former tidal channel. (C) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    The Age and Origin of the Gelderse IJssel
    Makaske, B. ; Maas, G.J. ; Smeerdijk, D.G. van - \ 2008
    Netherlands journal of geosciences 87 (2008)4. - ISSN 0016-7746 - p. 323 - 337.
    geologische sedimentatie - geologie - geschiedenis - rivieren - historische geografie - ijssel - gelderland - geological sedimentation - geology - history - rivers - historical geography - river ijssel - gelderland - rhine-meuse delta - wetland woods - netherlands - avulsion - deposits - architecture - excavation - stadshagen - woodlands
    Historic trading cities are located on the Gelderse IJssel and flourished in the late Middle Ages. Little is known about this river in the early Middle Ages and before, and there is considerable debate on the age and origin of the Gelderse IJssel as a Rhine distributary. A small river draining the surrounding Pleistocene uplands must have been present in the IJssel valley during most of the Holocene, but very diverse opinions exist as to when this local river became connected to the Rhine system (and thereby to a vast hinterland), and whether this was human induced or a natural process. We collected new AMS radiocarbon evidence on the timing of beginning overbank sedimentation along the lower reach of the Gelderse IJssel. Our data indicate onset of overbank sedimentation at about 950 AD in this reach. We attribute this environmental change to the establishment of a connection between the precursor of the IJssel and the Rhine system by avulsion. Analysis of previous conventional radiocarbon dates from the upper IJssel floodplain yields that this avulsion may have started ~600 AD. Our results contradict earlier suppositions, based on interpretation of archaeological data and historical accounts, that the Gelderse IJssel is much older and originated as a canal, dug under supervision of the Roman general Drusus
    The Gelderse IJssel is the third major distributary of the Rhine in the Netherlands and diverts on average similar to 15% of the Rhine discharge northward. Historic trading cities are located on the Gelderse IJssel and flourished in the late Middle Ages. Little is known about this river in the early Middle Ages and before, and there is considerable debate on the age and origin of the Gelderse IJssel as a Rhine distributary. A small river draining the surrounding Pleistocene uplands must have been present in the IJssel valley during most of the Holocene, but very diverse opinions exist as to when this local river became connected to the Rhine system (and thereby to a vast hinterland), and whether this was human induced or a natural process. We collected new AMS radiocarbon evidence on the timing of beginning overbank sedimentation along the lower reach of the Gelderse IJssel. Our data indicate onset of overbank sedimentation at about 950 AD in this reach. We attribute this environmental change to the establishment of a connection between the precursor of the IJssel and the Rhine system by avulsion. Analysis of previous conventional radiocarbon dates from the upper IJssel floodplain yields that this avulsion may have started similar to 600 AD. Our results contradict earlier suppositions, based on interpretation of archaeological data and historical accounts, that the Gelderse IJssel is much older and originated as a canal, dug under supervision of the Roman general Drusus.
    Waarom verschillen de zeespiegelreconstructies voor Nederland?
    Kiden, P. ; Makaske, B. ; Plassche, O. van de - \ 2008
    Grondboor en Hamer 62 (2008)3/4. - p. 54 - 61.
    paleo-ecologie - geologie - geschiedenis - rivieren - zeespiegelschommelingen - waterstand - palaeoecology - geology - history - rivers - sea level fluctuations - water level
    Nederland had op 1 januari 1700 een primeur, namelijk met de (half)uurlijkse peiling van de waterhoogte van het IJ. Midden vorige eeuw werd de 14C dateringsmethode ontwikkeld om met deze nieuw methode de holocene zeespiegelstijging te reconstrueren. De stormramp van 1953 maakte duidelijk dat kennis van zeespiegelveranderingen van groot belang is voor de veilgiheid van Nederland
    De kwetsbaarheid van delta's : zeven plagen in een geologisch perspectief
    Makaske, B. - \ 2008
    Geografie 17 (2008)9. - ISSN 0926-3837 - p. 50 - 55.
    geologie - deltagronden - rivieren - overstromingen - erosie - afrika - azië - geology - delta soils - rivers - floods - erosion - africa - asia
    De overstromingen in de Birmese Irrawaddy delta afgelopen mei en ontruiming van New Orleans in verband met orkaan Gustav in september maken ons nog een keer duidelijk hoe riskant bewoning van een deltaplan is. Delta's zijn zeer aantrekkelijk vanwege hun natuurlijke hulpbronnen, maar ook uitermate kwetsbaar. De Nijldelta loopt jaarlijks ruim 120 miljoen ton vers sediment mis vanwege de stroomopwaarts gelegen Aswan-dam
    Understanding landscape dynamics over thousand years : combining field and model work : with case study in the Drakensberg foothill, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
    Temme, A.J.A.M. - \ 2008
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tom Veldkamp. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085852636 - 191
    landschap - landvormen - geomorfologie - geologie - fysische geografie - dynamica - verandering - wiskundige modellen - simulatiemodellen - geografische informatiesystemen - landscape - landforms - geomorphology - geology - physical geography - dynamics - change - mathematical models - simulation models - geographical information systems
    The title of this thesis is “Understanding landscape dynamics over thousands of years : combining field and model work, with a case study in the Drakensberg Foothills, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa”. As the title clearly states, the overall objective is an increased knowledge of landscape dynamics through the combination of fieldwork and landscape evolution modelling.
    Fieldwork is the topic of Chapter 2. The 50 kilo-annum (ka) landscape evolution of the research area in Okhombe valley in the Drakensberg Foothills is studied. Results are presented from extensive fieldwork in Okhombe valley, combined with laboratory work.
    Starting around 50 ka and continuing until around 30 ka, with cooler temperatures and more rainfall than at present, the slow processes of solifluction and creep transported material from the steep upper slopes of the research area to the concave areas that were immediately downstream. At least two major mudflow events partly or completely covered the solifluction deposits at the end of this period, around 29 ka. When temperatures and rainfall decreased toward the Last Glacial Maximum, grassland was likely replaced by denser shrubland. Overland flow and water erosion were inhibited. At the onset of warmer and wetter climate around 15 ka, shrubby vegetation retreated to higher altitudes and Okhombe valley was again covered with grassland. This decrease in vegetation cover, together with increased rainfall, resulted in higher rates of fluvial redistribution. Presently, erosion is still widespread in the area.
    The knowledge of landscape evolution was put to the test in a landscape evolution model in Chapter 5. Chapters 3 and 4 prepared the LAPSUS model for this task by discussing two important aspects of landscape evolution modelling.
    Chapter 3 presents a method to deal with an important conceptual and technical issue in long-term landscape evolution modelling. Conventional models consider depressions in Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) spurious, and remove them before modelling. Long-term multi-process landscape evolution models predict depressions, that therefore must be considered non-spurious. A method is detailed that allows these models to identify and include these depressions in dynamic landscapes. Identification first finds sinks, then adds neighbouring cells to the corresponding depression until a saddle is crossed. Inclusion of depressions in the dynamic landscape led to a procedure to deal with flows of water and sediment into and out of depressions. Depressions can be completely or partly filled with sediment. Partial filling, from each of the neighbouring cells, takes the shape of an above- and below-water delta with user-defined slope.
    Chapter 4 discusses ways to more formally list, make and report choices involved in setting-up multi-process landscape evolution models. This discussion is necessary now that models are increasingly combining multiple processes in one study. Choices in model set-up must be made regarding the extent and resolution of time, space and processes. A scheme is presented that can guide workers in making these choices, and tests to determine case-optimal set-ups are discussed using four case studies.
    In Chapter 5 , LAPSUS is used with the lessons from Chapters 3 and 4 in mind, to test the landscape reconstruction developed in Chapter 2. Adding to existing process descriptions, the processes of creep, solifluction and biological and frost weathering were developed for LAPSUS. A sensitivity analysis was performed, both for individual processes and for the overall model. Model calibration was trial and error and of qualitative nature. It attempted to simultaneously match model results to fieldwork conclusions for three outputs: zonal process activity over time, relative process activity over time and zonal development of soildepth. After calibration, model results suggested that a very slow wave of sediment moved through the landscape after the onset of the Holocene. Waves of sediment this slow have not been reported before. It is also suggested that erosion following this wave is continuing until today. Chapter 5 also shows that landscape evolution model results allow significant refinements of single-process interpretations of deposits, and can fill in erosional hiatuses in stratigraphical records.
    Chapter 6 goes one step further and tests whether the LAPSUS version of Chapter 5 is able to discriminate between landscape responses to stable and changed climate for the next millenium in Okhombe valley. This is an important first step in the use of landscape evolution models in the assessment of the effect of human-induced changing climate. Results of landscape evolution models are, of course, uncertain. This chapter tests the influence of parameter uncertainty, assumes that the influence of uncertainty in process descriptions and model structure is minor, and ignores uncertainty in input values (e.g. climatic records). LAPSUS was run hundreds of times, using random parameter values drawn from their joint probability distributions for three levels of assumed uncertainty and for stable and changed climate. Results indicate that LAPSUS can discriminate between the two climate scenarios in most cases, even at the highest level of parameter uncertainty. An explorative, uncertain and relative conclusion about changes in landscape evolution as a result of climate change can be drawn: erosion will likely be stronger in the concave positions, and deposition will likely be stronger further downstream than under stable climate.
    Chapter 7 combines results of the previous chapters. A subdivision of similar deposits in KwaZulu-Natal in four types is proposed using knowledge about the conditions that resulted in the deposits in Okhombe valley. Then, four innovations in landscape evolution modelling that the work in chapter 3-6 has contributed to, are summarized. These innovations are combined into a proposal for iterative model-fieldwork combinations in geomorphology. Eventually the focus is on the role that landscape evolution models can play in studies of land dynamics, given their inherent complex systems’ properties.

    Beelden van 200000 jaar veranderend landschap op en rond de Berg
    Mulder, J.R. - \ 2008
    Bulletin van de Botanische Tuinen Wageningen 53 (2008)3. - ISSN 0166-7092 - p. 4 - 9.
    landschap - rivieren - geologie - geschiedenis - historische geografie - betuwe - gelderland - landscape - rivers - geology - history - historical geography - betuwe - gelderland
    Dit beeldverhaal gaat in op achtergronden van ontstaan en tevens deel verdwijnen van de stuwwal tussen Wageningen en de Nijmegen. Met daarbij de veranderende rivierloop van de Rijn, oeverwallen, oude riviergeulen en nederzettingen in de Betuwe
    Databank van de lithografische opbouw en morfologische ontwikkeling van de uiterwaarden van de Midden-Waal
    Hebinck, K.A. - \ 2008
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1678) - 37 p.
    geomorfologie - databanken - geografische informatiesystemen - bodemtypen (lithologisch) - nederland - geologie - bodem - kaarten - uiterwaarden - waal - geomorphology - databases - geographical information systems - soil types (lithological) - netherlands - geology - soil - maps - river forelands - river waal
    In de uiterwaarden zijn de komende decennia veel ingrepen gepland. Een goede kennis van de sedimentatiedynamiek en morfologische ontwikkeling van de uiterwaarden is daarbij een vereiste. Daartoe is een digitale databank (op CD bij dit rapport) opgesteld van de opbouw en geomorfologische ontwikkeling van het sediment van de uitwerwaarden van de Waal. De opgenomen boringen zijn een samenvoeging van de beschikbare boringen uit de archieven van Universiteit Utrecht, TNO en Alterra. Aan de hand van de boringen zijn er kaarten van kleiafzettingen in de uiterwaarden gemaakt.
    Bodemkundig onderzoek van het terrein HAVO Notre Dame des Anges te Beek-Ubbergen i.v.m. nieuwbouw
    Mulder, J.R. - \ 2008
    Wageningen : Alterra - 43
    geologie - bodemkarteringen - kaarten - rijk van nijmegen - geology - soil surveys - maps - rijk van nijmegen
    Bodemkundig-hydrologisch onderzoek met als doel het maken van een bodemkaart, schaal 1 : 25 00, die als basis voor de planvorming (nieuwbouw en inrichting) moet dienen. Daarbij is ook de fluctuatie van het grondwater meegenomen
    NCL Symposium Optical dating applications, Wageningen, The Netherlands, April 24, 2008
    Buis, E. ; Temme, A.J.A.M. ; Wallinga, J. - \ 2008
    Delft : NCL Netherlands Centre for Luminescence dating (NCL symposium series vol. 5) - 19
    geologie - leeftijdsbepaling - optische eigenschappen - luminescentie - datering - optica - geology - age determination - optical properties - luminescence - dating - optics
    New groundwater-level rise data from the Rhine-Meuse delta - implications for the reconstruction of Holocene relative mean sea-level rise and differential land-level movements
    Berendsen, H.J.A. ; Makaske, B. ; Plassche, O. van de; Ree, M.H.M. ; Das, S. ; Dongen, M. van; Ploumen, S. ; Schoenmakers, W. - \ 2007
    Netherlands journal of geosciences 86 (2007)4. - ISSN 0016-7746 - p. 333 - 354.
    geologie - grondwaterstand - bodemdaling - zeespiegelschommelingen - alblasserwaard - zuidhollandse eilanden - zuid-holland - geology - groundwater level - subsidence - sea level fluctuations - alblasserwaard - zuidhollandse eilanden - zuid-holland - western netherlands - flevo lagoon - evolution - bc - avulsion - deposits - coast - area
    We present new local groundwater-level rise data from two Late Glacial aeolian dunes, located near Barendrecht and Oud-Alblas in the western Rhine-Meuse delta. These data are based on AMS radiocarbon dating of terrestrial macrofossils, collected from the base of peat formed on the slopes of these dunes. This method avoids contamination of bulk peat samples by old soil carbon or younger rootlets and rhizomes, as well as the hardwater effect. The new data are used to assess the reliability of previously published groundwater-level index data based on conventional radiocarbon dating of bulk basal peat samples from the slopes of the Late Glacial aeolian dunes at Barendrecht, Hillegersberg, Bolnes and Wijngaarden, all located in the western Rhine-Meuse delta. Comparison of the new and published groundwater-level data shows no significant systematic difference between conventionally dated bulk peat samples and AMS-dated samples of terrestrial macrofossils. The new data from the dune at Barendrecht confirm the reliability of the younger than 6600 cal yr BP age-depth data from the dunes at Hillegersberg and near Bolnes. This result supports the validity of this part of the mean sea-level (MSL) curve for the western Netherlands. Consequently, the position of the groundwater-level curve for Flevoland (central Netherlands) below this MSL curve can most likely be attributed to differential land-level movement. The available data show that the groundwater-gradient effect in the western Rhine-Meuse delta became less than 5 cm/km after 6600 calyr BP. Finally, temporal correlation between temporary increases in local groundwater-level rise with known shifts of river courses in the delta plain suggests, that avulsions can explain sudden local deviations from the trend in groundwater-level rise. A general conclusion of this study is that a complex relationship exists between sea level and local delta-plain water levels.
    Evolution of the human-environment relationship
    Costanza, R. ; Steffen, W. ; Hibbard, K. ; Crumley, C. ; Leemans, R. ; Graumlich, L. ; Dearing, J. ; Redman, C. ; Schimel, D. - \ 2007
    In: Encyclopedia of Earth / Cleveland, C.J.,
    samenleving - milieu - mens - geologie - ecologie - aarde - society - environment - man - geology - ecology - earth
    The scope of the Encyclopedia of Earth is the environment of the Earth broadly defined, with particular emphasis on the interaction between society and the natural spheres of the Earth.
    Bridging scaling gaps for the assessment of biodiversity from space
    Schaepman, M.E. ; Malenovsky, Z. ; Mücher, C.A. ; Kooistra, L. ; Thullier, W. - \ 2007
    In: The full picture Geneva (Switzerland) : Tudor Rose / GEO - ISBN 9789299004708 - p. 258 - 261.
    geologie - aarde - aardwetenschappen - observatie - geology - earth - earth sciences - observation
    Soils of volcanic regions in Europe
    Arnalds, O. ; Bartoli, F. ; Buurman, P. ; Oskarsson, H. ; Stoops, G. ; García-Rodeja, E. - \ 2007
    Berlin Heidelberg : Springer Verlag - ISBN 9783540487104 - 649
    geologie - bodemschatten - mineralogie - fysische geografie - geologische sedimentatie - bodemkunde - bodembescherming - aardwetenschappen - geology - mineral resources - mineralogy - physical geography - geological sedimentation - soil science - soil conservation - earth sciences
    Soils of volcanic areas often exhibit unique properties differentiating them from other soils on Earth. This book gives comprehensive coverage of soils in volcanic regions within Europe, dealing with most aspects of modern day soil science. It covers a range of issues such as mineralogy, chemistry, physics, soil genesis, classification, and more.
    Een lange geschiedenis; reliëf, bodem, vegetatie en eerste bewoners
    Vervloet, J.A.J. - \ 2006
    In: Dit is Bennekom. Verleden, heden en toekomst van een bijzonder dorp / Lever, B., Hoekstra, T., Vlaskamp, G., Bennekom : Historische Vereniging Oud-Bennekom - ISBN 9789078592013 - p. 10 - 34.
    geologie - vegetatie - geschiedenis - historische geografie - gelderse vallei - veluwe - geology - vegetation - history - historical geography - gelderse vallei - veluwe
    In dit hoofdstuk aandacht voor de vraag hoe hoogteverschillen in dit gebied met bossen en heiden als onderdeel van het Veluwse heuvelgebied aan de oostkant van het dorp tot de lage weilanden aan de westkant, als onderdeel van de Gelderse Vallei
    Sampling scheme optimization from hyperspectral data
    Debba, P. - \ 2006
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): A. Stein; F.D. van der Meer, co-promotor(en): E.J.M. Carranza. - [S.l. ] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085044628 - 164
    optimalisatie - bemonsteren - remote sensing - simulatie - gegevensanalyse - geografische informatiesystemen - geologie - geostatistiek - geology - optimization - sampling - remote sensing - simulation - data analysis - geographical information systems - geostatistics

    This thesis presents statistical sampling scheme optimization for geo-environ-menta] purposes on the basis of hyperspectral data. It integrates derived products of the hyperspectral remote sensing data into individual sampling schemes. Five different issues are being dealt with.

    First, the optimized sampling scheme is presented to select samples that represent different ontological categories. The iterated conditional modes algorithm (ICM) is used as an unsupervised segmentation technique. Within each cate-gory, simulated annealing is applied for minimizing the mean shortest distance (MMSD) between sampling points. The number of sampling points in each category is proportional to the size and variability' of the category. The combination of the ICM algorithm for image segmentation with simulated annealing for optimized sampling, results in an elegant and powerful tool in designing optimal sampling schemes using remote sensing images. A validation study conducted shows that the optimized sampling scheme gives best estimates for commonly used vegetation indices compared to simple random sampling and rectangular grid sampling.

    Next, optimal sampling schemes, which focus on ground verification of minerals derived from hyperspectral data, are presented. Spectral angle mapper {SAM) and spectral feature fitting (SFF) classification techniques are applied to obtain rule mineral images. The rule images provide weights that are utilized in objective functions of the sampling schemes which are optimized by means of simulated annealing. Three weight, functions intensively sample areas where a high probability and abundance of al unite occurs. Weight function I uses binary weights derived from the SAM classification image, leading to an even distribution of sampling points over the region of interest. Weight function II uses scaled weights derived from the SAM rule image. Sample points are arranged more intensely in areas where there is an abundance of al unite. Weight function III combines information from several different rule image classifications. Sampling points are distributed more intensely in regions of high probable alu-nite as classified by both SAM and SFF, thus representing the purest of pixels. This method leads to an efficient distribution of sample points, on the basis of a user-defined objective.

    This is followed by a quantitative method for optimally locating exploration targets based on a probabilistic mineral prospectivity map. which was created by means of weights-of-evidence (WofE) modeling. Locations of discovered mineral occurrences were used as a training set and a map of distances to faults/fractures and three channel ratio images of HyMap hyperspectral data were used as evidences. The WofE posterior probability map was applied to an objective function that optimized location of exploration targets. Optimized exploration target zones spatially coincide with undiscovered mineral occurrences, namely, those not used to train the WofE model input, and show other zones without mineral occurrences within delineated prospective ground. The results indicate usefulness of the described optimization method to allocate exploration targets for undiscovered mineral occurrence, based on probabilistic mineral prospectiv-ity maps.

    A method for estimating the partial abundance of spectrally similar minerals in complex mixtures follows. Linear mixtures are generated with varying proportions of individual spectrum, from a spectral library, of a set of iron-bearing oxide/hydroxide/sulfate minerals. The first and second derivatives of each of the different sets of mixed spectra and the individual spectrum are evaluated. This method for spectral unmixing requires formulating a linear function of individual spectra of the minerals. The error between these derivative functions and the respective derivative function of the mixed spectrum is minimized by means of simulated annealing. Experiments are made on several different mixtures of selected end-members, which could plausibly occur in real situations. The variance of the differences between the second derivatives of the observed spectrum and the second derivatives of the end-member spectra give most precise estimates for the abundance of each end-member.

    Lastly, a method by which an optimal ground sampling scheme can be obtained for a variable of interest is described. The variable of interest is the spatial distribution of a suite of heavy metals in mine tailings. Derivation of an optimal sampling scheme makes use of covariates of the spatial variable of interest, which are readily but less accurately obtainable by using airborne hyperspectral data. The covariates are abundances of secondary iron-bearing minerals estimated through spectral unmixing. Via simulated annealing, an optimal retrospective sampling scheme for a previously sampled area is derived having fewer samples but having almost equal mean kriging prediction error as the original ground samples. Via simulated annealing, an optimal prospective sampling scheme for a new unvisited area is derived based on the variogram model of a previously sampled area. The results of this study demonstrate potential application of hy-perspectral remote sensing and simulated annealing to surface characterization of large mine tailings having similar climatic and terrain characteristics to the mine tailings in the case study area.

    Woodlands of the past : The excavation of wetland woods at Zwolle-Stadshagen (the Netherlands): Reconstruction of the wetland wood in its environmental context
    Kooistra, M.J. ; Kooistra, L.I. ; Rijn, P. van; Sass, U.G.W. - \ 2006
    Netherlands journal of geosciences 85 (2006)1. - ISSN 0016-7746 - p. 37 - 60.
    landschap - bodem - geologie - archeologie - palynologie - geschiedenis - hout - overijssel - landscape - soil - geology - history - archaeology - palynology - wood - overijssel - pollen - bog - teleconnections - sections - pipette - climate - remains - holland - rise - bc
    Information on the vegetation and landscape history of a region is often limited, and available data are hard to interprete. A concept is presented here on how a more comprehensive picture of the structure and development of landscapes and vegetations of the past can be gained by integrating the information of several disciplines. Archaeological field methods have been combined with methods used in landscape studies (geology, soil science, micromorphology) and vegetation studies (ecology, palynology and dendrochronology). This concept has been applied and tested during an integrated study of a buried woodland at Zwolle-Stadshagen (Province of Overijssel, the Netherlands). Many large wood remnants were found in a peat layer preserved below a thick clay deposit. The wood remnants were dated by using dendrochronology to the period between ca. 150 BC and AD 580 (ca. 2200 - 1400 cal. BP). Two phases could be distinguished in the development of the peat. The woodland consisted of a closed stand with ash, alder and oak as main species, in the first phase mostly resembling an alder carr, and in the second one the near-extinct Filipendulo-Alnetum Passage et Hofmann 1968. No evidence of exploitation of the woodland by man nor of animal foraging was found. The followed integrated procedure has led to a more substantiated reconstruction of the palaeo-environment with its wetland wood, but also of the influence of human activities on the palaeo-landscape and its woodlands, that could not have been obtained otherwise.
    Sedimentary architecture and optical dating of Middle and Late Pleistocene Rhine-Meuse deposits - Fluvial response to climate change, sea-level fluctuation and glaciation
    Busschers, Freek S. ; Weerts, H.J.T. ; Wallinga, J. ; Cleveringa, P. ; Kasse, C. ; Wolf, H. de; Cohen, K.M. - \ 2005
    Netherlands journal of geosciences 84 (2005)1. - ISSN 0016-7746 - p. 25 - 41.
    Climate - Estuarine - Fluvial - Glaciation - Isostacy - Late Pleistocene - Middle Pleistocene - Netherlands - North Sea Basin - Optical dating - Rhine-Meuse - Sea-level - Subsidence

    Eight continuous corings in the west-central Netherlands show a 15 to 25 m thick stacked sequence of sandy to gravelly channel-belt deposits of the Rhine-Meuse system. This succession of fluvial sediments was deposited under net subsiding conditions in the southern part of the North Sea Basin and documents the response of the Rhine-Meuse river system to climate and sea-level change and to the glaciation history. On the basis of grain size characteristics, sedimentological structures, nature and extent of bounding surfaces and palaeo-ecological data, the sequence was subdivided into five fluvial units, an estuarine and an aeolian unit. Optical dating of 34 quartz samples showed that the units have intra Saalian to Weichselian ages (Marine Isotope Stages 8 to 2). Coarse-grained fluvial sediments primarily deposited under cold climatic conditions, with low vegetation cover and continuous permafrost. Finer-grained sediments generally deposited during more temperate climatic conditions with continuous vegetation cover and/or periods of sea-level highstand. Most of the sedimentary units are bounded by unconformities that represent erosion during periods of climate instability, sea-level fall and/or glacio-isostatic uplift.

    Lichenrijke stuifzanden in Noord-Limburg : verleden, heden en toekomst
    Ketner-Oostra, H.G.M. ; Douma, B.E. ; Ancker, H. van den; Jungerius, P.D. - \ 2005
    Natuurhistorisch Maandblad 94 (2005)6. - ISSN 0028-1107 - p. 109 - 116.
    geomorfologie - geologie - landschapsecologie - vegetatie - eolisch zand - korstmossen - plantengeografie - noord-limburg - geomorphology - geology - landscape ecology - vegetation - aeolian sands - lichens - phytogeography - noord-limburg
    Tijdens een vooronderzoek over mogelijk herstel van stuifzandvegetatie in de gemeente Bergen zijn vier natuurterreinen onderzocht waarvan de gegevens terug te vinden waren bij eerder onderzoek (Cleef en Kers, 1968). Een vergelijking is gemaakt met recent uitgevoerd onderzoek (Van den Acker, 2002). Het betreft een 90 ha groot verstuivingslandschap binnen Nationaal Park de Maasduinen
    Modelling landslide dynamics in forested landscapes
    Claessens, L.F.G. - \ 2005
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tom Veldkamp, co-promotor(en): Jeroen Schoorl. - Wageningen : s.n. - ISBN 9789085041450 - 143
    aardverschuivingen - landschap - landschapsecologie - modellen - herverdeling - bossen - erosie - geologie - geomorfologie - vegetatie - digitaal terreinmodel - nieuw-zeeland - landslides - landscape - landscape ecology - models - redistribution - forests - erosion - geology - geomorphology - vegetation - digital elevation model - new zealand
    The research resulting in this thesis covers the geological, geomorphological and landscape ecology related themes of the project 'Podzolisation under Kauri (Agathis australis): for better or worse?' supported by theNetherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO). The general objective of this thesis is to investigate landscape, soil and vegetation dynamics in theWaitakereRangesRegionalParkon the North Island of New Zealand, where also all the fieldwork was carried out. The main core of the thesis consists of the development of a dynamic landscape process model to simulate soil redistribution by shallow landsliding. Resulting spatial patterns of erosion and deposition, changes in landslide susceptibility over time and the relation of spatially explicit landscape attributes with vegetation patterns are further explored.

    ·Chapter 1 is a general introduction elaborating on the geology, climate and socio-economic setting of the study area and explains the main objectives and research questions. The contents and overall structure of the thesis are also illustrated. Following this introductory chapter, the thesis is composed of 5 chapters based on scientific papers published in or submitted to peer reviewed journals.

    ·Chapter 2 deals with the general tectonic setting of the study area. Quaternary coastal and fluvial terrace morphology and chronology are explored to reconstruct the tectonic history of the south-west coast of the Northland region inNew Zealand. This chapter is situated on the geological timescale (1.8 Ma BP till present) and places the subsequent chapters dealing with the landscape process model and its applications, acting on a timescale of years to decades, in a broader spatio-temporal perspective. Field surveys and the analysis of aerial photography yield an inventory of 13 fluvial and 12 marine terrace levels. Due to poor exposure of clear field evidence in the form of e.g. wave-cut platforms or distinct river sediments, planar landscape morphology forms the main criterion for terrace remnant identification. Based on the record of terrace height spacings, sparse tephra age control and correlation with global paleoclimatic records, an attempt is made to reconstruct the regional Quaternary uplift rates. Because no hard chronostratigraphic marker is present within the fluvial terrace sequence, fluvial terrace levels are linked to the marine sequence by using the mean uplift rates calculated from the marine terraces (0.35 mm yr -1 from 0- 0.1 Ma and 0.26 mm yr -1 from 0.1-0.3 Ma). Both sets of terraces are then correlated with oxygen isotope fluctuations and the astronomically tuned timescale from ODP Site 677 and the Vostok ice core paleoclimatic records. Oldest marine and fluvial terrace levels are estimated 1.21 Ma and 0.242 Ma respectively. Although there seems to be some form of controversy about the uplift history and especially the preservation of terraces in the study area, a general regional uplift, superimposed on glacio-eustatic sea-level changes, is substantiated as the only possible mechanism leading to the maintenance of a considerable relief and active denudation processes inland.

    ·Chapter 3 deals with the development and application of the LAPSUS-LS landscape process model. The model is constructed as a component of the LAPSUS modelling framework ( L andsc A pe P roces S modelling at m U lti dimensions and scale S ; -LS:L and S lide,refers to the process specific model component). LAPSUS-LS delineates the location of shallow landslide initiation sites and simulates the effects on spatial patterns of soil redistribution and resulting landslide hazard for a large watershed within the study area. Processes that need to be incorporated in the model are reviewed followed by the proposed modelling framework. The model predicts the spatial pattern of landslide susceptibility within the simulated catchment and subsequently applies a spatial algorithm for the redistribution of failed material on the basis of a scenario of triggering rainfall events, relative landslide hazard and trajectories with runout criteria for failed slope material. The model forms a spatially explicit method to address the effects of shallow landslide erosion and sedimentation because digital elevation data are adapted between timesteps and on- and off-site effects over the years can be simulated in this way. By visualisation of the modelling results in a GIS environment, the shifting pattern of upslope and downslope (in)stability, triggering of new landslides and the resulting slope retreat by soil material redistribution due to former mass movements is simulated and assessed.

    ·Chapter 4 zooms in on a more theoretical aspect of the LAPSUS-LS model and evaluates digital elevation model (DEM) resolution effects on model results. The focus is on influences of grid size on landslide soil redistribution quantities and resulting spatial patterns and feedback mechanisms. Distributions of slope, specific catchment area and relative hazard for shallow landsliding are analysed for four different DEM resolutions (grid sizes of 10, 25, 50 and 100 m) for a 12 km 2 study catchment in theWaitakereRanges. The effect of DEM resolution proves to be especially pronounced for the boundary conditions determining a valid landslide hazard calculation. For coarse resolutions, the smoothing effect results in a larger area becoming classified as unconditionally stable or unstable. Simple empirical soil redistribution algorithms are applied for scenarios in which all sites with a certain landslide hazard fail and generate debris flow. The lower initial number of failing cells but also the inclusion of slope (limit) in those algorithms becomes apparent with coarser resolutions. For finer resolutions, much larger amounts of soil redistribution are found, which is attributed to the more detailed landscape representation. Looking at spatial patterns of landslide erosion and sedimentation, the size of the area affected by these processes also increases with finer resolutions. In general, landslide erosion occupies larger parts of the area than deposition, although the total amounts of soil material eroded and deposited are the same. Analysis of feedback mechanisms between soil failures over time shows that finer resolutions show higher percentages of the area with an increased or decreased landslide hazard. When the extent of sites with lower and higher hazards are compared, finer grid sizes and higher landslide hazard threshold scenarios tend to increase the total extent of areas becoming more stable relative to the less stable ones. It is concluded that extreme care should be taken when quantifying landslide basin sediment yield by applying simple soil redistribution formulas to DEMs with different resolutions. Rather, quantities should be interpreted as relative amounts. For studying shallow landsliding over a longer timeframe, the 'perfect' DEM resolution may not exist, because no resolution can possibly represent the dimensions of all different slope failures scattered in space and time. It is emphasised that the choice of DEM resolution, possibly restricted by data availability in the first place, should always be adapted to the context of a particular type of analysis.

    ·Chapter 5 and 6 describe two distinct applications of the LAPSUS-LS model: in Chapter 5 , a sediment record is used, in combination with the LAPSUS-LS model, to reconstruct the incidence of high-magnitude/low-frequency landslide events in the upper part of theWaitakereRivercatchment and the history of the Te Henga wetland at the outlet. Sediment stratigraphy and chronology are interpreted by radiocarbon dating, foraminiferal analysis, andprovisionaltephrochronology. Gradual impoundment of the wetland began c. 6000 cal yr BP, coinciding with the start of a gentle sea-level fall, but complete damming and initial sedimentation did not begin until c. 1000 cal yr BP. After damming, four well-defined sediment pulses occurred and these are preserved in the form of distinct clay layers in most of the sediment cores. For interpreting the sediment pulses, the LAPSUS-LS modelisapplied to determine spatially distributed relative landslide hazard, applicable at the catchment scale. An empirical landslide soil redistribution componentisadded to determine sediment delivery ratio and the impact on total catchment sediment yield. Sediment volumesarecalculated from the wetland cores and corresponding landslide scenarios are defined through back-analysis of modelled sediment yield output. In general, at least four major high-magnitude landslide events, both natural and intensified by forest clearance activities, occurred in the catchment upstream of Te Henga wetland during the last c. 1000 years. Their magnitude can be expressed by a range of critical rainfall thresholds representing a LAPSUS-LS scenario.

    ·Chapter 6 is a more ecologically focused application of the model and links digital terrain analysis and landslide modelling with the spatial distribution of mature kauri trees. The use of topographical attributes for the analysis of the spatial distribution and ecological cycle of kauri ( Agathis australis ), a canopy emergent conifer tree from northernNew Zealand, is studied. Several primary and secondary topographic attributes are derived from a DEM for theWaitakereRivercatchment and the contribution of these variables in explaining presence or absence of mature kauri is assessed with logistic regression and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) plots. The topographically based landslide hazard index calculated with the LAPSUS-LS model appears to be very useful in explaining the occurrence and ecological dynamics of kauri. It is shown that the combination of topographic -, soil physical - and hydrological parameters in the calculation of this single landslide hazard index, performs better in explaining presence of mature kauri than using topographic attributes calculated from the DEM properties alone. Moreover, this example demonstrates the possibilities of using terrain attributes for representing geomorphological processes and disturbance mechanisms, often indispensable in explaining a species' ecological cycle and forest stand dynamics. The results of this analysis support the 'temporal stand replacement model', involving disturbance as a dominant ecological process in forest regeneration, as an interpretation of the community dynamics of kauri. Furthermore, a certain threshold maturity stage, in which trees become able to stabilise landslide prone sites and postpone a possible disturbance by this process, together with great longevity are seen as major factors making kauri a 'landscape engineer'.

    ·Synthesising, Chapter 7 reflects on the most important conclusions from the research resulting in this thesis and discusses the achievement of the main objectives and answers to the research questions postulated in Chapter 1. Three general themes are put forward covering the previous chapters. Finally some ideas for future research are suggested.

    De bodemgesteldheid van bosreservaten in Nederland; deel 9 bosreservaat Leyduin-Vinkenduin (NH), bosreservaat Bunderbos (L), bosreservaat Ossenbos (G), bosreservaat Heloma- en Bleekerspolder(Fr), bosreservaat Achter de Voort (Ov), bosreservaat De Slikken van Flakkee (Z)
    Mekkink, P. - \ 2004
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 60.9) - 88
    beschermde bossen - bossen - bosgronden - bodemkarteringen - geologie - humus - bodemwater - nederland - bodemprofielen - kaarten - reserved forests - forests - forest soils - soil profiles - soil surveys - geology - humus - soil water - maps - netherlands
    In de bosreservaten Leyduin-Vinkenduin, Bunderbos, Ossenbos, Heloma- en Bleekerspolder, Achter de Voort en Slikken van Flakkee komen Tertiaire, Pleistocene en Holocene afzettingen voor. Het zijn veengronden, moerige gronden, zandgronden, rivierkleigronden en lössgronden met daarin vlietveengronden, vlierveengronden, broekeerdgronden, veldpodzolgronden, haarpodzolgronden, vorstvaaggronden, duinvaaggronden, vlakvaaggronden, leekeerdgronden, ooivaaggronden en poldervaaggronden. De gronden komen voor met grondwatertrap Ia, IIa, IIb, IIIa, IIIb, IVu, Vao, Vbd, VIo en VId, VIId en VIIId. De verbreiding van de bodemeenheden en grondwatertrappen is bij de bosreservaten Leyduin-Vinkenduin, Bunderbos, Ossenbos en Achter de Voort weergegeven op een bodem- en grondwatertrappenkaart, schaal 1 : 5000. Mede onder invloed van het gevoerde beheer en het vegetatietype en hebben zich terrestrische en semiterrestrische humusprofielen ontwikkeld met een ectorganisch en een endorganisch deel. De profielopbouw en de opbouw van de strooisellaag zijn beschreven en in een database vastgelegd
    Vegetation, water, humans and the climate; a new perspective on an interactive system
    Kabat, P. ; Claussen, M. ; Dirmeyer, P.A. ; Gash, J.H.C. ; Bravo de Guenni, L. ; Meybeck, M. ; Pielke sr., R.A. ; Vörösmarty, C.J. ; Hutjes, R.W.A. ; Lütkemeier, S. - \ 2004
    Berlin (Germany) [etc.] : Springer (Global change : the IGBP series ) - ISBN 9783540424000 - 566
    geologie - hydrologie - klimaat - bodem - vegetatie - menselijke activiteit - milieutoets - interacties - aardwetenschappen - terrestrische ecosystemen - hydrologische cyclus - biosfeer - geology - hydrology - climate - soil - vegetation - human activity - environmental assessment - interactions - earth sciences - terrestrial ecosystems - hydrological cycle - biosphere
    Woodlands of the past : The excavation of wetland woods at Zwolle-Stadshagen (The Netherlands) II. Development of the palaeo-landscape in its hydrological context
    Kooistra, M.J. - \ 2003
    Wageningen : Alterra - 39
    landschap - bodem - geologie - archeologie - hout - hydrologie - overijssel - landscape - soil - geology - archaeology - wood - hydrology - overijssel
    Bodemkundig archeologisch onderzoek Blauwe Sluis; een verkennend bodemkundig-archeologisch onderzoek op een huisperceel gelegen aan de Sluissestraat 18 in Appeltern
    Pleijter, M. ; Vroon, H.R.J. ; Exaltus, R.P. - \ 2003
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 731) - 41
    archeologie - bodemkarteringen - geologie - nederland - kaarten - gelderland - land van maas en waal - archaeology - soil surveys - geology - maps - netherlands - gelderland - land van maas en waal
    Op het huisperceel aan de Sluissestraat 18 in Appeltern staat momenteel een aantal kippenschuren, die de eigenaar wil laten verbouwen tot een rijstal met een paardenbak. Hiervoor is een bestemmingsplanwijziging nodig. Voorsorterend op het Verdrag van Valleta heeft de provincie Gelderland als voorwaarde voor het toekennen van de bestemmingsplanwijziging gesteld dat aanvullend archeologisch onderzoek moet worden uitgevoerd. Dit onderzoek behelst het inventariseren van reeds bekende archeologische informatie uit verschillenden bronnen, zoals het IKAW, ARCHIS en van amateurarcheologen. Met behulp van bodemkundige gegevens en aanvullend veldonderzoek is een gebiedsvisie opgesteld aan de hand van karakteristieke landschapseenheden.
    De bodemgesteldheid van bosreservaten in Nederland : Deel 6 Bosreservaat Herkenboscher Heide
    Mekkink, P. - \ 2002
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 60.6) - 50
    bosgronden - beschermde bossen - bodemkarteringen - humus - grondwater - bodemtypen - geologie - nederland - kaarten - midden-limburg - forest soils - reserved forests - soil surveys - maps - humus - groundwater - soil types - geology - netherlands - midden-limburg
    In het bosreservaat Herkenboscher Heide komen pleistocene afzettingen uit de Formatie van Sterksel en de Formatie Twente aan de oppervlakte voor. Het zijn grindhoudende zandgronden, dekzanden en lössgronden met daarin holtpodzolgronden, vorstvaaggronden, vlakvaaggronden en ooivaaggronden. De gronden hebben grondwatertrap VIIId. De verbreiding van de geologische afzettingen is weergegeven op de geologische kaart. De verbreiding van de bodemeenheden is weergegeven op de bodemkaart. Mede onder invloed van het opstandstype en het gevoerde beheer hebben zich humusprofielen ontwikkeld bestaande uit een ectorganisch en een endorganisch deel. De profielopbouw en de opbouw van de strooisellaag zijn beschreven en op tape vastgelegd.
    Elements for archaeological heritage management: exploring the archaeological potential of drowned Mesolithic and Early Neolithic landscapes in Zuidelijk Flevoland
    Peeters, H. ; Makaske, B. ; Mulder, J.R. ; Otte-Klomp, A. ; Smeerdijk, D.G. van; Smit, S. ; Spek, T. - \ 2002
    Berichten van de Rijksdienst voor het Oudheidkundig Bodemonderzoek = Proceedings of the State Service for Archaeological Investigations in the Netherlands 45 (2002). - ISSN 0167-5443 - p. 81 - 123.
    geologie - bodem - geschiedenis - landschap - grondwaterstand - flevoland - archeologie - bewoningsgechiedenis - bodemonderzoek - cultuurhistorie - overstroming - zeespiegelstijging - geology - soil - landscape - groundwater level - history - flevoland
    The initial ideas for the ROB project Zuidelijk Flevoland conceived during the last year of fieldwork at the Hoge Vaart, 1996
    De bodemgesteldheid van bosreservaten in Nederland; deel 5 bosreservaat De Stille Eenzaamheid
    Mekkink, P. - \ 2002
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 60.5) - 48
    bosgronden - beschermde bossen - bodemkarteringen - humus - grondwater - bodemtypen - geologie - nederland - kaarten - gelderland - bodemkunde - bosreservaat - humusprofiel - forest soils - reserved forests - soil surveys - maps - humus - groundwater - soil types - geology - netherlands - gelderland
    In het Gelderse bosreservaat De Stille Eenzaamheid komen pleistocene afzettingen uit de Formatie van Drente en Twente en holocene afzettingen uit de Formatie van Kootwijk aan de oppervlakte voor. Het zijn zandgronden met daarin duin- en vlakvaaggronden. De gronden hebben grondwatertrap VIo, VIId en VIIId. Mede onder invloed van het opstandstype en het gevoerde beheer hebben zich humusprofielen ontwikkeld bestaande uit een ectorganisch en een endorganisch deel. De profielopbouw en de opbouw van de strooisellaag zijn beschreven en op tape vastgelegd.
    De stijging van de waterspiegel nabij Almere in de periode 5300-2300 v. Chr
    Makaske, B. ; Smeerdijk, D.G. van; Mulder, J.R. ; Spek, T. - \ 2002
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 478) - 105
    paleo-ecologie - geologie - geschiedenis - meren - nederland - waterstand - archeologie - bodemkunde - grondwaterstand - historische geografie - zeespiegelstijging - Flevoland - palaeoecology - geology - lakes - history - netherlands - water level
    Op basis van 14C-ouderdomsbepalingen aan basisveenmonsters is een reconstructie gemaakt van de stijging van de waterspiegel in de omgeving van Almere in de periode 5300-2300 v.Chr. Een geologisch en bodemkundig onderzoek door middel van grondboringen ging vooraf aan het verzamelen van de veenmonsters. De samenstelling van het basisveen is uitvoerig paleo-ecologisch onderzocht. De dateringsgegevens zijn uitgezet in tijd-dieptediagrammen en er zijn curven getrokken die de ontwikkeling van de waterstand in de loop van de tijd weergeven. Vervolgens is een vergelijking gemaakt met de resultaten van soortgelijke studies die elders in Flevoland zijn uitgevoerd. Ook is een vergelijking gemaakt met de ontwikkeling van de zeespiegel. Het onderzoek kan bijdragen aan een betere inschatting van de bewoningsmogelijkheden van het studiegebied in de Midden- en Late Steentijd, hetgeen relevant is voor onderzoek naar archeologische waarden.
    Over vulkaankegels, lavastromen, heidevelden en ooibossen
    Ketner, P. ; Wielemaker, W. - \ 2002
    Natura 99 (2002)6. - ISSN 0028-0631 - p. 192 - 194.
    geologie - geomorfologie - landschap - vulkanische gebieden - vulkanen - vegetatie - frankrijk - geology - geomorphology - landscape - volcanic areas - volcanoes - vegetation - france
    Beschrijving van de geologische ontstaansgeschiedenis, bodem, landschap en vegetatie in de Auvergne, een gebied dat de effecten van vulkanisme in al zijn vormenrijkdom duidelijk laat zien
    Addressing the multi-scale lapsus of landscape : multi-scale landscape process modelling to support sustainable land use : a case study for the Lower Guadalhorce valley South Spain
    Schoorl, J.M. - \ 2002
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J. Bouma; A. Veldkamp. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058085955 - 172
    landschap - landgebruik - geologie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - landschapsecologie - modellen - landgebruiksplanning - bodembeheer - spanje - landscape - land use - geology - sustainability - landscape ecology - models - land use planning - soil management - spain

    "Addressing the Multi-scale Lapsus of Landscape" with the sub-title "Multi-scale landscape process modelling to support sustainable land use: A case study for the Lower Guadalhorce valley South Spain" focuses on the role of landscape as the main driving factor behind many geo-environmental processes at different temporal and spatial levels. LAPSUS is the name of the geomorphological model developed in this study and at the same time it is taken, with a certain degree of freedom, as a reference to the underestimated importance of landscape as cause and result of geomorphological processes.

    The main objective of this research is to investigate the role of the landscape at different spatial and temporal levels (extension and resolution) in geomorphological processes (e.g. soil redistribution: erosion and sedimentation), focussing on the sustainability of land use within a representative Mediterranean landscape. Landscape is defined in terms of genesis, geomorphology, lithology/ soil, land cover, land use, and even land management (human factor).

    The research area chosen for this study is located in the south of Spain, surrounding the village of Álora, in the central Guadalhorce river basin in the province of Málaga, Andalucía (Chapter 1). The area has a mean annual temperature of 17.5 °C and receives a mean yearly rainfall of 534 [mm], distributed mainly from October to April. This research area was selected as representative for a wide variety of Mediterranean environmental conditions in terms of a complex geological history resulting in a spatial diversification over short distances of morphology, lithology and active landscape processes ranging from tectonics, land use changes to land degradation.

    The study is directed, from the beginning to the end, at different spatial and temporal extensions-resolutions, studying different landscape processes within their specific spatial and temporal boundaries (Chapter 1). The first step in this investigation is the understanding of the evolution of the landscape and the geological background of the research area (spatial extension 10 2[km 2], temporal extension 10 7[a], temporal resolution 10 4to 10 5[a], Chapter 2). The second step is the development of a multi-scale landscape process model LAPSUS, valid at different spatial and temporal resolutions (spatial extension 10 3to 10 5[m 2], spatial resolution from 1 to 81 [m], Chapter 3). The third step comprises the actual measurement of net soil redistribution rates at the landscape level using the 137Cs technique. First, the applicability of this technique under the current Mediterranean conditions of the research area is evaluated (spatial extension 10 3to 10 5[m 2] Chapter 4). Secondly, net 137Cs derived soil redistribution rates on the temporal resolution of years and decades is simulated and the monitored erosion and sedimentation patterns are compared with the possibilities of the LAPSUS model (spatial resolution 7.5 [m], Chapter 5). The fourth step is the evaluation of the soil-landscape context at the multi-catchment or basin scale with special attention to the effects of soil redistribution upon water availability for vegetation (spatial extension 10 2[km 2], Chapter 6). The fifth step is the integration of landscape process modelling and changes in land use to evaluate on-site and off-site effects (spatial extension 10 [km 2], spatial resolution 25 [m], temporal extension 10 [a], temporal resolution 1 [a], Chapter 7). As a final step a synthesis of results, comments and evaluation of the research is done (Chapter 8).

    Landscape evolution from a geological perspective. Landscape evolution is the result of a variety of geomorphological processes and their controls in time. Tectonics, climate and sea level fluctuations have mainly controlled landscape evolution in the research area. Data is obtained and analysed from the Upper Miocene to present (Chapter 2). Consequently, geomorphological reconstructions are made using sedimentary evidence such as marine and fluvial deposits, as well as erosional evidence such as terrain form and longitudinal profile analysis. These reconstructions add information and constraints to the uplift history and landscape development of the research area. Main sedimentation phases are the Late Tortonian, Early Pliocene and Pleistocene. Important erosional hiatus are found for the Middle Miocene, Messinian and Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene. Concerning the palaeo-landscape, this resulted in a relative large and elongated Tortonian marine valley filled up with complex sedimentary structures. Next a prolonged stage of erosion of these deposits and incision of the major valley system took place during the Messinian. In the Pliocene a short palaeo-Guadalhorce, in a narrow and much smaller valley existed, partly filled with marine sediments combined with prograding fan delta complexes. During the Pleistocene a wider and larger incising river system resulted in rearrangements of the drainage network. Evaluating the uplift history of the area, the tectonic activity was relatively higher during the Tortonian-Messinian and Late Pleistocene, while it was lower during the Pliocene. Relative uplift rates for the study area range between 160-276 [m Ma -1] in the Messinian, 10-15 [m Ma -1] in the Pliocene to 40-100 [m Ma -1] during the Pleistocene.

    Multi-scale landscape process modelling. Once the geological background is understood, the development and testing of a landscape process model is undertaken (Chapter 3). Since resolution effects remain a factor of uncertainty in many hydrological and geomorphological modelling approaches, an experimental multi-scale study of landscape process modelling is presented, with emphasis on quantifying the effect of changing the spatial resolution upon modelling the processes of erosion and sedimentation. A simple single process model is constructed and equal boundary conditions are created. The use of artificial DEMs eliminates the possible effects of landscape representation. Consequently, the only variable factors are DEM resolution and the method of flow routing, both steepest descent and multiple flow directions. An important dependency of modelled erosion and sedimentation rates on these main variables is found. The general trend is an increase of erosion predictions with coarser resolutions. An artificial mathematical overestimation of erosion and a realistic natural modelling effect of underestimating re-sedimentation cause this. Increasing the spatial extent eliminates the artificial effect while at the same time the realistic effect is enhanced. Both effects can be quantified and are expected to increase within natural landscapes. The modelling of landscape processes will benefit from integrating these types of results at different resolutions.

    The use of the 137Cs technique in a Mediterranean environment. The 137Cs technique has been used in all sorts of environments all over the world to estimate net soil redistribution rates. However, its potentials in areas with shallow and stony soils on hard rock lithology remain unclear. Concentrations in the soil of artificial and natural radionuclides are investigated to assess the applicability of this technique in the study area as a mean to estimate soil redistribution (Chapter 4) and to calibrate the LAPSUS model (Chapter 5). The radionuclide concentrations vary in relation to lithology: natural radionuclides such as Potassium-40 ( 40K), Uranium-238 ( 238U) and Thorium-232 ( 232Th) show significant higher concentrations in the gneiss than in the serpentinite soils for both reference profiles as all other samples. This as opposed to the artificial radionuclide Caesium-137 ( 137Cs), which is found significantly higher in the serpentinite soils, for the reference profiles probably because of the difference in clay mineralogy and for the transect samples because of difference in soil distribution. The exponential decrease of 137Cs with soil depth and its homogeneous spatial distribution emphasise the applicability of the 137Cs technique in this type of Mediterranean environments. The spatial distribution of the 137Cs inventory and concentration are in agreement with the soil erosion and degradation indicators measured in the field. Surfaces with erosion or degradation features (higher bulk density, shallow soils or surface crust development) show lower 137Cs concentrations and inventories, while protected surfaces by vegetation show higher 137Cs concentrations and inventories. The distribution of 137Cs along the slopes can be explained within existing conceptual models. In this way the serpentinite and gneiss slopes are classified in four models according to the present soil redistribution and the detection of erosion and deposition areas.

    Furthermore the landscape evolution over the past 37 years is evaluated. Estimating net soil redistribution rates from radionuclide distributions depend on the calculation of the local area reference inventory and the applied calibration technique. The resulting net soil redistribution estimates are compared with simulations of the LAPSUS model. Total net soil loss for the research area ranges from 2 to 69 [t ha -1a -1] for serpentinite and gneiss slopes respectively. Differences in total slope sediment budgets as well as differences along the transects reveal influences of landscape representation and land use. In this case the impact of tillage erosion is far more important than possible parent material induced differences.

    Dynamic landscape, soil and water redistribution. Soil suitability assessments for land use purposes are commonly based on on-site specific topographic, soil and climatic characteristics, often neglecting the effects of physical landscape processes by water. The LAPSUS model is applied, including the effects of soil and water redistribution within the landscape (run-on, run-off, erosion and sedimentation) on soil water availability (Chapter 6). The approach focuses at the coarser level of multiple catchments over a period of ten years. By means of four scenarios with increasing complexity, patterns of soil loss and sediment deposition are simulated and resultant effects of water routing, soil depth and erodibility on water availability are evaluated. The model operates in the landscape context using annual time steps and both on-site effects (local changes in terms of boundary conditions) and off-site effects (caused by changes elsewhere) are accounted for. Different approaches for surface run-off routing have a major influence on the magnitude and spatial patterns of water and soil redistribution within the landscape, as well as initial conditions such as soil depth, parent material characteristics and erodibility. Locally decreasing water storage capacity (on-site) may cause increased run-off and erosion at lower positions in the landscape (off-site). Apparent acceptable mean regional soil loss rates, often include local soil redistribution rates that cause significant changes in actual soil depth, indirectly affecting related total amounts of available soil water.

    Linking landscape process modelling and land use change. LAPSUS is also used to explore the impacts of land use changes scenarios on landscape development (Chapter 7). For a period of 10 years LAPSUS calculates soil redistribution (erosion and sedimentation) for three scenarios. Main inputs are a DEM, precipitation and land use related infiltration and erodibility. Examples are shown of both on-site as well as off-site effects of land use change and the influence of different pathways of change. Each scenario produces different spatial and temporal patterns of total amounts of erosion and sedimentation throughout the landscape. Consequently, potential land use related parameters like soil depth, infiltration and flooding risk change significantly too. The scenario of an abrupt change produces the highest erosion rates, compared to the gradual change scenario and the baseline scenario. However, because of the multi-dimensional characteristics of the landscape not only the area suffering from land use change is affected. Increasing erosion and run-off rates from upstream-located olive orchards have an impact on downstream local run-on, erosion and sedimentation rates. In this case the citrus orchards situated in the valley bottom locally suffer damages from re-sedimentation events but benefit from the increase in run-on water and nutrients.

    Synthesising, the landscape was studied at different levels of temporal and spatial extensions and resolutions. Consequently it is not easy to link the results of the processes understood at those different levels, however the abstraction of some findings can give some direction: according to the geological evidence in this case study area the final present day uplift rates range between 0.07 to 0.1 [mm a -1]. These rates are in the same order of magnitude as the net erosion rates for natural slopes measured with the 137Cs technique. This suggests a link of the spatial temporal resolution of geological landscape evolution and actual natural landscape development. At the same time the cultivated areas on gneiss lithology indicate a factor 10 or more increase of soil redistribution, demonstrating the enormous impact of human induced landscape evolution and land use change.

    LAPSUS has been developed as a single process landscape evolution model, based on the potential energy content of flowing water over a landscape surface and the continuity equation for sediment movement, operating at the landscape-annual scale. The temporal components of the model are a compromise between the spatial resolution of interest and the applied process based lumped parameters. It also can be used at different grid sizes. It has shown quite reasonable results for simulating erosion/accumulation rates at slope, subcatchment and catchment scale, introducing the effect of different lithologies and land uses. This simplification of the reality and the isolation of the influence of different factors in the landscape evolution can help to understand the on-site and off-site effects of land use changes on the landscape and the impact on the sustainability development of the region.

    Verdronken dekzandlandschap in Flevoland
    Makaske, B. ; Kooistra, M.J. ; Haring, R. ; Smeerdijk, D.G. van - \ 2001
    Aarde en mens 5 (2001)1. - ISSN 1388-0071 - p. 19 - 23.
    geologie - geomorfologie - bodemtypen - bodemvorming - nederland - holoceen - flevoland - geology - geomorphology - soil types - soil formation - netherlands - holocene - flevoland
    Dit artikel gaat over landschappelijke veranderingen in Zuidelijk Flevoland in het midden Holoceen
    Linking plants to rocks : ectomycorrhizal fungi mobilize nutrients from minerals.
    Landeweert, R. ; Hoffland, E. ; Finlay, R.D. ; Kuyper, T.W. ; Breemen, N. van - \ 2001
    Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16 (2001)5. - ISSN 0169-5347 - p. 248 - 254.
    verwering - geologie - schimmels - mineralen - weathering - geology - fungi - minerals
    Plant nutrients, with the exception of nitrogen, are ultimately derived from weathering of primary minerals. Traditional theories about the role of ectomycorrhizal fungi in plant nutrition have emphasized quantitative effects on uptake and transport of dissolved nutrients. Qualitative effects of the symbiosis on the ability of plants to access organic nitrogen and phosphorus sources have also become increasingly apparent. Recent research suggests that ectomycorrhizal fungi mobilize other essential plant nutrients directly from minerals through excretion of organic acids. This enables ectomycorrhizal plants to utilize essential nutrients from insoluble mineral sources and affects nutrient cycling in forest systems.
    Imaging Spectrometry: basic principles and prospective applications
    Meer, F.D. van de; Jong, S.M. de - \ 2001
    Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers - ISBN 9781402001949 - 403
    environmental management - earth sciences - ecotoxicology - remote sensing - photogrammetry - geology - engineering - physics - applied statistics - milieubeheer - aardwetenschappen - ecotoxicologie - remote sensing - fotogrammetrie - geologie - engineering - fysica - toegepaste statistiek
    Check title to add to marked list
    << previous | next >>

    Show 20 50 100 records per page

     
    Please log in to use this service. Login as Wageningen University & Research user or guest user in upper right hand corner of this page.