Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Waarom verschillen de zeespiegelreconstructies voor Nederland?
    Kiden, P. ; Makaske, B. ; Plassche, O. van de - \ 2008
    Grondboor en Hamer 62 (2008)3/4. - p. 54 - 61.
    paleo-ecologie - geologie - geschiedenis - rivieren - zeespiegelschommelingen - waterstand - palaeoecology - geology - history - rivers - sea level fluctuations - water level
    Nederland had op 1 januari 1700 een primeur, namelijk met de (half)uurlijkse peiling van de waterhoogte van het IJ. Midden vorige eeuw werd de 14C dateringsmethode ontwikkeld om met deze nieuw methode de holocene zeespiegelstijging te reconstrueren. De stormramp van 1953 maakte duidelijk dat kennis van zeespiegelveranderingen van groot belang is voor de veilgiheid van Nederland
    De kwetsbaarheid van delta's : zeven plagen in een geologisch perspectief
    Makaske, B. - \ 2008
    Geografie 17 (2008)9. - ISSN 0926-3837 - p. 50 - 55.
    geologie - deltagronden - rivieren - overstromingen - erosie - afrika - azië - geology - delta soils - rivers - floods - erosion - africa - asia
    De overstromingen in de Birmese Irrawaddy delta afgelopen mei en ontruiming van New Orleans in verband met orkaan Gustav in september maken ons nog een keer duidelijk hoe riskant bewoning van een deltaplan is. Delta's zijn zeer aantrekkelijk vanwege hun natuurlijke hulpbronnen, maar ook uitermate kwetsbaar. De Nijldelta loopt jaarlijks ruim 120 miljoen ton vers sediment mis vanwege de stroomopwaarts gelegen Aswan-dam
    Understanding landscape dynamics over thousand years : combining field and model work : with case study in the Drakensberg foothill, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
    Temme, A.J.A.M. - \ 2008
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tom Veldkamp. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085852636 - 191
    landschap - landvormen - geomorfologie - geologie - fysische geografie - dynamica - verandering - wiskundige modellen - simulatiemodellen - geografische informatiesystemen - landscape - landforms - geomorphology - geology - physical geography - dynamics - change - mathematical models - simulation models - geographical information systems
    The title of this thesis is “Understanding landscape dynamics over thousands of years : combining field and model work, with a case study in the Drakensberg Foothills, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa”. As the title clearly states, the overall objective is an increased knowledge of landscape dynamics through the combination of fieldwork and landscape evolution modelling.
    Fieldwork is the topic of Chapter 2. The 50 kilo-annum (ka) landscape evolution of the research area in Okhombe valley in the Drakensberg Foothills is studied. Results are presented from extensive fieldwork in Okhombe valley, combined with laboratory work.
    Starting around 50 ka and continuing until around 30 ka, with cooler temperatures and more rainfall than at present, the slow processes of solifluction and creep transported material from the steep upper slopes of the research area to the concave areas that were immediately downstream. At least two major mudflow events partly or completely covered the solifluction deposits at the end of this period, around 29 ka. When temperatures and rainfall decreased toward the Last Glacial Maximum, grassland was likely replaced by denser shrubland. Overland flow and water erosion were inhibited. At the onset of warmer and wetter climate around 15 ka, shrubby vegetation retreated to higher altitudes and Okhombe valley was again covered with grassland. This decrease in vegetation cover, together with increased rainfall, resulted in higher rates of fluvial redistribution. Presently, erosion is still widespread in the area.
    The knowledge of landscape evolution was put to the test in a landscape evolution model in Chapter 5. Chapters 3 and 4 prepared the LAPSUS model for this task by discussing two important aspects of landscape evolution modelling.
    Chapter 3 presents a method to deal with an important conceptual and technical issue in long-term landscape evolution modelling. Conventional models consider depressions in Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) spurious, and remove them before modelling. Long-term multi-process landscape evolution models predict depressions, that therefore must be considered non-spurious. A method is detailed that allows these models to identify and include these depressions in dynamic landscapes. Identification first finds sinks, then adds neighbouring cells to the corresponding depression until a saddle is crossed. Inclusion of depressions in the dynamic landscape led to a procedure to deal with flows of water and sediment into and out of depressions. Depressions can be completely or partly filled with sediment. Partial filling, from each of the neighbouring cells, takes the shape of an above- and below-water delta with user-defined slope.
    Chapter 4 discusses ways to more formally list, make and report choices involved in setting-up multi-process landscape evolution models. This discussion is necessary now that models are increasingly combining multiple processes in one study. Choices in model set-up must be made regarding the extent and resolution of time, space and processes. A scheme is presented that can guide workers in making these choices, and tests to determine case-optimal set-ups are discussed using four case studies.
    In Chapter 5 , LAPSUS is used with the lessons from Chapters 3 and 4 in mind, to test the landscape reconstruction developed in Chapter 2. Adding to existing process descriptions, the processes of creep, solifluction and biological and frost weathering were developed for LAPSUS. A sensitivity analysis was performed, both for individual processes and for the overall model. Model calibration was trial and error and of qualitative nature. It attempted to simultaneously match model results to fieldwork conclusions for three outputs: zonal process activity over time, relative process activity over time and zonal development of soildepth. After calibration, model results suggested that a very slow wave of sediment moved through the landscape after the onset of the Holocene. Waves of sediment this slow have not been reported before. It is also suggested that erosion following this wave is continuing until today. Chapter 5 also shows that landscape evolution model results allow significant refinements of single-process interpretations of deposits, and can fill in erosional hiatuses in stratigraphical records.
    Chapter 6 goes one step further and tests whether the LAPSUS version of Chapter 5 is able to discriminate between landscape responses to stable and changed climate for the next millenium in Okhombe valley. This is an important first step in the use of landscape evolution models in the assessment of the effect of human-induced changing climate. Results of landscape evolution models are, of course, uncertain. This chapter tests the influence of parameter uncertainty, assumes that the influence of uncertainty in process descriptions and model structure is minor, and ignores uncertainty in input values (e.g. climatic records). LAPSUS was run hundreds of times, using random parameter values drawn from their joint probability distributions for three levels of assumed uncertainty and for stable and changed climate. Results indicate that LAPSUS can discriminate between the two climate scenarios in most cases, even at the highest level of parameter uncertainty. An explorative, uncertain and relative conclusion about changes in landscape evolution as a result of climate change can be drawn: erosion will likely be stronger in the concave positions, and deposition will likely be stronger further downstream than under stable climate.
    Chapter 7 combines results of the previous chapters. A subdivision of similar deposits in KwaZulu-Natal in four types is proposed using knowledge about the conditions that resulted in the deposits in Okhombe valley. Then, four innovations in landscape evolution modelling that the work in chapter 3-6 has contributed to, are summarized. These innovations are combined into a proposal for iterative model-fieldwork combinations in geomorphology. Eventually the focus is on the role that landscape evolution models can play in studies of land dynamics, given their inherent complex systems’ properties.

    Beelden van 200000 jaar veranderend landschap op en rond de Berg
    Mulder, J.R. - \ 2008
    Bulletin van de Botanische Tuinen Wageningen 53 (2008)3. - ISSN 0166-7092 - p. 4 - 9.
    landschap - rivieren - geologie - geschiedenis - historische geografie - betuwe - gelderland - landscape - rivers - geology - history - historical geography - betuwe - gelderland
    Dit beeldverhaal gaat in op achtergronden van ontstaan en tevens deel verdwijnen van de stuwwal tussen Wageningen en de Nijmegen. Met daarbij de veranderende rivierloop van de Rijn, oeverwallen, oude riviergeulen en nederzettingen in de Betuwe
    Databank van de lithografische opbouw en morfologische ontwikkeling van de uiterwaarden van de Midden-Waal
    Hebinck, K.A. - \ 2008
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1678) - 37 p.
    geomorfologie - databanken - geografische informatiesystemen - bodemtypen (lithologisch) - nederland - geologie - bodem - kaarten - uiterwaarden - waal - geomorphology - databases - geographical information systems - soil types (lithological) - netherlands - geology - soil - maps - river forelands - river waal
    In de uiterwaarden zijn de komende decennia veel ingrepen gepland. Een goede kennis van de sedimentatiedynamiek en morfologische ontwikkeling van de uiterwaarden is daarbij een vereiste. Daartoe is een digitale databank (op CD bij dit rapport) opgesteld van de opbouw en geomorfologische ontwikkeling van het sediment van de uitwerwaarden van de Waal. De opgenomen boringen zijn een samenvoeging van de beschikbare boringen uit de archieven van Universiteit Utrecht, TNO en Alterra. Aan de hand van de boringen zijn er kaarten van kleiafzettingen in de uiterwaarden gemaakt.
    Bodemkundig onderzoek van het terrein HAVO Notre Dame des Anges te Beek-Ubbergen i.v.m. nieuwbouw
    Mulder, J.R. - \ 2008
    Wageningen : Alterra - 43
    geologie - bodemkarteringen - kaarten - rijk van nijmegen - geology - soil surveys - maps - rijk van nijmegen
    Bodemkundig-hydrologisch onderzoek met als doel het maken van een bodemkaart, schaal 1 : 25 00, die als basis voor de planvorming (nieuwbouw en inrichting) moet dienen. Daarbij is ook de fluctuatie van het grondwater meegenomen
    NCL Symposium Optical dating applications, Wageningen, The Netherlands, April 24, 2008
    Buis, E. ; Temme, A.J.A.M. ; Wallinga, J. - \ 2008
    Delft : NCL Netherlands Centre for Luminescence dating (NCL symposium series vol. 5) - 19
    geologie - leeftijdsbepaling - optische eigenschappen - luminescentie - datering - optica - geology - age determination - optical properties - luminescence - dating - optics
    New groundwater-level rise data from the Rhine-Meuse delta - implications for the reconstruction of Holocene relative mean sea-level rise and differential land-level movements
    Berendsen, H.J.A. ; Makaske, B. ; Plassche, O. van de; Ree, M.H.M. ; Das, S. ; Dongen, M. van; Ploumen, S. ; Schoenmakers, W. - \ 2007
    Netherlands journal of geosciences 86 (2007)4. - ISSN 0016-7746 - p. 333 - 354.
    geologie - grondwaterstand - bodemdaling - zeespiegelschommelingen - alblasserwaard - zuidhollandse eilanden - zuid-holland - geology - groundwater level - subsidence - sea level fluctuations - alblasserwaard - zuidhollandse eilanden - zuid-holland - western netherlands - flevo lagoon - evolution - bc - avulsion - deposits - coast - area
    We present new local groundwater-level rise data from two Late Glacial aeolian dunes, located near Barendrecht and Oud-Alblas in the western Rhine-Meuse delta. These data are based on AMS radiocarbon dating of terrestrial macrofossils, collected from the base of peat formed on the slopes of these dunes. This method avoids contamination of bulk peat samples by old soil carbon or younger rootlets and rhizomes, as well as the hardwater effect. The new data are used to assess the reliability of previously published groundwater-level index data based on conventional radiocarbon dating of bulk basal peat samples from the slopes of the Late Glacial aeolian dunes at Barendrecht, Hillegersberg, Bolnes and Wijngaarden, all located in the western Rhine-Meuse delta. Comparison of the new and published groundwater-level data shows no significant systematic difference between conventionally dated bulk peat samples and AMS-dated samples of terrestrial macrofossils. The new data from the dune at Barendrecht confirm the reliability of the younger than 6600 cal yr BP age-depth data from the dunes at Hillegersberg and near Bolnes. This result supports the validity of this part of the mean sea-level (MSL) curve for the western Netherlands. Consequently, the position of the groundwater-level curve for Flevoland (central Netherlands) below this MSL curve can most likely be attributed to differential land-level movement. The available data show that the groundwater-gradient effect in the western Rhine-Meuse delta became less than 5 cm/km after 6600 calyr BP. Finally, temporal correlation between temporary increases in local groundwater-level rise with known shifts of river courses in the delta plain suggests, that avulsions can explain sudden local deviations from the trend in groundwater-level rise. A general conclusion of this study is that a complex relationship exists between sea level and local delta-plain water levels.
    Evolution of the human-environment relationship
    Costanza, R. ; Steffen, W. ; Hibbard, K. ; Crumley, C. ; Leemans, R. ; Graumlich, L. ; Dearing, J. ; Redman, C. ; Schimel, D. - \ 2007
    In: Encyclopedia of Earth / Cleveland, C.J.,
    samenleving - milieu - mens - geologie - ecologie - aarde - society - environment - man - geology - ecology - earth
    The scope of the Encyclopedia of Earth is the environment of the Earth broadly defined, with particular emphasis on the interaction between society and the natural spheres of the Earth.
    Bridging scaling gaps for the assessment of biodiversity from space
    Schaepman, M.E. ; Malenovsky, Z. ; Mücher, C.A. ; Kooistra, L. ; Thullier, W. - \ 2007
    In: The full picture Geneva (Switzerland) : Tudor Rose / GEO - ISBN 9789299004708 - p. 258 - 261.
    geologie - aarde - aardwetenschappen - observatie - geology - earth - earth sciences - observation
    Soils of volcanic regions in Europe
    Arnalds, O. ; Bartoli, F. ; Buurman, P. ; Oskarsson, H. ; Stoops, G. ; García-Rodeja, E. - \ 2007
    Berlin Heidelberg : Springer Verlag - ISBN 9783540487104 - 649
    geologie - bodemschatten - mineralogie - fysische geografie - geologische sedimentatie - bodemkunde - bodembescherming - aardwetenschappen - geology - mineral resources - mineralogy - physical geography - geological sedimentation - soil science - soil conservation - earth sciences
    Soils of volcanic areas often exhibit unique properties differentiating them from other soils on Earth. This book gives comprehensive coverage of soils in volcanic regions within Europe, dealing with most aspects of modern day soil science. It covers a range of issues such as mineralogy, chemistry, physics, soil genesis, classification, and more.
    Een lange geschiedenis; reliëf, bodem, vegetatie en eerste bewoners
    Vervloet, J.A.J. - \ 2006
    In: Dit is Bennekom. Verleden, heden en toekomst van een bijzonder dorp / Lever, B., Hoekstra, T., Vlaskamp, G., Bennekom : Historische Vereniging Oud-Bennekom - ISBN 9789078592013 - p. 10 - 34.
    geologie - vegetatie - geschiedenis - historische geografie - gelderse vallei - veluwe - geology - vegetation - history - historical geography - gelderse vallei - veluwe
    In dit hoofdstuk aandacht voor de vraag hoe hoogteverschillen in dit gebied met bossen en heiden als onderdeel van het Veluwse heuvelgebied aan de oostkant van het dorp tot de lage weilanden aan de westkant, als onderdeel van de Gelderse Vallei
    Sampling scheme optimization from hyperspectral data
    Debba, P. - \ 2006
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): A. Stein; F.D. van der Meer, co-promotor(en): E.J.M. Carranza. - [S.l. ] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085044628 - 164
    optimalisatie - bemonsteren - remote sensing - simulatie - gegevensanalyse - geografische informatiesystemen - geologie - geostatistiek - geology - optimization - sampling - remote sensing - simulation - data analysis - geographical information systems - geostatistics

    This thesis presents statistical sampling scheme optimization for geo-environ-menta] purposes on the basis of hyperspectral data. It integrates derived products of the hyperspectral remote sensing data into individual sampling schemes. Five different issues are being dealt with.

    First, the optimized sampling scheme is presented to select samples that represent different ontological categories. The iterated conditional modes algorithm (ICM) is used as an unsupervised segmentation technique. Within each cate-gory, simulated annealing is applied for minimizing the mean shortest distance (MMSD) between sampling points. The number of sampling points in each category is proportional to the size and variability' of the category. The combination of the ICM algorithm for image segmentation with simulated annealing for optimized sampling, results in an elegant and powerful tool in designing optimal sampling schemes using remote sensing images. A validation study conducted shows that the optimized sampling scheme gives best estimates for commonly used vegetation indices compared to simple random sampling and rectangular grid sampling.

    Next, optimal sampling schemes, which focus on ground verification of minerals derived from hyperspectral data, are presented. Spectral angle mapper {SAM) and spectral feature fitting (SFF) classification techniques are applied to obtain rule mineral images. The rule images provide weights that are utilized in objective functions of the sampling schemes which are optimized by means of simulated annealing. Three weight, functions intensively sample areas where a high probability and abundance of al unite occurs. Weight function I uses binary weights derived from the SAM classification image, leading to an even distribution of sampling points over the region of interest. Weight function II uses scaled weights derived from the SAM rule image. Sample points are arranged more intensely in areas where there is an abundance of al unite. Weight function III combines information from several different rule image classifications. Sampling points are distributed more intensely in regions of high probable alu-nite as classified by both SAM and SFF, thus representing the purest of pixels. This method leads to an efficient distribution of sample points, on the basis of a user-defined objective.

    This is followed by a quantitative method for optimally locating exploration targets based on a probabilistic mineral prospectivity map. which was created by means of weights-of-evidence (WofE) modeling. Locations of discovered mineral occurrences were used as a training set and a map of distances to faults/fractures and three channel ratio images of HyMap hyperspectral data were used as evidences. The WofE posterior probability map was applied to an objective function that optimized location of exploration targets. Optimized exploration target zones spatially coincide with undiscovered mineral occurrences, namely, those not used to train the WofE model input, and show other zones without mineral occurrences within delineated prospective ground. The results indicate usefulness of the described optimization method to allocate exploration targets for undiscovered mineral occurrence, based on probabilistic mineral prospectiv-ity maps.

    A method for estimating the partial abundance of spectrally similar minerals in complex mixtures follows. Linear mixtures are generated with varying proportions of individual spectrum, from a spectral library, of a set of iron-bearing oxide/hydroxide/sulfate minerals. The first and second derivatives of each of the different sets of mixed spectra and the individual spectrum are evaluated. This method for spectral unmixing requires formulating a linear function of individual spectra of the minerals. The error between these derivative functions and the respective derivative function of the mixed spectrum is minimized by means of simulated annealing. Experiments are made on several different mixtures of selected end-members, which could plausibly occur in real situations. The variance of the differences between the second derivatives of the observed spectrum and the second derivatives of the end-member spectra give most precise estimates for the abundance of each end-member.

    Lastly, a method by which an optimal ground sampling scheme can be obtained for a variable of interest is described. The variable of interest is the spatial distribution of a suite of heavy metals in mine tailings. Derivation of an optimal sampling scheme makes use of covariates of the spatial variable of interest, which are readily but less accurately obtainable by using airborne hyperspectral data. The covariates are abundances of secondary iron-bearing minerals estimated through spectral unmixing. Via simulated annealing, an optimal retrospective sampling scheme for a previously sampled area is derived having fewer samples but having almost equal mean kriging prediction error as the original ground samples. Via simulated annealing, an optimal prospective sampling scheme for a new unvisited area is derived based on the variogram model of a previously sampled area. The results of this study demonstrate potential application of hy-perspectral remote sensing and simulated annealing to surface characterization of large mine tailings having similar climatic and terrain characteristics to the mine tailings in the case study area.

    Woodlands of the past : The excavation of wetland woods at Zwolle-Stadshagen (the Netherlands): Reconstruction of the wetland wood in its environmental context
    Kooistra, M.J. ; Kooistra, L.I. ; Rijn, P. van; Sass, U.G.W. - \ 2006
    Netherlands journal of geosciences 85 (2006)1. - ISSN 0016-7746 - p. 37 - 60.
    landschap - bodem - geologie - archeologie - palynologie - geschiedenis - hout - overijssel - landscape - soil - geology - history - archaeology - palynology - wood - overijssel - pollen - bog - teleconnections - sections - pipette - climate - remains - holland - rise - bc
    Information on the vegetation and landscape history of a region is often limited, and available data are hard to interprete. A concept is presented here on how a more comprehensive picture of the structure and development of landscapes and vegetations of the past can be gained by integrating the information of several disciplines. Archaeological field methods have been combined with methods used in landscape studies (geology, soil science, micromorphology) and vegetation studies (ecology, palynology and dendrochronology). This concept has been applied and tested during an integrated study of a buried woodland at Zwolle-Stadshagen (Province of Overijssel, the Netherlands). Many large wood remnants were found in a peat layer preserved below a thick clay deposit. The wood remnants were dated by using dendrochronology to the period between ca. 150 BC and AD 580 (ca. 2200 - 1400 cal. BP). Two phases could be distinguished in the development of the peat. The woodland consisted of a closed stand with ash, alder and oak as main species, in the first phase mostly resembling an alder carr, and in the second one the near-extinct Filipendulo-Alnetum Passage et Hofmann 1968. No evidence of exploitation of the woodland by man nor of animal foraging was found. The followed integrated procedure has led to a more substantiated reconstruction of the palaeo-environment with its wetland wood, but also of the influence of human activities on the palaeo-landscape and its woodlands, that could not have been obtained otherwise.
    Sedimentary architecture and optical dating of Middle and Late Pleistocene Rhine-Meuse deposits - Fluvial response to climate change, sea-level fluctuation and glaciation
    Busschers, Freek S. ; Weerts, H.J.T. ; Wallinga, J. ; Cleveringa, P. ; Kasse, C. ; Wolf, H. de; Cohen, K.M. - \ 2005
    Netherlands journal of geosciences 84 (2005)1. - ISSN 0016-7746 - p. 25 - 41.
    Climate - Estuarine - Fluvial - Glaciation - Isostacy - Late Pleistocene - Middle Pleistocene - Netherlands - North Sea Basin - Optical dating - Rhine-Meuse - Sea-level - Subsidence

    Eight continuous corings in the west-central Netherlands show a 15 to 25 m thick stacked sequence of sandy to gravelly channel-belt deposits of the Rhine-Meuse system. This succession of fluvial sediments was deposited under net subsiding conditions in the southern part of the North Sea Basin and documents the response of the Rhine-Meuse river system to climate and sea-level change and to the glaciation history. On the basis of grain size characteristics, sedimentological structures, nature and extent of bounding surfaces and palaeo-ecological data, the sequence was subdivided into five fluvial units, an estuarine and an aeolian unit. Optical dating of 34 quartz samples showed that the units have intra Saalian to Weichselian ages (Marine Isotope Stages 8 to 2). Coarse-grained fluvial sediments primarily deposited under cold climatic conditions, with low vegetation cover and continuous permafrost. Finer-grained sediments generally deposited during more temperate climatic conditions with continuous vegetation cover and/or periods of sea-level highstand. Most of the sedimentary units are bounded by unconformities that represent erosion during periods of climate instability, sea-level fall and/or glacio-isostatic uplift.

    Lichenrijke stuifzanden in Noord-Limburg : verleden, heden en toekomst
    Ketner-Oostra, H.G.M. ; Douma, B.E. ; Ancker, H. van den; Jungerius, P.D. - \ 2005
    Natuurhistorisch Maandblad 94 (2005)6. - ISSN 0028-1107 - p. 109 - 116.
    geomorfologie - geologie - landschapsecologie - vegetatie - eolisch zand - korstmossen - plantengeografie - noord-limburg - geomorphology - geology - landscape ecology - vegetation - aeolian sands - lichens - phytogeography - noord-limburg
    Tijdens een vooronderzoek over mogelijk herstel van stuifzandvegetatie in de gemeente Bergen zijn vier natuurterreinen onderzocht waarvan de gegevens terug te vinden waren bij eerder onderzoek (Cleef en Kers, 1968). Een vergelijking is gemaakt met recent uitgevoerd onderzoek (Van den Acker, 2002). Het betreft een 90 ha groot verstuivingslandschap binnen Nationaal Park de Maasduinen
    Modelling landslide dynamics in forested landscapes
    Claessens, L.F.G. - \ 2005
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tom Veldkamp, co-promotor(en): Jeroen Schoorl. - Wageningen : s.n. - ISBN 9789085041450 - 143
    aardverschuivingen - landschap - landschapsecologie - modellen - herverdeling - bossen - erosie - geologie - geomorfologie - vegetatie - digitaal terreinmodel - nieuw-zeeland - landslides - landscape - landscape ecology - models - redistribution - forests - erosion - geology - geomorphology - vegetation - digital elevation model - new zealand
    The research resulting in this thesis covers the geological, geomorphological and landscape ecology related themes of the project 'Podzolisation under Kauri (Agathis australis): for better or worse?' supported by theNetherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO). The general objective of this thesis is to investigate landscape, soil and vegetation dynamics in theWaitakereRangesRegionalParkon the North Island of New Zealand, where also all the fieldwork was carried out. The main core of the thesis consists of the development of a dynamic landscape process model to simulate soil redistribution by shallow landsliding. Resulting spatial patterns of erosion and deposition, changes in landslide susceptibility over time and the relation of spatially explicit landscape attributes with vegetation patterns are further explored.

    ·Chapter 1 is a general introduction elaborating on the geology, climate and socio-economic setting of the study area and explains the main objectives and research questions. The contents and overall structure of the thesis are also illustrated. Following this introductory chapter, the thesis is composed of 5 chapters based on scientific papers published in or submitted to peer reviewed journals.

    ·Chapter 2 deals with the general tectonic setting of the study area. Quaternary coastal and fluvial terrace morphology and chronology are explored to reconstruct the tectonic history of the south-west coast of the Northland region inNew Zealand. This chapter is situated on the geological timescale (1.8 Ma BP till present) and places the subsequent chapters dealing with the landscape process model and its applications, acting on a timescale of years to decades, in a broader spatio-temporal perspective. Field surveys and the analysis of aerial photography yield an inventory of 13 fluvial and 12 marine terrace levels. Due to poor exposure of clear field evidence in the form of e.g. wave-cut platforms or distinct river sediments, planar landscape morphology forms the main criterion for terrace remnant identification. Based on the record of terrace height spacings, sparse tephra age control and correlation with global paleoclimatic records, an attempt is made to reconstruct the regional Quaternary uplift rates. Because no hard chronostratigraphic marker is present within the fluvial terrace sequence, fluvial terrace levels are linked to the marine sequence by using the mean uplift rates calculated from the marine terraces (0.35 mm yr -1 from 0- 0.1 Ma and 0.26 mm yr -1 from 0.1-0.3 Ma). Both sets of terraces are then correlated with oxygen isotope fluctuations and the astronomically tuned timescale from ODP Site 677 and the Vostok ice core paleoclimatic records. Oldest marine and fluvial terrace levels are estimated 1.21 Ma and 0.242 Ma respectively. Although there seems to be some form of controversy about the uplift history and especially the preservation of terraces in the study area, a general regional uplift, superimposed on glacio-eustatic sea-level changes, is substantiated as the only possible mechanism leading to the maintenance of a considerable relief and active denudation processes inland.

    ·Chapter 3 deals with the development and application of the LAPSUS-LS landscape process model. The model is constructed as a component of the LAPSUS modelling framework ( L andsc A pe P roces S modelling at m U lti dimensions and scale S ; -LS:L and S lide,refers to the process specific model component). LAPSUS-LS delineates the location of shallow landslide initiation sites and simulates the effects on spatial patterns of soil redistribution and resulting landslide hazard for a large watershed within the study area. Processes that need to be incorporated in the model are reviewed followed by the proposed modelling framework. The model predicts the spatial pattern of landslide susceptibility within the simulated catchment and subsequently applies a spatial algorithm for the redistribution of failed material on the basis of a scenario of triggering rainfall events, relative landslide hazard and trajectories with runout criteria for failed slope material. The model forms a spatially explicit method to address the effects of shallow landslide erosion and sedimentation because digital elevation data are adapted between timesteps and on- and off-site effects over the years can be simulated in this way. By visualisation of the modelling results in a GIS environment, the shifting pattern of upslope and downslope (in)stability, triggering of new landslides and the resulting slope retreat by soil material redistribution due to former mass movements is simulated and assessed.

    ·Chapter 4 zooms in on a more theoretical aspect of the LAPSUS-LS model and evaluates digital elevation model (DEM) resolution effects on model results. The focus is on influences of grid size on landslide soil redistribution quantities and resulting spatial patterns and feedback mechanisms. Distributions of slope, specific catchment area and relative hazard for shallow landsliding are analysed for four different DEM resolutions (grid sizes of 10, 25, 50 and 100 m) for a 12 km 2 study catchment in theWaitakereRanges. The effect of DEM resolution proves to be especially pronounced for the boundary conditions determining a valid landslide hazard calculation. For coarse resolutions, the smoothing effect results in a larger area becoming classified as unconditionally stable or unstable. Simple empirical soil redistribution algorithms are applied for scenarios in which all sites with a certain landslide hazard fail and generate debris flow. The lower initial number of failing cells but also the inclusion of slope (limit) in those algorithms becomes apparent with coarser resolutions. For finer resolutions, much larger amounts of soil redistribution are found, which is attributed to the more detailed landscape representation. Looking at spatial patterns of landslide erosion and sedimentation, the size of the area affected by these processes also increases with finer resolutions. In general, landslide erosion occupies larger parts of the area than deposition, although the total amounts of soil material eroded and deposited are the same. Analysis of feedback mechanisms between soil failures over time shows that finer resolutions show higher percentages of the area with an increased or decreased landslide hazard. When the extent of sites with lower and higher hazards are compared, finer grid sizes and higher landslide hazard threshold scenarios tend to increase the total extent of areas becoming more stable relative to the less stable ones. It is concluded that extreme care should be taken when quantifying landslide basin sediment yield by applying simple soil redistribution formulas to DEMs with different resolutions. Rather, quantities should be interpreted as relative amounts. For studying shallow landsliding over a longer timeframe, the 'perfect' DEM resolution may not exist, because no resolution can possibly represent the dimensions of all different slope failures scattered in space and time. It is emphasised that the choice of DEM resolution, possibly restricted by data availability in the first place, should always be adapted to the context of a particular type of analysis.

    ·Chapter 5 and 6 describe two distinct applications of the LAPSUS-LS model: in Chapter 5 , a sediment record is used, in combination with the LAPSUS-LS model, to reconstruct the incidence of high-magnitude/low-frequency landslide events in the upper part of theWaitakereRivercatchment and the history of the Te Henga wetland at the outlet. Sediment stratigraphy and chronology are interpreted by radiocarbon dating, foraminiferal analysis, andprovisionaltephrochronology. Gradual impoundment of the wetland began c. 6000 cal yr BP, coinciding with the start of a gentle sea-level fall, but complete damming and initial sedimentation did not begin until c. 1000 cal yr BP. After damming, four well-defined sediment pulses occurred and these are preserved in the form of distinct clay layers in most of the sediment cores. For interpreting the sediment pulses, the LAPSUS-LS modelisapplied to determine spatially distributed relative landslide hazard, applicable at the catchment scale. An empirical landslide soil redistribution componentisadded to determine sediment delivery ratio and the impact on total catchment sediment yield. Sediment volumesarecalculated from the wetland cores and corresponding landslide scenarios are defined through back-analysis of modelled sediment yield output. In general, at least four major high-magnitude landslide events, both natural and intensified by forest clearance activities, occurred in the catchment upstream of Te Henga wetland during the last c. 1000 years. Their magnitude can be expressed by a range of critical rainfall thresholds representing a LAPSUS-LS scenario.

    ·Chapter 6 is a more ecologically focused application of the model and links digital terrain analysis and landslide modelling with the spatial distribution of mature kauri trees. The use of topographical attributes for the analysis of the spatial distribution and ecological cycle of kauri ( Agathis australis ), a canopy emergent conifer tree from northernNew Zealand, is studied. Several primary and secondary topographic attributes are derived from a DEM for theWaitakereRivercatchment and the contribution of these variables in explaining presence or absence of mature kauri is assessed with logistic regression and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) plots. The topographically based landslide hazard index calculated with the LAPSUS-LS model appears to be very useful in explaining the occurrence and ecological dynamics of kauri. It is shown that the combination of topographic -, soil physical - and hydrological parameters in the calculation of this single landslide hazard index, performs better in explaining presence of mature kauri than using topographic attributes calculated from the DEM properties alone. Moreover, this example demonstrates the possibilities of using terrain attributes for representing geomorphological processes and disturbance mechanisms, often indispensable in explaining a species' ecological cycle and forest stand dynamics. The results of this analysis support the 'temporal stand replacement model', involving disturbance as a dominant ecological process in forest regeneration, as an interpretation of the community dynamics of kauri. Furthermore, a certain threshold maturity stage, in which trees become able to stabilise landslide prone sites and postpone a possible disturbance by this process, together with great longevity are seen as major factors making kauri a 'landscape engineer'.

    ·Synthesising, Chapter 7 reflects on the most important conclusions from the research resulting in this thesis and discusses the achievement of the main objectives and answers to the research questions postulated in Chapter 1. Three general themes are put forward covering the previous chapters. Finally some ideas for future research are suggested.

    De bodemgesteldheid van bosreservaten in Nederland; deel 9 bosreservaat Leyduin-Vinkenduin (NH), bosreservaat Bunderbos (L), bosreservaat Ossenbos (G), bosreservaat Heloma- en Bleekerspolder(Fr), bosreservaat Achter de Voort (Ov), bosreservaat De Slikken van Flakkee (Z)
    Mekkink, P. - \ 2004
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 60.9) - 88
    beschermde bossen - bossen - bosgronden - bodemkarteringen - geologie - humus - bodemwater - nederland - bodemprofielen - kaarten - reserved forests - forests - forest soils - soil profiles - soil surveys - geology - humus - soil water - maps - netherlands
    In de bosreservaten Leyduin-Vinkenduin, Bunderbos, Ossenbos, Heloma- en Bleekerspolder, Achter de Voort en Slikken van Flakkee komen Tertiaire, Pleistocene en Holocene afzettingen voor. Het zijn veengronden, moerige gronden, zandgronden, rivierkleigronden en lössgronden met daarin vlietveengronden, vlierveengronden, broekeerdgronden, veldpodzolgronden, haarpodzolgronden, vorstvaaggronden, duinvaaggronden, vlakvaaggronden, leekeerdgronden, ooivaaggronden en poldervaaggronden. De gronden komen voor met grondwatertrap Ia, IIa, IIb, IIIa, IIIb, IVu, Vao, Vbd, VIo en VId, VIId en VIIId. De verbreiding van de bodemeenheden en grondwatertrappen is bij de bosreservaten Leyduin-Vinkenduin, Bunderbos, Ossenbos en Achter de Voort weergegeven op een bodem- en grondwatertrappenkaart, schaal 1 : 5000. Mede onder invloed van het gevoerde beheer en het vegetatietype en hebben zich terrestrische en semiterrestrische humusprofielen ontwikkeld met een ectorganisch en een endorganisch deel. De profielopbouw en de opbouw van de strooisellaag zijn beschreven en in een database vastgelegd
    Vegetation, water, humans and the climate; a new perspective on an interactive system
    Kabat, P. ; Claussen, M. ; Dirmeyer, P.A. ; Gash, J.H.C. ; Bravo de Guenni, L. ; Meybeck, M. ; Pielke sr., R.A. ; Vörösmarty, C.J. ; Hutjes, R.W.A. ; Lütkemeier, S. - \ 2004
    Berlin (Germany) [etc.] : Springer (Global change : the IGBP series ) - ISBN 9783540424000 - 566
    geologie - hydrologie - klimaat - bodem - vegetatie - menselijke activiteit - milieutoets - interacties - aardwetenschappen - terrestrische ecosystemen - hydrologische cyclus - biosfeer - geology - hydrology - climate - soil - vegetation - human activity - environmental assessment - interactions - earth sciences - terrestrial ecosystems - hydrological cycle - biosphere
    Woodlands of the past : The excavation of wetland woods at Zwolle-Stadshagen (The Netherlands) II. Development of the palaeo-landscape in its hydrological context
    Kooistra, M.J. - \ 2003
    Wageningen : Alterra - 39
    landschap - bodem - geologie - archeologie - hout - hydrologie - overijssel - landscape - soil - geology - archaeology - wood - hydrology - overijssel
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