Records 1 - 50 / 288
A comparative history of commercial transition in three West African slave trading economies, 1630 to 1860
Dalrymple-Smith, Angus - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): E.H.P. Frankema; E.J.V. van Nederveen Meerkerk, co-promotor(en): M. van Rossum. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436199 - 283
slavery - history - colonialism - trade - commodities - gold - law - social change - economic change - west africa - slavernij - geschiedenis - kolonialisme - handel - basisproducten - goud - recht - sociale verandering - economische verandering - west-afrika
The nineteenth century ‘commercial transition’ from export economies based on slaves to ones dominated by commodities like palm oil has been a central theme in West African history. However, most studies have tended to focus on the impact of the change and assumed that its causes were largely a result of the British decision to abolish their transatlantic slave trade in 1807 and subsequently persuading or forcing other nations to do the same. This thesis makes two principal contributions to this debate. Firstly, it reviews new evidence which shows that the commercial transition in West Africa’s most important slave exporting regions, the Gold Coast, the Bight of Biafra and the Bight of Benin, can be predicted by the patterns of trade established in previous centuries. It then presents a model of analysis which sets out which interrelated factors shaped their export economies and ultimately determined how they responded to the changing political and economic environment of the Atlantic world from the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries. This study offers an important comparative, long term quantitative perspective on the transition from slave exports to so-called ‘legitimate commerce’.
Chapter 1 shows that the speed and timing of the nineteenth century commercial transition differed considerably across the case study regions. Along the Gold Coast there was a sudden, and effectively total end to transatlantic slave trading after 1807. In the Bight of Biafra slave exports gradually declined until largely ceasing in the 1830s. Lastly in the Bight of Benin export slavery continued until the 1850s. The chapter argues that earlier studies have tended to ignore long term trends and also lack a comparative approach, as many are focused on individual regions. It then suggests a new model of analysis and dismisses two factors as irrelevant; the British slave trade patrol and changing demands for, or changing supply of, African slaves. The chapter argues that regional variations can be explained by five key factors: 1) the nature and duration of long-term trade relations; 2) the identity of the principal European trade partner; 3) certain aspects of the ecology of the different regions; 4) the regional political contexts; and 5) the development of institutions that either encouraged or discouraged elite participation in non-slave exports.
Chapter 2 provides a broad overview of each case study region’s patterns of trade from the fifteenth to the eighteenth Centuries based on secondary and primary qualitative sources. It then reviews quantitative evidence of commodity trading patterns from the earlier eighteenth century from British and Dutch commodity traders and slaving vessels that bought commodities. It argues that the expansion of slavery in the Bight of Biafra did not crowd out other forms of commerce. On the Gold Coast the early eighteenth century saw continued engagement in commodity exports while the slave trade expanded. However, by the 1780s, both slave and commodity exports seem to have begun to decline. In the Dahomean-controlled area of the Bight of Benin, there is no evidence of slavery crowding out other forms of commerce, as captives were always the only item of trade with the Atlantic world.
Chapter 3 investigates the extent to which the 18th century intensification of the trans-Atlantic slave trade boosted commercial agriculture in the coastal areas of West Africa and in particular in the case study regions. It explores the provisioning strategies of 187 British, French, Dutch and Danish slave voyages conducted between 1681 and 1807, and calls for a major downward adjustment of available estimates of the slave trade induced demand impulse. It shows that during the 18th century, an increasing share of the foodstuffs required to feed African slaves were taken on board in Europe instead of West Africa. However, there was considerable variation in provisioning strategies among slave trading nations and across main regions of slave embarkation. The Bight of Benin never significantly engaged in provisioning trade. Traders along the Gold Coast provided relatively large quantities of food to slaving vessels, but in the Bight of Biafra, British demand stimulated a considerable trade in foodstuffs. The chapter explains these trends and variation in terms of the relative (seasonal) security of European versus African food supplies, the falling relative costs of European provisions and the increasing risks in the late 18th century trade, putting a premium on faster embarkation times.
Chapter 4 uses a newly constructed dataset on the quantities and prices of African commodities on the coast and in British markets over the long eighteenth century and provides new insights into the changing nature of Britain’s non-slave trade. It improves on previous work by Johnson et al. (1990) and finds that earlier estimates of the volume and value of commodity trade have been underestimates and fail to account for regional changes in output. The data suggests that from the 1770s the focus of Britain’s commodity trade shifted from Senegambia to the Bight of Biafra and that in the later eighteenth century non-slave goods were primarily purchased by slave ships, not specialist bi-lateral traders. The chapter argues that these changes were motivated by a number of factors; conflicts between Atlantic powers, the prices of British trade goods and African imports, increasing levels of risk faced by British slave merchants and the fact that traders in the Bight of Biafra were both willing and able to supply desirable commodities.
Part 1 establishes that the Gold Coast had a far long history of commodity trading and seemed to have been moving away from the slave trade at the end of the eighteenth century. The region of the Bight of Benin controlled by Dahomey always focused exclusively on slaves. The Bight of Biafra had a considerable non-slave export economy that was growing at the end of the eighteenth century. Part 2 of the thesis applies the model of analysis to the case study regions.
Chapter 5 argues that that for the Gold Coast and more particularly the Asante empire British abolition policies and the slave forts can explain the timing of the end of transatlantic slavery but not why it ended. Following the model of analysis, the chapter shows that the presence of gold determined both long term political development and the nature of the region’s trade relationship with the Atlantic. In addition, gold became essential as a means of marking status and wealth at all levels of society and for domestic exchange. This meant that slaves were always essential for the production of gold, meaning that there was an important competing domestic market for coerced labour. Over the eighteenth-century gold became scarcer leading to slaves being pulled out of the Atlantic market to focus on production. In addition, well-developed trade relations with the interior and a rise in demand from the Islamic states in the Sokoto caliphate led to an expansion of kola exports which demanded yet more labour. Most importantly, the chapter argues that both households and elite groups could profit more from commodity than slave exports which explains the rapid move away from the transatlantic slavery and towards the production of commodities.
In Chapter 6 it is argued that in the Bight of Biafra, the slave and commodity trades were not only compatible but complementary. The region’s riverine transport networks, long established coastal-interior trade relations and suitability for the growing of yams, palm oil and tropical hardwoods meant that the provisioning and commodity trades could function alongside slave exports. The relatively late opening of central Igboland to the Atlantic slave markets meant that the region did not see the influx of wealth in the seventeenth century that spurred the development of states in the other case study areas. Instead the region followed a different institutional path which saw the development small political entities linked together through the Aro trade network. Elites in the interior and at the coast were reliant on trade for both power and status, but not specifically the slave trade. As a result, abolition was not a serious economic shock as commodities and slaves had always been traded side by side. As in Gold Coast both commoners and elites benefited from commodity trading. Atlantic goods allowed many more people to purchase goods to improve their standards of living, while elites benefitted from the less volatile commodity trade. Furthermore, the British state also perhaps unintentionally supported the development of the palm oil trade through its customs policies. Eventually, this led to palm oil crowding out slave exports through greater demands for domestic labour.
Chapter 7 investigates why the region of the Bight of Benin controlled by Dahomey only ever exported slaves. It shows that this region possessed no gold and had less favourable geography for commodity exports than the Bight of Biafra. The early expansion of export slavery in the seventeenth century spurred the development of states and elites who were entirely dependent on slave exports to maintain their wealth and power. It led to the development of a militaristic culture and institutions based on large scale slave raiding that were highly effective as a means of controlling and harnessing elite violence, generating wealth and defending the state from powerful external threats and economic competition. The demands of the army and elites took much of the kingdom’s potential labour away from households. In addition, constant warfare led to a serious demographic decline across the region further reducing the amount of available labour. The chapter argues that it was never in the interests of elites to switch to an alternative economic system and there was, until the 1850s, always sufficient external demand. In the end abolition efforts were a necessary condition to ending the slave trade.
Chapter 8 concludes with a summary of the main contributions of thesis; the importance of long term patterns of trade in determining nineteenth century commercial transition and a modified model of analysis to explain the diverging trajectories of the different case study regions. It also argues that the impact of Britain’s abolition campaign should be reassessed. In the Gold Coast and the Bight of Biafra it was not an important factor in ending transatlantic slavery, while in the Bight of Benin it was. The chapter ends with suggestions for future research.
Mission report Kenya : scoping Mission Marine Fisheries Kenya
Hoof, Luc van; Steins, Nathalie A. - \ 2017
IJmuiden : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research report C038/17) - 136
marine fisheries - food security - aquaculture - seaweeds - trade - kenya - zeevisserij - voedselzekerheid - aquacultuur - zeewieren - handel - kenya
Mission report Tanzania : scoping mission marine fisheries Tanzania
Hoof, Luc van; Kraan, Marloes - \ 2017
IJmuiden : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C004/17) - 66
zeevisserij - visserij - voedselzekerheid - zeewieren - samenwerking - handel - tanzania - marine fisheries - fisheries - food security - seaweeds - cooperation - trade - tanzania
Upscaling sustainability initiatives in international commodity chains : Examples from cocoa, coffee and soy value chains in the Netherlands.
Ingram, V.J. ; Judge, L.O. ; Luskova, Martina ; Berkum, S. van; Berg, J. van den - \ 2016
Wageningen : Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOt-technical report 67) - 125
value chains, soy, cocoa, coffee, policy, trade, development policy, sustainability, upscaling - waardeketenanalyse - basisproducten - cacao - koffie - glycine soja - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - handel - nederland - value chain analysis - commodities - cocoa - coffee - glycine soja - sustainability - trade - netherlands
This study reports on the extent to which sustainability initiatives in the cocoa, coffee and soy value chains
have been scaled up by companies. We have investigated how the private sector can be further stimulated to engage in, sustain and increase their involvement in actions to increase the sustainability of commodity chains with links to the Netherlands. The report analyses the motives for companies to join sustainability initiatives and their reasons for not engaging. It concludes with several recommendations on how government and value-chain stakeholders could further stimulate the scaling up of sustainability initiatives
Investment opportunities in the Ethiopian Vegetables & Potatoes Seed sub-sector
Broek, J.A. van den; Ayana, Amsalu ; Desalegn, Lemma ; Hassena, Mohammed ; Blomne Sopov, M. ; Becx, G.A. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation
agricultural economics - agricultural sector - business economics - vegetables - potatoes - seeds - trade - investment - agricultural development - ethiopia - east africa - agrarische economie - landbouwsector - bedrijfseconomie - groenten - aardappelen - zaden - handel - investering - landbouwontwikkeling - ethiopië - oost-afrika
The opportunities for vegetable seed sales in Ethiopia are derived from the size and type of the product market. The product market for vegetables in Ethiopia has been growing rapidly, both in terms of crop portfolio, as well as size.
Opportunities for development of the Moringa sector in Bangladesh : Desk-based review of the Moringa value chains in developing countries and end-markets in Europe
Saavedra Gonzalez, Y.R. ; Maden, E.C.L.J. van der - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report CDI 15-102) - 50
markets - trade - international trade - moringa - exports - european union - bangladesh - south asia - asia - markten - handel - internationale handel - moringa - export - europese unie - bangladesh - zuid-azië - azië
Moringa trees in Bangladesh and in other developing countries have great potential in terms of nutrition security and income generation, but often seem to be underutilized. The European market does offer opportunities for those suppliers that are willing to, and capable of, meeting EU regulations. However, entering the EU market for some developing countries like Bangladesh seems to be farfetched at the time of writing. Firstly, awareness around the nutritional value and market potential of Moringa products needs to be raised so farmers and households begin to maximise the returns of Moringa trees. Secondly, a detailed cost and benefit analysis around a Moringa production company should be conducted. Thirdly, upcoming suppliers need to get acquainted with the regulations and standards required when targeting the export market. This also means that suppliers should establish, and nurture, trading relationships with EU importers or even intermediaries since the volume supplied is likely to be limited according to European terms.
Organising trade : a practice-oriented analysis of cooperatives and networks trading cereals in South Mali
Mangnus, E.P.M. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Leeuwis, co-promotor(en): Sietze Vellema. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574311 - 178
coöperaties - voedselcoöperaties - graansoorten - handel - katoen - geschiedenis - platteland - landbouw - agrarische handel - mali - west-afrika - cooperatives - food cooperatives - cereals - trade - cotton - history - rural areas - agriculture - agricultural trade - mali - west africa
Farmer organisations have become the centrepiece of pro-poor market development strategies in Africa. Assumed to facilitate scale, quality of produce and professionalism they are regarded as a solution for farmers that are hampered from economic opportunities. In Mali public as well as private actors encourage farmers to trade through one specific organisational form, namely cooperatives. Nevertheless, in reality the landscape is much more diverse. A wide array of organisations can be observed and the models stimulated by external actors do not always succeed in improving the position of farmers. Considering the gap in knowledge, this dissertation poses the following question:
How and in what ways do people organise trading of cereals in South Mali?
The central aim of this thesis is to contribute to a better understanding of organisation of food trade in rural markets, by examining how and in what ways people in South Mali organise trade in cereals and sesame. Trading includes the procurement of cereals or sesame, organisation of finance, information gathering, bargaining, the organisation of transport and selling.
Organisation of trade has been studied from different angles. Studies taking a structural approach explain organisation as emerging from context. Studies that approach organisations from an instrumental perspective regard organisation as a means for efficiently solving a shared problem. Both strands provide insights for understanding organisational functioning and performance but leave open questions regarding how people organise to realise trading and why this results in organisational diversity. This thesis examines organising trade by adopting a practice-oriented approach, which has as entry point that organisation takes shape in the realization of everyday practice. Focus is on what people actually do to realise trading.
Two case study organisations are central to the study. Both are typical for how trade in rural Mali is organised. The first is a cooperative engaged in the trading of sesame in Miena, South-East Mali. The second is a cereal trading network in N’golobougou, in the centre of South Mali. Both provide an example of people collaborating and coordinating to perform trading and as such are excellent cases for tracing the formation of organisational traits that explain performance and diversity in trading cereals in South Mali.
Chapter 2 presents a historical overview of how the organisation of trade of cereals and cotton at farmer level developed in Mali on extensive literature research. It focuses on the efforts of the Malian state to organise rural society, how producers responded, and how the interaction between the two shaped organisation. The analysis starts in the 18th century, in which cotton and cereal trade was intertwined and likewise organised. From the colonial period onwards, organisation dynamics in food and export crops evolved distinctly. For both sectors the most important events and changes are detailed. The chapter found that the political economy at stake influences the set of organisational options people can choose from and that imposed models rarely get adopted in practice.
Chapter 3 traces the emergence and development of the sesame cooperative in Miena. It builds on two strands of literature that emphasize the specific socio-historical context of an organisation. The first body highlights the resilience of existing relations and institutions by showing how these get reproduced in new organisations. The second body of literature claims that individuals involved in collective action have the capacity to influence which institutions get reproduced and which new ones get adopted, also called ‘blended’. To collect the data 35 in depth interviews with cooperative members, (ex) officials from the cotton company CMDT, local officers and NGO-workers active in the research location were collected over a period of three months. Time was spent at the weekly market, in village meetings and at peoples’ homes. Moreover 20 informal talks with villagers and traders on the market were afterwards noted down. Three distinct processes - the historical organisation of cotton farmers, the interaction between state and society and the local trade practices - are found to underlie the current functioning of the cooperative. This chapter shows how both the reproduction and blending happen purposively; in order to (continue) performance in trading.
Chapter 4 addresses the question: How do traders in Mali perform collectively? Following the methodological orientation, labelled as technography, the chapter zooms in on the use of skills and know-how by a group of people coordinating the collection and trade of cereals. Data were collected through 24 in-depth interviews with traders and 37 semi-structured interviews with pisteurs and interviews with key resource persons. Moreover, trade practices were observed during 10 market days in a row. The analysis shows that the success of the traders’ network can be explained by: (i) the use of skills and know-how for adapting to changing economic, social and environmental contexts; (ii) the network’s ability to select capable people and distribute the many trading tasks; and (iii) the network’s effective governance, based on a strict code of conduct specific to each role. The chapter shows how rules steering the distribution of tasks and collaboration in the traders’ network emerge out of the daily practice of trading.
Chapter 5 uses evidence from a network of cereal traders in the market of N’golobougou to examine how the characteristics of traders, their positions within different networks, and different kinds of relationships between traders influence performance in trading. 26 traders were extensively interviewed on the history, functioning and the size of their business. Semi-structured interviews focused on their relations in trading. A social network analysis (SNA) is applied to describe the positions of individual traders in the networks and the type of relations that link them. Qualitative analysis is used to understand the motivations underlying their position and collaboration. The findings demonstrate that trading is a complex and multifaceted activity. Within the network distinct networks have emerged to organise the collection of cereals, to arrange finance and to acquire information. Pre-existing social relations facilitate trading but do not guarantee individual success. Proven ability and reputation are equally important in cooperation and relate to the way powerful members of the network acquire a central position, which goes stepwise and takes time.
Collaboration is crucial for trading under the circumstances of rural Mali. Both case studies highlight the role of key individuals who spotted opportunities and mobilised others to collaborate. Different trading activities require specific skills, know-how and tools and people tend to specialise. Most skills are acquired in practice; few of them can be taught by instruction. Accordingly to what is present in terms of capacities, people’s availability and know-how, and tools, groups will distribute tasks among their members.
People also need to coordinate how skills, know-how and tools are distributed over time and space. Trading in South Mali requires bridging of long distances, adaptation to seasonality, securing finance and transport, and finding buyers. The temporal dimension of trading is visible in how traders adapt to seasonality and to how it is adjusted to people’s availability in time. Trading is also spatially situated. Poor infrastructure and long travel distances are characteristic of rural South Mali. Both the cooperative as well as the trading network therefore have a layered structure of actors close to the field, actors in the central village or market where the sesame or cereals are collected, and actors in the city to which the sesame or cereals are transported.
People do not organise in a random constellation. The range of options they can choose from are importantly influenced by the institutions active in decision-making at village level, the relationship between state and rural communities, the social networks people operate in, and the historically developed rules and regulations in market transactions. Also, previous ways of organising play a role in today’s way of organising. The empirical analyses demonstrate that organising trade is ‘path dependent’. Nevertheless, people only reproduce those procedures, habits and actions that are deemed necessary to perform. They blend old and new ways of coordination and collaboration to allow the practice of trade to continue.
The findings in this thesis show that collaboration does not rely on social relations only. Cooperating to achieve a practical end, i.e. to trade, is also skill and competence based. Organisational sustainability depends on how grouped or networked actors coordinate actions in response to changing circumstances and opportunities. Hence, organisational diversity can be understood from the fact that organisation emerges from a situated practice.
Organisation in trade emerges gradually and adaptively from what is present in terms of skills, capacities, know-how and experience in trading. As this is situation specific it is essential to recognize the uniqueness of each organisational form and suggests reconsidering the one-size-fit-all approaches often promoted in development interventions. Imposed organisational structures may be enabling to some extent but they leave little room for exploring the range of possible ways to achieve trading. For understanding how people organise trade it is important to understand the way they perform the actual practice in the specific social and material circumstances. The empirical chapters argue in favour of tutor–apprentice relations between experienced actors and new members, leaving decision-making power and rule setting in the hands of the most experienced traders. Current development projects supporting links between farmers and buyers often aim to be ‘inclusive’ and ‘pro-poor’, meaning that they should be accessible to anyone. The field research shows that organisations in trade in Mali are very selective in membership to assure the group achieves its objectives. Governments and other development actors should be aware of the trade-offs between inclusive, democratic organisational models, and effectiveness and performance in trading.
De Nederlandse visverwerkende industrie en visgroothandel : economische analyse van de sector, ontwikkelingen en trends
Beukers, R. - \ 2015
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Report LEI 2014-026) - ISBN 9789086157099 - 87
visverwerkende industrie - handel - vis - economische analyse - tendensen - werkgelegenheid - omzet - import - export - fish industry - trade - fish - economic analysis - trends - employment - turnover - imports - exports
Dit onderzoek geeft inzicht in de economische situatie van de visverwerkende industrie en visgroothandel in Nederland door een analyse van de economische structuur van de sector en de belangrijkste ontwikkelingen. De bedrijven in de visverwerkende industrie en visgroothandel hadden in 2013 een gezamenlijke omzet van 3.6 miljard euro; een groei van 7% ten opzichte van de omzet in 2009. 70% van de totale omzet van Nederlandse visverwerkende bedrijven en visgroothandels werd behaald uit export; 30% werd gerealiseerd op de binnenlandse markt.
Meerwaarde voor vis
Zaalmink, W. ; Verweij, M. - \ 2015
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI publicatie 2015-035 ) - 47
visserij - nederland - belgië - denemarken - circuits - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - agro-industriële ketens - bedrijfsresultaten in de landbouw - coöperaties - elektronische handel - winkels - consumenten - handel - fisheries - netherlands - belgium - denmark - circuits - sustainability - agro-industrial chains - farm results - cooperatives - electronic commerce - shops - consumers - trade
Deze brochure beschrijft inspirerende voorbeelden van enkele niet-alledaagse afzetmogelijkheden van vis, Het doel is visserijondernemers te stimuleren tot het ontwikkelen van economisch en ecologisch rendabele visketens.
Competitiveness of the EU egg industry. International comparison base year 2013
Horne, P.L.M. van - \ 2014
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR LEI 2014-041) - ISBN 9789086156962 - 36
eieren - landbouwprijzen - handel - markten - eierproducten - productiekosten - europese unie - marktconcurrentie - voedselveiligheid - eggs - agricultural prices - trade - markets - egg products - production costs - european union - market competition - food safety
In this report the impact of reducing or removing import tariffs on the competitiveness of the EU egg sector is studied. The results show that the offer price of whole egg powder in 2013 of some third countries is close to the average EU price. Despite the current import tariffs on whole egg powder, the third countries can be competitive on the EU market. In a scenario with a 50% lower import tariff, all third countries have a lower offer price of whole egg powder compared to the EU egg sector. In a scenario with zero import tariffs, all third countries have a considerably lower offer price of whole egg powder compared to the EU egg sector.
Farmers, traders and a commodity exchange: institutional change in Ethiopian sesame markets
Meijerink, G.W. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789064648274 - 237
sesam - marketing - handel - markten - goederenbeurzen - ethiopië - sesame - marketing - trade - markets - commodity exchanges - ethiopia
Farmers, traders and a commodity exchange -
institutional change in Ethiopian sesame markets
Gerdien W. Meijerink
When one thinks of Ethiopia, sesame is not the first that comes to mind. Sesame, however, is Ethiopia’s second most important agricultural export, and an important income source for many small-scale farmers. Ethiopia’s government established the Ethiopian Commodity Exchange (ECX) to improve the marketing of sesame.
This study explores the impact of the ECX on the institutions undepinning sesame markets, by interviewing farmers and traders before and after the ECX became mandatory for sesame trade in 2009. It finds that the ECX improved transparency in sesame markets, and as a result improved farmers’ beliefs about opportunistic behaviour of traders, and farmers’ willingness to establish long-term relational contracting with traders. It finds however, that the ECX deteriorated the social capital relations between traders, resulting in a decrease in trade credit between traders.
Boeren, handelaren en een goederenbeurs -
Institutionele cerandering in Ethiopische sesam markten
Gerdien W. Meijerink
Denkend aan Ethiopië, is sesame niet het eerste dat opkomt. Toch is sesam het twee na belangrijkste export product van Ethiopië en een belangijkre bron van inkomsten voor veel kleinschalige boeren. De overheid van Ethiopië heeft de Ethiopische Goederen Beurs (ECX) opgericht om de marketing van sesame te verbeteren.
Deze study verkent de invloed van de ECX op de instituties die sesam markten ondersteunen, door boeren en handelaren te interviewen voor en na het verplicht worden van de ECX voor sesamenhandel in 2009. Het vindt dat de ECX de transparantie in sesam markten heeft verbeterd, waardoor het beeld dat boeren hebben over opportunistich gedrag door handelaren verbeterde, en waardoor boeren sneller geneigd zijn op langere termijn een contractrelatie met handelaren aan te gaan. Het vindt daarentegen ook dat de ECX sociaal kapitaal relaties tussen handelaren heeft doen verslechteren, waardoor er minder handelskrediet tussen handelaren verstrekt wordt.
On the state of business: trade, entrepreneurship and real economic governance in South Sudan
Twijnstra, R.W. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Thea Hilhorst, co-promotor(en): K. Titeca. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739971 - 196
economische ontwikkeling - ondernemerschap - handel - governance - economie - bedrijven - staatsorganisatie - onafhankelijkheid - politiek - zuid soedan - economic development - entrepreneurship - trade - governance - economics - businesses - state organization - independence - politics - south sudan
This thesis provides an insight into the everyday realities of economic life and regulation in the Republic of South Sudan for the period between 2010 and 2013, encompassing its independence from the Sudan in July 2011 and the period of economic austerity following the January 2012 oil shutdown . By looking at negotiation patterns between individuals and groups of traders, entrepreneurs, tax collectors and procurement officers from the local to the national level, this thesis explores how people within the state and people interacting with the state make sense of, contest and enact the state in this region that now comprises the world’s 193rd ,and therefore the youngest, internationally recognised independent country.
Improving the shallot and hot pepper cultivation system in the coastal plain of Northern Java
Putter, H. de; Witono, A. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen UR (vegIMPACT report 1) - 18
sjalotten - peper - teelt - groenteteelt - indonesië - handel - boerenmarkten - marketing - rentabiliteit - inkomen - jaarrondproductie - aanbod - shallots - pepper - cultivation - vegetable growing - indonesia - trade - farmers' markets - marketing - profitability - income - all-year-round production - supply
This report aims to improve cultivation and to enhance farmers' income in the Brebes region of Northern Java. First, a brief description of vegetable cultivation in the Brebes region is given. Also profits of vegetable cultivation are discussed and bottlenecks in the current cultivation system. In shallot and hot pepper cultivation a main constraint is the alternating change in land use. With rice cultivation the land is levelled and flooded and with vegetable cultivation raised beds are made. As a result problems are present with soil fertility, hence high fertilizer rates are applied and poor crop growth is present. Another constraint is the small field size per farm, where only at a few days a year harvest takes place. As a result individual farmers are not able to supply year round large quantities and therefore are unable to make arrangements with traders. In case farmers can organize themselves as a group they can produce year round a good quantity making it interesting for traders to make arrangements with this farmers’ group. Based on the conclusions it is proposed to start up activities to address the following topics: - Permanent vegetable crop cultivation system. - Year round supply of product and direct linking to a market.
Noordzeevissers verkopen hun vis zelf via internet : VersvandeVisser.nl
Eijk, H. van; Wubben, R. ; Taal, C. - \ 2013
Utrecht : InnovatieNetwerk (Rapport / Innovatienetwerk 13.2.318) - ISBN 9789050595025 - 71
vis - markten - zeevisserij - zeevissen - handel - internet - logistiek - fish - markets - marine fisheries - marine fishes - trade - internet - logistics
Vissers kunnen via internet, met een eigen ‘webmarket’, een aanzienlijk hogere omzet en een hogere marge per kilogram vis realiseren in vergelijking met de bestaande verkoopmethode via de visafslag. Met deze nieuwe afzetmogelijkheid in de keten voeren de vissers zelf de regie. De directe relatie met de klant die zo wordt gecreëerd, stelt de visser in staat om meer klantgericht te gaan opereren. De in dit rapport kort uitgewerkte businesscase, webmarket “VersvandeVisser.nl”, verschaft Nederlandse Noordzeevissers inzicht 2 in de rollen, kosten en opbrengsten per ketenschakel. Hiermee is inzichtelijk gemaakt waar mogelijkheden voor vissers liggen om zelf binnen de keten een grotere rol te spelen in het vermarkten van duurzaam gevangen vis, waardoor betere opbrengsten kunnen worden gerealiseerd. Door aan te sluiten op een al opgezette webmarkettool, ’VersvandeKweker.nl’, zou in samenwerking met de visafslag in Scheveningen (UFA, United Fish Auctions) en andere partijen, een pilot moeten worden gestart om rechtstreeks (via internet) verse vis en garnalen aan consumenten en zakelijke klanten te verkopen.
Innovatieve governance-arrangementen : op zoek naar vernieuwing in het groene domein
Selnes, T. ; Kamphorst, D.A. ; Arts, B.J.M. ; Tatenhove, J.P.M. van - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 340) - 104
natuurbeleid - governance - handel - bedrijven - burgers - biodiversiteit - natuurbescherming - nature conservation policy - governance - trade - businesses - citizens - biodiversity - nature conservation
Bestaande overheidsarrangementen voor natuur en het beschermen van biodiversiteit staan onder druk. Nationaal gezien vermindert de steun voor overheidsbeleid en klinkt de roep om meer vermaatschappelijking. Internationaal gezien speelt bij het verduurzamen van productie- en handelsstromen het bedrijfsleven een belangrijke rol en is er een roep naar meer overheid. In dit onderzoek zoeken we voor het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (PBL) nieuwe governance-arrangementen. Voor het natuurbeleid liggen er kansen om bijvoorbeeld de energie van maatschappelijke krachten als burgers, bedrijven en NGOs beter te kanaliseren. Om handel te verduurzamen, dient onder meer de aandacht te verschuiven van handelsketens naar meer context gerichte samenwerking en versterking van instituties. Hiermee kan het uitvoerend vermogen, het leervermogen en de legitimiteit versterkt worden
Dutch business opportunities in the Russian agrifood sector; Animal protein sector and Moscow Metropolitan fresh food chain
Wijnands, J.H.M. ; Valeeva, N.I. ; Berkum, S. van - \ 2012
The Hague : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (LEI memorandum 13-018) - 87
voedselproductie - verse producten - voedselketens - dierlijke eiwitten - beleid inzake voedsel - handel - consumptie - bedrijven - rusland - nederland - kennis - food production - fresh products - food chains - animal proteins - food policy - trade - consumption - businesses - russia - netherlands - knowledge
This report studies the Russian animal protein sector and the Moscow Metropolitan Food Security. It aims at identifying the opportunities for Dutch business to do businesses through exports or via local investments. Public available government policies, papers and interviews with stakeholders are the information sources for this study. Russia has a population of 140m and a robust GDP growth. Doing business indicators indicate several deficiencies in the economic environment in the country, yet the outlook for agricultural development and food consumption patterns show ample business opportunities.
Competitiveness of the EU egg industry
Horne, P.L.M. van - \ 2012
The Hague : LEI, part of Wageningen UR (LEI-report : Markets & chains ) - ISBN 9789086155989 - 51
eieren - eipoeder - import - heffingen - invoerrechten - landbouwprijzen - prijzen - europese unie - pluimvee - dierlijke productie - hennen - dierenwelzijn - handel - markten - eggs - dried egg - imports - levies - import levies - agricultural prices - prices - european union - poultry - animal production - hens - animal welfare - trade - markets
Egg producers in the EU have to comply with legislation dealing with environmental protection, animal welfare and food safety. From 1 January 2012 keeping hens in conventional cages was prohibited and egg producers had to change to either enriched cages or alternative housing systems. The result of all this legislation is an increase in the cost of producing eggs. At the same time the EU is negotiating with other countries or groups of countries to liberalise trade in agricultural products. These multi- or bilateral negotiations are designed to further liberalise trade by either further reducing import tariffs or removing them altogether. In this report the impact of lowering import tariffs on the competitiveness of the EU egg industry is studied. The results show that the offer price of whole egg powder in 2012 of some third countries is close to the average EU price. Despite the current import tariffs on whole egg powder, the third countries can be competitive on the EU market. In a scenario with a 50% lower import tariff, all third countries have a lower offer price of whole egg powder compared to the EU egg industry.
Economics of the gum arabic value chain in Senegal
Mujawamariya, G. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte, co-promotor(en): Kees Burger; M.F.C. D'Haase. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461733689 - 246
ontwikkelingseconomie - waardeketenanalyse - arabische gom - ontwikkelingslanden - handel - economische analyse - goederenmarkten - senegal - west-afrika - development economics - value chain analysis - gum arabic - developing countries - trade - economic analysis - commodity markets - senegal - west africa
A Gum arabic has an important international market due to its use in various industries. Senegal is a small producing country whose exports are low probably due to problems of developing internal markets resulting from the lack of price incentives. The study’s main aim is to link the market side to the collection side in order to investigate factors influencing the performance of the supply chain of gum arabic. The study is conducted in the Sylvopastoral zone and Eastern Region of Senegal where Acacia senegal trees are found and gum arabic is commercially exploited.
The main findings of the study are that, productivity-enhancing methods have to be adopted; market incentives are fundamental for the continuation of collection; traders in the gum markets are not necessarily exploitative; quality as required by the user may not be directly linked to the visible quality attributes in the field; and that the transition from communal organisation of collection to efficient private collection systems depends mainly on the assessment of economic benefits and costs. However, the importance attached to environmental and social considerations has to be recognised especially in the drylands where gum arabic is collected.
Crowd-sourcing organisational intelligence: capturing the rich experiences of farmers’ organisations
Ton, G. - \ 2012
Farming Matters 28 (2012)2. - ISSN 2210-6499 - p. 20 - 21.
boerenorganisaties - financieren - sponsorschap - handel - coöperaties - ontwikkelingslanden - farmers' associations - financing - sponsorship - trade - cooperatives - developing countries
Although the 2012 UN International Year of Cooperatives is half‑way through, it has already contributed much to showing the importance of farmers’ organisations. Collective action by farmers is very much needed, especially when farms are (or will become) too small to be attractive to trading partners.
|Bestrijden Alternaria vermindert dode bloemknoppen bij peer
Wenneker, M. ; Vink, P. ; Bruggen, A.S. van - \ 2011
De Fruitteelt 96 (2011)32. - ISSN 0016-2302 - p. 16 - 17.
appels - peren - fruitteelt - veilingen - markten - internet - handel - apples - pears - fruit growing - auctions - markets - trade
Binnenkort kunnen fruittelers via de digitale fruitmarktplaats www.service2fruit.com hun appels en peren verkopen en kunnen kopers biedingen uitbrengen op de aangeboden partijen. Een partij in een uithoek van Nederland kan dan opeens in het middelpunt staan en toegankelijk worden voor alle kopers. Op dit moment wordt achter de schermen proefgedraaid met de site die eind augustus wordt gelanceerd.
Food, Globalization and Sustainability
Oosterveer, P.J.M. ; Sonnenfeld, D.A. - \ 2011
London/New York : Earthscan - ISBN 9781849712613 - 282
voedselvoorziening - voedselindustrie - handel - duurzame landbouw - globalisering - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - klimaatverandering - milieubeleid - food supply - food industry - trade - sustainable agriculture - globalization - sustainability - climatic change - environmental policy
Food is increasingly traded internationally, thereby transforming the organisation of food production and consumption globally and influencing most food-related practices. This transition is generating unfamiliar challenges related to sustainability of food provision, the social impacts of international trade and global food governance. Distance in time and space between food producers and consumers is increasing and new concerns are arising. These include the environmental impact of food production and trade, animal welfare, the health and safety of food, and the social and economic impact of international food trade. This book provides an overview of the principal conceptual frameworks that have been developed for understanding these changes. It shows how conventional regulation of food provision through sovereign national governments is becoming elusive, as the distinctions between domestic and international, and between public and private spheres, disappear. At the same time multinational companies and supranational institutions put serious limits to governmental interventions. In this context, other social actors including food retailers and NGOs are shown to take up innovative roles in governing food provision, but their contribution to agro-food sustainability is under continuous scrutiny. The authors apply these themes in several detailed case studies, including organic, fair trade, local food and fish. On the basis of these cases, future developments are explored, with a focus on the respective roles of agricultural producers, retailers and consumers.
Eindverslag regionale versketen 2
Soethoudt, J.M. ; Liesveld, R. ; Amstel, M. van; Duineveld, M. - \ 2011
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research - 76
verse producten - landbouwproducten - handel - handel drijven - agrarische handel - logistiek - marketing - regionale voedselketens - fresh products - agricultural products - trade - trading - agricultural trade - logistics - marketing - regional food chains
Regionale Versketen 2 is een vervolgproject op het gelijkname project fase 1 dat in 2008 is afgerond. Beide trajecten zijn ondersteund door TransForum. Nadat in fase 1 de organisatie MijnBoer is ontstaan, is in fase 2 de ontwikkeling en verdere groei ervan ondersteund. Dit document rapporteert vanuit drie stakeholders in het project: MijnBoer zelf, Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research en Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Athena Instituut. MijnBoer beschrijft de ontwikkeling van de organisatie van ontstaan tot januari 2011. Zij licht met levendige voorbeelden toe welke ontwikkelingen zijn doorlopen, welke keuzes ze hebben gemaakt en waarom. MijnBoer is daarbij ondersteund door het TransForum-project enerzijds door Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research voor bijdragen vanuit logistiek en marketing bij het karakteristieke business model en anderzijds door Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Athena Instituut door continue reflectie tijdens de ontwikkeling. Uit fase 1 bleek dat bij een dynamische omgeving van een nieuwe organisatie het weliswaar goed is om een plan te maken, maar dat het project, door de continue ingrijpende organisatieveranderingen, niet gefocust moest zijn op de uitkomsten zoals in het begin geformuleerd. Er is daarom gekozen voor participatie en reflectie zodat rond de belangrijkste thema’s van het onderhavige project (robuustheid van het business model, interactie producenten en afnemers en ontwikkeling van het logistieke model) de vorderingen konden worden beïnvloed en opgetekend.
Sustainable peat supply chain : report of the ad hoc working group enhancing the sustainability of the peat supply chain for the Dutch horticulture
Bos, M.G. ; Diemont, W.H. ; Verhagen, A. - \ 2011
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 2167) - 126
turf - groeimedia - tuinbouw - handel - biodiversiteit - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - kooldioxide - klimaatverandering - peat - growing media - horticulture - trade - biodiversity - sustainability - carbon dioxide - climatic change
The project deals with the future sustainability of the peat supply chain for Dutch horticulture. This means securing long term availability of high quality peat and/or alternatives for the sector, dealing appropriately with biodiversity issues and taking climate change into account. The project goals are: 1) Gaining insight into the impacts of peat extraction and peat trade on biodiversity in Europe (including CO2/climate related issues), based on information on production, trade, technologies used with the focus on the role of the Dutch private sector in the international context; and 2) Exploring options for improving extraction methods and the use of alternative basis materials for producing growing media for horticulture and possibilities to define indicators, criteria and standards for sustainability.
The quest for sustainable livelihoods : women fish traders in Ibaka, Niger Delta, Nigeria
Udong, E.E. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Anke Niehof, co-promotor(en): Aad van Tilburg. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085859345 - 317
vrouwen - geslacht (gender) - vis - markthandelaars - handel - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzame ontwikkeling - visverwerking - marketing - sociologie - hiv-infecties - acquired immune deficiency syndrome - nigeria - afrika - women - gender - fish - market traders - trade - livelihood strategies - sustainability - sustainable development - fish processing - marketing - sociology - hiv infections - acquired immune deficiency syndrome - nigeria - africa
The contribution of fisheries to food security in Africa cannot be underestimated. It provides
over 30 percent of the protein consumed by the Nigerian population. However, Nigeria
produces only about 45 percent of the fish requirement locally while the shortfall of about 55
percent is imported. Over 80 percent of the local production is from the artisanal, small scale
sector. While several studies have been conducted on the productivity of many water bodies,
endemic fish species, different fisheries, boats mechanization and the role of the fishermen,
socio-economic and gender issues in fisheries have received scant attention. Such research has
therefore become necessary for the development of relevant policies and intervention
programmes. The sustainable livelihood approach was used in facilitating the understanding of
how the women fish traders’ livelihoods are created, sustained and constrained by a set of
complex factors and processes including institutions and culture. The main objectives of this
study were to:
1. Contribute towards the livelihood and gender theory by focusing on the performance of
women fish traders in the economic and domestic domains in a coastal fishing
community, given the institutional and cultural constraints, their vulnerability and
susceptibility to HIV and AIDS;
2. Identify the implications for household food and livelihood security and the critical
factors needed to be considered in the development of relevant policies that would
ensure sustainable livelihoods and lower vulnerability levels for the women fish traders
and their households.
Specifically, the study aimed at highlighting the complexity of sustaining rural
livelihoods by women fish traders in a coastal fishing community in Nigeria and the flexibility
and variation, which give the fish trading system its continuing ability to link other commercial
and non-commercial sectors, characterised by constantly shifting relationships. A gender
perspective was applied throughout the study. The study was carried out in Ibaka, a dynamic
commercial centre and the largest coastal fishing community in Akwa Ibom State in the Niger
Delta of Nigeria, which is largely undeveloped but has over 70 percent of the population
depending on the fisheries for their livelihood. A cross-sectional study design was used, in
combination with qualitative and quantitative research methods. Apart from being descriptive
in nature, an analytical approach was also used by arranging and processing the collected data
in different ways and through testing different hypotheses.
Due to the large variation in the range and scale of enterprises obtained, the fish traders
comprise some of the largest wholesalers on the Nigerian coastline and some of the poorest
strolling hawkers, living from hand-to-mouth. This is a characteristic feature of a major
market, and the study seeks to identify the key social, economic and institutional forces, which
generate, maintain and continue to reshape this diversity. The forces originate from the market,
its links with the household, community, and national level processes, which create conflicting
interests and pressures on the individual fish traders as they struggle for survival and the
accumulation of wealth. These contradictions renew and transform the trading relations,
including their constraints.
The main household resources available and accessible were the labour of the women
fish traders themselves and the female members of their families. Through family ties,
churches, professional associations, social clubs and osusu groups trade networks and social
churches, professional associations, social clubs and osusu groups trade networks and social
capital, on which depended success in the fish trade were developed. The economic resource
was the different species of fish provided by the sea. The physical resources included equipments such as boats, nets, outboard engines, landed properties, houses, and mobile
phones. The women also used their own trading and language skills, and years of experience in
the trade to their advantage. Those with sufficient years of education also deployed their
educational skills to their advantage. The gendered nature of the fish trade and the fact that it
requires professional skills ensures that labour is expensive to hire. Only very few women fish
traders, operating on a large scale and earning higher incomes possessed tangible assets, and
were able to acquire equipments such as outboard engines, fishing and transport boats, and
other assets such as land, houses, generators, deep freezers, market stalls as well as fish trade
Processing and trading in either bonga, big fish or crayfish, and providing labour for
fish processing remain the main livelihood strategies and the main source of livelihood for
most women fish traders in Ibaka. Most of the incomes used for the maintenance of their
children and households are derived from these. Diversification into other economic activities
including fashion designing, subsistence farming, food processing, money lending, food
vending and petty trading is also adopted by most women, while the better-off are involved in
water transportation, equipment leasing, money lending, bukka business. The strategies
adopted are affected by factors such as age, skills acquired, years of experience, working
capital available for the trade, educational status, and number and ages of children. Younger
traders try to acquire other skills and formal education to enable them diversify while the older
women concentrate on earning higher incomes through developing their social capital,
expanding their networks, and making better business connections, to enable them diversify,
educate their children and secure their livelihoods
The study identifies three groups of women fish traders in Ibaka: the bonga, big fish
and crayfish traders, who all operate as small, medium and large scale traders, depending on
the amount of working capital used. Many similarities were observed in the lack of access to
resources, lack of infrastructural facilities, the mode of recruitment into the trade, the
involvement of family members, the use of social capital, and the use of incomes for the
livelihood sustenance of their households. However, significant differences by age, educational
status, years of experience, working capital and wealth status were observed between the three
fish trade groups. Big fish traders with older members had more experience, higher working
capital and incomes, and consequently more assets than bonga and crayfish traders. In
addition, limited access to resources for most of the poor fish traders, especially from the
bonga group, forced them into activities that yielded low returns, such as casual labour and
subsistence farming, re-enforcing their poor performance in the economic and domestic
The study shows that the fish trade is a gendered activity, and the most profitable
livelihood strategy undertaken for the sustenance of households in Ibaka, providing the women
with incomes used for the maintenance and upkeep of their households, and the payment of
their children’s school fees, healthcare bills and other needs.
However, in spite of their different circumstances, interests and opportunities, the
women fish traders all face similar risks, shocks and stress, associated with their location and
environment. These include seasonality, conflicts, and HIV and AIDS, as well as institutional
and cultural constraints, which make them vulnerable. The institutional constraints identified
include lack of physical and marketing infrastructure, financial services, and access to
resources, information asymmetries, high transaction and labour costs, while the cultural
constraints include the beliefs, taboos, ethnicity, norms, values and family life. The adaptation
strategies used for the institutional constraints included buying and selling on credit, use of
social capital and networking, membership of osusu groups, patronising local money-lenders,
use of family labour, including under-aged children, sourcing for water from shallow wells and
commercial boreholes for washing and drinking respectively, patronising traditional health
practitioners and patent medicine stores, and the churches over their health problems. On the
other hand, the adaptation strategies for the cultural constraints included intermarriage with the
indigenes, joining associations and clubs, working from home on days of cultural festivals,
non-pooling of incomes and striving for independence and autonomy.
Apart from the cultural and institutional constraints the study shows that the fish trade
is affected by seasonality which is a major cause of vulnerability. During the lean season which
covers about six months of the year, fishing activities and incomes are reduced to a minimum
for all the fish species due to high fish prices at the beach and insufficient working capital. The
traders then experience periods of food shortage and hunger in the household, making them
highly vulnerable and susceptible to poverty and HIV and AIDS. Fire incidents and conflicts
also contribute to their vulnerability.
The study shows that participation in the fish trade is through kinship and marriage, and
only women who possess specific skills, working capital, available networks and social capital,
and belong in a certain culture, location and ethnicity can participate. It is also determined by
household structures, gender division of labour, marriage, residence and inheritance patterns.
However, in the absence of functional institutions, and with several cultural barriers to contend
with, the fish trade, which is often regarded as an extension of household tasks embarked upon
to ensure the livelihood sustenance of the household, is carried out by the women fish traders
using social networking and social capital, to facilitate their trading profession. Sources of
social capital include kin, neighbours, friends, matron-client relationships, mutual trust, osusu
groups, social clubs and associations, norms and values, and churches.
The study shows that the Ibaka fish market, like most rural food markets in West
Africa, operates without any supporting structures. It lacks infrastructural facilities and access
to information, with a non-existent line of communication between the women fish traders and
the consumers. The provision of an improved communication system, infrastructural facilities,
credit systems and adequate information would therefore reduce the transaction costs and make
for a better coordination mechanism in the market. The study also shows that the fish market in
Ibaka operates through incomplete contract transactions, where it is impossible to reach an
agreement in advance about all possible events that could affect the exchange. Even though it
is a rural market dealing with a single commodity, and does not quite fit into the modern urban
market category, it possesses many attributes of an imperfect market. These include nonhomogenous
products, fewer buyers and sellers, no market transparency and barriers to entry
and exit. The various types and degrees of market imperfection characterise Ibaka market as a
missing market and a thin, incomplete and interlocked market.
The study shows that performance in the economic domain is mainly determined by the
women fish traders’ ability to mobilize sufficient working capital from different sources and
arrange for regular supply of fish, social capital and networking ability, the years of
experience, skills acquired, the ability to pay for labour, the profitability of the enterprise, level
of income, the ability to save, their assets base and wealth status, among others. Performance in
the domestic domain is determined by the ability to educate children, the type of housing, the
energy type used for lighting and cooking, the health status of the household, and the number
of hours spent in the household.
The study shows that performance in both domains is influenced by age, years of
experience, skills acquired, amount of working capital used, educational status, status of
mother in the trade, social capital and the number of children. The women fish traders also
derive potential benefits associated with their location if they successfully adapt to the
conditions and adopt sustainable livelihood strategies. All these together, affect their
performance in the economic and domestic domains, and their success at maintaining the
livelihoods of their households. The big fish and crayfish traders seemed to perform better than
the bonga traders generally, both in the economic and domestic domains.
The study also shows that good performance in the economic domain engenders good
performance in the domestic domain because the possession of sufficient incomes enables the
women to feed and educate their children, maintain a healthy household and take care of
themselves. Sufficient incomes also engender the ability to own or live in permanent structures
in the community and the use of generating sets for lighting and kerosene stoves for cooking in
the households. However, the lack of basic information and documentation on HIV and AIDS
in Ibaka has made it impossible to determine how susceptible and vulnerable the women fish
traders and their families are to the disease even though evidence from fishing communities in
other countries has shown fisherfolk to be more vulnerable than rural upland populations.
In conclusion, the resilience of the women fish traders and their survival in the fisheries
sector can be explained through the rigid and gendered division of labour. This is backed by
the determination of the women to become independent economically and overcome the
cultural biases imposed through patriarchy, polygamy and discriminatory inheritance laws.
Also, there is the incentive of being able to take care of themselves and their children, gain
some power, agency and autonomy. The realization that men depend on the women to dispose
of their fish catches, giving the fish economic value, further strengthens the position of the fish
traders in the fishery economy of Ibaka. The women fish traders’ conversion of profits made
from the fish trade into ownership of fishing and transportation boats is true entrepreneurship.
Using new and innovative ways of finding new or acquiring more customers and accumulating
capital is also entrepreneurial. However, there is far less risk, both socially and economically,
in expanding the scope in the trade and climbing in the female market hierarchy than in
investing in a male domain.
The fact that the women fish traders live in the same community and locality, and are
exposed to similar institutional and cultural constraints does not mean that there are no
differences between the three fish trade groups. The constraints impact differentially both
within and between the groups and the strategic responses depend on the category the fish
trader belongs to within the group and her wealth status in the trade and the community.
Environmental factors and processes such as climate change and oil pollution, and the general
economic crisis, also make fisherfolk vulnerable and susceptible to HIV and AIDS. While the
government is trying to extend development to the rural areas, it is pertinent that remote
communities like Ibaka should be specially targeted. Gender mainstreaming should also be
incorporated in the development process in order to reduce glaring inequalities, with certain
social groups being marginalized while others are privileged. This will reduce the women
traders’ level of vulnerability to constraints, stresses, risks, and shocks in our rural
Evaluatie "VENLOg" (IN-114)
FBR-WUR, - \ 2010
TransForum - 3
verse producten - landbouwproducten - logistiek - agrodistributie - distributie - handel - landbouwindustrie - stadslandbouw - regionale ontwikkeling - regionale centra - fresh products - agricultural products - logistics - agro distribution - distribution - trade - agribusiness - urban agriculture - regional development - central places
Meer dan de helft van de wereldbevolking woont in grote bevolkingscentra gelegen in Delta’s. Deze delta’s zijn ook zeer geschikt voor productie. Kortom productie en afzet liggen voor een deel dicht bij elkaar (local to local) en zijn voor een deel global tussen de logistieke hotspots (global sourcing en distributie). Het samenkomen van alle vers stromen op bepaalde locaties is een logische ontwikkeling die gestuurd wordt door de ligging van grote bevolkingscentra en door de service eisen (responsiviteit, assortiment) die grote internationale afnemers vereisen. Deze clustering van gebundelde stromen, productie en consumptie is terug te vinden in het concept van metropolitan agriculture. Het project VENLOg gaat in op de logistieke problematiek van metropolitan agriculture, en kan op die manier de visie van TransForum versterken. Hoe, waar en met wie organiseer je nu logistieke knooppunten. De ambitie is om nieuwe triple P verbindingen te creëren binnen ketens (producenten, logistiek dienstverleners, handel, retail, vastgoed) en tussen agro-sectoren (transport, grondstoffen, energie- en afvalstromen). Multimodaal transport (water en rail-transport) kan worden ingezet om geconcentreerde logistieke stromen te vervoeren. Nieuwe combinaties van (product)stromen leiden tot een reductie van kilometers (en dus CO2-reductie) en de mogelijkheid om beter in te spelen op klantwensen (snellere levering).
Reduced VAT rates for flowers and plants : situation 2010
Bunte, F.H.J. ; Poel, N. van der - \ 2010
The Hague : LEI (LEI report : Research area Markets & chains ) - 20
bloemen - plantaardige producten - marketing - tarieven - belastingen - handel - nederland - flowers - plant products - marketing - tariffs - taxes - trade - netherlands
This paper evaluates the impact of a possible rise of the VAT rate applied to ornamentals on turnover and employment in the ornamental supply chain. The lower VAT rate is currently applied to flowers and plants in 13 EU member states. The current study considers two scenarios: 1. application of the general (high) tariff to ornamentals in the Netherlands; 2. application of the general tariff in all 13 members where the general tariff is not applied to at this momnet.
Evaluation of sweet pepper pilot supply chain for export
Gunadi, N. ; Adiyoga, W. ; Doorneweert, R.B. ; Zulkarnain, I. - \ 2010
Wageningen : Wageningen UR (HORTIN-II research report nr. 21) - 57
capsicum annuum - marketing voor de detailhandel - export - handel - voedselketens - capsicum annuum - retail marketing - exports - trade - food chains
Meer multifunctionele takken bij biologische bedrijven
Vijn, M.P. ; Visser, A.J. ; Dekking, A.J.G. - \ 2010
Ekoland 2010 (2010)7/8. - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 32 - 33.
vragenlijsten - biologische landbouw - handel - marketing - multifunctionele landbouw - questionnaires - organic farming - trade - marketing - multifunctional agriculture
In opdracht van het Ministerie van LNV heeft PPO Wageningen UR een enquête uitgevoerd onder 117 multifunctionele landbouwbedrijven. Dit zijn bedrijven die naast hun agrarische tak aan natuurbeheer, recreatie, educatie, huisverkoop, zorg of aan kinderopvang doen. Daarbij kwamen opmerkelijke verschillen naar voren tussen gangbare en biologische bedrijven.
The institutional and legal environment for GM soy in Brazil
Franke, A.C. ; Greco, F.M. ; Kleter, G.A. ; Noordam, M.Y. ; Roza, P. ; Eaton, D.J.F. ; Bindraban, P.S. ; Lotz, L.A.P. - \ 2009
Wageningen : Plant Research International (Report / Plant Research International 298) - 42
glycine - sojabonen - gewasproductie - genetische transformatie - wetgeving - handel - brazilië - glycine - soyabeans - crop production - genetic transformation - legislation - trade - brazil
CO2-emissiehandel in 2020 : betekenis voor de Nederlandse glastuinbouw
Bunte, F.H.J. ; Dijkxhoorn, Y. - \ 2009
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI : Werkveld 5, Milieu, natuur en landschap ) - ISBN 9789086153466 - 67
kooldioxide - broeikasgassen - emissie - luchtverontreiniging - handel - milieuwetgeving - ruilvoet - nederland - glastuinbouw - carbon dioxide - greenhouse gases - emission - air pollution - trade - environmental legislation - terms of trade - netherlands - greenhouse horticulture
Het rapport bepaalt de impact van de EU-richtlijn voor de handel in CO2-emissierechten voor de Nederlandse glastuinbouw. Het rapport berekent de kosten die de richtlijn met zich meebrengt voor de sector en bepaalt het effect op de CO2- uitstoot door de sector. Verder bepaalt het rapport het effect op de concurrentiepositie van de Nederlandse glastuinbouw en beschouwt het enige beleidsvarianten. De berekeningen zijn aangevuld met gevoeligheidsanalyses
'Glastuinbouw groener met emissiehandel'
Bunte, F.H.J. - \ 2009
Kennis Online 6 (2009)jan. - p. 12 - 12.
broeikasgassen - kooldioxide - emissie - handel - brandstoffen - greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide - emission - trade - fuels
Het idee kwam op in de jaren zeventig. Handel in rechten om het milieu te vervuilen. Sindsdien is de gedachte bezig met een gestage opmars. In het verdrag van Kyoto wordt het genoemd als belangrijk middel om de uitstoot van broeikasgassen omlaag te krijgen. Over een paar jaar krijgen de Nederlandse glastuinbouwers ook uitstootrechten. Een goed idee, vindt econoom Frank Bunte.
Baron op klompen : mr. B.W.A.E. baron Sloet tot Oldhuis (1807-1884): aan de hefboom tot welvaart
Coster, W. - \ 2008
Wageningen [etc.] : Nederlands Agronomisch Historisch Instituut (Historia agriculturae 40) - ISBN 9789085049500 - 416
biografieën - politiek - economie - onderwijs - kennis - communicatie - handel - landbouw - plattelandseconomie - kolonialisme - nederland - geschiedenis - plattelandsontwikkeling - oost-nederland - biographies - politics - economics - education - knowledge - communication - trade - agriculture - rural economy - colonialism - netherlands - history - rural development - east netherlands
Mr. Bartholomeus Willem Anne Elise baron Sloet tot Oldhuis, kortweg Sloet, was een prominent burger in de 19e eeuw. Van oorsprong was hij Geldersman, maar het grootste gedeelte van zijn leven woonde en werkte hij in Overijssel. Hij was daar burgemeester, rechter en initiator van de ‘Overijsselse Vereeniging tot Ontwikkeling van Provinciale Welvaart' waaruit in 1846 de Landhuishoudkundige Congressen voortkwamen. In de beide decennia rondom 1848 was hij een buitengewoon actief lid van de Tweede Kamer. Hij zette zich in voor de bevordering van de landbouw, de emancipatie van het platteland, de aanleg van wegen te water en te land en de verspreiding van kennis en kunde.
Food legislation and competitiveness in the EU food industry. Case studies in the dairy industry
Poppe, K.J. ; Wijnands, J.H.M. ; Bremmers, H.J. ; Meulen, B.M.J. van der; Tacken, G.M.L. - \ 2008
The Hague : Wageningen UR, LEI (EU Report Enterprice and Industry ref. no. ENTR/2007/020) - ISBN 9789279103599 - 135
voedselindustrie - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - zuivelindustrie - handel - consumenten - landen van de europese unie - Nederland - food industry - food legislation - dairy industry - trade - consumers - european union countries - Netherlands
|Creating Food Futures. Trade, Ethics and the Environment
Farnworth, C.R. ; Jiggins, J.L.S. ; Thomas, E.V. - \ 2008
Abingdon, UK : Gower Publishing - ISBN 9780754649076 - 246
voedselindustrie - handel - voedingsbeleid - agrarische handel - ethiek - milieu - maatschappelijk verantwoord ondernemen - food industry - trade - nutrition policy - agricultural trade - ethics - environment - corporate social responsibility
A global transformation in food supply and consumption is placing our food security at risk. What changes need to be made to the ways we trade, process and purchase our food if everyone in the world is going to have enough wholesome food to eat? Is there genuine scope for creating food futures that embrace considerations such as ecological sustainability and social equity as well as placing good food on the table - and making money?
Concurrentiemonitor levend vee : de Nederlandse concurrentiepositie in de handel van varkens en biggen
Winter, M.A. de; Tacken, G.M.L. ; Puister-Jansen, L.F. - \ 2008
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI : Werkveld 3, Consumenten en ketens ) - ISBN 9789086152582 - 54
agrarische economie - marktconcurrentie - handel - varkens - biggen - concurrerend vermogen - vleesproductie - varkensvlees - nederland - vee- en vleesindustrie - ketenmanagement - agricultural economics - market competition - trade - pigs - piglets - competitive ability - meat production - pigmeat - netherlands - meat and livestock industry - supply chain management
Concurrentiekrachtmeting van de sector varkens- en biggenhandel op landenniveau en sectorniveau aan de hand van een methodologisch raamwerk, dat is gebaseerd op statistische bronnen. In de meting worden alle schakels in de keten beschreven vanaf producent tot en met de consument. In de studie wordt Nederland vergeleken met andere belangrijke EU-landen waaronder de belangrijkste productielanden en afzetlanden. Measurement of the competitiveness of the pig and piglet sector at country and sector levels using a methodology based on statistical sources. The measurement comprises all links in the chain from the producer up to and including the consumer. The study compares the Netherlands with other important EU member states, including the major producing countries and the major markets.
EU-India free trade agreement : a quantitative assessment
Achterbosch, T.J. ; Kuiper, M.H. ; Roza, P. - \ 2008
The Hague : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI : Area 2, Development issues ) - ISBN 9789086152667 - 68
handel - vrijhandel - internationale handel - handelspolitiek - liberalisering van de handel - handelsrelaties - voedselgranen - armoede - toegang - handelsonderhandelingen - wereldmarkten - handelsprotectie - india - europese unie - trade - free trade - international trade - trade policy - trade liberalization - trade relations - food grains - poverty - access - trade negotiations - world markets - trade protection - india - european union
This report analyses the effects of a regional trade agreement (FTA) between the EU and India, for which negotiations are underway. The study starts with abrief overview of the key insights from the existing literature on FTAs and their relationship with multilateral negotiations. The remainder of the study is devoted to analysing the impact of tariff slashes under an FTA on merchandise trade between the EU and India. Of particular interest are the implications for agricultural markets, given the tension between agricultural liberalisation and India's policy goals relating to self-sufficiency in food grains and poverty reduction. The analysis employs GTAP, a global general equilibrium model using a recent database which has 2004 as its reference year. The results suggest that India's interests in a regional trade agreement with the EU are downplayed by the fact that India's economy is not well integrated in global markets. Impacts on the EU are minor and further reduced if a Doha agreement is in place when the FTA is implemented. Results indicate the rationale for a strongly asymmetric arrangement: it would be in the interest of both partners if the EU provides large concessions to India for market access, while India maintains the bulk of current border protection. An EU - India FTA delivers little scope for achieving efficiency gains via adjustments to the pattern of international specialisation. An EU - India agreement on merchandise trade is unlikely to embody substantial preferential treatment with regard to market access. Probably, India can find more suitable FTA partners. Agriculture is a key sector for India in the consideration of equity and growth purposes of a FTA with EU.
Baron op klompen : mr. B.W.A.E. baron Sloet tot Oldhuis (1807-1884) aan de hefboom tot welvaart
Coster, W. - \ 2008
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Pim Kooij. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049500 - 416
biografieën - politiek - economie - onderwijs - kennis - communicatie - handel - landbouw - plattelandseconomie - kolonialisme - nederland - geschiedenis - plattelandsontwikkeling - oost-nederland - biographies - politics - economics - education - knowledge - communication - trade - agriculture - rural economy - colonialism - netherlands - history - rural development - east netherlands
During the nineteenth century many changes took place in The Netherlands, which in various ways have determined the structures we are living in today. Not only did the unification of the ‘archipelago of regions and communities’ from the period of The Republic make progress in the field of politics, (social-)economy and demography, but also in the field of language and culture, (town- and country-)planning and the structure of the landscape. Simultaneously the nation state of The Netherlands -which developed after a strongly directive French-Batavian intermezzo- remained a colourful mosaic of fixed or changing structures, materials and nuances. The origin, direction and pace of the various, sometimes co-existing phases in this process were, to a large extent, determined by people who stepped forward with their ideas, ideals and initiatives. These people had to deal with counter forces: from other persons, both individually and collectively, or from the physical environment which confronted them with sometimes unexpected difficulties and possibilities. It was – although opinions differ in this respect – above all a process of the work of man.
One of those who played an important role in the changing process of the nineteenth century was the lawyer Bartholomeus Willem Anne Elisa baron Sloet tot Oldhuis (1807-1884). ‘Sloet’, as he was usually called, was born in the village of Voorst in Gelderland, but most of his life he lived in and worked for the province of Overijssel. He held many offices, including those of mayor, judge, council member, provincial councillor and school inspector. In 1841 he was the originator of the ‘Overijsselsche Vereeniging tot Ontwikkeling van Provinciale Welvaart (‘Overijssel Society for the development of Provincial Prosperity’), in short ‘Welvaart’, and also of the subsequent ‘Landhuishoudkundige Congressen’ (‘Agronomic Congresses’) in 1846. Between 1840 and 1860 he was one of the leading men in the national political arena. In 1840 and again in 1848 he was a member of the Double Chamber for the amendment of the Constitution and he resided in the Second Chamber (Commons) between 1848 and 1860. Sloet was known to be a critical and headstrong liberal, who stood up for the interests of the countryside, especially those of the provinces of Overijssel and Gelderland, without becoming a narrow minded regionalist. He fought with and against Thorbecke, supported Van Hoëvell in debates on the policy regarding the Dutch East Indies and was one of the most ferocious opponents of Groen van Prinsterer. For decades the ‘Tijdschrift voor staathuishoudkunde en statistiek’ (Journal for political economy and statistics), which was founded by him in 1841, was considered to be the essential liberal mouthpiece. Both in word and in action Sloet was a pioneer who devoted himself to the emancipation and development of agriculture and the countryside, the construction of roads and waterways, and to the spreading of knowledge and skills. His views on the relationship with the colonies in the East and the West were sensational. Meanwhile he published widely both as a poet and a folklorist. Many of his initiatives succeeded, others failed, but his goal remained to stand at ‘the lever to prosperity’.
His strongly felt presence, his wilful character, his versatility and his vigour make Sloet a splendid guide through his time. Not only because of what he achieved but also because of his disappointments and failures and the opposition he was confronted with. The fact that he came from the eastern part of the country, together with his regional orientation and the availability of relevant sources makes it possible to select specific regional fragments against the scenery of the nineteenth century.
The present research concerning Sloet tot Oldhuis fits perfectly into the biographical tradition which over the past decade has also found its way into the field of agrarian history. By choosing themes from the life and work of a renowned figure in his time Baron op klompen (‘Baron in clogs’) seeks to show the important role Sloet has played during a large part of the nineteenth century in the political, economical and rural arena, more specifically in agriculture, planning and (political) culture; those aspects which were decisive in the development of the nation state of the Netherlands. The emphasis will be on the period between, roughly, 1840 and 1870.
The title ‘Baron op klompen’ also refers to the fact that Sloet -being a nobleman who did not out of ‘noblesse oblige’ feel obliged to defend the rights of his class- became an advocate for the backward rural regions and the peasantry. A new element in the present research is the fact that the results of the explorations of the ‘curriculum’ of chapter 2 are elaborated in subsequent chapters and in the interaction between them. That is why this new type of biography may be called a ‘concentric biography’.
The essence of this research is to show how a representative from the eastern part of the Netherlands, who may be assumed to have had much influence on the development of the modern nation, manifested himself. Here the term ‘modernization’ is used as ‘a complex of simultaneously occurring developments which strengthen each other into a certain direction’. These developments are elaborated in four themes representing important aspects in Sloet’s social life: knowledge and skill, infrastructure, the countryside with its agriculture, and the colonies. Again and again the question is raised how his personality and intellectual background affected his actions. Each of these chapters raises a specific research question. A recurring question is what contribution Sloet has made to the development of the political culture by his public actions in the local, regional and national arenas.
In a way this research is a counterpart to the NWO-research of modernization and democratization in the Dutch countryside which is being conducted by the Rural History Group of Wageningen University, under the guidance of dr A.J. Schuurman. It therefore also poses the question which government bodies, organizations, newspapers and periodicals were responsible for stimulating the process of modernization and the development of the countryside. In this case the question is aimed specifically at the role Sloet played in this process. In other words – see the conclusion of chapter 1 - whether figures like him, who did not belong to the ‘titans’ in national politics, could ‘move the lever of prosperity’.
After the introductory chapter 1, ‘Aan de hefboom tot welvaart’ (‘At the lever of prosperity’), chapter 2, ‘Achtergronden’ (‘Backgrounds’) describes Sloet’s personal life. It deals with his curriculum vitae cum annexis, characterises him as a person and shows which tools he was given and which he gained during his life. It inquires after his ambitions and after his economic, social and cultural capital. In line with the concentric method, specific answers to these questions will be given in each of the subsequent chapters. This chapter pays special attention to Sloet as mayor of Hengelo (Overijssel) between 1832 and 1838, because it would prove to be the breeding ground for Sloet’s ambitions and activities afterwards in national politics. What he tried to achieve in Hengelo at a local level he would later attempt at a national level. Finally this chapter pays explicit attention to his literary work, which in the other chapters is mainly used to illustrate.
Chapter 3, ‘Twee maal een onzichtbare hand’ (‘Twice an invisible hand’), elaborates on Sloet’s intellectual baggage. His thoughts appear to have been guided by two invisible hands: that of religion and that of economy, while Classic Antiquity also took up a prominent part of this baggage.
In his religious life Sloet was guided by ‘physico-theology’, a school of thought which originated during the age of Enlightenment and was based on the idea that the forces of nature refer to a Creator. Other physico-theological writers, such as J.F. Martinet (1729-1795) wanted to convince their readers of the existence of God and his lasting care for his Creation on the strength of the available knowledge of natural phenomena. They wanted to point out that Nature is organized in such a systematic and functional way that a Nature without God simply cannot exist. What is more they summoned everybody to get to know and admire the magnitude of the Creator by means of the investigation of Nature. This way of thinking is based on both rational proof of God’s existence and the visible manifestation of God’s power, wisdom and goodness in the cosmic order of things. In accordance with the empirical spirit of the times this last aspect was emphasised most in the eighteenth century. Although a man of the nineteenth century, empiricism fitted Sloet like a glove.
According to Sloet morality was closely connected with religion in defining morals, norms, values and (therefore) citizenship. From morality to political economy was another small step as far as Sloet and many of his contemporaries were concerned. Within this context statistics and rural economy were also important and Sloet was certainly intensively engaged in these matters. The pillars of his world view and thoughts on people’s happiness -in the sense of material and non-material prosperity- were therefore a mixture of classic, Christian and profane materials. Chapter 3 explores the composition of this mixture.
As Hans Boschloo quite rightly states in his work De productiemaatschappij, in 1848 Sloet was ‘just like almost every other ‘laisser faire’ economist probably a Thorbeckian’. However, over the years he found himself more and more estranged from the liberal mainstream. In his eyes liberalism brought too much state interference, which was harmful to regional autonomy and resulted in unnecessary bureaucracy, his two largest frights. Because where could personal interests be served better than in one’s own immediate surroundings? And why should civil servants in The Hague interfere with the life of a farmer in Overijssel? Sloet considered freedom and centralisation to be opposites. This does not mean, that he was against any form of state interference, except where it concerned the care for the poor or the non-productive citizens. In that case he adhered to the principle: ‘he who does not work shall not eat’, although he would not say so outright. For Sloet – who was after all a lawyer – the form of government was less important than the general Christian state family in which everybody knew his place and lived by the same unwritten rules and principles, while fulfilling a task in order to provide for his or her livelihood.
The next four chapters show how Sloet operated, being guided by this way of thinking.
Chapter 4, ‘ ‘Kennis is de ware tooverij’ ’ (‘ ‘Knowledge is the true magic’ ’), pursues the value Sloet attached to organizations which furthered mutual contacts, research, information and education, public governance and well functioning media as necessary links to knowledge and information. Or, to put it in modern terms: networks, education and research, public relations and communication. His contribution to the political culture is also dealt with explicitly, while in the following chapters this contribution is further illustrated with practical examples. The question is what his approach was, who he involved and what the results were of his efforts, even though the answer to this last question will be saved for chapters 5, 6 and 7.
According to folklorist Tjaard de Haan, the fact that Sloet, in his ‘Ode aan de IJssel’ (‘Ode to the IJssel’) rhymes ‘stichting’ (edification/foundation) with ‘volksverlichting (‘enlightenment of the masses’), is typical for his active attitude toward life. He was one of the gentlemen who had woken, or wanted to wake, the countryside. His great strength was his zest for work, which was fed by his belief in the possibility of shaping or at least improving society and in the power of science. ‘Knowledge is the true magic’ was his motto as written down in 1865. At the same time it meant a confirmation of his belief in the divine nature which would allow itself to be uncovered by science. Nevertheless these discoveries needed to be translated to all layers of society if they were to benefit general prosperity.
Chapter 5, ‘ ‘Wegen te water en te land’ ’ (‘ ‘Roads in the water and on land’ ’), deals with the development of infrastructure, both locally and internationally, i.e. roads, waterways and railroads in the Netherlands and across the borders. How Sloet dealt with his ideas in these areas is examined here. What were his goals? Who were his allies and who his opponents in the borderland between public and private interests? What effects did his efforts achieve? Especially his activities in Overijssel, notably his desire to change its capital into a genuine seaport are emphasised here. Special attention is paid to his conspicuous efforts to make improvements on ‘the waterway between Zwolle and the sea’, the route via the ‘Zwarte Water’ and the ‘Zwolse Diep’. For this case caused political and personal polarization and shows a great deal of Sloet’s character and his political style. Besides, the perils around this ever so important part of Overijssel’s infrastructure led to a novelty in Dutch politics: the first full Parliamentary Inquiry in 1856.
At a time when Sloet exerted all his influence for the realization of the waterway from Zwolle to the sea and for the first railroads to and in Overijssel, shortly before the middle of the nineteenth century, he also pointed out the importance of ‘the footpaths of the nation’: the indispensable and undeniable winding paths in the countryside which were literally threatened to be buried by modern times. On the one hand he valued them because of their arcadian character, on the other also and the more so because of their economic value. The moral of the story being that modernization was useful and necessary but one should take care not to reject the good with the bad because old things also had their rights and served their purpose and should not be so easily dismissed. Sloet compared infrastructure to a blood circulation system in which each little vein served its purpose both for the entire body and for an individual body part. Without roads, however small they might be, there could be no trade and without trade there was no progress. This was the lesson he had learnt from Martinet and Adam Smith.
One victory was booked in 1860: just before he left the Second Chamber a Railway Act with national validity was passed, which also served the provinces, even though practice would show once again the West taking control over the initiative and the National Railways. Private initiative resulted in the completion of the ‘Zuiderzeelijn’ in 1864, a project in which Sloet had put a lot of effort, as far back as in the 1840s. At least his ideas and initiatives had contributed to the development of a coherent network of transport and communication lines, one of the necessary requirements for environmental integration.
Chapter 6, ‘Landbouw, landhuishoudkunde en landleven’ (‘Agriculture, rural economy and rural life’), deals with the role the agricultural sector played within and for Dutch national economy and how aspects such as knowledge, know-how and communication influenced this role according to Sloet. The chapter starts with a short description of agriculture in Overijssel in the nineteenth century.
The first question in this context is how Sloet valued the situation of agriculture in The Netherlands and its developments, especially in the province of Overijssel. Secondly, which arguments does he pose for the different views there are on this issue? A third question is what Sloet has contributed to the development of agriculture, both nationally and in Overijssel? Finally, can he be considered a representative of a certain group or did he occupy a special position within Dutch agriculture?
Sloet saw the agricultural sector as full of potential, some of which was also realised. Although this filled him with satisfaction and delight, it was no reason to sit back complacently, because new situations and developments also created new opportunities which needed to be utilized. The overall goal remained to explore and exploit the treasures of nature which became available through agriculture and, of course, otherwise. Farmers had a specific and important role in this process. For the eastern part of the Netherlands with its specific agrarian characteristics Sloet thought the best option was to develop the small family business. In a way and avant la lettre this manner of thinking fits within the later theory of Ester Boserup who speaks of ‘the relation between population growth in a certain ecological system and the changes in agriculture, more specifically the intensification of farming, which are a result of this growth’. Sloet considered ecology and economy to go hand in hand and according to him developments in the agricultural production process were determined by natural circumstances. But it was up to man to recognize these circumstances and to make use of them and improve them. Only then could the population grow. The necessary employment could amply be found in the countryside. Sloet considered investing on a small scale, such as providing seeds and simple sausage recipes better than introducing large farming equipment which would mostly benefit the big farmers. Modernization of agriculture should therefore aim at the small peasant family business. Rather than for mechanization Sloet opted for the use of human labour as a means to increase productivity.
Where the second question - of the different views on production development in agriculture- is concerned, Sloet simply does not provide us with the necessary statistics, despite his efforts. He did recognize, however, the rapid growth in population, the resulting pressure on the soil, the necessary intensification in agriculture and the just as necessary improvements of the infrastructure with, of course, the opportunities which these developments created. Van Zanden’s thesis, that up to about 1870 the influence of ‘institutions’, organizations and institutes on actual farming had been small, needs to be questioned. The existing agricultural societies before 1870 certainly made their contributions, especially Sloet’s Agronomic Congresses and, where Overijssel is concerned, ‘Welvaart’. Sloet was living proof that ‘people do make a difference’.
This also forms the beginning of the answer to the third research question, namely which contribution Sloet has made to Dutch agriculture, and especially that of Overijssel. By using his countless connections in politics, the Agronomic Congresses, among men of science and farmers, with his knowledge of national and international literature on the subject and last but not least on the basis of his own observation, he was the seemingly tireless stimulator behind small but indispensable little pulls at the lever of prosperity. To his great dismay and despite his efforts of many years he did not succeed in causing the tithes, a tax which he considered to be harmful to the development of agriculture, to be abolished.
The answer to the question as to what extent Sloet has taken up a position of his own in Dutch agriculture is closely connected with his descent and the region he grew up in. His childhood in Gelderland gave him direction and shaped him – as it had done his father and mother before him – into a tool of progress in the countryside and it made him an exponent of rural life. Not because he desired to play the role of ‘gentleman’, but for the love of his surroundings and the people with whom he felt connected. With his ‘physico-theological’ way of thinking as a liberal politician, economist, governor, man of letters and as a folklorist he is indissolubly connected with the agriculture and the countryside of The Netherlands and especially the countryside of the eastern part of The Netherlands or the ‘Saxon’ countryside, as he called it.
All together this creates a colourful and original person. In a sense Sloet was born in the wrong environment. He was different; he was a baron in clogs. However, if he had been a farmer in clogs he would not have been able to achieve the things he did by being the man he was.
Chapter 7, ‘Provincies overzee’ (‘Provinces overseas’), describes the way Sloet, together with baron Van Hoëvell, the militant ex-clergyman in the East Indies, initiated the discussion on colonial policy and launched ideas to emancipate the colonies in the East and the West and to make them more profitable. His actions are mainly highlighted by his role in the Second Chamber. Especially his interpellations on several issues and on a few particular items: a colonization project in Surinam, his proposal to sell land on Java, the ‘Cultuurstelsel’ (cultivation system) and the Government Regulation for the Dutch East Indies which came into force in 1854. Moreover his attitude towards the Dutch Trading Company (Nederlandsche Handel-Maatschappij, in short ‘NHM’) and the issue of slavery, which he strongly condemned, are discussed here. The results of his actions should be regarded in the light of the question what his contribution has been towards the development of the political culture after 1848.
Where the issue of the ‘colonies’ was concerned, Sloet brought about a change of culture. He endured storms without being able to harvest but he opened up possibilities for others, especially with regard to the East. Several interpretations with regard to the abolishment of the ‘Cultuurstelsel’ were congruent with his ideas on the topic. Firstly, as a classic liberal, he fought against forced labour and the monopoly of the colonial government, and especially the NHM. The amendments and changes which were attributed to criticism of left-wing liberals were mostly due to Sloet’s work. Already in 1849 Sloet started discussions in the Second Chamber on various matters, thereby uncovering abuses which were unheard of at that time. What is more, in doing so he specifically drew attention to the interests of the native people.
Secondly, he did not mind reforms made by civil servants in, as Fasseur states, removing or softening the aggravating burdens of the ‘Cultuurstelsel’ (Cultivation system). On the contrary, by making these changes (which could only be realised in a government system based on transparency) the ‘Cultuurstelsel’ could – according to Sloet - actually coexist with a system based on free labour and Western entrepreneurship. Finally, the interpretation that in the Dutch Indies there was a growing group of entrepreneurs with sufficient knowledge and capital to change the ‘Cultuurstelsel’ into a system based on free labour and Western enterprise, was very much in line with Sloet’s ideas. However, he also wanted to make it possible for new initiatives from the Netherlands and from the Western world in general to exploit the potential riches of the Dutch East Indies (including the Outer Provinces). If he thought fit Sloet looked not only across the regional, but also across the national borders. For him the general interest took precedence over the private interest.
In his perception of the colonies Sloet agreed with the French economist and colonial propagandist Paul Leroy-Beaulieu (1843-1916) who spoke of ‘colonisation moderne’ as exploitation based on free production and private capital. ‘Such colonization does not recognize a difference between colonials and the colonized, exploiters and the exploited, but is beneficial to both’. Proper colonial policy should not impoverish or deprive the indigenous people but should enrich them, and with that the colonial government. This was exactly the doctrine he had expounded in his ‘Grondtrekken van de Staathuishoudkunde’ (Characteristic Features of Political Economy) and this was congruent with the principles he attributed to christianity. According to him the colonies were also guided by the two invisible hands of political economy and of Christendom.
Most important however, was the fact that Sloet by his heavy criticism provided politics and political culture with a new form and substance in a time when colonial benefits had culminated.
The main research question in this study was posed in chapter 1, questioning whether individuals who were not considered to be among the ‘titans’ of nineteenth century politics could bring about any movement in the lever of prosperity. Focussing on Sloet’s person this was mostly about the development of the countryside in the eastern part of the Netherlands, Overijssel specifically, and about the Dutch colonies. There was also the question how much he has contributed to the political culture of his time.
The first conclusion in the final chapter 8, ‘Eén gezin, vastgesnoerd door broedermin’ (‘One family, tied together by brotherly love’), is that Sloet’s life and aspiration were permanently aimed at his ultimate goal: progress. This did not necessarily mean choosing new methods and techniques or enormous expansions. His perception of modernization was that of the definition as mentioned in chapter 1: ‘a complex of simultaneously occurring developments which strengthen each other into a certain direction’. The object of this direction was ahead of him, but where necessary and if there were things to be learned, he was not afraid of looking back either. In the same way his perspectives would change in his geographical orientation. The basic elements for the desired development he found first and foremost in his immediate surroundings. Most examples would come from his own sphere of work in the eastern part of the Netherlands, but they only served to provide substance for a model for Overijssel or Gelderland, The Netherlands, the Dutch colonies or for the world. On the other hand he was also in the habit of using the knowledge he acquired from his connections or through literature to the benefit of his immediate environment. Nevertheless he would always keep the natural situation in mind and would take care not to damage any other regions wherever these might be. As Martinet’s Katechismus der Natur (‘Nature’s Catechism’) had taught the young Sloet: that was not in accordance with God’s intentions.
In 1862, two years after he had been obliged to leave the Second Chamber -thereby practically ending his role in national politics- Sloet was both satisfied and dissatisfied. In his case this was inevitable. Of course, much had been achieved. He had had his share in the new and constantly changing world. He had been responsible for waking up the countryside of Overijssel not only by introducing new farming methods and new strains and crops but also by providing knowledge and insights and means to express them. He had contributed to the construction of roads, railways and canals. He had stirred the political debates with his critical, though sometimes rather thoughtless contributions. As a Multatuli avant la lettre he had spoken for the people of the Dutch East Indies. In his poetry he had focussed on the beauty and intrinsic value of nature. He had explored limits and most of all he had shown how far human effort could reach. Therefore he was all about progress, but he would not think twice about stopping a vehicle that was out of control either.
Sloet supported the late eighteenth century ideal of freedom, which revolved around the freedom of the citizen and which limited the powers of the state to the passing and upholding of laws necessary for a society to function. He even went one step further and would have preferred to reduce those laws as well, convinced as he was that they were not necessary, for in his eyes mankind was ‘one family, tied together by brotherly love’. In the end we can only come to the conclusion that Sloet may not have been a ‘titan’, but he certainly has set ‘the lever to prosperity’ going. He has explored and shifted boundaries and he has served as a model for the creed: ‘People do make a difference’.
Chain-wide learning for inclusive agrifood market development : a guide to multi-stakeholder processes for linking small-scale producers to modern markets
Vermeulen, S. ; Woodhill, A.J. ; Proctor, F. ; Delnoye, R. - \ 2008
Wageningen : International Institute for Environment and Development - ISBN 9789085049647 - 114
kleine bedrijven - markten - handel - agrarische handel - voedselindustrie - voedselketens - handleidingen - multi-stakeholder processen - small businesses - markets - trade - agricultural trade - food industry - food chains - guide books - multi-stakeholder processes
This guide provides a set of concepts and analytical tools for finding ways to better link small-scale producers to the modern markets associated with today’s largescale supermarket retail and wholesale operations. It is has been developed through iterative testing with partners in several organisations and countries. The guide is a product of the Regoverning Markets Programme, a multi-agency programme to generate strategic information and anticipatory policy advice on small-scale producers in these fast changing markets.
Slotmanifestatie Tmt : 'Veel bereikt, maar graag meer kennis'
Dwarswaard, A. ; PPO Bomen-bollen, - \ 2008
De Boomkwekerij 2008 (2008)138. - ISSN 0923-2443 - p. 24 - 25.
bloembollen - teelt - waterkwaliteit - overheid - pesticiden - handel - kennis - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - ornamental bulbs - cultivation - water quality - public authorities - pesticides - trade - knowledge - sustainability
Na vier jaar is de huidige opzet van Telen met toekomst afgesloten. Ter gelegenheid daarvan gaven vier vertegenwoordigers van partijen rondom het project hun visie op duurzaamheid. Kennis en de verspreiding ervan vormden de rode draad in hun bijdragen
Organic agriculture in Turkey : trade opportunities for organic fruit and vegetables
Leeuwen, M.A.E. van; Voort, M.P.J. van der; Sukkel, W. ; Balci, S. - \ 2008
Lelystad : Applied Plant Research, Arable farming and field production of vegetables (PPO Publication no. 32500743) - 27
fruit - groenten - biologische voedingsmiddelen - agrarische handel - handel - turkije - landbouwplantenteelt - akkerbouw - fruitteelt - teelt - netwerken - glastuinbouw - glasgroenten - fruit - vegetables - organic foods - agricultural trade - trade - turkey - crop husbandry - arable farming - fruit growing - cultivation - networks - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse vegetables
Onderzoek naar de mogelijkheden voor handel in biologische groente en fruit tussen Turkije en Nederland.
Telen met Toekomst: Praktijkberichten beknopt en duidelijk
Kool, S.A.M. de - \ 2007
BloembollenVisie 2007 (2007)126. - ISSN 1571-5558 - p. 18 - 19.
bloembollen - sierplanten - kennis - pesticiden - handel - roetdauw - schimmelziekten - kennisoverdracht - ornamental bulbs - ornamental plants - knowledge - pesticides - trade - sooty moulds - fungal diseases - knowledge transfer
Kennisverspreiding is een van de taken van Telen met toekomst. In 2007 presenteerde men een praktijkberichten die via de gewasbeschermingsmiddelenhandel zijn en worden verspreid. Twee handelaren geven hun visie. Daarnaast dit keer aandacht voor de roettoets die in de zomer van 2007 is uitgevoerd. De meest actuele stand van zaken
|Fusie veilingen nodig tegenover schaalvergroting teelt en handel (interview met Cindy van der Zwet)
Wubben, E.F.M. - \ 2007
Vakblad voor de Bloemisterij 62 (2007)31. - ISSN 0042-2223 - p. 14 - 15.
veilingen - bloementeelt - fusies - bedrijfsvoering - marketing - productie-economie - kwekers - kosten per eenheid - kosten-batenanalyse - transportkosten - monopolie - handel - handelsdiscriminatie - auctions - floriculture - mergers - management - production economics - growers - unit costs - cost benefit analysis - transport costs - monopoly - trade - trade discrimination
Een flinke veiling tegenover grote telers- en handelsblokken is niet verkeerd volgens Emiel Wubben van de Wageningen Universiteit. Als bedrijfkundige volgt hij de fusie op de voet . “Als de veilingen niet fuseren worden ze een speelbal in plaats van een mechanisme”, voorspelt hij. Een fusie is volgens Wubben zinvol maar of deze slaagt is nog altijd niet zeker. Niet meer dan een vijfde van de fusies wordt uiteindelijk een succes.
De productie van en handel in konijnenbont in de Europese Unie
Rommers, J.M. ; Galen, M.A. van; Bokkers, E.A.M. - \ 2007
Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel Wageningen UR (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel Wageningen UR 236) - ISBN 9789085850786 - 42
konijnen - pelsdieren - pels - pelsdierhouderij - dierhouderij - handel - dierenwelzijn - europese unie - rabbits - furbearing animals - fur - fur farming - animal husbandry - trade - animal welfare - european union
Rabbit fur does not play an important role in the discussion about the use of animal fur. Nevertheless, rabbit fur is used in a variety of products. There is a gap in knowledge about the production of and trade in rabbit fur. The foundation Fur for Animals wants to know more about the production of and trade in rabbit fur to be able to inform citizens about this part of the fur industry. The objective of this research, therefore, was to gain insight into the production of and trade in rabbit fur.
Emissiehandel voor glastuinbouw; Effecten van een CO2-vereveningssysteem
Bunte, F.H.J. ; Davidson, M. ; Mulder, M. - \ 2007
Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 3, Natuurlijke hulpbronnen en milieu ) - ISBN 9789086151646 - 56
emissie - handel - handel drijven - vergunningen - kooldioxide - tarieven - energie - europese unie - nederland - milieueconomie - glastuinbouw - emission - trade - trading - permits - carbon dioxide - tariffs - energy - european union - netherlands - environmental economics - greenhouse horticulture
Dit rapport evalueert de effecten van de invoering van een CO2-emissiehandelssysteem in de Nederlandse tuinbouw. Het rapport beschouwt zes varianten van een dergelijk systeem, al dan niet in combinatie met een energieheffing. Het rapport concludeert dat systemen die aansluiten bij het Europese Emissiehandelssysteem (ETS) het meest efficiënt zijn. This report evaluates the effects of an introduction of a CO2 emission trading system in Dutch greenhouse horticulture. The report analyses six variants of such a system, some of them in combination with an energy tariff. The report concludes that systems which correspond with the European Emission Trade System (ETS) are the most efficient.
|Jury kiest genomineerden Hortifair Award; interview met Frank Kempes
Langen, Ellis ; Visser, Peter ; Kempkes, F.L.K. - \ 2007
Groenten en Fruit. Algemeen 2007 (2007)37. - ISSN 0925-9694 - p. p. 9 - p. 9.
groenteteelt - groenten - innovaties - nieuwe producten - landbouwtentoonstellingen - publiciteit - handel - vegetable growing - vegetables - innovations - new products - agricultural shows - publicity - trade
Een internationale jury nomineerde negentien innovaties die in aanmerking komen voor de HortiFair Innovation Award. Acht daarvan zijn ook interessant voor de groenteteelt
The role of guanxi in buyer-seller relationships in China : a survey of vegetable supply chains in Jiangsu Province
Lu Hualiang, - \ 2007
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Onno Omta, co-promotor(en): Jacques Trienekens. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085046653 - 252
food chains - vegetables - marketing - production - china - trade - markets - businesses - relationships - socioeconomics - supply chain management - agro-industrial chains - networks - social capital - voedselketens - groenten - marketing - productie - china - handel - markten - bedrijven - relaties - sociale economie - ketenmanagement - agro-industriële ketens - netwerken - sociaal kapitaal
Keywords:Social capital,guanxinetworks, vegetable supply chains, buyer-seller relationships, channel performance,
|Regionale biologische landbouw; Deel 9 : Hoe de molens draaien
Stobbelaar, D.J. - \ 2007
Ekoland 27 (2007)3. - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 31 - 33.
biologische landbouw - molens - graanmolens - handel - organic farming - mills - flour mills - trade
Reportage over een aantal molens in Nederland. Zij malen (biologisch) graan en verkopen meel en kunnen daarbij een belangrijke intermediaire rol spelen tussen regionale aanbieders en kopers. Beschrijving van molen 'De Vlijt' in Wageningen, 'De Vier Winden' in Vragender (Achterhoek) en 'De Hoop' in Oud-Zevenaar
Who Gains, who loses? : the impact of market liberalisation on rural households in Northwestern Kenya
Mose, L.O. - \ 2007
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arie Kuyvenhoven, co-promotor(en): Kees Burger. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789085046349 - 191
economische ontwikkeling - markten - landbouwhuishoudens - handel - landbouwproductie - kenya - afrika - maïs - liberalisatie - economic development - markets - agricultural households - trade - agricultural production - kenya - africa - maize - liberalization
Keywords:Market liberalisation, rural households, traders,
Soja handel- en ketenrelaties. Sojaketens in Brazilië, Argentinië en Nederland
Berkum, S. van; Roza, P. ; Pronk, A. - \ 2006
Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 5, Ketens ) - ISBN 9789086150991 - 77
agrarische economie - kettingen - handel - internationale handel - sojabonen - nederland - argentinië - brazilië - ketenmanagement - agricultural economics - chains - trade - international trade - soyabeans - netherlands - argentina - brazil - supply chain management
Dit rapport beschrijft en analyseert de sojaketen in en handelsrelaties tussen Brazilië, Argentinië en Nederland. Naast de ontwikkelingen in de sojateelt sinds 1990 wordt ingegaan op de belangrijkste structuurkenmerken van de sojaketen in beide Latijns- Amerikaanse landen. Speciale aandacht wordt gegeven aan de relatie van de teelt met ontbossing, de rol van genetische modificatie en de economische perspectieven van de teelt in de komende jaren. De handelrelaties met Nederland worden uitgelicht en de relaties en belangrijke spelers in de sojaketen in Nederland in kaart gebracht. Hierdoor ontstaat een samenhangend beeld van de sojateelt en -handel, en de rol van Nederland daarbij.
Potato developments in a changing Europe
Haase, N.U. ; Haverkort, A.J. - \ 2006
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086860111 - 260
solanum tuberosum - aardappelen - pootaardappelen - cultuurmethoden - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - biologische landbouw - plantenveredeling - gewasbescherming - gewaskwaliteit - handel - marketing - landbouwsituatie - europa - fabrieksaardappelen - solanum tuberosum - potatoes - seed potatoes - cultural methods - sustainability - organic farming - plant breeding - plant protection - crop quality - trade - marketing - agricultural situation - europe - starch potatoes
The papers in this book reflect societal and commercial changes such as consumer behaviour and marketing aspects in relation to fresh and processed potatoes in western, central and eastern Europe. Seed trade between western and central Europe is entering a new stage with altered inspection requirements, quarantine regulations and variety needs and acceptance. Resistance to diseases present in varieties in central and eastern Europe needs to be coupled to consumer and processor acceptance. Retailers and processors, Europe wide, lead the way at the global level to establish labels and certificates to assure food safety and sustainability. The technical part of the books treats improving the use of chemical fertilisers and crop protection agents increasingly aided by precision farming techniques. Modern molecular breeding techniques for improved resistance and quality are highlighted and their perspectives are shown for breeding programs Europe wide. The book concludes with developments in the potato supply chain, marketing and research and developments in a representative number of central European countries. It shows how each potato industry in transition deals with the socio-economic and environmental situation in varying degrees of development to adapt to a changing Europe