Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Food, Globalization and Sustainability
    Oosterveer, P.J.M. ; Sonnenfeld, D.A. - \ 2011
    London/New York : Earthscan - ISBN 9781849712613 - 282
    voedselvoorziening - voedselindustrie - handel - duurzame landbouw - globalisering - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - klimaatverandering - milieubeleid - food supply - food industry - trade - sustainable agriculture - globalization - sustainability - climatic change - environmental policy
    Food is increasingly traded internationally, thereby transforming the organisation of food production and consumption globally and influencing most food-related practices. This transition is generating unfamiliar challenges related to sustainability of food provision, the social impacts of international trade and global food governance. Distance in time and space between food producers and consumers is increasing and new concerns are arising. These include the environmental impact of food production and trade, animal welfare, the health and safety of food, and the social and economic impact of international food trade. This book provides an overview of the principal conceptual frameworks that have been developed for understanding these changes. It shows how conventional regulation of food provision through sovereign national governments is becoming elusive, as the distinctions between domestic and international, and between public and private spheres, disappear. At the same time multinational companies and supranational institutions put serious limits to governmental interventions. In this context, other social actors including food retailers and NGOs are shown to take up innovative roles in governing food provision, but their contribution to agro-food sustainability is under continuous scrutiny. The authors apply these themes in several detailed case studies, including organic, fair trade, local food and fish. On the basis of these cases, future developments are explored, with a focus on the respective roles of agricultural producers, retailers and consumers.
    Eindverslag regionale versketen 2
    Soethoudt, J.M. ; Liesveld, R. ; Amstel, M. van; Duineveld, M. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research - 76
    verse producten - landbouwproducten - handel - handel drijven - agrarische handel - logistiek - marketing - regionale voedselketens - fresh products - agricultural products - trade - trading - agricultural trade - logistics - marketing - regional food chains
    Regionale Versketen 2 is een vervolgproject op het gelijkname project fase 1 dat in 2008 is afgerond. Beide trajecten zijn ondersteund door TransForum. Nadat in fase 1 de organisatie MijnBoer is ontstaan, is in fase 2 de ontwikkeling en verdere groei ervan ondersteund. Dit document rapporteert vanuit drie stakeholders in het project: MijnBoer zelf, Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research en Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Athena Instituut. MijnBoer beschrijft de ontwikkeling van de organisatie van ontstaan tot januari 2011. Zij licht met levendige voorbeelden toe welke ontwikkelingen zijn doorlopen, welke keuzes ze hebben gemaakt en waarom. MijnBoer is daarbij ondersteund door het TransForum-project enerzijds door Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research voor bijdragen vanuit logistiek en marketing bij het karakteristieke business model en anderzijds door Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Athena Instituut door continue reflectie tijdens de ontwikkeling. Uit fase 1 bleek dat bij een dynamische omgeving van een nieuwe organisatie het weliswaar goed is om een plan te maken, maar dat het project, door de continue ingrijpende organisatieveranderingen, niet gefocust moest zijn op de uitkomsten zoals in het begin geformuleerd. Er is daarom gekozen voor participatie en reflectie zodat rond de belangrijkste thema’s van het onderhavige project (robuustheid van het business model, interactie producenten en afnemers en ontwikkeling van het logistieke model) de vorderingen konden worden beïnvloed en opgetekend.
    Sustainable peat supply chain : report of the ad hoc working group enhancing the sustainability of the peat supply chain for the Dutch horticulture
    Bos, M.G. ; Diemont, W.H. ; Verhagen, A. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 2167) - 126
    turf - groeimedia - tuinbouw - handel - biodiversiteit - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - kooldioxide - klimaatverandering - peat - growing media - horticulture - trade - biodiversity - sustainability - carbon dioxide - climatic change
    The project deals with the future sustainability of the peat supply chain for Dutch horticulture. This means securing long term availability of high quality peat and/or alternatives for the sector, dealing appropriately with biodiversity issues and taking climate change into account. The project goals are: 1) Gaining insight into the impacts of peat extraction and peat trade on biodiversity in Europe (including CO2/climate related issues), based on information on production, trade, technologies used with the focus on the role of the Dutch private sector in the international context; and 2) Exploring options for improving extraction methods and the use of alternative basis materials for producing growing media for horticulture and possibilities to define indicators, criteria and standards for sustainability.
    The quest for sustainable livelihoods : women fish traders in Ibaka, Niger Delta, Nigeria
    Udong, E.E. - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Anke Niehof, co-promotor(en): Aad van Tilburg. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085859345 - 317
    vrouwen - geslacht (gender) - vis - markthandelaars - handel - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzame ontwikkeling - visverwerking - marketing - sociologie - hiv-infecties - acquired immune deficiency syndrome - nigeria - afrika - women - gender - fish - market traders - trade - livelihood strategies - sustainability - sustainable development - fish processing - marketing - sociology - hiv infections - acquired immune deficiency syndrome - nigeria - africa

    The contribution of fisheries to food security in Africa cannot be underestimated. It provides

    over 30 percent of the protein consumed by the Nigerian population. However, Nigeria

    produces only about 45 percent of the fish requirement locally while the shortfall of about 55

    percent is imported. Over 80 percent of the local production is from the artisanal, small scale

    sector. While several studies have been conducted on the productivity of many water bodies,

    endemic fish species, different fisheries, boats mechanization and the role of the fishermen,

    socio-economic and gender issues in fisheries have received scant attention. Such research has

    therefore become necessary for the development of relevant policies and intervention

    programmes. The sustainable livelihood approach was used in facilitating the understanding of

    how the women fish traders’ livelihoods are created, sustained and constrained by a set of

    complex factors and processes including institutions and culture. The main objectives of this

    study were to:

    1. Contribute towards the livelihood and gender theory by focusing on the performance of

    women fish traders in the economic and domestic domains in a coastal fishing

    community, given the institutional and cultural constraints, their vulnerability and

    susceptibility to HIV and AIDS;

    2. Identify the implications for household food and livelihood security and the critical

    factors needed to be considered in the development of relevant policies that would

    ensure sustainable livelihoods and lower vulnerability levels for the women fish traders

    and their households.

    Specifically, the study aimed at highlighting the complexity of sustaining rural

    livelihoods by women fish traders in a coastal fishing community in Nigeria and the flexibility

    and variation, which give the fish trading system its continuing ability to link other commercial

    and non-commercial sectors, characterised by constantly shifting relationships. A gender

    perspective was applied throughout the study. The study was carried out in Ibaka, a dynamic

    commercial centre and the largest coastal fishing community in Akwa Ibom State in the Niger

    Delta of Nigeria, which is largely undeveloped but has over 70 percent of the population

    depending on the fisheries for their livelihood. A cross-sectional study design was used, in

    combination with qualitative and quantitative research methods. Apart from being descriptive

    in nature, an analytical approach was also used by arranging and processing the collected data

    in different ways and through testing different hypotheses.

    Due to the large variation in the range and scale of enterprises obtained, the fish traders

    comprise some of the largest wholesalers on the Nigerian coastline and some of the poorest

    strolling hawkers, living from hand-to-mouth. This is a characteristic feature of a major

    market, and the study seeks to identify the key social, economic and institutional forces, which

    generate, maintain and continue to reshape this diversity. The forces originate from the market,

    its links with the household, community, and national level processes, which create conflicting

    interests and pressures on the individual fish traders as they struggle for survival and the

    accumulation of wealth. These contradictions renew and transform the trading relations,

    including their constraints.

    The main household resources available and accessible were the labour of the women

    fish traders themselves and the female members of their families. Through family ties,

    churches, professional associations, social clubs and osusu groups trade networks and social

    churches, professional associations, social clubs and osusu groups trade networks and social

    capital, on which depended success in the fish trade were developed. The economic resource

    was the different species of fish provided by the sea. The physical resources included equipments such as boats, nets, outboard engines, landed properties, houses, and mobile

    phones. The women also used their own trading and language skills, and years of experience in

    the trade to their advantage. Those with sufficient years of education also deployed their

    educational skills to their advantage. The gendered nature of the fish trade and the fact that it

    requires professional skills ensures that labour is expensive to hire. Only very few women fish

    traders, operating on a large scale and earning higher incomes possessed tangible assets, and

    were able to acquire equipments such as outboard engines, fishing and transport boats, and

    other assets such as land, houses, generators, deep freezers, market stalls as well as fish trade


    Processing and trading in either bonga, big fish or crayfish, and providing labour for

    fish processing remain the main livelihood strategies and the main source of livelihood for

    most women fish traders in Ibaka. Most of the incomes used for the maintenance of their

    children and households are derived from these. Diversification into other economic activities

    including fashion designing, subsistence farming, food processing, money lending, food

    vending and petty trading is also adopted by most women, while the better-off are involved in

    water transportation, equipment leasing, money lending, bukka business. The strategies

    adopted are affected by factors such as age, skills acquired, years of experience, working

    capital available for the trade, educational status, and number and ages of children. Younger

    traders try to acquire other skills and formal education to enable them diversify while the older

    women concentrate on earning higher incomes through developing their social capital,

    expanding their networks, and making better business connections, to enable them diversify,

    educate their children and secure their livelihoods

    The study identifies three groups of women fish traders in Ibaka: the bonga, big fish

    and crayfish traders, who all operate as small, medium and large scale traders, depending on

    the amount of working capital used. Many similarities were observed in the lack of access to

    resources, lack of infrastructural facilities, the mode of recruitment into the trade, the

    involvement of family members, the use of social capital, and the use of incomes for the

    livelihood sustenance of their households. However, significant differences by age, educational

    status, years of experience, working capital and wealth status were observed between the three

    fish trade groups. Big fish traders with older members had more experience, higher working

    capital and incomes, and consequently more assets than bonga and crayfish traders. In

    addition, limited access to resources for most of the poor fish traders, especially from the

    bonga group, forced them into activities that yielded low returns, such as casual labour and

    subsistence farming, re-enforcing their poor performance in the economic and domestic


    The study shows that the fish trade is a gendered activity, and the most profitable

    livelihood strategy undertaken for the sustenance of households in Ibaka, providing the women

    with incomes used for the maintenance and upkeep of their households, and the payment of

    their children’s school fees, healthcare bills and other needs.

    However, in spite of their different circumstances, interests and opportunities, the

    women fish traders all face similar risks, shocks and stress, associated with their location and

    environment. These include seasonality, conflicts, and HIV and AIDS, as well as institutional

    and cultural constraints, which make them vulnerable. The institutional constraints identified

    include lack of physical and marketing infrastructure, financial services, and access to

    resources, information asymmetries, high transaction and labour costs, while the cultural

    constraints include the beliefs, taboos, ethnicity, norms, values and family life. The adaptation

    strategies used for the institutional constraints included buying and selling on credit, use of

    social capital and networking, membership of osusu groups, patronising local money-lenders,

    use of family labour, including under-aged children, sourcing for water from shallow wells and

    commercial boreholes for washing and drinking respectively, patronising traditional health

    practitioners and patent medicine stores, and the churches over their health problems. On the

    other hand, the adaptation strategies for the cultural constraints included intermarriage with the

    indigenes, joining associations and clubs, working from home on days of cultural festivals,

    non-pooling of incomes and striving for independence and autonomy.

    Apart from the cultural and institutional constraints the study shows that the fish trade

    is affected by seasonality which is a major cause of vulnerability. During the lean season which

    covers about six months of the year, fishing activities and incomes are reduced to a minimum

    for all the fish species due to high fish prices at the beach and insufficient working capital. The

    traders then experience periods of food shortage and hunger in the household, making them

    highly vulnerable and susceptible to poverty and HIV and AIDS. Fire incidents and conflicts

    also contribute to their vulnerability.

    The study shows that participation in the fish trade is through kinship and marriage, and

    only women who possess specific skills, working capital, available networks and social capital,

    and belong in a certain culture, location and ethnicity can participate. It is also determined by

    household structures, gender division of labour, marriage, residence and inheritance patterns.

    However, in the absence of functional institutions, and with several cultural barriers to contend

    with, the fish trade, which is often regarded as an extension of household tasks embarked upon

    to ensure the livelihood sustenance of the household, is carried out by the women fish traders

    using social networking and social capital, to facilitate their trading profession. Sources of

    social capital include kin, neighbours, friends, matron-client relationships, mutual trust, osusu

    groups, social clubs and associations, norms and values, and churches.

    The study shows that the Ibaka fish market, like most rural food markets in West

    Africa, operates without any supporting structures. It lacks infrastructural facilities and access

    to information, with a non-existent line of communication between the women fish traders and

    the consumers. The provision of an improved communication system, infrastructural facilities,

    credit systems and adequate information would therefore reduce the transaction costs and make

    for a better coordination mechanism in the market. The study also shows that the fish market in

    Ibaka operates through incomplete contract transactions, where it is impossible to reach an

    agreement in advance about all possible events that could affect the exchange. Even though it

    is a rural market dealing with a single commodity, and does not quite fit into the modern urban

    market category, it possesses many attributes of an imperfect market. These include nonhomogenous

    products, fewer buyers and sellers, no market transparency and barriers to entry

    and exit. The various types and degrees of market imperfection characterise Ibaka market as a

    missing market and a thin, incomplete and interlocked market.

    The study shows that performance in the economic domain is mainly determined by the

    women fish traders’ ability to mobilize sufficient working capital from different sources and

    arrange for regular supply of fish, social capital and networking ability, the years of

    experience, skills acquired, the ability to pay for labour, the profitability of the enterprise, level

    of income, the ability to save, their assets base and wealth status, among others. Performance in

    the domestic domain is determined by the ability to educate children, the type of housing, the

    energy type used for lighting and cooking, the health status of the household, and the number

    of hours spent in the household.

    The study shows that performance in both domains is influenced by age, years of

    experience, skills acquired, amount of working capital used, educational status, status of

    mother in the trade, social capital and the number of children. The women fish traders also

    derive potential benefits associated with their location if they successfully adapt to the

    conditions and adopt sustainable livelihood strategies. All these together, affect their

    performance in the economic and domestic domains, and their success at maintaining the

    livelihoods of their households. The big fish and crayfish traders seemed to perform better than

    the bonga traders generally, both in the economic and domestic domains.

    The study also shows that good performance in the economic domain engenders good

    performance in the domestic domain because the possession of sufficient incomes enables the

    women to feed and educate their children, maintain a healthy household and take care of

    themselves. Sufficient incomes also engender the ability to own or live in permanent structures

    in the community and the use of generating sets for lighting and kerosene stoves for cooking in

    the households. However, the lack of basic information and documentation on HIV and AIDS

    in Ibaka has made it impossible to determine how susceptible and vulnerable the women fish

    traders and their families are to the disease even though evidence from fishing communities in

    other countries has shown fisherfolk to be more vulnerable than rural upland populations.

    In conclusion, the resilience of the women fish traders and their survival in the fisheries

    sector can be explained through the rigid and gendered division of labour. This is backed by

    the determination of the women to become independent economically and overcome the

    cultural biases imposed through patriarchy, polygamy and discriminatory inheritance laws.

    Also, there is the incentive of being able to take care of themselves and their children, gain

    some power, agency and autonomy. The realization that men depend on the women to dispose

    of their fish catches, giving the fish economic value, further strengthens the position of the fish

    traders in the fishery economy of Ibaka. The women fish traders’ conversion of profits made

    from the fish trade into ownership of fishing and transportation boats is true entrepreneurship.

    Using new and innovative ways of finding new or acquiring more customers and accumulating

    capital is also entrepreneurial. However, there is far less risk, both socially and economically,

    in expanding the scope in the trade and climbing in the female market hierarchy than in

    investing in a male domain.

    The fact that the women fish traders live in the same community and locality, and are

    exposed to similar institutional and cultural constraints does not mean that there are no

    differences between the three fish trade groups. The constraints impact differentially both

    within and between the groups and the strategic responses depend on the category the fish

    trader belongs to within the group and her wealth status in the trade and the community.

    Environmental factors and processes such as climate change and oil pollution, and the general

    economic crisis, also make fisherfolk vulnerable and susceptible to HIV and AIDS. While the

    government is trying to extend development to the rural areas, it is pertinent that remote

    communities like Ibaka should be specially targeted. Gender mainstreaming should also be

    incorporated in the development process in order to reduce glaring inequalities, with certain

    social groups being marginalized while others are privileged. This will reduce the women

    traders’ level of vulnerability to constraints, stresses, risks, and shocks in our rural


    Evaluatie "VENLOg" (IN-114)
    FBR-WUR, - \ 2010
    TransForum - 3
    verse producten - landbouwproducten - logistiek - agrodistributie - distributie - handel - landbouwindustrie - stadslandbouw - regionale ontwikkeling - regionale centra - fresh products - agricultural products - logistics - agro distribution - distribution - trade - agribusiness - urban agriculture - regional development - central places
    Meer dan de helft van de wereldbevolking woont in grote bevolkingscentra gelegen in Delta’s. Deze delta’s zijn ook zeer geschikt voor productie. Kortom productie en afzet liggen voor een deel dicht bij elkaar (local to local) en zijn voor een deel global tussen de logistieke hotspots (global sourcing en distributie). Het samenkomen van alle vers stromen op bepaalde locaties is een logische ontwikkeling die gestuurd wordt door de ligging van grote bevolkingscentra en door de service eisen (responsiviteit, assortiment) die grote internationale afnemers vereisen. Deze clustering van gebundelde stromen, productie en consumptie is terug te vinden in het concept van metropolitan agriculture. Het project VENLOg gaat in op de logistieke problematiek van metropolitan agriculture, en kan op die manier de visie van TransForum versterken. Hoe, waar en met wie organiseer je nu logistieke knooppunten. De ambitie is om nieuwe triple P verbindingen te creëren binnen ketens (producenten, logistiek dienstverleners, handel, retail, vastgoed) en tussen agro-sectoren (transport, grondstoffen, energie- en afvalstromen). Multimodaal transport (water en rail-transport) kan worden ingezet om geconcentreerde logistieke stromen te vervoeren. Nieuwe combinaties van (product)stromen leiden tot een reductie van kilometers (en dus CO2-reductie) en de mogelijkheid om beter in te spelen op klantwensen (snellere levering).
    Reduced VAT rates for flowers and plants : situation 2010
    Bunte, F.H.J. ; Poel, N. van der - \ 2010
    The Hague : LEI (LEI report : Research area Markets & chains ) - 20
    bloemen - plantaardige producten - marketing - tarieven - belastingen - handel - nederland - flowers - plant products - marketing - tariffs - taxes - trade - netherlands
    This paper evaluates the impact of a possible rise of the VAT rate applied to ornamentals on turnover and employment in the ornamental supply chain. The lower VAT rate is currently applied to flowers and plants in 13 EU member states. The current study considers two scenarios: 1. application of the general (high) tariff to ornamentals in the Netherlands; 2. application of the general tariff in all 13 members where the general tariff is not applied to at this momnet.
    Evaluation of sweet pepper pilot supply chain for export
    Gunadi, N. ; Adiyoga, W. ; Doorneweert, R.B. ; Zulkarnain, I. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR (HORTIN-II research report nr. 21) - 57
    capsicum annuum - marketing voor de detailhandel - export - handel - voedselketens - capsicum annuum - retail marketing - exports - trade - food chains
    Meer multifunctionele takken bij biologische bedrijven
    Vijn, M.P. ; Visser, A.J. ; Dekking, A.J.G. - \ 2010
    Ekoland 2010 (2010)7/8. - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 32 - 33.
    vragenlijsten - biologische landbouw - handel - marketing - multifunctionele landbouw - questionnaires - organic farming - trade - marketing - multifunctional agriculture
    In opdracht van het Ministerie van LNV heeft PPO Wageningen UR een enquête uitgevoerd onder 117 multifunctionele landbouwbedrijven. Dit zijn bedrijven die naast hun agrarische tak aan natuurbeheer, recreatie, educatie, huisverkoop, zorg of aan kinderopvang doen. Daarbij kwamen opmerkelijke verschillen naar voren tussen gangbare en biologische bedrijven.
    The institutional and legal environment for GM soy in Brazil
    Franke, A.C. ; Greco, F.M. ; Kleter, G.A. ; Noordam, M.Y. ; Roza, P. ; Eaton, D.J.F. ; Bindraban, P.S. ; Lotz, L.A.P. - \ 2009
    Wageningen : Plant Research International (Report / Plant Research International 298) - 42
    glycine - sojabonen - gewasproductie - genetische transformatie - wetgeving - handel - brazilië - glycine - soyabeans - crop production - genetic transformation - legislation - trade - brazil
    CO2-emissiehandel in 2020 : betekenis voor de Nederlandse glastuinbouw
    Bunte, F.H.J. ; Dijkxhoorn, Y. - \ 2009
    Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI : Werkveld 5, Milieu, natuur en landschap ) - ISBN 9789086153466 - 67
    kooldioxide - broeikasgassen - emissie - luchtverontreiniging - handel - milieuwetgeving - ruilvoet - nederland - glastuinbouw - carbon dioxide - greenhouse gases - emission - air pollution - trade - environmental legislation - terms of trade - netherlands - greenhouse horticulture
    Het rapport bepaalt de impact van de EU-richtlijn voor de handel in CO2-emissierechten voor de Nederlandse glastuinbouw. Het rapport berekent de kosten die de richtlijn met zich meebrengt voor de sector en bepaalt het effect op de CO2- uitstoot door de sector. Verder bepaalt het rapport het effect op de concurrentiepositie van de Nederlandse glastuinbouw en beschouwt het enige beleidsvarianten. De berekeningen zijn aangevuld met gevoeligheidsanalyses
    'Glastuinbouw groener met emissiehandel'
    Bunte, F.H.J. - \ 2009
    Kennis Online 6 (2009)jan. - p. 12 - 12.
    broeikasgassen - kooldioxide - emissie - handel - brandstoffen - greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide - emission - trade - fuels
    Het idee kwam op in de jaren zeventig. Handel in rechten om het milieu te vervuilen. Sindsdien is de gedachte bezig met een gestage opmars. In het verdrag van Kyoto wordt het genoemd als belangrijk middel om de uitstoot van broeikasgassen omlaag te krijgen. Over een paar jaar krijgen de Nederlandse glastuinbouwers ook uitstootrechten. Een goed idee, vindt econoom Frank Bunte.
    Baron op klompen : mr. B.W.A.E. baron Sloet tot Oldhuis (1807-1884): aan de hefboom tot welvaart
    Coster, W. - \ 2008
    Wageningen [etc.] : Nederlands Agronomisch Historisch Instituut (Historia agriculturae 40) - ISBN 9789085049500 - 416
    biografieën - politiek - economie - onderwijs - kennis - communicatie - handel - landbouw - plattelandseconomie - kolonialisme - nederland - geschiedenis - plattelandsontwikkeling - oost-nederland - biographies - politics - economics - education - knowledge - communication - trade - agriculture - rural economy - colonialism - netherlands - history - rural development - east netherlands
    Mr. Bartholomeus Willem Anne Elise baron Sloet tot Oldhuis, kortweg Sloet, was een prominent burger in de 19e eeuw. Van oorsprong was hij Geldersman, maar het grootste gedeelte van zijn leven woonde en werkte hij in Overijssel. Hij was daar burgemeester, rechter en initiator van de ‘Overijsselse Vereeniging tot Ontwikkeling van Provinciale Welvaart' waaruit in 1846 de Landhuishoudkundige Congressen voortkwamen. In de beide decennia rondom 1848 was hij een buitengewoon actief lid van de Tweede Kamer. Hij zette zich in voor de bevordering van de landbouw, de emancipatie van het platteland, de aanleg van wegen te water en te land en de verspreiding van kennis en kunde.
    Food legislation and competitiveness in the EU food industry. Case studies in the dairy industry
    Poppe, K.J. ; Wijnands, J.H.M. ; Bremmers, H.J. ; Meulen, B.M.J. van der; Tacken, G.M.L. - \ 2008
    The Hague : Wageningen UR, LEI (EU Report Enterprice and Industry ref. no. ENTR/2007/020) - ISBN 9789279103599 - 135
    voedselindustrie - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - zuivelindustrie - handel - consumenten - landen van de europese unie - Nederland - food industry - food legislation - dairy industry - trade - consumers - european union countries - Netherlands
    Creating Food Futures. Trade, Ethics and the Environment
    Farnworth, C.R. ; Jiggins, J.L.S. ; Thomas, E.V. - \ 2008
    Abingdon, UK : Gower Publishing - ISBN 9780754649076 - 246
    voedselindustrie - handel - voedingsbeleid - agrarische handel - ethiek - milieu - maatschappelijk verantwoord ondernemen - food industry - trade - nutrition policy - agricultural trade - ethics - environment - corporate social responsibility
    A global transformation in food supply and consumption is placing our food security at risk. What changes need to be made to the ways we trade, process and purchase our food if everyone in the world is going to have enough wholesome food to eat? Is there genuine scope for creating food futures that embrace considerations such as ecological sustainability and social equity as well as placing good food on the table - and making money?
    Concurrentiemonitor levend vee : de Nederlandse concurrentiepositie in de handel van varkens en biggen
    Winter, M.A. de; Tacken, G.M.L. ; Puister-Jansen, L.F. - \ 2008
    Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI : Werkveld 3, Consumenten en ketens ) - ISBN 9789086152582 - 54
    agrarische economie - marktconcurrentie - handel - varkens - biggen - concurrerend vermogen - vleesproductie - varkensvlees - nederland - vee- en vleesindustrie - ketenmanagement - agricultural economics - market competition - trade - pigs - piglets - competitive ability - meat production - pigmeat - netherlands - meat and livestock industry - supply chain management
    Concurrentiekrachtmeting van de sector varkens- en biggenhandel op landenniveau en sectorniveau aan de hand van een methodologisch raamwerk, dat is gebaseerd op statistische bronnen. In de meting worden alle schakels in de keten beschreven vanaf producent tot en met de consument. In de studie wordt Nederland vergeleken met andere belangrijke EU-landen waaronder de belangrijkste productielanden en afzetlanden. Measurement of the competitiveness of the pig and piglet sector at country and sector levels using a methodology based on statistical sources. The measurement comprises all links in the chain from the producer up to and including the consumer. The study compares the Netherlands with other important EU member states, including the major producing countries and the major markets.
    EU-India free trade agreement : a quantitative assessment
    Achterbosch, T.J. ; Kuiper, M.H. ; Roza, P. - \ 2008
    The Hague : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI : Area 2, Development issues ) - ISBN 9789086152667 - 68
    handel - vrijhandel - internationale handel - handelspolitiek - liberalisering van de handel - handelsrelaties - voedselgranen - armoede - toegang - handelsonderhandelingen - wereldmarkten - handelsprotectie - india - europese unie - trade - free trade - international trade - trade policy - trade liberalization - trade relations - food grains - poverty - access - trade negotiations - world markets - trade protection - india - european union
    This report analyses the effects of a regional trade agreement (FTA) between the EU and India, for which negotiations are underway. The study starts with abrief overview of the key insights from the existing literature on FTAs and their relationship with multilateral negotiations. The remainder of the study is devoted to analysing the impact of tariff slashes under an FTA on merchandise trade between the EU and India. Of particular interest are the implications for agricultural markets, given the tension between agricultural liberalisation and India's policy goals relating to self-sufficiency in food grains and poverty reduction. The analysis employs GTAP, a global general equilibrium model using a recent database which has 2004 as its reference year. The results suggest that India's interests in a regional trade agreement with the EU are downplayed by the fact that India's economy is not well integrated in global markets. Impacts on the EU are minor and further reduced if a Doha agreement is in place when the FTA is implemented. Results indicate the rationale for a strongly asymmetric arrangement: it would be in the interest of both partners if the EU provides large concessions to India for market access, while India maintains the bulk of current border protection. An EU - India FTA delivers little scope for achieving efficiency gains via adjustments to the pattern of international specialisation. An EU - India agreement on merchandise trade is unlikely to embody substantial preferential treatment with regard to market access. Probably, India can find more suitable FTA partners. Agriculture is a key sector for India in the consideration of equity and growth purposes of a FTA with EU.
    Baron op klompen : mr. B.W.A.E. baron Sloet tot Oldhuis (1807-1884) aan de hefboom tot welvaart
    Coster, W. - \ 2008
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Pim Kooij. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049500 - 416
    biografieën - politiek - economie - onderwijs - kennis - communicatie - handel - landbouw - plattelandseconomie - kolonialisme - nederland - geschiedenis - plattelandsontwikkeling - oost-nederland - biographies - politics - economics - education - knowledge - communication - trade - agriculture - rural economy - colonialism - netherlands - history - rural development - east netherlands
    During the nineteenth century many changes took place in The Netherlands, which in various ways have determined the structures we are living in today. Not only did the unification of the ‘archipelago of regions and communities’ from the period of The Republic make progress in the field of politics, (social-)economy and demography, but also in the field of language and culture, (town- and country-)planning and the structure of the landscape. Simultaneously the nation state of The Netherlands -which developed after a strongly directive French-Batavian intermezzo- remained a colourful mosaic of fixed or changing structures, materials and nuances. The origin, direction and pace of the various, sometimes co-existing phases in this process were, to a large extent, determined by people who stepped forward with their ideas, ideals and initiatives. These people had to deal with counter forces: from other persons, both individually and collectively, or from the physical environment which confronted them with sometimes unexpected difficulties and possibilities. It was – although opinions differ in this respect – above all a process of the work of man.
    One of those who played an important role in the changing process of the nineteenth century was the lawyer Bartholomeus Willem Anne Elisa baron Sloet tot Oldhuis (1807-1884). ‘Sloet’, as he was usually called, was born in the village of Voorst in Gelderland, but most of his life he lived in and worked for the province of Overijssel. He held many offices, including those of mayor, judge, council member, provincial councillor and school inspector. In 1841 he was the originator of the ‘Overijsselsche Vereeniging tot Ontwikkeling van Provinciale Welvaart (‘Overijssel Society for the development of Provincial Prosperity’), in short ‘Welvaart’, and also of the subsequent ‘Landhuishoudkundige Congressen’ (‘Agronomic Congresses’) in 1846. Between 1840 and 1860 he was one of the leading men in the national political arena. In 1840 and again in 1848 he was a member of the Double Chamber for the amendment of the Constitution and he resided in the Second Chamber (Commons) between 1848 and 1860. Sloet was known to be a critical and headstrong liberal, who stood up for the interests of the countryside, especially those of the provinces of Overijssel and Gelderland, without becoming a narrow minded regionalist. He fought with and against Thorbecke, supported Van Hoëvell in debates on the policy regarding the Dutch East Indies and was one of the most ferocious opponents of Groen van Prinsterer. For decades the ‘Tijdschrift voor staathuishoudkunde en statistiek’ (Journal for political economy and statistics), which was founded by him in 1841, was considered to be the essential liberal mouthpiece. Both in word and in action Sloet was a pioneer who devoted himself to the emancipation and development of agriculture and the countryside, the construction of roads and waterways, and to the spreading of knowledge and skills. His views on the relationship with the colonies in the East and the West were sensational. Meanwhile he published widely both as a poet and a folklorist. Many of his initiatives succeeded, others failed, but his goal remained to stand at ‘the lever to prosperity’.
    His strongly felt presence, his wilful character, his versatility and his vigour make Sloet a splendid guide through his time. Not only because of what he achieved but also because of his disappointments and failures and the opposition he was confronted with. The fact that he came from the eastern part of the country, together with his regional orientation and the availability of relevant sources makes it possible to select specific regional fragments against the scenery of the nineteenth century.
    The present research concerning Sloet tot Oldhuis fits perfectly into the biographical tradition which over the past decade has also found its way into the field of agrarian history. By choosing themes from the life and work of a renowned figure in his time Baron op klompen (‘Baron in clogs’) seeks to show the important role Sloet has played during a large part of the nineteenth century in the political, economical and rural arena, more specifically in agriculture, planning and (political) culture; those aspects which were decisive in the development of the nation state of the Netherlands. The emphasis will be on the period between, roughly, 1840 and 1870.
    The title ‘Baron op klompen’ also refers to the fact that Sloet -being a nobleman who did not out of ‘noblesse oblige’ feel obliged to defend the rights of his class- became an advocate for the backward rural regions and the peasantry. A new element in the present research is the fact that the results of the explorations of the ‘curriculum’ of chapter 2 are elaborated in subsequent chapters and in the interaction between them. That is why this new type of biography may be called a ‘concentric biography’.
    The essence of this research is to show how a representative from the eastern part of the Netherlands, who may be assumed to have had much influence on the development of the modern nation, manifested himself. Here the term ‘modernization’ is used as ‘a complex of simultaneously occurring developments which strengthen each other into a certain direction’. These developments are elaborated in four themes representing important aspects in Sloet’s social life: knowledge and skill, infrastructure, the countryside with its agriculture, and the colonies. Again and again the question is raised how his personality and intellectual background affected his actions. Each of these chapters raises a specific research question. A recurring question is what contribution Sloet has made to the development of the political culture by his public actions in the local, regional and national arenas.
    In a way this research is a counterpart to the NWO-research of modernization and democratization in the Dutch countryside which is being conducted by the Rural History Group of Wageningen University, under the guidance of dr A.J. Schuurman. It therefore also poses the question which government bodies, organizations, newspapers and periodicals were responsible for stimulating the process of modernization and the development of the countryside. In this case the question is aimed specifically at the role Sloet played in this process. In other words – see the conclusion of chapter 1 - whether figures like him, who did not belong to the ‘titans’ in national politics, could ‘move the lever of prosperity’.
    After the introductory chapter 1, ‘Aan de hefboom tot welvaart’ (‘At the lever of prosperity’), chapter 2, ‘Achtergronden’ (‘Backgrounds’) describes Sloet’s personal life. It deals with his curriculum vitae cum annexis, characterises him as a person and shows which tools he was given and which he gained during his life. It inquires after his ambitions and after his economic, social and cultural capital. In line with the concentric method, specific answers to these questions will be given in each of the subsequent chapters. This chapter pays special attention to Sloet as mayor of Hengelo (Overijssel) between 1832 and 1838, because it would prove to be the breeding ground for Sloet’s ambitions and activities afterwards in national politics. What he tried to achieve in Hengelo at a local level he would later attempt at a national level. Finally this chapter pays explicit attention to his literary work, which in the other chapters is mainly used to illustrate.

    Chapter 3, ‘Twee maal een onzichtbare hand’ (‘Twice an invisible hand’), elaborates on Sloet’s intellectual baggage. His thoughts appear to have been guided by two invisible hands: that of religion and that of economy, while Classic Antiquity also took up a prominent part of this baggage.
    In his religious life Sloet was guided by ‘physico-theology’, a school of thought which originated during the age of Enlightenment and was based on the idea that the forces of nature refer to a Creator. Other physico-theological writers, such as J.F. Martinet (1729-1795) wanted to convince their readers of the existence of God and his lasting care for his Creation on the strength of the available knowledge of natural phenomena. They wanted to point out that Nature is organized in such a systematic and functional way that a Nature without God simply cannot exist. What is more they summoned everybody to get to know and admire the magnitude of the Creator by means of the investigation of Nature. This way of thinking is based on both rational proof of God’s existence and the visible manifestation of God’s power, wisdom and goodness in the cosmic order of things. In accordance with the empirical spirit of the times this last aspect was emphasised most in the eighteenth century. Although a man of the nineteenth century, empiricism fitted Sloet like a glove.
    According to Sloet morality was closely connected with religion in defining morals, norms, values and (therefore) citizenship. From morality to political economy was another small step as far as Sloet and many of his contemporaries were concerned. Within this context statistics and rural economy were also important and Sloet was certainly intensively engaged in these matters. The pillars of his world view and thoughts on people’s happiness -in the sense of material and non-material prosperity- were therefore a mixture of classic, Christian and profane materials. Chapter 3 explores the composition of this mixture.
    As Hans Boschloo quite rightly states in his work De productiemaatschappij, in 1848 Sloet was ‘just like almost every other ‘laisser faire’ economist probably a Thorbeckian’. However, over the years he found himself more and more estranged from the liberal mainstream. In his eyes liberalism brought too much state interference, which was harmful to regional autonomy and resulted in unnecessary bureaucracy, his two largest frights. Because where could personal interests be served better than in one’s own immediate surroundings? And why should civil servants in The Hague interfere with the life of a farmer in Overijssel? Sloet considered freedom and centralisation to be opposites. This does not mean, that he was against any form of state interference, except where it concerned the care for the poor or the non-productive citizens. In that case he adhered to the principle: ‘he who does not work shall not eat’, although he would not say so outright. For Sloet – who was after all a lawyer – the form of government was less important than the general Christian state family in which everybody knew his place and lived by the same unwritten rules and principles, while fulfilling a task in order to provide for his or her livelihood.
    The next four chapters show how Sloet operated, being guided by this way of thinking.

    Chapter 4, ‘ ‘Kennis is de ware tooverij’ ’ (‘ ‘Knowledge is the true magic’ ’), pursues the value Sloet attached to organizations which furthered mutual contacts, research, information and education, public governance and well functioning media as necessary links to knowledge and information. Or, to put it in modern terms: networks, education and research, public relations and communication. His contribution to the political culture is also dealt with explicitly, while in the following chapters this contribution is further illustrated with practical examples. The question is what his approach was, who he involved and what the results were of his efforts, even though the answer to this last question will be saved for chapters 5, 6 and 7.
    According to folklorist Tjaard de Haan, the fact that Sloet, in his ‘Ode aan de IJssel’ (‘Ode to the IJssel’) rhymes ‘stichting’ (edification/foundation) with ‘volksverlichting (‘enlightenment of the masses’), is typical for his active attitude toward life. He was one of the gentlemen who had woken, or wanted to wake, the countryside. His great strength was his zest for work, which was fed by his belief in the possibility of shaping or at least improving society and in the power of science. ‘Knowledge is the true magic’ was his motto as written down in 1865. At the same time it meant a confirmation of his belief in the divine nature which would allow itself to be uncovered by science. Nevertheless these discoveries needed to be translated to all layers of society if they were to benefit general prosperity.

    Chapter 5, ‘ ‘Wegen te water en te land’ ’ (‘ ‘Roads in the water and on land’ ’), deals with the development of infrastructure, both locally and internationally, i.e. roads, waterways and railroads in the Netherlands and across the borders. How Sloet dealt with his ideas in these areas is examined here. What were his goals? Who were his allies and who his opponents in the borderland between public and private interests? What effects did his efforts achieve? Especially his activities in Overijssel, notably his desire to change its capital into a genuine seaport are emphasised here. Special attention is paid to his conspicuous efforts to make improvements on ‘the waterway between Zwolle and the sea’, the route via the ‘Zwarte Water’ and the ‘Zwolse Diep’. For this case caused political and personal polarization and shows a great deal of Sloet’s character and his political style. Besides, the perils around this ever so important part of Overijssel’s infrastructure led to a novelty in Dutch politics: the first full Parliamentary Inquiry in 1856.
    At a time when Sloet exerted all his influence for the realization of the waterway from Zwolle to the sea and for the first railroads to and in Overijssel, shortly before the middle of the nineteenth century, he also pointed out the importance of ‘the footpaths of the nation’: the indispensable and undeniable winding paths in the countryside which were literally threatened to be buried by modern times. On the one hand he valued them because of their arcadian character, on the other also and the more so because of their economic value. The moral of the story being that modernization was useful and necessary but one should take care not to reject the good with the bad because old things also had their rights and served their purpose and should not be so easily dismissed. Sloet compared infrastructure to a blood circulation system in which each little vein served its purpose both for the entire body and for an individual body part. Without roads, however small they might be, there could be no trade and without trade there was no progress. This was the lesson he had learnt from Martinet and Adam Smith.
    One victory was booked in 1860: just before he left the Second Chamber a Railway Act with national validity was passed, which also served the provinces, even though practice would show once again the West taking control over the initiative and the National Railways. Private initiative resulted in the completion of the ‘Zuiderzeelijn’ in 1864, a project in which Sloet had put a lot of effort, as far back as in the 1840s. At least his ideas and initiatives had contributed to the development of a coherent network of transport and communication lines, one of the necessary requirements for environmental integration.

    Chapter 6, ‘Landbouw, landhuishoudkunde en landleven’ (‘Agriculture, rural economy and rural life’), deals with the role the agricultural sector played within and for Dutch national economy and how aspects such as knowledge, know-how and communication influenced this role according to Sloet. The chapter starts with a short description of agriculture in Overijssel in the nineteenth century.
    The first question in this context is how Sloet valued the situation of agriculture in The Netherlands and its developments, especially in the province of Overijssel. Secondly, which arguments does he pose for the different views there are on this issue? A third question is what Sloet has contributed to the development of agriculture, both nationally and in Overijssel? Finally, can he be considered a representative of a certain group or did he occupy a special position within Dutch agriculture?
    Sloet saw the agricultural sector as full of potential, some of which was also realised. Although this filled him with satisfaction and delight, it was no reason to sit back complacently, because new situations and developments also created new opportunities which needed to be utilized. The overall goal remained to explore and exploit the treasures of nature which became available through agriculture and, of course, otherwise. Farmers had a specific and important role in this process. For the eastern part of the Netherlands with its specific agrarian characteristics Sloet thought the best option was to develop the small family business. In a way and avant la lettre this manner of thinking fits within the later theory of Ester Boserup who speaks of ‘the relation between population growth in a certain ecological system and the changes in agriculture, more specifically the intensification of farming, which are a result of this growth’. Sloet considered ecology and economy to go hand in hand and according to him developments in the agricultural production process were determined by natural circumstances. But it was up to man to recognize these circumstances and to make use of them and improve them. Only then could the population grow. The necessary employment could amply be found in the countryside. Sloet considered investing on a small scale, such as providing seeds and simple sausage recipes better than introducing large farming equipment which would mostly benefit the big farmers. Modernization of agriculture should therefore aim at the small peasant family business. Rather than for mechanization Sloet opted for the use of human labour as a means to increase productivity.
    Where the second question - of the different views on production development in agriculture- is concerned, Sloet simply does not provide us with the necessary statistics, despite his efforts. He did recognize, however, the rapid growth in population, the resulting pressure on the soil, the necessary intensification in agriculture and the just as necessary improvements of the infrastructure with, of course, the opportunities which these developments created. Van Zanden’s thesis, that up to about 1870 the influence of ‘institutions’, organizations and institutes on actual farming had been small, needs to be questioned. The existing agricultural societies before 1870 certainly made their contributions, especially Sloet’s Agronomic Congresses and, where Overijssel is concerned, ‘Welvaart’. Sloet was living proof that ‘people do make a difference’.
    This also forms the beginning of the answer to the third research question, namely which contribution Sloet has made to Dutch agriculture, and especially that of Overijssel. By using his countless connections in politics, the Agronomic Congresses, among men of science and farmers, with his knowledge of national and international literature on the subject and last but not least on the basis of his own observation, he was the seemingly tireless stimulator behind small but indispensable little pulls at the lever of prosperity. To his great dismay and despite his efforts of many years he did not succeed in causing the tithes, a tax which he considered to be harmful to the development of agriculture, to be abolished.
    The answer to the question as to what extent Sloet has taken up a position of his own in Dutch agriculture is closely connected with his descent and the region he grew up in. His childhood in Gelderland gave him direction and shaped him – as it had done his father and mother before him – into a tool of progress in the countryside and it made him an exponent of rural life. Not because he desired to play the role of ‘gentleman’, but for the love of his surroundings and the people with whom he felt connected. With his ‘physico-theological’ way of thinking as a liberal politician, economist, governor, man of letters and as a folklorist he is indissolubly connected with the agriculture and the countryside of The Netherlands and especially the countryside of the eastern part of The Netherlands or the ‘Saxon’ countryside, as he called it.
    All together this creates a colourful and original person. In a sense Sloet was born in the wrong environment. He was different; he was a baron in clogs. However, if he had been a farmer in clogs he would not have been able to achieve the things he did by being the man he was.

    Chapter 7, ‘Provincies overzee’ (‘Provinces overseas’), describes the way Sloet, together with baron Van Hoëvell, the militant ex-clergyman in the East Indies, initiated the discussion on colonial policy and launched ideas to emancipate the colonies in the East and the West and to make them more profitable. His actions are mainly highlighted by his role in the Second Chamber. Especially his interpellations on several issues and on a few particular items: a colonization project in Surinam, his proposal to sell land on Java, the ‘Cultuurstelsel’ (cultivation system) and the Government Regulation for the Dutch East Indies which came into force in 1854. Moreover his attitude towards the Dutch Trading Company (Nederlandsche Handel-Maatschappij, in short ‘NHM’) and the issue of slavery, which he strongly condemned, are discussed here. The results of his actions should be regarded in the light of the question what his contribution has been towards the development of the political culture after 1848.
    Where the issue of the ‘colonies’ was concerned, Sloet brought about a change of culture. He endured storms without being able to harvest but he opened up possibilities for others, especially with regard to the East. Several interpretations with regard to the abolishment of the ‘Cultuurstelsel’ were congruent with his ideas on the topic. Firstly, as a classic liberal, he fought against forced labour and the monopoly of the colonial government, and especially the NHM. The amendments and changes which were attributed to criticism of left-wing liberals were mostly due to Sloet’s work. Already in 1849 Sloet started discussions in the Second Chamber on various matters, thereby uncovering abuses which were unheard of at that time. What is more, in doing so he specifically drew attention to the interests of the native people.
    Secondly, he did not mind reforms made by civil servants in, as Fasseur states, removing or softening the aggravating burdens of the ‘Cultuurstelsel’ (Cultivation system). On the contrary, by making these changes (which could only be realised in a government system based on transparency) the ‘Cultuurstelsel’ could – according to Sloet - actually coexist with a system based on free labour and Western entrepreneurship. Finally, the interpretation that in the Dutch Indies there was a growing group of entrepreneurs with sufficient knowledge and capital to change the ‘Cultuurstelsel’ into a system based on free labour and Western enterprise, was very much in line with Sloet’s ideas. However, he also wanted to make it possible for new initiatives from the Netherlands and from the Western world in general to exploit the potential riches of the Dutch East Indies (including the Outer Provinces). If he thought fit Sloet looked not only across the regional, but also across the national borders. For him the general interest took precedence over the private interest.
    In his perception of the colonies Sloet agreed with the French economist and colonial propagandist Paul Leroy-Beaulieu (1843-1916) who spoke of ‘colonisation moderne’ as exploitation based on free production and private capital. ‘Such colonization does not recognize a difference between colonials and the colonized, exploiters and the exploited, but is beneficial to both’. Proper colonial policy should not impoverish or deprive the indigenous people but should enrich them, and with that the colonial government. This was exactly the doctrine he had expounded in his ‘Grondtrekken van de Staathuishoudkunde’ (Characteristic Features of Political Economy) and this was congruent with the principles he attributed to christianity. According to him the colonies were also guided by the two invisible hands of political economy and of Christendom.
    Most important however, was the fact that Sloet by his heavy criticism provided politics and political culture with a new form and substance in a time when colonial benefits had culminated.

    The main research question in this study was posed in chapter 1, questioning whether individuals who were not considered to be among the ‘titans’ of nineteenth century politics could bring about any movement in the lever of prosperity. Focussing on Sloet’s person this was mostly about the development of the countryside in the eastern part of the Netherlands, Overijssel specifically, and about the Dutch colonies. There was also the question how much he has contributed to the political culture of his time.
    The first conclusion in the final chapter 8, ‘Eén gezin, vastgesnoerd door broedermin’ (‘One family, tied together by brotherly love’), is that Sloet’s life and aspiration were permanently aimed at his ultimate goal: progress. This did not necessarily mean choosing new methods and techniques or enormous expansions. His perception of modernization was that of the definition as mentioned in chapter 1: ‘a complex of simultaneously occurring developments which strengthen each other into a certain direction’. The object of this direction was ahead of him, but where necessary and if there were things to be learned, he was not afraid of looking back either. In the same way his perspectives would change in his geographical orientation. The basic elements for the desired development he found first and foremost in his immediate surroundings. Most examples would come from his own sphere of work in the eastern part of the Netherlands, but they only served to provide substance for a model for Overijssel or Gelderland, The Netherlands, the Dutch colonies or for the world. On the other hand he was also in the habit of using the knowledge he acquired from his connections or through literature to the benefit of his immediate environment. Nevertheless he would always keep the natural situation in mind and would take care not to damage any other regions wherever these might be. As Martinet’s Katechismus der Natur (‘Nature’s Catechism’) had taught the young Sloet: that was not in accordance with God’s intentions.
    In 1862, two years after he had been obliged to leave the Second Chamber -thereby practically ending his role in national politics- Sloet was both satisfied and dissatisfied. In his case this was inevitable. Of course, much had been achieved. He had had his share in the new and constantly changing world. He had been responsible for waking up the countryside of Overijssel not only by introducing new farming methods and new strains and crops but also by providing knowledge and insights and means to express them. He had contributed to the construction of roads, railways and canals. He had stirred the political debates with his critical, though sometimes rather thoughtless contributions. As a Multatuli avant la lettre he had spoken for the people of the Dutch East Indies. In his poetry he had focussed on the beauty and intrinsic value of nature. He had explored limits and most of all he had shown how far human effort could reach. Therefore he was all about progress, but he would not think twice about stopping a vehicle that was out of control either.
    Sloet supported the late eighteenth century ideal of freedom, which revolved around the freedom of the citizen and which limited the powers of the state to the passing and upholding of laws necessary for a society to function. He even went one step further and would have preferred to reduce those laws as well, convinced as he was that they were not necessary, for in his eyes mankind was ‘one family, tied together by brotherly love’. In the end we can only come to the conclusion that Sloet may not have been a ‘titan’, but he certainly has set ‘the lever to prosperity’ going. He has explored and shifted boundaries and he has served as a model for the creed: ‘People do make a difference’.

    Chain-wide learning for inclusive agrifood market development : a guide to multi-stakeholder processes for linking small-scale producers to modern markets
    Vermeulen, S. ; Woodhill, A.J. ; Proctor, F. ; Delnoye, R. - \ 2008
    Wageningen : International Institute for Environment and Development - ISBN 9789085049647 - 114
    kleine bedrijven - markten - handel - agrarische handel - voedselindustrie - voedselketens - handleidingen - multi-stakeholder processen - small businesses - markets - trade - agricultural trade - food industry - food chains - guide books - multi-stakeholder processes
    This guide provides a set of concepts and analytical tools for finding ways to better link small-scale producers to the modern markets associated with today’s largescale supermarket retail and wholesale operations. It is has been developed through iterative testing with partners in several organisations and countries. The guide is a product of the Regoverning Markets Programme, a multi-agency programme to generate strategic information and anticipatory policy advice on small-scale producers in these fast changing markets.
    Slotmanifestatie Tmt : 'Veel bereikt, maar graag meer kennis'
    Dwarswaard, A. ; PPO Bomen-bollen, - \ 2008
    De Boomkwekerij 2008 (2008)138. - ISSN 0923-2443 - p. 24 - 25.
    bloembollen - teelt - waterkwaliteit - overheid - pesticiden - handel - kennis - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - ornamental bulbs - cultivation - water quality - public authorities - pesticides - trade - knowledge - sustainability
    Na vier jaar is de huidige opzet van Telen met toekomst afgesloten. Ter gelegenheid daarvan gaven vier vertegenwoordigers van partijen rondom het project hun visie op duurzaamheid. Kennis en de verspreiding ervan vormden de rode draad in hun bijdragen
    Organic agriculture in Turkey : trade opportunities for organic fruit and vegetables
    Leeuwen, M.A.E. van; Voort, M.P.J. van der; Sukkel, W. ; Balci, S. - \ 2008
    Lelystad : Applied Plant Research, Arable farming and field production of vegetables (PPO Publication no. 32500743) - 27
    fruit - groenten - biologische voedingsmiddelen - agrarische handel - handel - turkije - landbouwplantenteelt - akkerbouw - fruitteelt - teelt - netwerken - glastuinbouw - glasgroenten - fruit - vegetables - organic foods - agricultural trade - trade - turkey - crop husbandry - arable farming - fruit growing - cultivation - networks - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse vegetables
    Onderzoek naar de mogelijkheden voor handel in biologische groente en fruit tussen Turkije en Nederland.
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